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Pharmacy

1. What is Pharmacy?
The word Pharmacy is derived from the Greek word 'pharmakon' = drug. In between
!"" and #""$%& the word 'pharma( became popu)ar& which indicated a 'drug store(.
The 'pharma( a)so offered genera) medica) advice and a range of services. Thus the word
pharmacy was deve)oped from the root word 'pharma(. *ased on the 'pharma(
re+uirements& investigation of herba) and chemica) ingredients was needed which
deve)oped the modern sciences of chemistry& pharmaco)ogy and art of
formu)ations,dosage forms. This fina))y promoted the scientific deve)opment of the
modern hea)th science ca))ed pharmacy.
The aim -mission. of pharmacy/
0 serve society as the profession
0 being responsib)e for the appropriate use of medicines& devises and services
0 for achieving optima) therapeutic outcome
These days& the word pharmacy has three meanings/ a. a hea)th science discip)ine ca))ed
pharmacy& b. a hea)th profession ca))ed pharmacy c. an estab)ishment where pharmacy is
practiced -synonym/ drug store..
Thus& Pharmacy is the hea)th profession that )inks the hea)th sciences with the chemica)
sciences& and it is responsib)e to ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutica)
preparations. It concerns with the know)edge system that resu)t in discovery&
deve)opment and use of medicine& medication information to use in the patient care. It
combines medica)& c)inica)& scientific& economic and educationa) aspects of professiona)
know)edge base& and its communication in providing +ua)ity hea)th,pharmaceutica) care.
The mortar and pest)e& is an internationa))y recogni1ed symbo) to represent the pharmacy
profession.
The fie)d of Pharmacy can genera))y be divided into three primary branches/
Pharmacognosy

2edicina) chemistry
Pharmaceutics
Pharmacy practice
The pharmacy discip)ine needs the foundation of other different branches of sciences e.g.
chemistry& physics& bio)ogy -botany& microbio)ogy& biochemistry.& mathematics&
information science& economics etc. 3very country has )ega))y recogni1ed that on)y
+ua)ified pharmacists are a))owed to practice pharmacy.
Pharmacists are high)y0trained and ski))ed hea)thcare professiona)s who perform various
ro)es to ensure optima) hea)th outcomes for their patients. 2any pharmacists are a)so
sma))0business owners& owning the pharmacy in which they practice.
2. Salient features of pharmacy.
OR
Scope of pharmacy in brief:
The scope or features of pharmacy practice inc)udes more traditiona) ro)es such as
compounding and dispensing medications& production of medicines& and it a)so inc)udes
more modern services re)ated to hea)th care& inc)uding c)inica) services& reviewing
medications for safety and efficacy& and providing drug information.
The sa)ient features or scope of pharmacy are as given be)ow.
a. Drug discoery/ 4irst of a)) a pharmacist can contribute to identify the need of
drugs for the treatment or prevention of contemporary disease,s. The drugs may
be based on different sources/ p)ant& anima) or minera). 2oreover& the possib)e
medication approach may be the traditiona) or modern. In this approach& the
fo))owing main features are needed/
5ecognition of the right source -p)ant etc..
6o))ection of the materia) -correct time& c)eaning& method of drying etc.
7e)ection of right part of the p)ant i.e. barks or )eaf or f)owering tops etc..
Identification of active ingredient in the crude materia) using different methods
-chemica)& bio)ogica)& pharmacognostica).
Iso)ation of active ingredient using different separation techni+ues
Purification of the active ingredient
%etermining chemica) structure of the active ingredient
Pharmaco)ogica) and to8ico)ogica) studies of the active ingredient
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6)inica) tria) studies/ in this phase data and information is gathered on the
formu)ation& pharmacokinetic and pharmaco)ogica) aspects.
b. !ndustrial pharmacy "#ormulation$ manufacturing of a drug product%: :hen
an active ingredient shows promising resu)ts from the c)inica) tria)& the product is
formu)ated into suitab)e dosage -)i+uid& tab)et& capsu)e etc.. forms.
c. &uality control of the product: The pharmacist shou)d a)so deve)op +ua)ity
contro) and ana)ytica) methods of the origina) crude drug and the new)y
formu)ated product. This he)ps for estab)ishing the +ua)ity and the safety of the
product. In this stage& the she)f )ife of the product -the effect of storage&
degradation products and e8piry date. shou)d a)so be estab)ished.
d. Dispensing: 2any pharmacists work at community pharmacies or hea)th care
out)ets and serve the )oca) community members and patients. In this area& the
dispensing and appropriate information is the main activity of the pharmacist.
e. 'onitoring$ superision: Pharmacist can be a)so be invo)ved as a supervisor in
the monitoring,supervision of different drug re)ated activities e.g. production&
+ua)ity contro) and dispensing.
f. (ospital and clinical pharmacy: 2any pharmacists can work as hospita) and
c)inica) pharmacists. 4or such activities the pharmacist shou)d ac+uire specific
+ua)ification.
g. Drug planning and supply: Pharmacy service is a)so re+uired in drug se)ection&
+uantification& supp)y& storage and distribution.
h. Social$ public health research/ Pharmacists can a)so find a responsib)e position
in socia) and pub)ic hea)th research& particu)ar)y in drug access& drug pricing& and
drug cost containment& uti)i1ation and rationa) drug use.
i. )ducation: Pharmacists a)so has a p)ace in training and education of
drugs,medicines. They can provide service in university and co))eges as teachers
and researchers.
;. Drug control and management: In many countries pharmacists are recruited for
carrying out drug contro) and management activities.
k. Drug information: Pharmacist p)ay key ro)e in drug information centers&
therapeutic committees and hea)th committees.
). 'iscellaneous scope: <ther specia)i1ations in pharmacy practice recogni1ed by
the *oard of Pharmaceutica) 7pecia)ties inc)ude/ cardiovascu)ar& infectious
disease& onco)ogy& pharmacotherapy& nuc)ear& nutrition& and psychiatry.

The
6ommission for 6ertification in Geriatric Pharmacy certifies pharmacists in
geriatric pharmacy practice. The $merican *oard of $pp)ied To8ico)ogy certifies
pharmacists in app)ied to8ico)ogy.
=
Pharmacist
Pharmacists are high)y0trained and ski))ed hea)thcare professiona)s who perform various
ro)es to ensure optima) hea)th outcomes for their patients. 2any pharmacists are a)so
sma))0business owners& owning the pharmacy in which they practice.
Pharmacists are represented internationa))y by the Internationa) Pharmaceutica)
4ederation -4IP.. They are represented at the nationa) )eve) by professiona) organisations
such as the %utch Pharmacists $ssociation ->?$. 5oya) Pharmaceutica) 7ociety of
Great *ritain -5P7G*.& the Pharmacy Gui)d of $ustra)ia -PG$.& the Pakistan
Pharmacists 7ociety -PP7. and the $merican Pharmacists $ssociation -$Ph$.. 7ee a)so/
@ist of pharmacy associations.
In some cases& the representative body is a)so the registering body& which is responsib)e
for the ethics of the profession. 7ince the 7hipman In+uiry& there has been a move in the
AB to separate the two ro)es.
2. What is the role of pharmacist?
The current phi)osophy of pharmacy service is pharmaceutica) care. This means the ro)e
of pharmacist is 'the responsib)e provision of drug therapy for the purpose of achieving
definite outcomes that improve a patient(s +ua)ity of )ife. Thus pharmacists are those who
are educated and )icensed to dispense drugs and to provide drug information C they are
e8perts on medications. They are the most accessib)e member of today(s hea)th care
team& and often are the first source of assistance and advice on many common ai)ments
and hea)th care matters.
Pharmacists& therefore& are the e8perts on drug therapy and are the primary hea)th
professiona)s who optimi1e medication use to provide patients with positive hea)th
outcomes.
Pharmacists are high)y0trained and ski))ed hea)thcare professiona)s who perform various
ro)es to ensure optima) hea)th outcomes for their patients. 2any pharmacists are a)so
sma))0business owners& owning the pharmacy in which they practice. In every country& a
pharmacist needs to be registered for practicing the pharmacy or providing the pharmacy
service.
Types of pharmacy practice areas
Pharmacists practice in a variety of areas inc)uding retai)& hospita)s& c)inics& nursing
homes& drug industry& and regu)atory agencies. Pharmacists can specia)i1e in various
areas of practice inc)uding but not )imited to/ hemato)ogy,onco)ogy& infectious diseases&
ambu)atory care& nutrition support& drug information& critica) care& pediatrics& etc. The
fo))owing are the main practice areas of pharmacists.
*ommunity pharmacy
$ pharmacy -common)y the chemist in $ustra)ia& ?ew Dea)and and the ABE or
drugstore in ?orth $mericaE retail pharmacy in industry termino)ogyE or $pothecary&
historica))y. is the p)ace where most pharmacists practice the profession of pharmacy.
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6ommunity pharmacies usua))y consist of a retai) shop with a dispensary where
medications are stored and dispensed.
In most countries& a)) pharmacies -retai) shops. are re+uired to have a pharmacist on0duty
at a)) times when open. In many ;urisdictions& it is a)so a re+uirement that the owner of a
pharmacy must be a registered pharmacist -5.Ph... In western countries& in addition to
medicines and prescriptions& many pharmacies now se)) a diverse arrangement of
additiona) items such as cosmetics& shampoo& office supp)ies& confections& snack foods&
durab)e medica) e+uipment& greeting cards& and provide photo processing services.
(ospital pharmacy
Pharmacies within hospita)s differ considerab)y from community pharmacies. Fospita)
pharmacies can usua))y be found within the premises of the hospita). Fospita) pharmacies
usua))y stock a )arger range of medications& inc)uding more specia)i1ed medications& than
wou)d be feasib)e in the community setting. 2ost hospita) medications are unit-dose, or a
sing)e dose of medicine. Fospita) pharmacists and trained pharmacy technicians
compound steri)e products for patients inc)uding tota) parentera) nutrition -TP?.& and
other medications given intravenous)y.
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*linical pharmacy
6)inica) pharmacists provide direct patient care service that optimi1es the use of
medication and promotes hea)th& we))ness& and disease prevention. 6)inica) pharmacists
care for patients in a)) hea)th care settings but the c)inica) pharmacy movement initia))y
began inside hospita)s and c)inics. They have know)edge and ski))s to dea) with
comp)e8ity of medications inc)uding specific indications& effectiveness of treatment
regimens& safety of medications -i.e.& drug interactions. and patient comp)iance issues -in
the hospita) and at home..
6)inica) pharmacists often co))aborate with physicians and other hea)thcare professiona)s
to improve pharmaceutica) care. 6)inica) pharmacists are now an integra) part of the
interdiscip)inary approach to patient care. They work co))aborative)y with physicians&
nurses and other hea)thcare personne) in various medica) and surgica) areas. They often
participate in patient care rounds and drug product se)ection. In most hospita)s in the
Anited 7tates& potentia))y dangerous drugs that re+uire c)ose monitoring are dosed and
managed by c)inica) pharmacists.
*ompounding pharmacy
6ompounding is the practice of preparing drugs in new forms. 4or e8amp)e& if a drug
manufacturer on)y provides a drug as a tab)et& a compounding pharmacist might make a
medicated )o))ipop that contains the drug. Patients who have difficu)ty swa))owing the
tab)et may prefer to suck the medicated )o))ipop instead. 6ompounding pharmacies
specia)i1e in compounding& a)though many a)so dispense the same non0compounded
drugs that patients can obtain from community pharmacies.
*onsultant pharmacy
6onsu)tant pharmacy practice focuses more on medication regimen review -i.e.
Hcognitive servicesH. than on actua) dispensing of drugs. 6onsu)tant pharmacists most
typica))y work in nursing homes& but are increasing)y branching into other institutions
and non0institutiona) settings. The main princip)e of consu)tant pharmacy is
pharmaceutica) care deve)oped by Fep)er and 7trand in II"
!nternet pharmacy
7ince about the year 9"""& a growing number of internet pharmacies have been
estab)ished wor)dwide. 2any of these pharmacies are simi)ar to community pharmacies&
and in fact& many of them are actua))y operated by brick0and0mortar community
pharmacies that serve consumers on)ine and those that wa)k in their door. The primary
difference is the method by which the medications are re+uested and received. 7ome
customers consider this to be more convenient and private method rather than trave)ing to
a community drugstore where another customer might overhear about the drugs that they
take. Internet pharmacies -a)so known as <n)ine Pharmacies. are a)so recommended to
some patients by their physicians if they are homebound.
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+eterinary pharmacy
>eterinary pharmacies& sometimes ca))ed animal pharmacies may fa)) in the category of
hospita) pharmacy& retai) pharmacy or mai)0order pharmacy. >eterinary pharmacies stock
different varieties and different strengths of medications to fu)fi)) the pharmaceutica)
needs of anima)s. *ecause the needs of anima)s as we)) as the regu)ations on veterinary
medicine are often very different from those re)ated to peop)e& veterinary pharmacy is
often kept separate from regu)ar pharmacies.
,uclear pharmacy
?uc)ear pharmacy focuses on preparing radioactive materia)s for diagnostic tests and for
treating certain diseases. ?uc)ear pharmacists undergo additiona) training specific to
hand)ing radioactive materia)s& and un)ike in community and hospita) pharmacies& nuc)ear
pharmacists typica))y do not interact direct)y with patients.
'ilitary pharmacy
2i)itary pharmacy is an entire)y different working environment due to the fact that
technicians perform most duties that in a civi)ian sector wou)d be i))ega). 7tate )aws of
Technician patient counse)ing and medication checking by a pharmacist do not app)y.
Pharmacy informatics
Pharmacy informatics is the combination of pharmacy practice science and app)ied
information science. Pharmacy informatics work in many practice areas of pharmacy&
however& they may a)so work in information techno)ogy departments or for hea)thcare
information techno)ogy vendor companies. $s a practice area and specia)ist domain&
pharmacy informatics is growing +uick)y to meet the needs of ma;or nationa) and
internationa) patient information pro;ects and hea)th system. Pharmacists are we)) trained
to participate in medication management system deve)opment& dep)oyment and
optimi1ation.
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