Anda di halaman 1dari 4

Lama Hamoudeh 9/12/11

BIOL 3350 Fall 2011

Test 1 Review
1. Define Anatomy- The science of the structure of the body and its relationship.

2. Define Physiology- The study of physical and chemical processes involved in the functioning of
human body.

3. Define Metabolism and its to categories- complete set of chemical reactions that occur in living
cells. !asis of life alloing cells to gro and reproduce" main" and respond to environments.
2 Phases of Metabolism#
-Anabolism# Phase of metabolic storage and symptoms of cell constituents $re%uires
energy& $construction of proteins&
-'atabolism# (nvolves the brea)don of comple* molecules into substances that can be
used in the production of energy $cellular respiration&
+. ,ist the levels of structural organi-ation in increasing order# 'hemical" cellular" tissue " organ "
organ system" organism.

.. Define /omeostasis- The maintenance of a stable e%uilibrium in biological system that oppresses
e*ternal or internal disturbance.
0. Define the to feedbac) mechanisms and give e*amples of each mechanism#
-1egative feedbac)# reduces and suppresses changes in the internal environment to maintain a
state of balance. An increase in the production of insulin hen an individual2s blood glucose
level rises above normal level.
-Positive feedbac)# se%uence of interactions that amplifies the response to an initial stimulus
and promotes instability. 3elease of o*ytocin during childbirth that intensifies contractions

4. ,ist the four ma5or components of a negative feedbac) mechanism# 6ensor" 6timulus" (ntegrator"
and 7ffector.
8. Principle of 'omplementarity of structure and function# each component of the human body is
structured to perform a specific function
9. 7*amples of ectoparasites# it2s a parasite that can be live on humans or animals they suc) your
blood. They live :1 not in the body" li)e fleas and lice are e*amples.
1;. <ectors of infectious disease# <ectors are traveling parasites such as tic)s" mos%uitos" fleas" and
etc." not confined internal parasites such as roundorms.
11. Define (ncidence# ne cases of infectious ithin a defined population offer a specific time period.
12. Define 1ormal Micro flora- !acteria that normally and harmlessly inhabits in the human body.
13. Define :pportunistic Pathogens# Any microorganism that produces infection hen the health and
immunity of the host is severely ea)ened.
1+. Define Pro)aryotes# =nicellular organisms that lac) an organi-ed nucleus $such as bacteria&.
1.. >ram 6taining is used on# defining subcategories of bacteria.
Lama Hamoudeh 9/12/11
10. ?ungi that reproduce by budding# @east.
14. 'ommon symptoms of infectious disease# fever" myalgia $muscular pain&" headache" and
legathry $lac) of energy&.
18. Define Prodromal 6tage# hen the early symptoms first appear.
19. Define 1osocomial (nfections. Develop in hospitali-ed patients secondary to patient2s original
2;. 7*amples of Diseases caused by e*oto*ins# Diphtheria.
21. ?unction of Penicillin# the cell all of a bacterium is one Alin)edB molecule. Penicillin2s inhibit
synthesis of this all.
22. Define !road 6pectrum Antibiotics# They are active against gram-negative and gram-positive
23. Describe ma)e up of the (mmune 6ystem# 3ed bone marro" thymus gland" lymphoid organs"
spleen" and t and b-lymphocytes.
2+. Define Ma5or /istocompatibility 'omple* Molecules# 6elf-components the immune system uses to
determine self versus non-self.
2.. 'lass ( Ma5or /istocompatibility 'omple* $M/'& location# they are found on all nucleated cells of
the body. Mature red blood cells have no nucleus.
20. Define Macrophages# big eaters that engulf and digest foreign particles. (nvolved in early immune
24. Define 'yto)ines# (ntercellular protein messenger molecules that regulate movement" proliferation
and differentiation of immune and other cells.
28. (mmunoglobulin is produced by# ! 'ells.
29. 6pecific immune mechanisms include# protection afforded by cell mediated immunity.
3;. The most abundant (mmunoglobulin# (g>.
31. (mmunoglobulin that is involved in allergic and hypersensitivity responses# (g7.
32. CMaster 6itchC cells in immune system# 'D+DT helper cells.
33. Differentiation of T lymphocytes# This is a process that occurs in the thymus.
3+. ,ymphocyte involved in humoral immunity through the production of antibodies# /umoral" hich
are b-lymphocytes" $not T&.
3.. Define 'lusters of Differentiation $'D&# surface proteins that act as mar)ers of recognition for
various T and ! cells.
Lama Hamoudeh 9/12/11
30. ?unction of ,ymph 1odes# They assist in removing foreign materials from lymph channels"
2&centers for immune cell proliferation.
34. 7*amples of Active (mmunity# (mmunity caused by a response to the e*posure to a pathogenic
agent $or a simulated pathogen&" such as a flu vaccine.
38. 7*amples of non-specific defenses# 6)in" Mucous Membranes" Phagocytes" (nflammation 1:T
antigen tagging.
39. Presence of local heat during the inflammatory response is due to# (ncreased local blood flo.
+;. Define 'hemota*is# The attraction of leu)ocytes to an in5urious agent.
+1. A(D6 is caused by# /(<" /uman (mmunodeficiency <irus.
+2. /o is /l< spread# blood" se*ual contact" maternal-placental circulation" and breast.
+3. /l< virus directly infects# 'D+ D lymphocytes.
++. Describe 1eutrophils# hite blood cells have the greatest rate of increase during a bacterial
+.. Describe Macrophages# They capture and process antigens" and present them to the lymphocytes.
+0. Describe the acute phase response during an inflammation# fever" s)eletal catabolism" increased
erythrocyte sedimentation rate E not leu)openia.
+4. (nflammatory Mediators that contribute to selling" redness" heat" and pain# Prostaglandins.
+8. A positive antibody test in an infant indicates# A perinatally e*posed infant ith maternal
+9. Define :pportunistic infections# (nfections of normal harmless organisms in persons ith
compromised immune functions.
.;. 6ymptoms of the acute primary infection and primary phase of /(<# A mononucleosis" li)e
syndrome ith fever" myalgias" malaise" sore throat" nausea" lethargy" photophobia"
lymphadenopathy" etc.
.1. 6ymptoms at the point in hich immune system is compromised by /(<# Malignancies"
opportunistic infections" dormant infections surface.
.2. Describe the Cindo phaseC of /(< infection# The time beteen infection and detectable antibody
.3. Describe /(< Type 2# endemic in Fest Africa E more rare in other parts of the orld.
.+. Most common respiratory opportunistic disease in persons ho die ith A(D6# pneumocystis
carinii pneumonia
Lama Hamoudeh 9/12/11
... Fays /(< is GnotH transmitted# it is not )non to be transmitted by insect vectors
.0. (nfections agents of /(<# !lood" 6emen" and vaginal secretions
.4. /o does /(< infect a cell# (t attaches by a surface protein on the viral surface" to special
receptors on the 'D+DT cell.
.8. Most accurate and ine*pensive method to Test for /(<# 6creening ith an immunoassay $7(A or
7,(6A&" folloed by estern blot if assay is positive.
.9. Describe A(D6 dementia comple*# Memory loss" difficulty concentrating" euphoria" lethargy.
0;. Polymerase 'hain 3eaction is used to detect# the presence of viral D1A.
The following terminology and key terms will not be part of the review in class, but is given to you to
assist in your understanding of the assigned material and help better prepare for your exam.
Ge!" Gto be producedH Allergen# a substance that stimulates an allergic response.
#$%&'" GfluidH Humoral immunity# immunity resulting from antibodies in body fluids.
I%%$!"GfreeH Immunity# resistance to $freedom from& a specific disease.
I!(la%%-Gsetting on fireH Inflammation# locali-ed redness" heat" selling" and pain in tissues.
N&)"G)notH Nodule# a small mass of lymphocytes surrounded by connective tissue.
*at+&"GdiseaseH Pathogen# a disease-causing agent.
Allergen Antibody Antigen 'lone
'omplement 7ctoparasites 'hemota*is /apten
(mmune system (mmunoglobulin ,ymph ,ymphatic pathay
,ymph node ,ymphocytes Macrophage Pathogen
/omeostasis ?ungi 6pleen Thymus
(ncidence M/'-Ma5or /istocompatibility 'omple* AMaster sitchB cell