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Lama Hamoudeh BIOL 3350 Review Test 5

11/28/11

1. What is the overall function of the kidneys? Regulates the inner environment of the body by
controlling the water elctrolyle balance and removing nitrogenous wastes.
2. What are the functional units of the kidney? e!hron.
3. What is the bulk of the energy used for by the kidney? "or active trans!ort of sodium and co# trans!ort
of electrolytes.
. !escribe "u#tomedullary ne$hrons. e!hrons that !enetrate the entire length of the medulla.
%. List &hat is absorbed in the $ro#imal tubule. $ater% electrolytes% glucose% and amino acids.
'. (he anti)diuretic hormone *+!H, acts on &hat structure*s, in the kidney? &istal and collecting tubs.
-. What usually causes kidney damage resulting from urinary tract obstruction? bac' !ressure and ischemia.
8. What is the most common ty$e of kidney stone in $eo$le &ith urinary tract infections? (agnesium
ammonium !hos!hate.
.. Why is +s$irin not recommended for $ain relief in $eo$le &ith gouty arthritis? It decreases the secretion
of uric acid into the renal tubules.
1/. Ho& is cranberry or blueberry "uice thought to control and $revent 0(1s? Reduction in bacterial
adhesions to the e!ithelium of the urinary tract.
11. !escribe glomerulone$hritis. Inflammation involving the glomerular structures that can lead to
'idney failure. )ome 'nown causes include bacterial infections and immune diseases.
12. What does glomerulone$hritis result from? *n immune res!onse.
13. !escribe acute $roliferative glomerulone$hritis. Increase in cellular com!onents of the glomerulus%
along with eduma% oliguria% !roteinuria% hematuria.
1. What are the endocrine functions of the kidney? *ctivation of vitamin & and !roduction of
erythro!oietin.
1%. What is a substance normally found in urine that closely reflects the glomerular filtration rate? +reatinine.
1'. !escribe the 0rine s$ecific gravity test. It assesses the ability of the 'idneys to concentrate urine.
1-. What does +ldosterone increase the reabsor$tion of and &hat does anti)diuretic hormone *+!H, increase
the reabsor$tion of? *ldosterone increases the reabsor!tion of a% and *&, increases water
absor!tion.
18. What ty$e of renal res$onse is given for $eo$le &ho eat high)$rotein meals or have high glucose levels in
their blood? Increase in renal blood flow and -"R .glomerular filtration rate/.
1.. What is the most common com$lication &ith urinary tract obstruction? Infection.
2/. What is the most common inherited disease that affects the kidneys? 0olycycstic 'idney disease is the
most common inherited 'idney disease.
21. What is a characteristic sign of $olycystic kidney disease? * common characteristic sign is enlarged
'idneys.
22. What blood test is used to detect the glomerular filtration rate *234, and renal function? +reatinine in the
blood.
23. What are the effects of kidney agenesis or hy$o$lasia if it affects one kidney in the body? "ew to none.
2. !escribe the effects of cystic disease on the kidney. tubular dilation .caused by wea'ened tubule
structures/% tubular obstructions .that increase intratubular !ressure/% change in the
basement membrane of the renal tubules.
2%. What $revention measure can be used to $revent all ty$es of kidney stones? Increase fluid inta'e.
2'. Which $o$ulation is least susce$tible to urinary tract infections? *dolescent boys.
2-. What is the most common cause of nosocomial urinary tract infections? osocomial1hos!ital
originated. +atheteri2ation.
28. What are the sym$toms of lo&er urinary tract infections *0(1s,? enuresis% dysuria% su!ra!ubic
discomfort% and fre3uency.
2.. 5dema that develo$s in $eo$le &ith glomerulone$hritis and ne$hrotic syndrome indicate &hat? Loss of
!lasma !roteins.
3/. What is the location and the function of the "u#taglomerular a$$aratus. The 4u5taglomerular a!!aratus is
at the !oint of contact between the distal convoluted tubule and the afferent and efferent arterioles.
Regulates the functions of each ne!hron.
31. (he most fre6uent causes of intrarenal failure are7 6/ acute tubular necrosis 7/hy!o5ia8 related
renal failure 3/ e5!osure to ne!hroto5ic !oisonous substances.
32. What can cause the interru$tion of renal blood flo&? Trauma and shoc'.
33. !escribe acute tubular necrosis. &estructive changes in tubular e!ithelium. One of the most
common causes of acute renal failure.
3. What causes the ma"ority of acute tubular necrosis? often caused by ischemia or ne!hroto5ic agents.
3%. 5nd)stage renal disease is characteri8ed by &hat alterations? 9ndocrine functions of the 'idney%
alterations in filtration and re#absor!tion.
3'. What is an early sign of renal failure? an increase of nitrogenous wastes in the blood.
3-. !escribe nocturia and its sym$toms? :rination at night% loss of ability to concentrate urine.
38. What is the moving force of filtration? The blood !ressure in the glomerulus.
3.. What causes anemia? Im!aired synthesis of erythro!oietin and effects of uremia.
/. What can cause the develo$ment of hy$ertension in a $erson &ith renal failure? Increased intravascular
fluid% and the rennin#angiotension mechanism.
1. 3ailure to em$ty the urine from the bladder or flaccid dysfunction is caused by &hat conditions?
Interru!ted afferent and efferent innervations of the bladder.
2. What is a common cause of flaccid bladder dysfunction? )!inal cord in4ury
3. What is the most common sign of bladder cancer? 0ainless hematuria.
. What structure distal to the base of the bladder is res$onsible for continence? The e5ternal
s!hincter.
%. What are the sym$toms of early stages of obstruction to urine outflo& from the bladder? "re3uency
and urgency.
'. What are the main levels of neurological control of bladder function? ot hy!othalamus. .s!inal rele5
ctr.% cerebral corte5% !ontine micturition center/.
-. (he refle# control of bladder em$tying occurs at &hat level? The sacral !art of the s!inal cord.
8. What is the most common cause of urinary obstruction in males? The most common cause is benign
!rostatic hy!er!lasia.
.. What can cause the failure to store urine? Refle5 bladder s!asm% decrease of bladder volum%
interference w;motor innervation.
%/. What can ha$$en as a result of a stroke that affects the corte# or corticos$inal $yramidal tract? The ability
to !erceive bladder filling is lost# voiding occurs suddenly and w;o warning.