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Lecture 2

Maxwells Equations and


Boundary Conditions: Review
Appendix D: all sections
Homework: From Section 5.10 Exercises 4(a), 5, 6, 8
Time-domain Maxwells Equations: Faradays Law
V
t
cA
=
c
C
C S
d d
t
c
=
c
} }}
B
E l s

( )
C C
S S
d d
t
c
V =
c
}} }}
B
E s s
t
c
V =
c
B
E

Faradays law in integral form


Faradays law in differential (point-wise) form
Nikolova 2012 LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 2
Time-domain Maxwells Equations: Ampres Law

D
i
t
o
c
V = + +
c
J
J
D
H J E
_
Ampres law in differential (point-wise) form
C
D
C S
d d I I
t
o
c
| |
= + = +
|
c
\ .
} }}
D
H l J s

Ampres law in integral form


Show that Ampreslaw of magnetostaticsdoes not hold for time-
varying EM fields (i.e., it is inconsistent with the conservation of
charge).
?
t
c
V = V =
c
H J J
Show that Ampres law with Maxwells correction observes the
conservation of charge for time-varying fields.
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Maxwells correction:
displacement current
LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 3
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All Four Time-domain Maxwells Equations
C
C S
d d
t
c
=
c
} }}
B
E l s

integral form differential form


Faradays Law
Ampres Law
Gauss Law of
Electricity
Gauss Law of
Magnetism
C
C S
d d
t
c
| |
= +
|
c
\ .
} }}
D
H l J s

free
S
v
S V
d dv Q = =
}} }}}
D s

0
S
d =
}}
B s

t
c
V =
c
B
E
i
t
o
c
V = + +
c
J
D
H E J
_
v
V = D
0 V = B
Gauss laws follow from the conservation of charge and the curl MEs
LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 4
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Time-domain Maxwells Equations and Charge Conservation

Given: ,
c
i
v
t
o
c
V = + + V =
c
J
D
H E J D
Prove that the conservation of electrical charge follows from
Ampreslaw and Gauss law of electricity.
Prove:
t
c
V =
c
J
Prove that Gauss law of electricityfollows from Ampreslaw and
the conservation of electrical charge.
Prove that Gauss law of magnetism follows from Faradays law.
LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 5
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Constitutive Relations
Maxwells equations are 4 but only 2 of them are independent (the
two curl equations)
there are 4 unknown vectors in the 2 curl Maxwell equations we
need two more vector equations for a complete solution
the constitutive EM equations are essential in describing the EM
field interaction with matter
in vacuum (SI):
0 0
, 0, c = = = D E J B H
in matter:
( , ), ( , ), ( , )
p c m
F F F = = = D E H J E H B E H
7
0
12
0
4 10 H/m
8.854187817 10 F/m
t
c

=
~
8
0
2
0
1
, 2.99792458 10 m/s c
c
c

= = .
LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 6
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Constitutive Relations (2)
in microwave engineering we often assume that materials are
isotropic, linear and dispersion-free:
0 0
0 0
, 1
, 1
r r e
r r m
c c c c _
o
_
= + = = +
=
= + = = +
D E P E
J E
B H M H
heterogeneous (inhomogeneous, nonuniform)
nonlinear
anisotropic
bi-anisotropic
dispersive
Describe how the constitutive relations of the following materials
are described mathematically
this is not true more than often
LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 7
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Toward Time-harmonic EM Analysis: Field Phasors
{ }
{ }
( , , , ) Re ( , , )
( , , , ) Re ( , , )
j t
j t
x y z t x y z e
x y z t x y z e
e
e
=
=
E E
H H

( , , , ) ( , , )cos[ ( , , )]

( , , )cos[ ( , , )]

( , , )cos[ ( , , )]
x x
y y
z z
x y z t E x y z t x y z
E x y z t x y z
E x y z t x y z
e
e
e
= + +
+ +
+
E x
y
z
the time-domain field vector
the respective vector-field phasor
( , , )
( , , )
( , , )

( , , )

( , , )

( , , )
x
y
z
j x y z
x
j x y z
y
j x y z
z
E x y z e
E x y z e
E x y z e

= +
+
E x
y
z

( , , )

( , , )
( , , )

( , , )
x y z x
y
z
E x y z
E x y z
E x y z
= +
+
E x
y
z

LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 8


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Maxwell Equations in Phasor Form
phasor of the time-derivative of a function
( , , , ) ( , , ) f x y z t F x y z =
the spatial derivatives , , ,
f F
x y z

c c
=
c c
=
( , , , )
( , , )
x y z t
f
j F x y z
t
e
c
c
=
time domain frequency domain
t
c
V =
c
B
E je V = E B

i
t
o
c
V = + +
c
D
H E J
i
je o V = + + H D E J

v
V = D
0 V = B
v
V = D


0 V = B

-
usually given as only

jeD

_
LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 9
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Time-average Quadratic Field Quantities and Phasors
the time-average energy value (time-average of a quadratic quantity)
{ }
2 2 2
av
0 0
2 2 2 2 2 2
M M M
0
2 2 2 2
M M M
1 1
( ) ( ) [ ( )] [ ( )] [ ( )]
1
cos ( ) cos ( ) cos ( )
1 1 1
( ) | |
2 2 2
T T
x y z
T
x x y y z z
x y z
t t dt E t E t E t dt
T T
E t E t E t dt
T
E E E
e e e
-
= = + +
(
= + + + + + =

= + + = =
} }
}
E E
E E E

rms av
0
1 | |
2
2
T
E dt
T
-

= = = =
}
E E E
E E

2 2 2
M M M
Note:
x x y y z z x y z
E E E E E E E E E
- - - -
= + + = + + E E

application 1: define root-mean-square (RMS) of a vector-field value
-
LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 10
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Application of the Time-average Quadratic Field Quantity
the dissipated power density at a point in space and time is (J oules
law in differential form)
3
d
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ), W/m p t t t t t o = = J E E E
in an isotropic medium
the time-average dissipated power density is then
3
d,av d
0 0
1 1 ( )
( ) W/m
2 2
T T
p p t dt dt
T T
o
o
- -

= = = =
} }
E E E J
E E

application 2: dissipated power-density calculation
LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 11
Application of the Time-average Quadratic Field Quantity (2)
the power flux density at a point in space and time is
2
( ) ( ) ( ), W/m t t t = S E H
time-average transferred power density at a point in space
av
0 0
1 1
( ) ( ) ( )
T T
t dt t t dt
T T
= =
} }
S S E H
application 3: transferred power-density calculation
0
0

( ) cos( )

( ) cos( )
t E t
t H t
e
e
= + A
=
E e
H h
| |
| |
av 0 0
0
0 0
0
0 0
0
2
0 0
1

( ) cos( ) cos( )
1

( ) cos(2 ) cos( )
2

( ) 1
cos( ) cos(2 )
2

( ) cos( ) Re( )
W/m
2 2
T
T
T
E H t t dt
T
E H t dt
T
E H
t dt
T
E H
e e
e
e

-
= + A
= + A + A

(
= A + + A
(

A
= =
}
}
}
S e h
e h
e h
e h E H

0

_
Poyntings vector
12
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The Continuity Relation in Phasor Form
Write the continuity equation in
phasor form.
t
c
V =
c
J
LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 13
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Constitutive Relations in the Frequency Domain
0
, or ( )
r r
j j c c c c c c c c
' '' ' ''
= = = D E


dielectric polarization and complex permittivity
D

Re
Im
d
o
E c
'

j E c
''

Re
Im
m
o
H
'

j H
''


magnetization and complex permeability

( , , , ) ( , , )cos( )

( , , , ) | | ( , , )cos( )
e
D d
x y z t E x y z t
x y z t E x y z t
e
c e o
=
=
E u
D u

0
, or ( )
r r
j j
' '' ' ''
= = = B H


(1 tan ), tan /
d d
j c c o o c c
' '' '
= =

(1 tan ), tan /
m m
j o o
' '' '
= =

Why are the imaginary parts of and


negative?
LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 14
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Maxwells Curl Equations in Phasor Form
je V = E H

j
' ''
=
i
jec o V = + + H E E J

j c c c
' ''
=

| |
( ) (1 tan
a
)
t n
d
i i
d
i
j j
j j
j
c
ec o ec o
o
c c o
e
o
e
''
'
V = + + = + +
(
| |
(
| ' '
+
|
(
\ .

V = +
H E J E J
H E J


_


effective complex permittivity includes polarization loss (tan
d
)
and conduction loss ()
1 tan
d
j
o
c c o
c e
(
| |
'
= +
|
(
'
\ .

i i
j je c e V = + = + H E J J D


_
c

_
d,eff
eff
or tan
o
o
c e
'
effective conductivity:
eff
Im o e c =
d,eff
Im
tan
Re
c
o
c
=
-
LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 15
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Symmetric Maxwell Equations: Fictitious Magnetic Sources
0
i
v
j
j
e
e

V =
V = +
V =
V =
E B
H D J
D
B




i
i
m
e
j
je

e V = +
V = +
V =
V =
E B
H D J
D
B
M

fictitious magnetic sources (esp. surface current density) come


handy in the analysis of radiation and scattering problems
charge conservation applies to the magnetic sources as well
i
m
je V = M


LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 16
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Symmetric Maxwell Equations: Fictitious Magnetic Sources (2)
Write the symmetric Maxwell equations in their integral form in
terms of phasors. Give the units for all 10 quantities.



i
i
m
e
j
je

e V = +
V = +
V =
V =
E B
H D J
D
B
M

LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 17


Tangential E-field BC: Revision (Homework)
(1) (2) (1) (2)
tan1 tan1 tan2 tan2
, E E E E = =
(1) (2)
tan tan
= E E
the tangential E component is continuous across a dielectric interface
n
a
tan
E
tan n
a E
(1) (2)
tan tan
1 2
c c
=
D D
(2) (1)
( ) 0
n
= a E E
vector formulation
when medium 1 is a perfect conductor, the tangential E field vanishes
(2) (1) (2) (1)
tan tan tan tan
0, 0 = = = = E E D D
tan tan
( )
n n n n n
E = + = a E a a E a E
C
C S
d d
t
c
=
c
} }}
B
E l s

1
c
2
c
(2)
n
E
(2)
tan
E
(2)
E
(1)
tan
E
(1)
n
E
n
a
tan1
a
(1)
E
1
l
2
l
3
l
4
l
h A
w A
C
tan2
B
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derived from Faradays law
LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 18
Generalized Tangential E-field BC: Surface Magnetic Currents
C C
C S S
d d d
t
c
=
c
} }} }}
B
E l s M s

(2) (1)
tan1 tan1
0
lim ( )
h
C
d E E w
A
= A
}
E l

0
lim 0
C
h
S
d
t
A
c
=
c
}}
B
s
,tan2
tan2 ,tan2
0 0
lim lim
C
s
s
h h
S
M
d M h w M w
A A
= A A = A
}}
M s
_
(2) (1)
,tan2
tan1 tan1
s
E E M =
1
c
2
c
(2)
n
E
(2)
tan1
E
(2)
E
(1)
tan1
E
(1)
n
E
n
a
tan1
a
(1)
E
1
l
2
l
3
l
4
l
h A
w A
C
tan2
M
generalized Faraday law:
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- magnetic current [V]

m
I
_
left side:
right side:
LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 19
(1) (2)
tan2 tan2
0
lim ( )
h
C
d E E w
A
= A
}
E l

1
c
2
c
(2)
n
E
(2)
tan2
E
(2)
E
(1)
tan2
E
(1)
n
E
n
a
tan2
a
(1)
E
1
l
2
l
3
l
4
l
h A
w A
C
tan1
M
,tan1
tan1 ,tan1
0 0
lim lim
C
s
s
h h
S
M
d M h w M w
A A
= A A = A
}}
M s
_
(1) (2)
,tan1
tan2 tan2
s
E E M =

Generalized Tangential E-field BC: Surface Magnetic Currents (2)


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left side:
right side:
LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 20
summary and vector equation
(2) (1)
,tan2
tan1 tan1
(2) (1)
(1) (2)
,tan1
tan2 tan2
( )
s
n s
s
E E M
E E M

=

=
`
=

)
a E E M
according to observations, magnetic current does not exist,
therefore, in reality, M
s
= 0 and the tangential E field is continuous
(2) (1)
( ) 0
n
= a E E
-
Generalized Tangential E-field BC: Surface Magnetic Currents (3)
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the tangential E field is discontinuous on a surface only if there is
surface magnetic current there
LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 21
apply Gauss law over a closed surface centered around the interface
0
(2) (1)
lim
( )
S
h
n n
d
D D A
A
=

}}
D s
S
e
S V
d dv =
}} }}}
D s

,
0
,
0
lim
lim
S
e s
e
V
h
e e s
h
dv
h A A


A
A

=
A =
}}}
(2) (1)
, n n e s
D D =
at a dielectric interface there is no free surface charge (
e,s
= 0)
(2) (1) (2) (1)
2 1 n n n n
D D E E c c = =
Normal E-field BC: Revision (Homework)
S
h A
(2)
n
D
tan1
a
y
l
x
l
(1)
n
D
1
c
2
c
(1)
tan
D
n
a
(2)
tan
D
x y
A l l =
ds
ds
tan2
a
n
a
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Normal E-field BC: Revision (2)
Write the boundary condition
(2) (1)
, n n e s
D D =
for the case of the surface of perfect electric conductors (PEC).
-
Nikolova 2012 LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 23
Tangential H-field BC: Revision (Homework)
use the analogy (duality) of the Faraday and Amprelaws
C C
C S S
d d d
t
c
=
c
} }} }}
B
E l s M s

C
C S
d d
t
c
| |
= +
|
c
\ .
} }}
D
H l J s

(2) (1)
( )
n s
= E E a M
(2) (1)
( )
n s
= a H H J
Assume that medium 1 is a perfect conductor where H
(1)
= 0. Write
the boundary condition for the tangential H field at the surface of the
perfect conductor in a vector form. Write it again in a component-
wise form, i.e., one equation for H
tan1
and another for H
tan2
.
Is it correct to assume that the time-varying magnetic field is zero in
a perfect electric conductor? Why?
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at a dielectric interface (J
s
= 0):
(2) (1)
tan tan
= H H
LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 24
Normal B-field BC: Revision (Homework)
use the analogy (duality) of the electric and magnetic Gausslaws
S
e
S V
d dv =
}} }}}
D s


S
m
S V
d dv =
}} }}}
B s

(2) (1)
, n n e s
D D =

(2) (1)
, n n m s
B B =
In view of the above BC for the normal B component, what is the
boundary condition for B
n
at the surface of a perfect electric
conductor? What is it for H
n
?
Nikolova 2012 LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 25
Summary of the Field Boundary Conditions
(2) (1)
(2) (1)
(2) (1)
,
(2) (1)
,
( )
( )
n s
n s
n n e s
n n m s
D D
B B

=
=
=
=
E E a M
a H H J
Special Cases:
(a) dielectric interface
,
0
0
n
n s
n e s
n

=
=
=
=
E a
a H J
a D
a B
(b) PEC (electric wall)
(2) (1)
(2) (1)
(2) (1)
(2) (1)
n n
n n
n n
n n
=
=
=
=
a E a E
a H a H
a D a D
a B a B
Nikolova 2012 LECTURE 02: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: REVIEW 26