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The one child policy of China limits every family to one child unless they are an ethnic minority

or they live in a rural area. It was put in place in response to the amount of people that converted
from farming to steel production which caused the food supply to no longer be able to meet the
growth of the population (Fitzpatrick, Laura. "A Brief History of China's One-Child Policy.").
Although it was put in place to solve one problem, it is causing many more problems than
before. Due to the unbalanced gender ratio, forced abortions, and the future drain in workforce,
the Chinese government must remove all of its child limit policies in increments.

In Chinese tradition, males are very valuable in the family. Males have the responsibility of
carrying on the family name. When the father is ill, the eldest son follows into his footsteps by
carrying out the familys responsibilities. Also in farming communities it is believed that a boy
was necessary for the heaviest work in the fields. Lastly usually males are the ones to inherit the
familys property ("Roles of the Sons of China."). Women are less valuable according to Chinese
tradition not only because they are seen as an inferior gender, but because of their marital roles.
Traditionally, daughters are married out of the family and become part of her husbands family.
Her children will have her husbands last name therefore she cannot pass on the family name.
Also, because she is now a part of her husbands family, the womans job is to take care of her
in-laws and not her actual parents ("Roles of the Sons of China.").

Most women are pushed to have male children because they have greater value in Chinese
family tradition. Due to the one child policy, women have sex-based abortion to have male
children and now there is an unbalanced gender ratio. In the early 1980s there were 108 male
births to every 100 female, only slightly above the natural rate; by 2000 that had soared to 120
males, and in some provinces, such as Anhui, Jiangxi and Shaanxi, to more than 130(Branigan,
Tania. "China's Great Gender Crisis."). This means that there are millions of men that are
destined to be single (Cohen, Norma. "Chinas Population Suffers Gender Imbalance). There is
the issue of Chinese men not being able to find companions but this can greatly affect the
population of China. With fewer women, there are less people to be able to reproduce and in
combination with the one child policy, there will be a drastic decrease in the growth of the
Chinese population. This is not fact but very likely. This factor might have also contributed to
the massive population growth decrease.

The one child policy has also led to force abortions. Even without the issue of whether abortion
is ethical or not, the dangers of abortion in itself especially if it done at a late stage of pregnancy.
Some of the complications associated with abortion are pelvic infection, cut or torn cervix,
Perforation of the uterus wall, Anesthesia-related complications, and Rh Immune Globulin
Therapy ("Abortion & Pregnancy Risks."Dhh.louisiana.gov.). The risks are very high especially
if the abortions are not done by a professional. 13 million abortions are performed each year, for
an average rate of 35,000 abortions per day where most of which, are forced ("Forced Abortion
Statistics." Allgirlsallowed.org.). Also there are numerous cases when women are forced to abort
their children in the late stages of pregnancy. It is not right for women to be forced to endanger
their bodies. This increases the health risks of abortion.

The one child policy does not only affect the population in general, this policy will also affect the
Chinese economy. Since the 1950s the Chinese population was able to double from 580 million
people to 1.34 billion in 2013. Of the 1.34 billion people in China, 980 million of these people
are actively employed. Chinas vast labor force has been important to Chinas economic growth.
During this time, Chinas growing workforce was not only able to meet the increasing needs of
Chinas fast-growing industries, but also underpinned growth in Chinas GDP due to the ability
to spread workers across different jobs and industries to match demand ("Chinas Labor Force:
What Happens When Chinas Workers Retire?" ). However, Chinas fertility rate of about 1.55
children per woman is below the replacement rate (of about 2.1) and Chinas labor pool declined
by 3.45 million in 2012 ("Why Is China Relaxing Its One-Child Policy?"). With a decline in the
workforce, there will not be enough people to produce as much as it used to. Also less people in
the workforce will cause raises in wages. Since 2004, Chinas average annual wage increase is
14.3% in public sectors and 18.3% in private sectors ("Chinas Labor Force: What Happens
When Chinas Workers Retire?"). Cheap labor is a huge factor of major companies moving to
China. With higher wages it is possible that China will lose a major advantage in business.

One must also take into account that there are less children being born and entering the
workforce, but the people that were already in the workforce are going into their senior years.
This would mean that the ratio of taxpayers to pensioners will drop. It is expected to drop from
almost five to one to about two to one by 2030 ("Why Is China Relaxing Its One-Child
Policy?"). Also in Chinese tradition, it is the job of younger working class person to take care of
their elderly family members. Therefore with a greater elderly population, the younger
generation may save more for expenses to take care of them which in turn, would influence the
savings rate in the working age population. A higher savings rate could mean less people will
take risks or start small businesses which will impact consumer discretionary spending
("Chinas Labor Force: What Happens When Chinas Workers Retire?" ).

The one child policy was an effective way to control the growth of population, however it
is over effective by dropping the fertility rate to below the replacement rate. The fertility rate of
China is 1.4 which is much less than the replacement rate of 2.1 ("The Most Surprising
Demographic Crisis." Economist.com). This will cause major problems in the economy and for
the Chinese people in general. Some of these problems will be seen in the future while some are
being felt now. In fact, the problems are occurring faster than originally planned. Therefore the
removal of all child restrictions is very necessary. However removing all child restrictions at one
time will be one of the worst things the Chinese government could do. Removing child limiting
policies in increments is key for this to work.

The one child policy has been in place for about 35 years therefore the transition will be
rocky. It will take a long time before many people decide to have more than one child. This
could also have a toll on the economy. Since, people will have more children, more money will
be spent to take care of children and less will be invested in the government. Also demographers
claim that the additional babies will increase the nonworking share of the population because
parents and grandparents will reduce work hours to take care of them (Davis, Bob. "China's One-
Child Shift Will First Drain Workforce."). All of this could be true but without more children,
the workforce would shrink but most likely at a slower pace. Wilh increments, this problem will
not be as massive as it would if everything was lifted at one time. Also It would give hope for the
future.

Solutions to the population problem in China would have less consequences and easier
transitions if the One Child Policy was outlawed from way before. Unfortunately, due to the 35
years of the one child policys effectiveness, it is impossible to avoid the problems it will cause
such as a shrink in the workforce and a generation of males destined to die single. The possible
solutions will take a while to improve these problems and maybe from the onset make things
worse. However lifting the restrictions on childbirth in increments will give China an opportunity
to bounce back economically and correct the gender gap because there will no longer be a reason
for forced abortions. Chinas strong population is a huge factor to the success of China through
taxes, the workforce, and . In the long run, the Chinese government removing all of its child limit
policies in increments will greatly benefit China by putting the fertility rate above the
replacement rate and keep Chinas population strong.

















Works Cited
Branigan, Tania. "China's Great Gender Crisis." Theguardian.com. Guardian News and Media,
2014. Web. 27 Mar. 2014. <http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/nov/02/chinas-great-
gender-crisis>. This article gave me some statistics of the gender birth ratio in China. Also it
gave me some reasons why males are the preferred gender.
"Chinas Labor Force: What Happens When Chinas Workers Retire?" China 360 July 2013: n.
pag. Web. 30 Mar. 2014.
<http://www.kpmg.com/CN/en/IssuesAndInsights/ArticlesPublications/Newsletters/China-
360/Documents/China-360-Issue10-201307-labor-force.pdf>. This provided a bit of information
on how the Chinese economy was built. Also this newsletter gives more specific information on
how and why China's work force and the productivity of the workforce is decreasing.
Cohen, Norma. "Chinas Population Suffers Gender Imbalance." Ft.com. Financial Times, 2014.
Web. 11 Mar. 2014. <http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/acab0276-5112-11e3-9651-
00144feabdc0.html#axzz2vfOOh7sn>. This gives more incite into the gender imbalance of
China. Not only does it show the obvious problem that it would be hard for males to find a
spouse but that for the population level to remain the same, more women are needed to
reproduce and of this, each would have to have atleast one female child.
Davis, Bob. "China's One-Child Shift Will First Drain Workforce." Wsjcom. Dow Jones &
Company, 2014. Web. 30 Mar. 2014.
<http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304607104579211351308910382>.
This gave information as to how the relaxing of the one child policy could impact the economy.
This helped me to see that the solution is not too simple. The solution could possibley cause
more problems than it is supposed to solve. (This is also the problem of the one child policy)
Fitzpatrick, Laura. "A Brief History of China's One-Child Policy." Time.com. Time, 2014. Web.
30 Mar. 2014. <http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1912861,00.html>. This gave
me some background on the one child policy which I found very useful for my introduction.
Jian, Ma. "China's Barbaric One-Child Policy." Theguardian.com. Guardian News and Media,
2014. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. <http://www.theguardian.com/books/2013/may/06/chinas-barbaric-
one-child-policy>. This article provided some history to how the one child policy came into play.
Also this opened my eyes to the child trafficing and abortions that have been done as a result of
this policy.
Kluger, Jeffrey. "Chinas One-Child Policy: Curse of the Little Emperors." Time.com. Time,
2014. Web. 27 Mar. 2014. <http://healthland.time.com/2013/01/10/little-emperors/>. This
provides more reasons why males are the preferred gender. Also it shows another problem
caused by the one child policy. Although I did not use this as an argument it was quite interesting
and very different than what I normally saw.
"Roles of the Sons of China." Cultural-china.com. cultural-china.com, 2014. Web. 27 Mar.
2014. <http://traditions.cultural-china.com/en/14Traditions7669.html>. This is where I found
most of the roles of men and women. From this one could easily see why males are preferred.
"Why Is China Relaxing Its One-Child Policy?" Economist.com. Economist Newspaper, 2014.
Web. 11 Mar. 2014. <http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2013/12/economist-
explains-8>. This is an issue that I never really thought of before. The fact that the one child
policy might have affect the economy of China. I only saw the humanitarian view point but this
also has economic value. With less people, there would be less tax payers and less people in the
workforce which would be very bad for the economy.