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Biswajit Sen V.Shashi Mohan Rao
Regd. No. --11007652
Section-- M2E40
Roll No. -- A 36


I am BISWAJIT SEN of B.TECH (MECH) in Lovely Professional University Phagwara feels
highly indebted to the person who co-operated with me during the term paper work.
The various persons to whom I am thankful for their expert guidance are my friends, classmates
for the completion of my project. I am really thankful to my teacher MR. V.SHASHI MOHAN
RAO for his expert guidance. I cannot express my feelings in words for their love, affection,
inspiration and blessings rendered by my parents.
Above all I am highly indebted to GOD without whose grace this little work could have never
been possible.


1. Gas tungsten arc welding
Principle of operation
Base metal welded
2. Gas metal arc welding
Principle of operation
Metals welded
3. Seam welding
Principle of operation
Metals welded
4. Spot welding
Spot weldable metals
5. References

Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, is an arc
welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld. The weld
area is protected from atmospheric contamination by an inert shielding gas (argon or helium),
and a filler metal is normally used, though some welds, known as autogenous welds, do not
require it. A constant-current welding power supply produces energy which is conducted across
the arc through a column of highly ionized gas and metal vapors known as a plasma.
GTAW is most commonly used to weld thin sections of stainless steel and non-ferrous metals
such as aluminum, magnesium, and copper alloys. The process grants the operator greater
control over the weld than competing processes such as shielded metal arc welding and gas metal
arc welding, allowing for stronger, higher quality welds. However, GTAW is comparatively
more complex and difficult to master, and furthermore, it is significantly slower than most other
welding techniques. A related process, plasma arc welding, uses a slightly different welding
torch to create a more focused welding arc and as a result is often automated.

To strike the welding arc, a high frequency generator (similar to a Tesla coil) provides
an electric spark; this spark is a conductive path for the welding current through the
shielding gas and allows the arc to be initiated while the electrode and the workpiece are
separated, typically about 1.53 mm (0.060.12 in) apart. This high voltage, high
frequency burst can be damaging to some vehicle electrical systems and electronics,
because induced voltages on vehicle wiring can also cause small conductive sparks in the
vehicle wiring or within semiconductor packaging.
Vehicle 12V power may conduct across these ionized paths, driven by the high-current
12V vehicle battery. These currents can be sufficiently destructive as to disable the
vehicle; thus the warning to disconnect the vehicle battery power from both +12 and
ground before using welding equipment on vehicles.
An alternate way to initiate the arc is the "scratch start". Scratching the electrode against
the work with the power on also serves to strike an arc, in the same way as SMAW
("stick") arc welding.
However, scratch starting can cause contamination of the weld and electrode. Some
GTAW equipment is capable of a mode called "touch start" or "lift arc"; here the
equipment reduces the voltage on the electrode to only a few volts, with a current limit of

one or two amps (well below the limit that causes metal to transfer and contamination of
the weld or electrode). When the GTAW equipment detects that the electrode has left the
surface and a spark is present, it immediately (within microseconds) increases power,
converting the spark to a full arc.
Once the arc is struck, the welder moves the torch in a small circle to create a welding
pool, the size of which depends on the size of the electrode and the amount of current.
While maintaining a constant separation between the electrode and the workpiece, the
operator then moves the torch back slightly and tilts it backward about 1015 degrees
from vertical.
Filler metal is added manually to the front end of the weld pool as it is needed.Welders
often develop a technique of rapidly alternating between moving the torch forward (to
advance the weld pool) and adding filler metal. The filler rod is withdrawn from the weld
pool each time the electrode advances, but it is never removed from the gas shield to
prevent oxidation of its surface and contamination of the weld. Filler rods composed of
metals with low melting temperature, such as aluminum, require that the operator
maintain some distance from the arc while staying inside the gas shield. If held too close
to the arc, the filler rod can melt before it makes contact with the weld puddle. As the
weld nears completion, the arc current is often gradually reduced to allow the weld crater
to solidify and prevent the formation of crater cracks at the end of the weld.


The equipment required for the gas tungsten arc welding operation includes a welding torch
utilizing a non-consumable tungsten electrode, a constant-current welding power supply, and a
shielding gas source.

GTAW welding torches are designed for either automatic or manual operation and are equipped
with cooling systems using air or water. The automatic and manual torches are similar in
construction, but the manual torch has a handle while the automatic torch normally comes with a
mounting rack. The angle between the centerline of the handle and the centerline of the tungsten
electrode, known as the head angle, can be varied on some manual torches according to the
preference of the operator. Air cooling systems are most often used for low-current operations
(up to about 200 A), while water cooling is required for high-current welding (up to about
600 A). The torches are connected with cables to the power supply and with hoses to the
shielding gas source and where used, the water supply.

The internal metal parts of a torch are made of hard alloys of copper or brass in order to transmit
current and heat effectively. The tungsten electrode must be held firmly in the center of the torch
with an appropriately sized collet, and ports around the electrode provide a constant flow of
shielding gas. Collets are sized according to the diameter of the tungsten electrode they hold. The
body of the torch is made of heat-resistant, insulating plastics covering the metal components,
providing insulation from heat and electricity to protect the welder.
The size of the welding torch nozzle depends on the amount of shielded area desired. The size of
the gas nozzle will depend upon the diameter of the electrode, the joint configuration, and the
availability of access to the joint by the welder. The inside diameter of the nozzle is preferably at
least three times the diameter of the electrode, but there are no hard rules. The welder will judge
the effectiveness of the shielding and increase the nozzle size to increase the area protected by
the external gas shield as needed. The nozzle must be heat resistant and thus is normally made
of alumina or a ceramic material, but fused quartz, a high purity glass, offers greater visibility.
Devices can be inserted into the nozzle for special applications, such as gas lenses or valves to
improve the control shielding gas flow to reduce turbulence and introduction of contaminated
atmosphere into the shielded area. Hand switches to control welding current can be added to the
manual GTAW torches.

Gas tungsten arc welding uses a constant current power source, meaning that the current (and
thus the heat) remains relatively constant, even if the arc distance and voltage change. This is
important because most applications of GTAW are manual or semiautomatic, requiring that an
operator hold the torch. Maintaining a suitably steady arc distance is difficult if a constant
voltage power source is used instead, since it can cause dramatic heat variations and make
welding more difficult.
The preferred polarity of the GTAW system depends largely on the type of metal being welded.
Direct current with a negatively charged electrode (DCEN) is often employed when
weldingsteels, nickel, titanium, and other metals. It can also be used in automatic GTAW of
aluminum or magnesium when helium is used as a shielding gas. The negatively charged

electrode generates heat by emitting electrons which travel across the arc, causing thermal
ionization of the shielding gas and increasing the temperature of the base material. The ionized
shielding gas flows toward the electrode, not the base material, and this can allow oxides to build
on the surface of the weld. Direct current with a positively charged electrode (DCEP) is less
common, and is used primarily for shallow welds since less heat is generated in the base
material. Instead of flowing from the electrode to the base material, as in DCEN, electrons go the
other direction, causing the electrode to reach very high temperatures.
To help it maintain its
shape and prevent softening, a larger electrode is often used. As the electrons flow toward the
electrode, ionized shielding gas flows back toward the base material, cleaning the weld by
removing oxides and other impurities and thereby improving its quality and appearance.
Alternating current, commonly used when welding aluminum and magnesium manually or semi-
automatically, combines the two direct currents by making the electrode and base material
alternate between positive and negative charge. This causes the electron flow to switch directions
constantly, preventing the tungsten electrode from overheating while maintaining the heat in the
base material. Surface oxides are still removed during the electrode-positive portion of the cycle
and the base metal is heated more deeply during the electrode-negative portion of the cycle.
Some power supplies enable operators to use an unbalanced alternating current wave by
modifying the exact percentage of time that the current spends in each state of polarity, giving
them more control over the amount of heat and cleaning action supplied by the power
In addition, operators must be wary ofrectification, in which the arc fails to reignite as
it passes from straight polarity (negative electrode) to reverse polarity (positive electrode). To
remedy the problem, a square wave power supply can be used, as can high-frequency voltage to
encourage ignition.
The electrode used in GTAW is made of tungsten or a tungsten alloy, because tungsten has the
highest melting temperature among pure metals, at 3,422 C (6,192 F). As a result, the electrode
is not consumed during welding, though some erosion (called burn-off) can occur. Electrodes
can have either a clean finish or a ground finishclean finish electrodes have been chemically
cleaned, while ground finish electrodes have been ground to a uniform size and have a polished
surface, making them optimal for heat conduction. The diameter of the electrode can vary
between 0.5 and 6.4 millimetres (0.02 and 0.25 in), and their length can range from 75 to 610
millimetres (3.0 to 24.0 in).
A number of tungsten alloys have been standardized by the International Organization for
Standardization and the American Welding Society in ISO 6848 and AWS A5.12, respectively,
for use in GTAW electrodes, and are summarized in the adjacent table.
Pure tungsten electrodes (classified as WP or EWP) are general purpose and low cost
electrodes. They have poor heat resistance and electron emission. They find limited use in
AC welding of e.g. magnesium and aluminium.

Cerium oxide (or ceria) as an alloying element improves arc stability and ease of starting
while decreasing burn-off. Cerium addition is not as effective as thorium but works well, and
cerium is not radioactive.
Using an alloy of lanthanum oxide (or lanthana) has a similar effect. Addition of 1%
lanthanum has the same effect as 2% of cerium.
Thorium oxide (or thoria) alloy electrodes were designed for DC applications and can
withstand somewhat higher temperatures while providing many of the benefits of other
alloys. However, it is somewhatradioactive. Inhalation of the thorium grinding dust during
preparation of the electrode is hazardous to one's health. As a replacement to thoriated
electrodes, electrodes with larger concentrations of lanthanum oxide can be used. Larger
additions than 0.6% do not have additional improving effect on arc starting, but they help
with electron emission. Higher percentage of thorium also makes tungsten more resistant to
Electrodes containing zirconium oxide (or zirconia) increase the current capacity while
improving arc stability and starting and increasing electrode life. Zirconium-tungsten
electrodes melt easier than thorium-tungsten.
In addition, electrode manufacturers may create alternative tungsten alloys with specified
metal additions, and these are designated with the classification EWG under the AWS
Filler metals are also used in nearly all applications of GTAW, the major exception being the
welding of thin materials. Filler metals are available with different diameters and are made of a
variety of materials. In most cases, the filler metal in the form of a rod is added to the weld pool
manually, but some applications call for an automatically fed filler metal, which often is stored
on spools or coils.
4. Shielding gas
As with other welding processes such as gas metal arc welding, shielding gases are necessary in
GTAW to protect the welding area from atmospheric gases such as nitrogen and oxygen, which
can cause fusion defects, porosity, and weld metal embrittlement if they come in contact with the
electrode, the arc, or the welding metal. The gas also transfers heat from the tungsten electrode to
the metal, and it helps start and maintain a stable arc.
The selection of a shielding gas depends on several factors, including the type of material being
welded, joint design, and desired final weld appearance. Argon is the most commonly used
shielding gas for GTAW, since it helps prevent defects due to a varying arc length. When used
with alternating current, the use of argon results in high weld quality and good appearance.
Another common shielding gas, helium, is most often used to increase the weld penetration in a
joint, to increase the welding speed, and to weld metals with high heat conductivity, such as
copper and aluminum. A significant disadvantage is the difficulty of striking an arc with helium
gas, and the decreased weld quality associated with a varying arc length.

Argon-helium mixtures are also frequently utilized in GTAW, since they can increase control of
the heat input while maintaining the benefits of using argon. Normally, the mixtures are made
with primarily helium (often about 75% or higher) and a balance of argon. These mixtures
increase the speed and quality of the AC welding of aluminum, and also make it easier to strike
an arc. Another shielding gas mixture, argon-hydrogen, is used in the mechanized welding of
light gauge stainless steel, but because hydrogen can cause porosity, its uses are limited.
Similarly, nitrogen can sometimes be added to argon to help stabilize the austenitein austentitic
stainless steels and increase penetration when welding copper. Due to porosity problems in
ferritic steels and limited benefits, however, it is not a popular shielding gas additive.

Like other arc welding processes, GTAW can be dangerous if proper precautions are not
taken. Welders wear protective clothing, including heavy leather gloves and protective long
sleeve jackets, to avoid exposure to extreme heat and flames. Due to the absence of smoke in
GTAW, the electric arc can seem brighter than in shielded metal arc welding, making operators
especially susceptible to arc eye and skin irritations not unlike sunburn. Helmets with dark face
plates are worn to prevent this exposure to ultraviolet light, and in recent years, new helmets
often feature a liquid crystal-type face plate that self-darkens upon exposure to high amounts of
UV light. Transparent welding curtains, made of a polyvinyl chloride plastic film, are often used
to shield nearby workers and bystanders from exposure to the UV light from the electric arc.
Welders are also often exposed to dangerous gases and particulate matter. While smoke is not
produced, the brightness of the arc in GTAW can cause surrounding air to break down and
form ozone. Similarly, the brightness and heat can cause poisonous fumes to form from cleaning
and degreasing materials. Cleaning operations using these agents should not be performed near
the site of welding, and proper ventilation is necessary to protect the welder.

i. Carbon and alloy steels,
ii. Stainless steels,
iii. Heat resisting alloys,
iv. Refractory metals,
v. Aluminium alloys,
vi. Copper alloys,
vii. Magnesium alloys,
viii. Nickel alloys, etc.
TIG welding is well adapted to welding thickness up to 6mm.

No flux is used,hence there is no dnager of flux entrapment when welding refrigerator
and air conditioner components.
Because of clear visibility of the arc and the job,the operator can exercise a better control
on the welding process.
This process can weld in all positions and produces smooth and sound welds with less
TIG welding is very much suitable for high quality welding of thin materials(as thin
It is a very good process for welding non ferrous metals(aluminium etc.) and stainless

Under similar applications, MIG welding is a much faster process as compared to TIG
welding, since TIG welding requires a separate filler rod.
Tungsten if it transfers to molten weld pool can contaminate the same. Tungsten
inclusion is hard and brittle.
Filler rod end if it by chance comes out of the inert gas shield can cause weld metal
Equipment costs are higher than that for flux shielded metal arc welding.

Welding aluminium, magnesium, copper, nickel and their alloys, carbon, alloy or
stainless steels, inconel, high temperature and hard surfacing alloys like zirconium,
titanium etc.
Welding sheet metal and thinner sections.
Welding of expansion bellows, transistor cases, instrument diaphragms, and can- sealing
Precision welding in atomic energy, aircraft, chemical and instrument industries.
Rocket motor chamber fabrications in launch vehicles.

Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), sometimes referred to by its subtypes metal inert
gas (MIG) welding or metal active gas (MAG) welding, is a welding process in which an electric
arc forms between a consumable wire electrode and the workpiece metal(s), which heats the
workpiece metal(s), causing them to melt, and join. Along with the wire electrode, a shielding
gas feeds through the welding gun, which shields the process from contaminants in the air. The
process can be semi-automatic or automatic. A constant voltage, direct current power source is
most commonly used with GMAW, but constant current systems, as well as alternating current,
can be used. There are four primary methods of metal transfer in GMAW, called globular, short-
circuiting, spray, and pulsed-spray, each of which has distinct properties and corresponding
advantages and limitations.MIG (Metal Inert Gas) welding is a welding process that is now
widely used for welding a variety of materials,ferrous and non ferrous. The essential feature of
the process is the small diameter electrode wire, which is fed continuously into the arc from a
coil. As a result this process can produce quick and neat welds over a wide range of joints.
Before igniting the arcs, gas and water flow is checked. Proper current and wire feed
speed is set and the electrical connections are ensured.
The arc is struck by any one of the two methods.
In the first method, current and shielding gas flow is switched on and the electrode is
scratched against the job as usual practice for striking the arc.
In the the second method, electrode is made to touch the job, is retracted and then moved
forward to carry out welding; but. before striking the arc, shielding gas, water and current
is switched on.
About 15mm length of the electrode is projected from the torch before striking the arc.
During welding, torch remians about 10-12mm away from the job and arc length is kept
between 1.5 to 4mm.
Arc length is maintained constant by using the principles of self-adjusted arc, and self-
controlled arc in semi-automatic(manually operated) and automatic welding sets

GMAW weld area. (1) Direction of travel, (2) Contact tube, (3) Electrode, (4) Shielding
gas, (5) Molten weld metal,(6) Solidified weld metal, (7) Workpiece.


GMAW Circuit diagram. (1) Welding torch, (2)Workpiece, (3) Power source, (4) Wire feed
unit,(5) Electrode source, (6) Shielding gas supply.


GMAW torch nozzle cutaway image. (1) Torch handle,(2) Molded phenolic dielectric (shown in
white) and threaded metal nut insert (yellow), (3) Shielding gas diffuser, (4)Contact
tip, (5) Nozzle output face
The typical GMAW welding gun has a number of key partsa control switch, a contact tip, a
power cable, a gas nozzle, an electrode conduit and liner, and a gas hose. The control switch, or
trigger, when pressed by the operator, initiates the wire feed, electric power, and the shielding
gas flow, causing an electric arc to be struck. The contact tip, normally made of copper and
sometimes chemically treated to reduce spatter, is connected to the welding power source
through the power cable and transmits the electrical energy to the electrode while directing it to
the weld area. It must be firmly secured and properly sized, since it must allow the electrode to
pass while maintaining electrical contact. On the way to the contact tip, the wire is protected and
guided by the electrode conduit and liner, which help prevent buckling and maintain an
uninterrupted wire feed. The gas nozzle directs the shielding gas evenly into the welding zone.
Inconsistent flow may not adequately protect the weld area. Larger nozzles provide greater
shielding gas flow, which is useful for high current welding operations that develop a larger
molten weld pool. A gas hose from the tanks of shielding gas supplies the gas to the nozzle.
Sometimes, a water hose is also built into the welding gun, cooling the gun in high heat
The wire feed unit supplies the electrode to the work, driving it through the conduit and on to the
contact tip. Most models provide the wire at a constant feed rate, but more advanced machines
can vary the feed rate in response to the arc length and voltage. Some wire feeders can reach feed

rates as high as 30.5 m/min (1200 in/min), but feed rates for semiautomatic GMAW typically
range from 2 to 10 m/min (75400 in/min).
The top electrode holder is a semiautomatic air-cooled holder. Compressed air circulates through
it to maintain moderate temperatures. It is used with lower current levels for welding lap or
butt joints. The second most common type of electrode holder is semiautomatic water-cooled,
where the only difference is that water takes the place of air. It uses higher current levels for
welding T or corner joints. The third typical holder type is a water cooled automatic electrode
holderwhich is typically used with automated equipment.
Most applications of gas metal arc welding use a constant voltage power supply. As a result, any
change in arc length (which is directly related to voltage) results in a large change in heat input
and current. A shorter arc length causes a much greater heat input, which makes the wire
electrode melt more quickly and thereby restore the original arc length. This helps operators keep
the arc length consistent even when manually welding with hand-held welding guns. To achieve
a similar effect, sometimes a constant current power source is used in combination with an arc
voltage-controlled wire feed unit. In this case, a change in arc length makes the wire feed rate
adjust to maintain a relatively constant arc length. In rare circumstances, a constant current
power source and a constant wire feed rate unit might be coupled, especially for the welding of
metals with high thermal conductivities, such as aluminum. This grants the operator additional
control over the heat input into the weld, but requires significant skill to perform successfully.
Alternating current is rarely used with GMAW; instead, direct current is employed and the
electrode is generally positively charged. Since the anode tends to have a greater heat
concentration, this results in faster melting of the feed wire, which increases weld penetration
and welding speed. The polarity can be reversed only when special emissive-coated electrode
wires are used, but since these are not popular, a negatively charged electrode is rarely
Electrode selection is based primarily on the composition of the metal being welded, the process
variation being used, joint design and the material surface conditions. Electrode selection greatly
influences the mechanical properties of the weld and is a key factor of weld quality. In general
the finished weld metal should have mechanical properties similar to those of the base material
with no defects such as discontinuities, entrained contaminants or porosity within the weld. To
achieve these goals a wide variety of electrodes exist. All commercially available electrodes
contain deoxidizing metals such as silicon, manganese, titanium and aluminum in small
percentages to help prevent oxygen porosity. Some contain denitriding metals such as titanium
and zirconium to avoid nitrogen porosity. Depending on the process variation and base material
being welded the diameters of the electrodes used in GMAW typically range from 0.7 to 2.4 mm
(0.0280.095 in) but can be as large as 4 mm (0.16 in). The smallest electrodes, generally up to

1.14 mm (0.045 in) are associated with the short-circuiting metal transfer process, while the most
common spray-transfer process mode electrodes are usually at least 0.9 mm (0.035 in).
Shielding gases are necessary for gas metal arc welding to protect the welding area from
atmospheric gases such as nitrogen and oxygen, which can cause fusion defects, porosity, and
weld metal embrittlement if they come in contact with the electrode, the arc, or the welding
metal. This problem is common to all arc welding processes; for example, in the older Shielded-
Metal Arc Welding process (SMAW), the electrode is coated with a solid flux which evolves a
protective cloud of carbon dioxide when melted by the arc. In GMAW, however, the electrode
wire does not have a flux coating, and a separate shielding gas is employed to protect the weld.
This eliminates slag, the hard residue from the flux that builds up after welding and must be
chipped off to reveal the completed weld.

Gas metal arc welding can be dangerous if proper precautions are not taken. Since GMAW
employs an electric arc, welders wear protective clothing, including heavy leather gloves and
protective long sleeve jackets, to avoid exposure to extreme heat and flames. In addition, the
brightness of the electric arc is a source of the condition known as arc eye, an inflammation of
the cornea caused by ultraviolet light and, in prolonged exposure, possible burning of
the retina in the eye. Conventional welding helmets contain dark face plates to prevent this
exposure. Newer helmet designs feature a liquid crystal-type face plate that self-darken upon
exposure to high amounts of UV light. Transparent welding curtains, made of a polyvinyl
chloride plastic film, are often used to shield nearby workers and bystanders from exposure to
the UV light from the electric arc.
Welders are also often exposed to dangerous gases and particulate matter. GMAW produces
smoke containing particles of various types of oxides, and the size of the particles in question
tends to influence the toxicity of the fumes, with smaller particles presenting a greater danger.
Additionally, carbon dioxide and ozone gases can prove dangerous if ventilation is inadequate.
Furthermore, because the use of compressed gases in GMAW pose an explosion and fire risk,
some common precautions include limiting the amount of oxygen in the air and keeping
combustible materials away from the workplace.

Base metals commonly welded by MIG welding are:
i. Carbon and low alloy steels,
ii. Stainless steels,
iii. Heat-resisting alloys,

iv. Aluminium and its alloys,
v. Copper and its alloys, and
vi. Magnesium alloys.

MIG welding is fast because of continuously fed electrode.
MIG welding can produce joints with deep penetration.
MIG welding process can be easily mechanized.
Large metal depositon rates are achieved by MIG welding process.
Higher arc travel speeds associated with MIG welding reduce distortion.
Thick and thin, both types of workpieces can be welded effectively.
No flux is used. MIG welding produces smooth, neat, clean and spatter free welded
surfaces which require no further cleaning. This helps reducing total welding cost.

The process is slightly more complex as compared to TIG or stick electrode welding
because a number of variables(like electrode stick out,torch angle etc.) are required to be
controlled effectively to achieve good results.
Welding equipments is more complex, more costly and less portable.
Since air drafts may disperse the shielding gas, MIG welding may not work well in
outdoor welding applications.
Weld metal cooling rates are higher than with the processes that deposit slag over the
weld metal.

The process can be used for the welding of carbon, silicon and low alloy steels, stainless
steels, aluminium, magnesium, copper, nickel, and their alloys, titanium, etc.
For welding tool steels and dies.
For the manufacture of refrigerator parts.
MIG welding has been used successfully in industries like aircraft, automobile, pressure
vessel, and ship building.

Seam welding is a resistance welding process wherein coalescence at the faying surfaces is
produced by the heat obtained from resistance to electric current (flow) through the work parts
held together under pressure by electrodes. The resulting weld is a series of overlapping
resistance-spot welds are made progressively along a joint by rotating the circular electrodes.

The seam welding is similar to spot welding, except that circular rolling electrodes are
used to produce a continuous air-tight seam of overlapping (spot) welds are produced by
rotating electrodes and a regularly interrupted current.
The work pieces to be seam welded are cleaned, overlapped suitably and placed between
the two circular electrodes which clamp the workpieces together by the electrode force.
A current impulse is applied through the rollers to the material in contact with them. The
heat generated thus makes the metal plastic and the pressure from the electrodes
completes the weld.
As the first current impulse is applied, the power driven circular electrodes are set in
rotation and the work pieces steadily move forward. Throughout the welding period, the
electrodes revolve and the work passes through them at a specific speed.
The current applied to welding electrodes is intermittent i.e. it is on for a definite length
of time and then off for another definite and short period.
If the current is put-off and on quickly, a continuous fusion zone made up of overlapping
nuggets is obtained and the process is known as Stitch welding.
On the other hand, if individual spot welds( or nuggets) are obtained by constant and
regularly timed interruptions of the welding current, the process is known as Roll (spot)
welding. Roll welding simply joins two workpieces whereas stitch welding produces gas
tight and liquid tight joints.
There are two seam welding methods. One involves continuous motion and the other
intermittent motion during welding operation.
In continuous motion method, the electrodes rotate at a constant speed and the current
flows continuously or are interrupted.
In intermittent motion method, the electrodes rotate at a constant speed and the current
flows continuously or are interrupted.
In intermittent motion welding, the electrodes travel the distance necessary for each
successive weld and then stop. The current is then switched on the weld made, the whole
process being controlled automatically. Continuous motion is used for welding work
pieces less than 4.5mm thick and intermittent motion, above 4.5mm thick.

The rotating welding electrodes are cooled to prevent over-heating with consequent
wheel dressing and replacement problems reduced to a minimum. Moreover, employing
water- cooling jets immediately before and after the electrodes reduce warping of the
materials being joined.
The external spray of water to cool the electrodes being messy, modern seam welding
machines is cooled by refrigerant fluids that flow inside the working electrodes.
Seam welding machines are similar in construction to spot welding machines except that
the electrodes are mechanically driven rotating discs.
Generally seam welding is done in press-type resistance welding machine with a means
of driving the electrode wheels or of moving the work piece between the electrodes and
with a direct acting air or hydraulic cylinder for supplying the required electrode force.
Seam welding machines generally operate on single-phase A.C.,though some arc
designed to operate o three-phase supply also.

It is a welding transformer capable of supplying low voltage, high amperage current and is
similar to one used in spot welding machines.
The lower electrode is mounted on a supporting arm.The supporting element can be adjustable.
The upper electrode is mounted to and insulated from the operating head that is actuated by a
direct-acting air or hydraulic cylinder. The operating head applies the electrode force.
(i) By rotating the electrode with knurl or friction drive .i.e. by applying a power-driven
knurl or friction wheel on the periphery of the electrode wheel.
Such a drive gives a constant linear speed regardless of the changes in diameter of the
electrode wheel due to wear.
Knurl device is used for welding scaly stock and coated metals where the electrodes are
likely to pick up the material from the work material from work metal. Knurl drive
dresses the electrode also.
Knurl drive is not suitable when highest weld quality and appearance are required.
(ii) By rotating the electrodes using a gear drive. Gear drive is applicable with small diameter
electrodes that cannot be driven by the use of knurled of friction wheels because of
interference with work piece clearance or where the application(e.g. weld appearance)
cannot tolerate an electrode wheel that has been roughened by a knurled wheel drive.
Because of problems in synchronization the speed of two welding electrodes, only one of
them is driven. Welding speed can be kept constant in spite of electrode wear by using a
variable-speed gear drive mechanism.
(iii)By clamping it to a bar electrode and then pushing under an idler wheel electrode,
external power being used to push the work causing the idler(welding wheel electrodes)
to rotate.
The application of the welding current and force and rate of movement of the work between the
welding electrodes.
- There are three general types of seam welding machines.
(i) Circular, in which the faces of the electrode wheels are at right angles to the throat of the
machine, This machine is used for circular work, such as welding the heads on containers
and for flat work requiring long seams.
(ii) Longitudinal, in which the faces of the electrode wheels are parallel to the throat of the
machine and throat depth is typically 30 cm to 90 cm.This machine is used for welding
short seams in containers,etc.

(iii)Universal,in which the electrode wheels may be set in either the circular or longitudinal
position by the use of a swivel type upper head in which the upper wheel and its bearing
can be swiveled 90 degrees.The lower mounting may consist of two interchangeable
lower arms or both may be attached permanently to the machine by means of hinges or a
swinging column,so that either may swung into place.

The following metals are satisfactorily welded by seam welding:
i. Low-carbon, high carbon and low-alloy steels
ii. Stainless and many coated steels.
iii. Aluminium and its alloys.
iv. Nickel and its alloys.
v. Magnesium alloys

It can produce gas tight or liquid-tight joints.
Overlap can be less than for a spot or projection welds.
A single seam weld or several parallel seams may be produced simultaneously.

Welding can be done only along a straight or uniformly curved line.
It is difficult to weld thicknesses greater than 3 mm.
A change in the design of electrode wheels is required to avoid obstructions along the
path of the wheels during welding.

Girth welds can be made in round, square or rectangular parts.
Except for copper and high copper alloys, most other metals of common industrial use
can be seam welded.
Besides lap welds, seam-welding can be used for making butt-seam welds too.

Spot welding is a resistance welding method used to join two or more overlapping metal sheets,
studs, projections, electrical wiring hangers, some heat exchanger fins, and some tubing. Spot
welding is employed for joining sheet to sheet, sheets to rolled sections or extrusions, wire to
wire etc. Spot welding is used for joining relatively light gauge parts(up to about 3mm thick)
superimposed on one another(as a lap joint ).

The job is clean i.e. free from grease,dirt,paint,scale,oxide etc.
Electrode tip surface is clean,since it has to conduct the current into the work with a little
loss as possible.
Water is running through the electrodes in order to
a) Avoid them from getting overheated and thus damaged,
b) Cool the weld
Proper welding current has been set on the current selector switch.
Proper time has been set on the weld timer.
Step1. Electrodes are brought together against the overlapping work pieces and pressure applied
so that the surfaces of the two workpieces under the electrodes come in physical contact after
breaking any unwanted film existing on the work pieces.
Step 2. Welding current is switched on for a definite period of time.The current may be of the
order of 3000 to 10000 A for a fraction of second to a few seconds depending upon the nature of
material and its thickness.
As the current passes through one electrode and the workpieces to the other electrode,a small
area where the workpieces are in contact is heated.The temperature of this weld zone is
approximately 815
C to 930
Step 3.At this stage,the welding current is cut off.Extra electrode force is then applied or the
originalforce is prolonged. This electrode force or pressure forges the weld and holds it together
while the metal cools down and gains strength.
Step 4.The electrode pressure is released to remove the spot welded work pieces.

Spot welding may be classified as follows on the basis of mechanical construction:
i. Rocker-arm machines
ii. Press-type machines
iii. Portable machines or guns, and
iv. Multiple-electrodes machines.

A rocker-arm machine is named so because of the rocker arm or welding-beam
movement of the upper arm.
Rocker-arm machines are the simplest stationary spot welding machines.

High electrode forces cannot be transmitted with rocker-arm type machines, therefore for
welding thick materials or alloys requiring precise control, the press-type machines are
used. Such machines are extensively used with mechanized work feeds.
In press type machines, upper electrode and welding head move vertically in straight line.
The welding head is guided in bearings.

It is not always convenient to bring big jobs( as in trucks and auto-body construction) to
the spot welding machines.Moreover,standard welding machines may not be able to spot
weld certain long components(e.g. Refrigerator body) because of the limited size of the
throat depth of the machines. Under such conditions these machines are used extensively.

Such machines are widely used in automobile industry.They are special purpose mahines
designed and built to weld a specific part or assembly.
A multiple electrode machine may resemble a large press with the electrodes mounted on
the platens and hydraulically operated.

Ferrous Metals
i. Low carbon steel,
ii. Hardenable steels,
iii. High speed steel,
iv. Stainless steels,
v. Coated steels
Non-ferrous Metals
i. Aluminum,
ii. Aluminium-Magnesium Alloys,
iii. Aluminium-Manganese Alloys,
iv. Copper Alloys,
v. Nickel, Nickel alloys and Monel Metal

Low cost,
High speed of welding,
Less skilled worker will do,
More general elimination of wraping or distortion of parts,

High uniformity of products,
Operations may be made automatic or semi-automatic, and
No edge preparation is needed.

Spot welding of two 12.5mm thick steel plates has been done satisfactorily as a
replacement for riveting.
Many assemblies of two or more sheet metal stampings that do not require gas tight or
liquid tight joints can be more economically joined by spot welding than by mechanical
Containers such as receptables and tote boxes frequently are spot welded.
The attachment of braces, brackets, pads or clips to formed sheet-metal parts such as
cases, covers, bases or trays in another application of spot welding.
Spot welding finds application in automobile and aircraft industries.