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Validity, Reliability,

and Applicability of
Psychophysiological
Techniques in Marketing
Research
Yong Jian Wang
College of Business, Ohio University
Michael S. Minor
College of Business Administration, University of Texas-Pan American
ABSTRACT
A variety of psychophysiological techniques have been used in the
measurement of consumer reactions to marketing stimuli since
the 60s. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to present a descriptive
review of the psychophysiological techniques and (2) to discuss
critical concerns about validity, reliability, and applicability of these
psychophysiological techniques raised by previous research. The
strengths and weaknesses of ten major psychophysiological
techniques are analyzed on the basis of the summaries of 67 market-
ing studies that have employed psychophysiological techniques. This
study shows a need for marketing research to establish validity and
reliability and to emphasize applicability when psychophysiological
techniques are to be used. Meeting such a need requires an under-
standing of the nuanced psychophysiological process that links
particular psychological antecedents and the physiological conse-
quences being measured. A framework for analyzing this
psychophysiological process in marketing research is provided.
2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 25(2): 197232 (February 2008)
Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com)
2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. DOI: 10.1002/mar.20206
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In marketing research, a variety of measurement techniques have
been used to measure consumers reaction to stimuli. These measures
include: (1) behavioral measures, such as actual purchase, amount of
time and money spent, or store patronage; (2) verbal measures, such as
self-reported assessments of intentions, attitudes, recalls, or emotions; and
(3) psychophysiological measures, such as pupil dilation, eye movement,
or heart rate (Green & Tull, 1978; Stewart & Furse, 1982; Wiles &
Cornwell, 1990; Poels & Dewitte, 2006).
Marketing researchers have been skeptical about using behavioral
and verbal measures because of their limitations in providing an effec-
tive measure of internal reaction to external stimuli. Behavioral meas-
ures of responses to stimuli are problematic because they cannot reflect
the process occurring between affect and behavioral consequence (Wiles &
Cornwell, 1990). The affect that consumers receive also cannot be ade-
quately measured by self-reported verbal indicators, due to the com-
plexity of thought (Wiles & Cornwell, 1990). Respondents using
self-reported verbal measures are also more likely to give so-called lip
service responses, such as socially acceptable answers or uncontemplated
feedback (Nighswonger & Martin, 1981). Furthermore, from a psychol-
ogy perspective, the unconscious minds of consumers have not been fully
emphasized in psychological and behavioral measurement (Liu, 1986;
Zaltman, 2000, 2003). Consumers may still have a feeling of knowing
experience even though they cannot trace a clear memory by verbal
measures, but researchers have not aimed to realize that the results of
unconscious processing can be brought into consciousness (Liu, 1986,
p. 42). Zaltman (2003) employed neurology and psychology to understand
how consumers process information. He found that, in most cases, con-
sumers cannot clearly explain the reason for buying a specific product by
the use of verbal measures.
On the other hand, psychophysiological measures can provide a very
basic, unbiased, and sensitive measure of an individuals reaction to a
stimulus because autonomic reactions are not under voluntary control
and it is not possible for individuals to mask their true reactions to a
product or advertisement (Stewart & Furse, 1982, p. 2). Marketing
research needs to pursue more precise, comprehensive, and unbiased
measurements of the psychological processes to reflect a broader and
deeper intellectual understanding of the human minds mechanism. In
order to meet such a need in marketing research, the use of psy-
chophysiological techniques in measuring consumer reactions to exter-
nal stimuli is an important area worthy of further examination.
Psychophysiology is an interdisciplinary subject that combines phys-
iology, biology, and psychology research (Kroeber-Riel, 1979). It has been
defined as the study of relations between psychological manipulations
and resulting physiological responses, measured in the living organism,
to promote understanding of the relation between mental and bodily
processes (Andreassi, 2000, p. 1). Consequently, marketing researchers
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are able to use physiological indicators to monitor covert psychological
processes.
In this study, the objectives are to present a descriptive review of
psychophysiological techniques that have been employed in market-
ing research, and to discuss some critical concerns that can benefit future
research in this area. This study is organized using the following struc-
ture: first, a review of ten psychophysiological techniques is offered, along
with the summaries of sixty-seven previous studies using such techniques
in marketing research; second, the strengths and weaknesses of each psy-
chophysiological technique are discussed on the basis of the review; and
last, conclusions and recommendations for future research are provided.
REVIEW OF MARKETING RESEARCH USING
PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY
Ten psychophysiological techniques have appeared in published mar-
keting research. These techniques include three central nervous system
(CNS) measures (non hemispheric brain wave analysis, hemispheric lat-
eralization, and brain imaging analysis); five autonomic nervous system
(ANS) measures (pupillary response, electrodermal analysis, voice pitch
analysis, heart rate response, and vascular activity); and two somatic
nervous system (SNS) measures (facial muscle activity and eye movement
analysis) (cf. Bagozzi, 1991).
1
Sixty-seven marketing studies published
between 1960 and 2006 that have empirically applied these psy-
chophysiological techniques are summarized in the Appendix.
It can be found that, along with the progress of psychophysiological
research and the growing interest of marketing researchers in
psychophysiology, the number of marketing publications using psy-
chophysiological techniques increased from the 60s to the 80s. Later, the
popularity of certain techniques waxed and waned. In the 60s, pupillary
response and electrodermal analysis began in marketing-related exper-
iments. Since the 70s, non hemispheric brain wave analysis, hemispheric
lateralization, voice pitch analysis, and eye movement analysis have been
used in marketing research. In the late 80s, cardiovascular activity
(including both heart rate and blood pressure) and facial muscle activ-
ity were further explored by marketing researchers. However, in the 90s,
the number of publications that employed psychophysiological measures
decreased. An underlying reason may be that the validity, reliability, and
applicability issues of some techniquessuch as voice pitch analysis and
brain wave analysis (both hemispheric and non hemispheric)were
brought into question by a number of research findings and critiques.
Lack of reliability and validity as well as restrictions in applicability dis-
couraged further application of some psychophysiological techniques.
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1
Eye movement is considered both voluntary (somatic) and involuntary (autonomic) (Stewart &
Furse, 1982).
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This decrease of the 90s has not continued. From 2000 to the present, the
number of marketing publications using psychophysiological techniques
has become larger than that for the entire 90s. Between 2000 and the
present, non hemispheric brain wave analysis, hemispheric lateralization,
electrodermal analysis, facial muscle activity, and eye movement analy-
sis were still being used, while heart rate analysis and brain imaging
analysis were adopted and used by a growing number of marketing stud-
ies. A chronological classification of published marketing studies using
psychophysiological measures is provided in Table 1.
REVIEW OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES
Psychophysiological techniques use a number of physiological indicators
to keep track of different psychological responses to stimuli. These psy-
chological responses can be represented by cognitive and affective
processes in the mind. The cognitive process is involved with everything
that goes in the consumers minds concerning the acquisition, process-
ing, retention, and retrieval of information (Eroglu, Machleit, & Davis,
2001, p. 181). Quantitative measures of the cognitive process usually
include measures of beliefs, knowledge, attitudes, attention, memory,
and recall (Eroglu, Machleit, & Davis, 2001).
2
On the other hand, the
affective process is a mental state that develops spontaneously without
cognitive effort, and is involved with a set of emotional reactions that
are usually represented by Mehrabian and Russells (1974) pleasure
(pleasant vs. unpleasant), arousal (excited vs. calm), and dominance
(dominant vs. submissive) dimensions (Eroglu, Machleit, & Davis, 2001).
Some researchers have adopted a two-dimensional model, which includes
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Table 1. Chronological Classification of Marketing Studies Using
Psychophysiological Techniques.
60s 70s 80s 90s 2000present
Measure (7) (10) (21) (16) (22)
Non hemispheric brain 1 3 1
wave analysis (5)
Hemispheric lateralization (8) 1 5 1 1
Pupillary response (8) 6 2
Electrodermal analysis (16) 1 5 5 5
Voice pitch analysis (4) 2 2
Heart rate response (5) 1 4
Vascular activity (2) 2
Facial muscle activity (4) 1 1 2
Eye movement analysis (19) 4 3 8 4
Brain imaging analysis (5) 5
Note: Numbers in parentheses are numbers of publications.
Studies using two or more psychophysiological techniques are counted by each of the techniques.
2
The structure of the attitude construct includes both cognitive and affective aspects (Ajzen, 2001).
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valence (i.e., pleasure; pleasant vs. unpleasant) and arousal (excited vs.
calm), to describe the affective process (e.g., Russell, 1980). Researchers
in social psychology posited that, based on the combinations of the basic
affective dimensions (pleasure, arousal, and dominance), a broader sense
of human emotions can be divided into fifteen primary categories, includ-
ing amusement, anger, contempt, contentment, disgust, distress, embar-
rassment, excitement, fear, guilt, pride, relief, satisfaction, sensory pleasure,
and shame; and a variety of secondary emotions can be derived from each
of the primary categories (Ekman, 1999).
Experts in psychophysiology suggested that appropriate application of
a psychophysiological technique depends on fully understanding its work-
ing mechanism and how different cognitive and affective processes are
being measured (Kroeber-Riel, 1979; Stewart & Furse, 1982). As Stewart
and Furse (1982) contended, the application of any psychophysiological
measure should be based on three additional sources of information: (1)
an understanding of the stimulus context in which the measurements
were taken; (2) a knowledge of the physiology of the system measured, and
(3) an assessment of other response events that may be occurring simul-
taneously (p. 30). Based on the philosophy of science, Bagozzi (1991) sug-
gested different patterns of inference relations between psychological
antecedents and physiological consequences. So that these inference rela-
tion patterns can be understood, the process of bodily response to cogni-
tive and affective activities in the mind must be illustrated before the
psychophysiological measure is taken (Jennings, 1986a, b).
Plummer (1972) suggested seven criteria to determine the application
of a measurement technique for consumer reaction to stimuli in market-
ing research. They include reliability, validity, sensitivity, independence of
measures, comprehensiveness, relationship to other tests, and accept-
ability. Among the seven criteria, validity, independence of measures, and
relationship to other tests are related to validity issues in terms of con-
struct validity, discriminant validity, and convergent validity, whereas
sensitivity, comprehensiveness, and acceptability are related to the appli-
cability of a measure in marketing research. Therefore, marketing
researchers need to examine the reliability, validity, and applicability of
psychophysiological techniques before investigating consumers cognitive
and/or affective responses to marketing or advertising stimuli. In this
study, each of the ten psychophysiological techniques is to be evaluated
in terms of its validity, reliability, and applicability in marketing research.
1. Non hemispheric Brain Wave Analysis
Brain wave analysis examines different types of waves in the human
brain (e.g., alpha waves vs. beta waves) to measure variations in the fre-
quency of electrical brain activities (Young, 2002). The electroencephalo-
graph (EEG) is the most frequently used measurement device for brain wave
analysis in marketing research (see Appendix). Non hemispheric brain
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wave analysis, which is a branch of brain wave analysis, may be applied
to connect brain activity to consumers cognitive (e.g., attention, memory)
and affective (e.g., arousal, pleasure) changes in the brain (Klebba, 1985).
In advertising research, nonhemispheric brain wave analysis was first
used by Krugman (1971) in the investigation of consumers responses to
different advertisements. Since then, considerable effort has been made
to further the study of consumer responses to advertisements by using
EEG to measure brain activities (e.g., Alwitt, 1989; Young, 2002). Previ-
ous marketing studies using non hemispheric brain wave analysis have
mainly focused on the investigation of consumers immediate responses
to variations in advertising, packaging, and branding (see Appendix).
Previous marketing studies found that cognitive information pro-
cessing can indicate brain wave peaks (Young, 2002), but the concurrent
validity of using brain waves to measure a particular affective response,
such as arousal, was hardly established in non hemispheric brain
wave analysis (see Appendix). Stewart and Furse (1982) considered non-
hemispheric brain wave analysis a straightforward indication of response
to marketing stimuli but a less reliable measure of how the individual
is responding to a specific stimulus than are measurements of more
peripheral responses (p. 21). Therefore, despite its easy applicability,
non hemispheric brain wave analysis still remains somewhat unclear in
terms of its validity and reliability. To address the validity and reliability
issues in using this technique, the combination of brain wave measure-
ment with peripheral response measurement (e.g., ANS and SNS meas-
ures) in marketing research was recommended (Stewart & Furse, 1982;
Rossiter et al., 2001b).
2. Hemispheric Lateralization
Another branch of brain wave analysis is hemispheric lateralization. It does
not examine the process of brain activity; instead, it examines the differ-
ences in the two brain hemispheres (left brain vs. right brain) when they
respond to external stimuli (Young, 2002). Hansen (1981) and Weinstein
(1982) applied the findings of hemispheric lateralization in psychophys-
iology research to the understanding of consumers in marketing research
and suggested that the differences in hemispheric lateralization (e.g.,
information processing depending on right or left brain) influence the
patterns of an individuals information acquisition and decision making.
Previous marketing studies have used EEG to measure hemi-
spheric differences that are related to arousal and interest (e.g., Weinstein,
Weinstein, & Drozdenko, 1984), pleasure (e.g., Cacioppo & Petty, 1982),
memory (e.g., Appel, Weinstein, & Weinstein, 1979; Rothschild & Hyun,
1990), and information processing (e.g., Weinstein, Appel, & Weinstein,
1980; Rothschild et al., 1988). Rossiter et al. (2001a) used an evolution-
ary version of EEG, steady-state probe topography (SSPT), as the meas-
urement device for brain activity. Using SSPT, which can offer fast and
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accurate measurement of cortical activity in response to a visual stim-
uli sequence, Rossiter et al. (2001a) established that dynamic visual
scenes are encoded into long-term memory in the left hemisphere.
It can be observed from the number of publications that research
efforts on brain activity analysis have been invested somewhat more on
hemispheric lateralization than non hemispheric brain wave analysis. In
the meanwhile, inquiries about the validity and reliability of hemispheric
lateralization in marketing and advertising research have never ceased.
Skeptics asserted that Sperrys (1973) findings on hemispheric special-
ization, which were the cornerstones for hemispheric lateralization in
marketing research, were not generalizable.
3
For example, Sperrys (1973)
findings were not applicable to individuals with normal brain activity
(Katz, 1983) or to left-handed individuals (Klebba, 1985). The explana-
tory power of hemispheric lateralization was also low because only less
than 15 percent of hemispheric dominance could be explained (Klebba,
1985). In addition, it has not been found whether brain wave variations
correspond to any particular psychological process (e.g., pleasure, arousal,
or information processing), either cognitive or affective, in response to
external stimuli (Stewart, 1985).
Another aspect of skepticism over validity and reliability lies in the
measurement device. First, EEG and the SSPT can only monitor gen-
eral brain activity in response to external stimuli as a whole. Previous
research using these measurement techniques has not investigated which
part of complex stimuli, such as a television commercial, induces the
brain activity (Klebba, 1985; Crites & Aikman-Eckenrode, 2001). Sec-
ond, experimental settings have significant influences on the results pro-
duced by an EEG. The results of hemispheric lateralization differ
depending on the placement of electrodes (Klebba, 1985). Therefore, the
validity and reliability of hemispheric lateralization are subject to exper-
imental conditions, significantly restricting its applicability. These crit-
ics urge caution in future use of the hemispheric lateralization technique,
and emphasize the need for the reinforcement of reliability and validity
of the measure as well as more careful application of this technique in
experiments.
3. Pupillary Response
Pupillary response measures physiological changes in an individuals
pupil size (Blackwell, Hensel, & Sternthal, 1970). Early psychophysio-
logical research on pupillary response focused on the temporary dilation
of pupils in response to visual stimuli as an indicator of affective responses
such as pleasure and arousal (Hess & Polt, 1960; Hess, 1965). Previous
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3
Researchers in support of hemispheric lateralization claimed that the EEG has sufficient psy-
chophysiological basis to be applied in marketing research. For example, Weinstein, Drozdenko,
and Weinstein (1984b) argued that, regardless of the percentage of brain activity explained,
hemispheric lateralization research could document the fundamental differences between the
hemispheres, and such differences exist in the normal brain.
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marketing studies using the pupillary response technique were con-
ducted, mostly in the 60s and early 70s, to evaluate the effectiveness of
advertisements. Pupillary response has shown significant discrimina-
tory power on the effectiveness of different advertising stimuli (e.g.,
Krugman, 1965; Van Bortel, 1968; Hess, 1968; Stafford, Birdwell, & Van
Tassel, 1970).
Although pupillary response was considered useful and practical in
terms of its applicability in measuring affective responses to advertising
stimuli (Stewart & Furse, 1982), researchers have presented empirical
challenges to the concurrent validity of the physiological measure in
relation to the psychological mechanism. For example, there were
questions about which psychological process was demonstrated by pupil
dilation (e.g., Blackwell, Hensel, & Sternthal, 1970; Janisse, 1974; see
Stewart & Furse, 1982, for a detailed review). Although pupillary response
has been used as a measure of valence (i.e., pleasure), changes in an indi-
viduals pupil size can be a result of a number of psychological processes,
including attention, arousal, pleasure, memory and information process-
ing, and so on (Watson & Gatchel, 1979; Stewart & Furse, 1982). Thus,
pupillary response does not merely indicate valence. Besides the validity
problem, the reliability of pupillary response has not been examined in
previous marketing research (see Appendix). This technique has not
appeared in marketing publications after the 70s. However, the use of
pupillary response in marketing research has great potential, such as the
ability to measure mental activity associated with cognitive information
processing or with responses to successive stimuli (Arch, 1979). For future
research using pupillary response, it is necessary to specify the causal
relationship between psychological processes (e.g., attention, pleasure,
or information processing) and physiological indicators (pupil size)
(Blackwell, Hensel, & Sternthal, 1970; Watson & Gatchel, 1979).
4. Electrodermal Analysis
Electrodermal activities can be measured by the amount of resistance or
conductance of human skin to passing current (Watson & Gatchel, 1979).
Psychophysiologists established that physiological arousal occurring in
the sweat glands can reflect psychological activity, and thus changes
in electrodermal activities in the sympathetic nervous system may be a
result of interest, arousal, or pleasure (Klebba, 1985). Electrodermal
activities can be monitored through either galvanic skin response (GSR)
or skin conductance response (SCR). Galvanic skin response, which can
be recorded by a galvanometer to assess the ability of the skin to conduct
electricity, is more frequently used in published marketing studies (see
Appendix). Skin conductance response can also be employed to monitor
skin conductance (the reciprocal of skin resistance) by polygraphic record-
ing (Klebba, 1985; Wiles & Cornwell, 1990). In marketing research,
electrodermal activity has been intensively used to measure attention
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(e.g., Vanden Abeele & MacLachlan, 1994a; Bolls, Muehling, & Yoon,
2003) and arousal (e.g., Groeppel-Klein & Baun, 2001; Bolls, Lang, &
Potter, 2001), and also linked to anxiety and warmth as affective processes
(e.g., Aaker, Stayman, & Hagerty, 1986; Stem & Bozman, 1988; Vanden
Abeele & MacLachlan, 1994b).
Electrodermal response has been considered a reliable and valid meas-
ure of arousal (e.g., Kroeber-Riel, 1979; Klebba, 1985) and it can allow
researchers to identify the magnitude of a response with considerable
accuracy (Klebba, 1985). However, Vanden Abeele and MacLachlan
(1994a) reported that electrodermal response was not valid in measur-
ing attention. Electrodermal response is also not a valid indicator
of warmth as an affective response to stimuli (Vanden Abeele &
MacLachlan, 1994b). In addition, previous research has provided a
number of caveats in applying the electrodermal technique. For example,
electrode placement is critical to the accuracy of results because the
results tend to be biased when the placement sites and environment are
not carefully chosen, cleaned, and controlled (Stewart & Furse, 1982).
Sensitivity to external influences needs to be better understood in order
to make this psychophysiological technique applicable in experimental
conditions. In addition, Cacioppo and Petty (1983) suggested that
electrodermal activity should be measured at different times to address
reliability issues.
5. Voice Pitch Analysis
Voice pitch analysis examines the fluctuations generated by vocal cords
in human speech, which can indicate an individuals affective responses
to external stimuli independent of the volume, content, and speed of the
speech (Klebba, 1985). Relying on the findings from attitudinal research,
voice pitch analysis (VOPAN) was developed by Brickman (1976, 1980)
in the field of advertising research. Brickman (1980) claimed that voice
pitch analysis is more valid, reliable, and sensitive than verbal meas-
ures in measuring consumers attitude change. Beyond that, it has also
demonstrated superior discriminatory power in actual purchase and
advertising effectiveness studies (Brickman, 1976, 1980; Nelson &
Schwartz, 1979). Another experimental study found that voice pitch level
and range indicate a specific affective dimensionarousal (i.e., activa-
tion) (Backhaus, Meyer, & Stockert, 1985).
As noted by Klebba (1985), voice pitch analysis has at least two prac-
tical advantages over other psychophysiological techniques in marketing
research. First, instead of using cumbersome equipment, the experi-
mental procedure only requires oral responses and audio recording appa-
ratus. Second, participants are least likely to be influenced by controlled
and unnatural experimental settings because the recording apparatus is
not apparent or interfering. However, Nighswonger and Martin (1981)
questioned the validity of the technique in measuring affective changes,
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especially arousal. They pointed out that affective changes may be
reflected by voice pitch change, but the process of these simultaneous
changes is unfounded from a psychophysiological perspective. Therefore,
future studies using voice pitch analysis must establish evidence of con-
current validity. Nighswonger and Martin (1981) also suggested that
voice pitch analysis combined with the response latency technique (meas-
urement of the amount of time for deliberation) can be a more accurate
and reliable measure of affective responses. Although marketing studies
using voice pitch analysis can hardly be found since the 80s, Nighswonger
and Martins (1981) recommendations still provide useful guidelines for
future research using this technique. Further, the ability to capture voice
digitally and apply computerized analysis should revive this technique.
For example, a computer-based software program, the Multi-Dimensional
Voice Program (MDVP), can be used to generate a database consisting
of tens of acoustic parameters, after respondents voices are digitally
recorded. Graphic comparisons on voice parameters can also be produced
by computer.
6. Heart Rate Response
As a branch of cardiovascular analysis, heart rate response is usually
measured by electrocardiogram (EKG), which monitors the electrical
discharges associated with the muscle contraction of the heart (Wiles &
Cornwell, 1990). Previous studies employed heart rate response to meas-
ure pleasant or unpleasant responses to external stimuli (e.g., Israel,
1969; Bolls, Lang, & Potter, 2001). However, Watson and Gatchel (1979)
contended that, rather than being just a measurement of the directions
of affect, heart rate response is also a valid and sensitive measure of
one of the cognitive processes, attention, because heart rate is an impor-
tant component of the psychophysiological attention mechanism. Watson
and Gatchels (1979) argument was supported by recent findings of Lang
et al. (2002) and Bolls, Muehling, and Yoon (2003). Previous research
also found that heart rate response is capable of predicting recall and
memory (Lang et al., 2002; Bolls, Muehling, & Yoon, 2003). Besides its
validity, heart rate response demonstrated high reliability over time
(Lang et al., 2002). In addition, heart rate response is not influenced by
environmental disturbances, showing its applicability in non-laboratory
experimental settings (Watson & Gatchel, 1979).
Although heart rate response is a valid, reliable, and sensitive meas-
ure of several psychological processes, Watson and Gatchel (1979) noted
that it is difficult to formulate with any certainty generalizations about
this physiological response during a number of psychological processes
(p. 22). This reveals a potential threat to concurrent validity. Researchers
must be meticulous when explaining a particular psychological process
by interpreting heart rate changes, because the changes may be evoked by
multiple psychological processes.
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7. Vascular Activity
Vascular activity, another branch of cardiovascular analysis, records
changes in blood pressure, blood volume, or pulse volume (Bagozzi, 1991).
Previous studies in the 80s used vascular activity to measure arousal in
response to external stimuli (Frost & Stauffer, 1987; Sanbonmatsu &
Kardes, 1988). Frost and Stauffer (1987) found that blood pulse volume
and skin conductance response highly correlated with each other in meas-
uring arousal. However, the validity and reliability of vascular activity
in measuring arousal have not been assessed by previous studies. Like
heart rate response, vascular activity may be a result of a number of
psychological processes, including pleasure, arousal, and memory
(Bagozzi, 1991; Brownley, Hurwitz, & Schneiderman, 2000). Future mar-
keting research needs to address validity and reliability issues when
using vascular activity to measure arousal and/or other psychological
processes.
Compared with other psychophysiological techniques, vascular activ-
ity can be easily monitored and reported. For example, Sanbonmatsu
and Kardes (1988) used a Pollenex blood pressure monitor to measure vas-
cular activity. The measurement device is much less complex to handle
than those used in other psychophysiological techniques. However,
the auscultatory method of determining blood pressure used in
Sanbonmatsu and Kardess (1988) study, which utilizes a blood pressure
cuff placed around a subjects arm, requires a careful plan on cuff size and
placement of the machine to obtain accurate and reliable blood pressure
measurement (Brownley, Hurwitz, & Schneiderman, 2000). To obtain
valid and reliable data, future experimental research needs to pay great
attention to these handling skills.
8. Facial Muscle Activity
Different from other involuntary psychophysiological measures, facial
muscle activity is a voluntary physiological indicator generated by the
somatic nervous system. Facial muscle activity is measured by electrical
signals caused by the contraction of facial muscle fibers when the volt-
age is active from two electrodes placed on the face (Wiles & Cornwell,
1990). The electromyography (EMG) has been the most frequently used
measurement device for facial muscle activity in marketing research
(see Appendix). Wiles and Cornwell (1990) suggested that facial muscle
activity be used to identify the directions of affective responses (i.e.,
pleasure vs. displeasure) to external stimuli.
Bolls, Lang, and Potter (2001) demonstrated the validity, reliability,
and applicability of using facial muscle activity to measure the direc-
tions of affective responses (i.e., valence/ pleasure) to complex stimuli, such
as radio advertisements. Documented by facial EMG data, the physiolog-
ical reaction accompanied by positive affective response was robust across
different stimuli (Bolls, Lang, & Potter, 2001). Facial muscle activity can
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also allow researchers to precisely examine the effects of those complex
stimuli that can result in non exclusively positive or negative affective
responses (Bolls, Lang, & Potter, 2001). However, Bolls, Lang, and Potter
(2001) warned that, in experiments using facial muscle activity, the elec-
tric signal produced by an EMG device can be influenced by participants
physical movements or bodily sensitivity. Accordingly, they suggested
that future research using facial muscle activity in measuring the
directions of affect should well disguise the experiment process and
distract the participant during electrode placement.
9. Eye Movement Analysis
Eye movement is measured by recording either the number of fixations
or dwell time of the eyes during an individuals exposure to external
stimuli (Stewart & Furse, 1982). By examining the eye patterns on pickup
and retention of information, researchers can identify the elements of
a complex stimulus that receive voluntary (somatic) or involuntary
(autonomic) attention (Stewart & Furse, 1982).
Eye movement analysis has been widely used in marketing studies
from the early 70s to the present (see Appendix). In previous marketing
research findings, eye movement has found to be related to attention
(e.g., Bogard & Trolley, 1988; Lohse, 1997; Pieters, Rosbergen, & Wedel,
1999; Pieters & Wedel, 2004), memory (e.g. Krugman, 1971; Morrison &
Dainhoff, 1972; Krugman et al., 1994; Wedel & Pieters, 2000), and
information processing (e.g., King, 1972; Kroeber-Riel & Barton, 1980;
Kroeber-Riel, 1984). However, as Kroeber-Riel (1979) pointed out, most
previous studies using eye movement as a physiological measure have
not established a psychological basis for the meaning of eye movements.
Therefore, concurrent validity of the eye movement measure is questioned.
Although some studies demonstrated high predictive power on recall
and memory based on either dwell time (Krugman et al., 1994) or the
number of fixations (Wedel & Pieters, 2000), Kroeber-Riel and Barton
(1980) argued that the validity of eye movement as a predictor of recall
and memory depends on the mediating role of cognitive learning. Pieters,
Rosbergen, and Wedel (1999) also questioned the reliability of eye
movement measures. They held that, although external disturbances to
the experiment can be controlled, eye movement measures are not highly
reliable because eye movement patterns can be influenced by subjects
excessive blinking or tear fluid. This restricts the opportunity of recruit-
ing certain individuals with various eye problems for eye movement
experiments in marketing research.
10. Brain Imaging Analysis
Brain imagining analysis has been intensively used in neuromarketing
research, which relies on neuroscience technologies to investigate
WANG AND MINOR
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208
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individuals brain activities in response to marketing and advertising
stimuli. Neuroscience technologies that can be employed by brain imag-
ing analysis in marketing research include Functional Magnetic Reso-
nance Imaging (fMRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), and
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) (Zaltman, 1997; Ambler et al., 2004).
These relatively new techniques in marketing research monitor mag-
netic activity or radioactive patterns in the medial prefrontal cortex of
the brain, and are able to provide high spatial resolution as well as tem-
poral resolution that can document an individuals brain activities in
response to non static stimuli (Rossiter et al., 2001a; Berthoz et al., 2002).
Thus, these brain imaging techniques complement less precise brain
activity measurement techniques, such as EEG (Rossiter et al., 2001a).
Using the fMRI technique, marketing research has identified some of
the cognitive activities in the brain, with implications for marketing. The
left hemisphere of the brain is mainly involved with sequential ordering
abilities and analytical abilities, whereas the right hemisphere is involved
with the determination of meaning, nonverbal communications, and
visual-spatial perceptions (Morgan & Reichert, 1999). Previous research
suggested that brain imaging analysis can be used to investigate the
presence or absence of pleasure and arousal (Novemsky & Kahneman,
2005), information processing patterns (Zaltman, 1997), and memory
(Percy, 2004).
Brain imaging analysis techniques, such as fMRI, have been inten-
sively used by marketing researchers and practitioners since the 90s in
field investigations on product preferences, advertising effectiveness,
brand loyalty, and so on (Carmichael, 2004; Helliker, 2006). It was consid-
ered more accurate in practice than the use of focus groups and surveys
in explaining consumers experiences and feelings (Kelly, 2002). It was also
considered more effective than other psychophysiological techniques
because the experimental process is not influenced by external distur-
bances and participant bias (Kelly, 2002). Although suspicions have been
raised as to whether increased brain activity necessarily indicates affec-
tive changes as well as product preferences (Carmichael, 2004), recent
research has provided some illuminative findings. By using fMRI to
investigate respondents brain reactions to brands, it was found that cer-
tain brain areas indicating pleasure, self-identification, and rewards
were evoked by a well-known brand, whereas the parts in the brain indi-
cating displeasure and memory were evoked by an unfamiliar brand
(Helliker, 2006).
In neuroeconomics research that investigates the mechanism of the
brain in economics-related decision-making process, the validity and reli-
ability of brain imaging analysis has been demonstrated in measuring
both cognitive and affective responses to stimuli (e.g., Montague & Berns,
2002; McClure et al., 2004). Based on brain activity in the prefrontal cor-
tex monitored by brain imaging analysis, cognitive and affective responses
to the economic environment can be depicted and then used to predict
VALIDITY, RELIABILITY, AND APPLICABILITY OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES
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209
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economic decision-making and behavioral consequences (McClure et al.,
2004). Using fMRI, McClure et al. (2004) found that the hippocampus
and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are the main brain areas that indicate
affective brain activities, which, together with cognitive brain activities
indicated in other brain areas, helped to explain subjects brand prefer-
ences. Recent research conducted by Knutson and Peterson (2005) found
that the anticipation of increasing monetary gains activates a subcorti-
cal region of the ventral striaum, accompanied by increased arousal and
pleasure. Therefore, the brain imaging analysis technique in marketing
research has sufficient psychophysiological basis for the interpretation
of both cognitive and affective responses to marketing stimuli.
Nonetheless, brain imaging analysis has been increasingly challenged
from an ethical perspective, with reasons such as invasion of privacy
and the potential for mind control (Thompson, 2003; Wahlberg, 2004).
Current neuromarketing research focuses on the use of the Zaltman
Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) to investigate the unconscious
of consumers (e.g., Coulter, Zaltman, & Coulter, 2001; Christensen &
Olson, 2002; Lee et al., 2003). ZMET is not a psyshophysiological tech-
nique. This survey technique is more naturalistic than experimental
brain imaging analysis, and thus ethical problems restricting the appli-
cability of brain imaging analysis can be avoided. However, the use of
experimental brain imaging analysis should not be discouraged. When
brain imaging analysis is used in future marketing research, necessary
steps must be taken to ensure that human subjects are well protected and
potential ethical issues are resolved.
CONCLUSION
On the basis of the discussion above, a summary of the ten psychophys-
iological techniques used in marketing research is provided in Table 2.
Based on the summary, a psychophysiology framework in marketing
research is given in Figure 1. This psychophysiology framework can be
used for the purpose of analyzing different psychological antecedents
and corresponding physiological consequences. The framework is
presented in a Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) model from
environmental psychology to explain the impact of external stimuli on con-
sumer response (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974; Eroglu, Machleit, & Davis,
2001). According to the S-O-R paradigm, the environment contains stim-
uli that can influence consumers internal organism, which in turn influ-
ences consumers behavioral outcomes. In marketing research, the
psychophysiological process can be better understood by analyzing
consumers internal organism. The relationship between psychological
antecedents and physiological consequences presented in the internal
organism extends Bagozzis (1991) psychophysiological relationship model
and depicts the detailed patterns of the psychological processes and
WANG AND MINOR
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mar252_40_20206.qxd 12/24/07 11:20 AM Page 212
physiological indicators. The psychophysiology framework reflects the
unity of body and mind (Zaltman, 2003) and the complex nature of the psy-
chophysiological mechanism (Bagozzi, 1991; Cacioppo, Tassinary, &
Berntson, 2000).
An experimental study in marketing using psychophysiological tech-
niques usually starts with an intention to examine consumers cognitive
and/or affective processes in response to prefabricated marketing stim-
uli. In experimental studies, these cognitive and/or affective processes,
VALIDITY, RELIABILITY, AND APPLICABILITY OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES
Psychology & Marketing DOI: 10.1002/mar
213
Cognitive Responses to Stimulus X
n
Attention
Information Processing
Memory
Other Cognitive Dimensions
Affective Responses to Stimulus X
n
Pleasure (or Valence)
Arousal
Dominance
Other Affective Dimensions
Central Nervous System Indicators
Brain Activity (non hemispheric
brain wave analysis, hemispheric
lateralization, or brain imaging
analysis)
Autonomic Nervous System Indicators
Pupil Dilation (pupillary response)
Sweat Gland Activity (electrodermal
analysis)
Cardiovascular Activity (heart rate
response and/or vascular activity)
Laryngeal Muscle Activity (voice
pitch analysis)
Somatic Nervous System Indicators
Skeletomotor Activity (facial
muscle activity)
Eye Movement (eye movement
analysis)
Psychological Antecedents Physiological Consequences
Stimulus
Cognitive Responses to Stimulus X
1
Cognitive Responses to Stimulus X
2
Affective Responses to Stimulus X
2
Affective Responses to Stimulus X
1
Other Physiological/Bodily Indicators
Organism
The psychophysiology framework is based on Bagozzis (1991) psychophysiology relationship framework and
Mehrabian and Russells (1974) Stimuli-Organism-Response paradigm.
Behavioral Outcomes
A stimulus series (e.g., print ad, radio ad, or TV
commercial) containing n stimulus (X
1
, X
2
X
n
)
Approach
Avoidance
.

.

.

.

.

.

Figure 1. Psychophysiology framework in marketing research.
mar252_40_20206.qxd 12/24/07 11:20 AM Page 213
separately or jointly, serve as psychological antecedents to a variety
of physiological consequences produced by the human nervous system.
The physiological consequences may include CNS indicators and peripheral
nervous system (ANS and SNS) indicators. The ANS indicators, which reg-
ulate organ functions, are under involuntary control, whereas the SNS
indicators, which regulate muscle functions, are under voluntary con-
trol. Ideally, by measuring one or a number of physiological change(s),
researchers are able to identify the changes in an individuals cognitive
and/or affective processes.
However, as described in the framework, the psychophysiological
process is more complex than a one-to-one inference relationship between
a single psychological antecedent and a single physiological consequence
(Bagozzi, 1991). Several noteworthy findings can be disclosed. First, a
physiological change can be accompanied by a number of simultaneous
or sequential cognitive and/or affective processes. These psychological
processes usually co-exist when an individual reacts to certain stimuli.
As noted previously (e.g., Klebba, 1985; Wiles & Cornwell, 1990), it is
crucial for researchers to establish that a physiological measure indi-
cates the particular psychological process that it is supposed to indicate.
Second, a particular psychological antecedent can result in a number of
physiological consequences. A combination of different physiological
measures, such as CNS with peripheral ANS or SNS measures, can offer
cross-validation for the effects of external stimuli on consumers psy-
chological responses (Stewart & Furse, 1982). Third, marketing and
advertising research usually investigate a stimulus series, such as media
ads or TV commercials, that consist of an unknown number of elements
in the stimuli (Crites & Aikman-Echenrode, 2001). The particular stim-
ulus or portion of stimuli to which the psychological processes respond
was usually not identified in previous studies. The explanatory or dis-
criminatory power of psychophysiological measures on the effectiveness
of media or stimuli demonstrated is questionable if researchers cannot
identify the particular stimulus in a stimuli set to which a psychologi-
cal process corresponds.
FUTURE RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS
This study provides a descriptive review of major psychophysiological
techniques used in marketing research and offers some insights in appro-
priately applying these techniques in future marketing research. In addi-
tion to the recommendation of careful examination of the validity and
reliability issues of psychophysiological measures, future research rec-
ommendations are made in the following areas.
Dimensionality of Particular Psychological Response. Future
research in investigating the relationships between psychological
WANG AND MINOR
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214
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antecedents and physiological consequences may focus on exploring the
dimensionality of a particular psychological process and using a number
of physiological measures to measure different dimensions of the psy-
chological process. For example, arousal was suggested to be a multidi-
mensional affective state (Thayer, 1978; Stewart & Furse, 1982; LaTour,
1990). Thayer (1978) suggested that physiological measures, such as
brain activity, pupil dilation, and heart rate, reflect different aspects of
arousal. Thus, a single physiological measure may not be valid to meas-
ure arousal because of other unmeasured dimensions. The theoretical
framework between the multiple dimensions of a psychological response
and the corresponding multiple physiological measures needs to be explored
in future research.
Sequential Issues in Cognitive and Affective Responses. Further
investigation of the relationships between psychological antecedents and
physiological consequences may also focus on exploring the complex
sequence of the effects of external stimuli. An individuals cognitive and
affective responses to stimuli may occur in sequence. DeVoes (1956) hier-
archy of effects model for advertising effectiveness described such a
sequence: attention interest desire action. Lavidge and Steiners
(1961) hierarchy of effects model in examining advertising effectiveness
contended that consumers follow four stages in response to stimuli:
attention cognition affect conation. Bagozzi (1991) suggested that
psychophysiological measures can be used to investigate such a sequential
process in response to marketing stimuli: cogniton arousal attitude
change behavior. However, the hierarchy of effects may vary because
of high or low involvement (Petty, Cacioppo, & Schumann, 1983). There-
fore, future research combining temporal variations of different physio-
logical indicators during an individuals exposure to marketing stimuli may
offer great value in assessing the sequence of an individuals psycholog-
ical process in response to marketing stimuli in different situations.
Triangulation of Verbal and Psychophysiological Measures. Although
psychophysiological measures have several advantages over verbal meas-
ures, researchers should be aware that experimental studies in marketing
using psychophysiological techniques may involve various validity, relia-
bility, and applicability problems. For example, participant characteristics
or external disturbances can bias the physiological data. Incertain situations,
threats to validity and reliability cannot be well controlled. For validation
purposes, researchers may combine a verbal measure and psychophysio-
logical measure(s) to examine a particular response to stimuli. Psy-
chophysiological measures combined with verbal measures can also help to
control the bias caused by participant characteristics or environmental dis-
turbances (Wiles & Cornwell, 1990). Future research may also examine the
differences in consumers responses obtained from verbal and psy-
chophysiological measures in the study of the unconscious of consumers.
VALIDITY, RELIABILITY, AND APPLICABILITY OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES
Psychology & Marketing DOI: 10.1002/mar
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Application of New Equipment and Technologies. Rapid techno-
logical evolution enables marketing researchers to use more advanced
equipment to conduct psychophysiological measurements. For example,
researchers usually have to visually examine brain wave patterns taken
by EEG, but an extension of EEG, which is called Quantitative EEG
(qEEG), is able to help researchers conduct brain wave mapping and sta-
tistical analyses by computer. Using computer-aided qEEG, future mar-
keting research in non hemispheric brain wave analysis or hemispheric
lateralization may aim to identify the relationships between psycholog-
ical processes and unseen patterns of brain waves.
New Psychophysiological Techniques in Marketing Research. In
this study, ten psychophysiological techniques that have been used in
marketing research are discussed. Future research may incorporate other
psychophysiological techniques into marketing research. For example,
in the gastrointestinal system, the gastric tract, which is monitored by
the electrogastrogram (EGG), can be linked to emotions such as stress and
disgust (Stern, Koch, & Muth, 2000). In the respiratory system, breathing
patterns documented by oxygen consumption (ml/min) or alveolar venti-
lation (l/min) can indicate a number of affective processes, such as arousal,
anger, or stress (Harver & Lorig, 2000). Previous research also suggested
that the reactions in the sexual response system indicate sexual arousal
in the mind, and these reactions can be measured by a number of psy-
chophysiological techniques (Zuckerman, 1972; Geer & Janssen, 2000).
In closing, despite certain difficulties, psychophysiological techniques
offer a number of advantages over behavioral and verbal measures. With
new technologies being made available, the potential of psychophysio-
logical techniques for further research is vast.
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