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EXPERIMENT NO.

14: SAPONIFICATION: HERBAL SOAP-MAKING (CHEM


31.1)

CLARICE MAE B. DACASIN
2013-70206 BS Community Nutrition
Date Performed: 5 May 2014
Date Submitted: 12 May 2014


ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS

1. Show and briefly discuss the mechanism and process of saponification.



















2. How do soaps act as cleansing agents?

Soap is made by the reaction of fats with NaOH solution or lye.
Soap is known to dissolve in water. By dissolve, a soap loosens,
emulsifies and holds dirt in suspension until it is rinsed. The
hydrophilic part of the molecules (ionic head of the long
hydrocarbon chain of soap) in soap is, of course, attracted to
water while the non-polar ends, or hydrophobic ends, are
attracted to dirt, or anything that isnt water/ polar. By rubbing
your hands, dirt is loosened where it allows the soap to get most
of the dirt. During washing, the mentioned ionic head takes a
micelle form, a spherical structure with the polar portions of
molecules on the surface with a non-polar center is attracted to
water and carried away from the surface.

REFERENCES
Institute of Chemistry (2008). Organic Chemistry Laboratory Manual, 2008 Edition. University of the Philippines, Diliman:
Institute of Chemistry.
Fieser, L. F., & Williamson, K. L. (1992). Organic Experiments, 7
th
ed. Canada: D.C. Heath and Company.
McMurry, J. (2011). Organic Chemistry with Biological Applications Second Edition. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage
Learning.
Figure 1. Molecule of Soap