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Prof. Dr.

Claudia Linnhoff-Popien
Peter Ruppel, Moritz Kessel
http://www.mobile.ifi.lmu.de
Sommersemester 2010
Praktikum Mobile und Verteilte Systeme
GSM & UMTS - Introduction
Prof. Dr. C. Linnhoff-Popien, P. Ruppel, M. Kessel - Praktikum Mobile und Verteilte Systeme
Sommersemester 2010, GSM & UMTS - Grundlagen
GSM
1982: Groupe Spcial Mobile established by Confrence Europenne des
Administrations des Postes et de Tlcommunications (CEPT)
1987: Elements of wireless transmission are specified based on prototype evaluation
1989: GSM becomes a Technical Committee of the new European Telecommunication
Standards Institute (ETSI)
1990: Phase 1 GSM 900 specifications are frozen. Adaption to DCS 1800 commences
1991: First GSM networks launched. DCS 1800 specification finalized
1993: First roaming agreements in operation. 32 networks in 18 countries are
operational
1994: Data transmission capabilities launched. 69 networks in 43 countries
1995: First PCS1900 network is launched in the US
Facsimile, data and SMS roaming starts; Video transmitted by GSM for demonstration
1998: 320 GSM networks in 118 countries with 135 million subscribers worldwide
1999: Wireless Application Protocol; 130 countries, 260 million subscribers
2000: 362 million subscribers; Introduction of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
2004: 1 billion subscribers; 200 countries
2007: 2 billion subscribers
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Prof. Dr. C. Linnhoff-Popien, P. Ruppel, M. Kessel - Praktikum Mobile und Verteilte Systeme
Sommersemester 2010, GSM & UMTS - Grundlagen
GSM - Architecture
AUC Authentication Center MSC Mobile Switching Center
BSC Base Station Controller PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
BTS Base Transceiver Station VLR Visitor Location Register
EIR Equipment Identity Register SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
GMSC Gateway Mobile Switching Center GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
HLR Home Location Register
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
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BSC
BTS
BTS
BSC
BTS
MSC
VLR
MSC
VLR
HLR EIR OMC
AUC
GMSC
PSTN /
ISDN
SMSC
GGSN
Internet
SGSN
SGSN
Prof. Dr. C. Linnhoff-Popien, P. Ruppel, M. Kessel - Praktikum Mobile und Verteilte Systeme
Sommersemester 2010, GSM & UMTS - Grundlagen
UMTS Release 99
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BSC BTS
RNC
Node B
MSC
VLR
HLR EIR
OMC
AUC
GMSC
PSTN /
ISDN
GGSN
Internet
SGSN
AUC Authentication Center MSC Mobile Switching Center
BSC Base Station Controller PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
BTS Base Transceiver Station VLR Visitor Location Register
EIR Equipment Identity Register SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
GMSC Gateway Mobile Switching Center GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
HLR Home Location Register RNC Radio Network Controller
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network
Universal Terrestrial
Access Network
(UTRAN)
Prof. Dr. C. Linnhoff-Popien, P. Ruppel, M. Kessel - Praktikum Mobile und Verteilte Systeme
Sommersemester 2010, GSM & UMTS - Grundlagen
Medium Access in GSM
Combination of TDMA and FDMA
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124

...
1
124

2
1
960 MHz
959,8 MHz
935,2 MHz
935 MHz
915 MHz
914,8 MHz
890,2 MHz
890 MHz
200 KHz
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
3 Time slots delay
Data burst = 576,9 s
Downlink
Uplink
Modulation: G(MSK)
Data rate: 270,83 kbps per physical channel
BTS
Prof. Dr. C. Linnhoff-Popien, P. Ruppel, M. Kessel - Praktikum Mobile und Verteilte Systeme
Sommersemester 2010, GSM & UMTS - Grundlagen
GSM Impact of propagation delay
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By courtesy of Axel Kpper
Prof. Dr. C. Linnhoff-Popien, P. Ruppel, M. Kessel - Praktikum Mobile und Verteilte Systeme
Sommersemester 2010, GSM & UMTS - Grundlagen
Physical Channels in GSM
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GSM 900 GSM 1800
Frequencies Uplink: 890-915 MHz
Downlink: 935-960 MHz
Uplink: 1710-1785 MHz
Downlink: 1805-1880 MHz
# Carriers 124 374
# Duplex Channels 992 (Full rate)
1984 (Half rate)
2976 (Full rate)
5925 (Half rate)
Duplex distance 45 MHz 95 MHz
Max. BS power 320 W 20 W
Max MS power 8 W 1 W
Max MS velocity 250 Km/h 130 Km/h
Prof. Dr. C. Linnhoff-Popien, P. Ruppel, M. Kessel - Praktikum Mobile und Verteilte Systeme
Sommersemester 2010, GSM & UMTS - Grundlagen
GSM guard intervals
Guard times between time slots avoid co-channel interference caused by
different propagation delays
Example:
Distance between MS and BS: 35 km
Synchronization signal from BS arrives after
Necessary guard time: 234 s
Problem: guard times decrease capacity
234 s guard time lowers capacity by 40 %!
Solution: Adaptive frame spacing
Guard time can be reduced down to 30 s
8
117
s m 10 3
m 10 35
8
3
=


s
Prof. Dr. C. Linnhoff-Popien, P. Ruppel, M. Kessel - Praktikum Mobile und Verteilte Systeme
Sommersemester 2010, GSM & UMTS - Grundlagen
GSM Mobile terminated call
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By courtesy of Axel Kpper
MSISDN Mobile subscriber ISDN number
CC Country code
NDC National destination code
MSRN Mobile station roaming number
TMSI Temporary mobile subscriber identity