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Outotec is the world leader in flotation technology.

set new standards for superior flotation performance:
mixing, aeration and froth recovery for every
flotation task. Our solutions are tailor-made for each
customer, including flotation packages with support
services, modular process sections and even whole
concentrators for base and precious metals and
industrial minerals.
Case-proven metallurgical superiority
Minimized capital expenditure through
optimum cell size and minimal footprint
Minimized operational cost through
efficient hydro-dynamics, robust designs
and advanced materials
High availabily throught easy and safe

Flotation technologies
002 Outotec Flotation technologies
Flotation technologies for maximizing
metallurgical performance and availability
Time-proven, innovative and efficient solutions
Our Flotation offering is based in the earlier mining
and concentrator operations of the Outokumpu
corporation. Development of in-house otation cells
started in the 1960's to satisfy the need for more
efcient, more reliable and easy-to-use equipment.
This development has led to many innovative products
and processes. For decades, we used to call these
otation technologies with the well-known brand
name OK.
Outotec continues to offer you the same competitive
advantage with otation technology that has evolved
through decades of continuous R&D and experience.
Forty years in business prove our commitment to
customers as well as the operational reliability and
performance of our equipment.
Our automation and analyzer solutions offer operators
the perfect tools to enhance otation performance.
In addition, our froth management technology and
particle-size-specic otation lead the eld for
optimizing recovery in every application. We are ready
to serve you at any time in whichever corner of the
world you operate.
Our Flotation concept:
Performance driven tailoring
Flexibility in operation
Responsive controls
High availability
Easy and safe maintenance
Commitment throughout the life span of
the operation
Outotec Flotation technologies 003
Successful site tests and TankCell

installations have proven that the cells are easy to operate. Control
tools, especially the air control, are very good and the metallurgy is excellent. Operating and maintenance
costs are also low. Heavy-duty manufacturing of all otation units and top-quality components are highly
Assistance and services used most often include training of operators and maintenance staff,
proposals for inspections and preventive maintenance activities as well as spare parts recommendations.
We also make suggestions for process improvements. Our customers appreciate that we work as partners
with them and give them the service they need. We know the process and can really assist them.
Flotation cell to match your application
Flotation is a technology with over 100 years of
history, yet now the development in our offerings
is more rapid than ever. To yield maximum prots
in applications with various particle sizes, we have
specialized designs for each in the otation cell. The
heart of the cell is the mechanism which creates the
bubble-particle interactions, and equally important
critetrion is efcient froth recovery.
New Outotec FloatForce

To replace and excel on the proven OK-mechanism in
MultiMix and FreeFlow congurations, a whole family
of new FloatForce

mechanisms has been launched.

The FloatForce mechanism maximizes bubble and
particle contact in the shear zone between the rotor
and stator. The strong shear forces produce sufcient
energy for nes to break through the water lm
energy barrier on the air bubbles.
To complement metallurgical performance, the

is also more energy-efcient than anything
before. The mechanism keeps the slurry in motion
without excessive turbulence. Coarse particle contact
with air bubbles is maintained by strong and gentle
mixing to permit maximum recovery by minimizing
bubble-particle detachment.
This new FloatForce

mechanism is not only

available in new Outotec otation deliveries, but also
for existing installed OK, SkimAir

and TankCell

equipment to replace MultiMix and FreeFlow
Optimum aeration at any altitude
The forced air otation principle ensures optimum
aeration at any operating altitude. Our blower systems
are always designed to the specic site conditions.
Easy start-up under full load
The unique, downward-tapering rotor enables fast
start-up under load after a scheduled or unscheduled
Froth management leads to high recovery with
optimal grade
Another otation challenge is to keep the froth in
constant motion to ensure high recovery or to make
maximum concentrate grade. Our otation units
feature patented froth crowders to exibly manipulate
the froth and keep it in continuous motion.
Special launder designs
High-capacity internal launders, double launders
or exible high capacity radial launders recover the
concentrate quickly, thereby reducing drop-back,
especially of the coarsest particles.
004 Outotec Flotation technologies
Outotec TankCell

flotation units
superior performance
Maximum return on investment
We have a simple goal to maximize your return on
investment. Our design philosophy is to provide you with
the best long-term investment. As operators, we under-
stand the value of every 1% in throughput, grade and

units as unit reactors meet all the requirements set for superior flotation performance.
They are easy to operate, low on power and air consumption and allow for a flexible layout. Further,
the TankCell family comprises the widest size range on the market.
Over the lifetime of the Outotec otation units,
operating costs have proven time and again to be by
far the lowest. High reliability and low maintenance
enable trouble-free operation, contributing to a rapid
return on investment.
Our otation units are built to last. Components
and electrical equipment are selected for maximum
operating life. For instance, our rotors and stators
have proven to be the most wear-resistant available.
The wide range of available cell sizes permits plant
design to be compact, economical and efcient, without
fear of short circuiting, even for todays high-tonnage
operations. Fewer units mean substantial savings in
construction costs, piping, cables, instrumentation and
auxiliary equipment.
Outotec Flotation technologies 005
Outotec TankCell

The cylindrical TankCell excels in performance as a
rougher, scavenger or cleaner and currently leads the
world in fl otation technology. We use our knowledge
of froth crowding and froth transport characteristics
to adapt the basic design to the demand of different
flotation duties.
The wide range of proven cell sizes from 5 m to
500 m and the symmetrical design allow a flexible
layout. Internal dart valves minimize the footprint
Superior mixing and minimized short circuiting
The cylindrical TankCell with the FloatForce
mechanism operates as an ideal mixer and maximizes
the number of collisions between the mineral
particles and air bubbles, as well as reducing short
Optimized aeration and froth recovery
TankCell units have an optimized froth surface area
based on the mineralogy and kinetics in each case.
They are designed to handle maximum carrying rates
and lip loadings for the specified task.
Availability and Efficiency
With large cell size, the reliability of single equipment
becomes critical. Countless hours of fluid dynamics
analyses and mechanical engineering have allowed
us to build ever larger cells that with extremely high
Our flotation cells are designed and built with
availability being a key criterion. They tolarate
fluctuating feeds and even oversize material without
blocking up. Mechanical components are carefully
sized to minimize vibration and loading; wear parts
provide easy and safe maintenance.
The new eDrive has beed built will all of the above
criteria. As a result, it combines ease of maintenance,
top-notch efficiency and compact design.
Outotec SkimAir

flotation units
profit-makers in the grinding circuit
Outotec is known as a forerunner in bringing new technologies to the market. No one comes close when it comes to
understanding and utilizing particle dynamics and froth management. Our otation approach focuses on exibility
and circuit optimization. Our various types of otation mechanisms have proved capable of handling all kinds of
otation processes. Reliability and ease of use are the keys to our continued success.
006 Outotec Flotation technologies

Flash Flotation
In conventional Flash Flotation, we look for grade. The
Outotec SkimAir

otation unit is used as a stand-

alone cell in a one-stage process for producing a
high-grade concentrate.

Flash Roughing

Flash Roughing is recovery-driven. SkimAir

operates using Dual Outlet Technology, which has
world-wide patent coverage, to produce a lower-grade
concentrate at a high recovery. Flash Roughing can
comprise two stages: the SkimAir unit is used as the
rougher, and a special TankCell is closely linked as the
Outotec Flotation technologies 007
Outotec is number one in Australia due to the development, successful testing and installation of large

units. The largest Flash Flotation SkimAir cells have also been developed and successfully
installed for the Australian market.
Our locally-based technical and engineering team, operating with ISO 9001 certication, can quickly
respond to customers and engineering companies. This applies to bid requests as well as solving on-site issues.
Our quotations have general arrangement drawings in electronic form for further processing as initial plant
Outotec Flash Roughing

Outotec SkimAir


Flash Flotation or Flash Roughing by the SkimAir otation unit takes place in the grinding stage.
Main customer benets of Outotec SkimAir:
Minimal overgrinding
The Outotec SkimAir

unit oats the valuable

liberated particles from the circulating load of the
grinding process while still relatively coarse. These
liberated particles are not ground further and do not
enter the main otation process as slime particles
with poor recovery.
Improved overall recovery
SkimAir recovers considerable amounts of valuable
minerals, resulting in a more stable feed to the
conventional otation circuit. This creates extra
capacity and improved control in the existing otation
A lower-grade concentrate with high recovery can be
obtained and blended with the higher grade SkimAir

concentrate to increase the overall plant recovery.
Increased mill throughput
Along with otation improvements, the grinding mill
throughput can be increased due to the controlled
high density of the SkimAir underow.
Improved dewatering
Dewatering improves because the nal concentrate
P80 is coarser due to the elimination of nes.
All under control
Outotec offers the widest range of flotation solutions available to meet all application needs. Each flotation
unit can be delivered complete with a customized package of our automation or on-stream analyzers.
008 Outotec Flotation technologies
Outotec's range of flotation equipment
TankCell for rougher, scavenger and
cleaner otation
SkimAir for conventional Flash Flotation or
Flash Roughing in the grinding circuit
Conventional otation cells for rougher, scavenger
and cleaner otation
Modular Process Sections
Sub-assembled process sections are cost-effective
and fast to bring into operation. These modules are
practical for transportation, and easy to assemble and
install in the eld; customized automation, sampling
arrangements and analyzers are included. Supervision
services and training complete the package.
Service across the globe
Our rst class equipment is backed up by rst class
people. We provide rapid service to help you achieve
high availability and optimized production rates. We have
highly-trained personnel dedicated to serve you on all
continents and geographical areas where mining and ore
beneciation are taking place.
Outotec Flotation technologies 009
Top safety
Operational safety is one of the primary design criteria
and it also applies to the choice of components
All units carry the European CE mark. Reducing
environmental impact is always the starting point in
the design of all Outotec systems. Our equipment is
designed for the highest operational cleanliness.

FrothMaster Froth Image Analysis and

The on-line Outotec

FrothMaster froth image analysis

and advanced controls further enhance the operation
of the cells. Froth motion and bubble analysis coupled
with higher-level controls for air feed, froth depth
and reagents provide a unique way to optimize the
concentrate mass pull and grade.
The FrothMaster high quality live video feed and easy
readouts provide the operator an accurate feel of the
process continuously.
Outotec CellStation Operator Interface
We also offer a unique control solution for otation
units the CellStation. As a stand-alone control panel
positioned on the deck of the otation cell, it replaces
conventional eld controllers and performs a variety of
additional functions. It can be linked to the Outotec family
of analyzers and any plant process control system.
The PLC based CellStation has easy to use graphical
touch screen display to follow control loop status, trends
and to adjust set points for otation air and slurry levels.
EXACT level
In real life, periodic and uncontrolled plant surges
and large uctuations in the otation feed are not
uncommon. The EXACT level control solution is
designed to monitor upstream processes and feeds a
compensation signal to the cell level controller before
disturbances interfere otation performance.
The EXACT level is based on feed forward control
principles and unique automatic tuning functionality. It is
conveniently embedded into the CellStation as a plug-
in, and requires no extra instrumentation.
The CIS countries
Outotec has had long experience of modernizing existing plants in the CIS. The company has also delivered
complete new plants, comprising equipment for otation, thickening and ltration as well as related automation
and analyzers. Years of experience in this market have facilitated timely deliveries and smooth co-operation.
Our designers and specialists all have plant metallurgical backgrounds from similar ore processes.
We have a long tradition in equipment manufacturing, which is complemented by easy railway transportation
from Finland to the CIS.
010 Outotec Flotation technologies
Proven to
be superior
Fraction size, microns

Case study: superior size-by-size recovery of Outotec TankCell

0 5 10 15




Case study: fast kinetics of Outotec TankCell

Market leader
Outotec is the technology and market leader. Our
commitment to clients and their needs, continuous
R&D and proven ability to commercialize novel
technologies and improvements have resulted in us
holding a majority share of the market.
The best, all the time
We have experience beyond others. Our client plant
audit services have contributed to optimized plant
performances. From the 1970's onwards, Outotec has
developed solutions for many specic otation tasks,
from base metals to oil sands separation.
In all of the independently organized comparative
studies between competing otation technologies,
Outotec has always been reported to be superior in
terms of metallurgical performance.
The chart above illustrates the difference in recovery
between TankCell and competing technology in actual
plant operation. The size-by-size results show that in
some size fractions the increase in recovery was over
20 percentage units. Based on four cell comparative
test, the client decided to retrot the competing
technology. The total plant recovery was improved
as a consequence, and the payback time for the
improvement was very short.
Most efficient technology available
TankCell is known to have the fastest otation kinetics
available; this has been proven by fullscale tests in
South America, Canada, Europe and Australia. In the
otation kinetics case study depicted below, Outotec
TankCell was able to make the required gangue
reduction from the feed with 10 minutes' retention
time, which is much faster than competitors' 15 minutes'
retention time.
We value the Outotec otation units because they suit the specic purpose and have a metallurgically bene-
cial design, meeting or exceeding metallurgical expectations in terms of grade and recovery. Operation is
trouble-free. Compared with competitor units, the Outotec units operate at low power consumption.
As a company, our expertise in recommending the cells, cell sizes and cell placement is recognized,
along with our design and application competence. Similar application references, quality of after-sales
performance and on-site service are highly appreciated by our customers.
Outotec Flotation technologies 011
Outotec services
improve your
Outotec's comprehensive technology transfer package
can be completed with expert services and support. Our
customer service operates through a global network of
local units that offers not only assistance meeting the
customers' needs but also a commitment to providing
advanced customer support whenever needed.
Our service experts provide punctual spare parts
logistics, maintenance and training, as well as
assessment and consulting services that generate a
competitive advantage for you.
We can tailor services efciently to your specic needs,
when considering the necessary operational and
maintenance services already from the beginning of
the project. As your trusted service partner, Outotec
ensures an optimized operation for the entire lifetime
of your plant.
Equipment services
Obtaining all spare parts and maintenance from the
same organization as process and equipment design
ensures that your plant runs optimally. We make
sure that you receive only the highest quality parts,
consumables and upgrades, that can be seamlessly
integrated into your plant.
Plant and process support services
Outotec's advanced plant and process assessment,

Efciency Explorer, indenties the areas for

potential improvements, e.g. equipment, automation
systems, metallurgical processes and complete plants.
What is more, we can make it much easier for you to
fulll current and future legislation, by ensuring that
your plant and processes are running as efciently as
possible, and that maintenance is being carried out
proactively. New Virtual Experience Training enhances
users knowledge and skills to manage the dynamic
environment of operating a otation circuit and the
entire concentrator plant.
Total service package from Outotec:
Equipment services
Spare parts and spare parts management
Equipment inspections and maintenance
Process support services
Process assessment
Process control analysis
Plant services
Plant assessments
Operation and maintenance support services
Upgrades and modernizations
Shutdown maintenance services
Benefits of Outotec services
Critical original spare parts in stock
Process and equipment know-how
Minimize downtime and unscheduled
Maximum operating performance
Copyright 2011 Outotec Oyj. All rights reserved.
Outotec develops and provi des technology soluti ons for the sustai nable use of Earths natural resources.
As the global leader i n mi neral s and metal s processi ng technology, Outotec has developed over decades
several breakthrough technologi es. The company al so of fers i nnovati ve soluti ons for the chemi cal
i ndustry, i ndustri al water treatment and the uti lizati on of alternati ve energy sources. Outotec shares are
li sted on the NASDAQ OMX Hel si nki .