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BIO 3350: Biological Basis of Health and Disease

!"S! #
ersion A
1. Which hormone and structure act together to regulate and produce testosterone:
A. FSH and Cells of Leydig
B. LH and Cells of Leydig
C. FSH and LH
D. Androgen and the rostate !land
". #he immediate threat to the testes from testicular torsion is related to:
A. impaired se$ual function
B. impaired testosterone production
C. infertility
D. impaired %lood flo& to the testes
'. (n spermatogenesis) one spermatognium produces ho& many spermato*oa:
A. "
B. +
C. ,
D. +-- to +.- thousand
+. #he cremaster muscles and the pampiniform ple$us of the testes ha/e the function of:
A. maintaining the temperature of the testes
B. closure of the inguinal canal
C. maintaining testicular torsion
D. protection of the testes
.. 0rection in/ol/es shunting of %lood into the sinusoids of the corpus ca/ernosum. Which of the
follo&ing mediators is responsi%le for rela$ation of /ascular smooth muscle that shunts %lood into
the sinusoids1
A. 2orepinephrine
B. Acetylcholine
C. 2itric o$ide
D. Histamine
3. 0rection is under the control of the:
A. sympathetic ner/ous system
B. parasympathetic ner/ous system
4. A prolonged painful erection is 5no&n as:
A. Cryptorchidism
B. riapism
C. #richomoniasis
D. 0ndometriosis
,. #he main actions of testosterone include all of the follo&ing 06C0#:
A. differentiation of the male genital tract in fetal de/elopment
B. induction of secondary male se$ characteristics
C. initiation of spermatogenesis
D. promotion of musculos5eletal gro&th
7. #he function of the scrotum is to:
A. produce sperm
B. produce testosterone
C. enclose and regulate the temperature of the testes
D. transport sperm
1-. Which conditions may lead to infertility in males1
A. Cryptorchidism
B. Wearing tight 8eans
C. rolonged fe/er
D. All of the a%o/e
0. 2one of the a%o/e
11. (n males &ith hypospadias) the termination of the urethra is on the:
A. /entral surface of the penis
B. dorsal surface of the penis
C. lateral surface of the penis
1". #he function of the seminal /esicles is to:
A. secrete fluid for the semen
B. store spermato*oa
C. pro/ides fluid that supplies energy for sperm motility
D. assist in e8aculation
0. A and C
1'. !onadotrophin9stimulated production of testosterone normally %egins a%out age:
A. " to + years
B. + to 3 years
C. 1- to 1" years
D. 1, to "1 years
1+. :ature sperm are normally stored in the:
A. epididymis
B. /as deferens
C. seminal /esicle
D. prostatic urethra
1.. #he location of the S5enes glands is:
A. %et&een the hymenal opening and posterior la%ia minora
B. at the urethral opening
C. at the anterior la%ia minora
D. in the /agina %et&een the hymenal opening and the cer/i$
13. #he cul9de9sac is formed %y &hich one of the follo&ing uterine layers1
A. erimetrium
B. :yometrium
C. 0ndometrium
14. What structure in the female genitourinary system is composed of a connecti/e tissue matri$
of glands and muscle that softens and %ecomes more plia%le during pregnancy1
A. ;agina
B. 0ndometrium
C. Cer/i$
1,. <ogenesis or generation of the primordial o/a %y mitotic di/ision occurs during:
A. fetal life
B. early childhood
C. menarche
D. each monthly cycle
17. #he source of estrogens is:
A. o/aries and adipose tissue
B. o/aries and the anterior pituitary gland
C. the o/aries only
"-. #he secretion of FSH and LH is under the direct control of:
A. estrogen
B. thyro$in
C. o$ytocin
D. gonadotrophin9releasing factor
"1. Which hormone acts on s5eletal gro&th to accelerate the gro&th of long %ones and the closure
of epiphyses at pu%erty1
A. Luteini*ing hormone
B. 0strogen
C. rogesterone
D. Follicle9stimulating hormone
"". rogesterone is produced %y the:
A. granulosa cells of the o/ary
B. corpus luteum of the o/ary
C. anterior pituitary gland
D. adrenal gland
"'. #he human papilloma/irus =H;> causes:
A. 0ndometrial cancer in males
B. Cer/ical cancer in females
C. enile cancer in males
D. Both A and C
0. Both B and C
"+. Spermato*oa are stored in the:
A. seminiferous tu%ules
B. rete testis
C. epididymis
D. ampulla of the /as deferens
".. #he long9term conse?uences of cryptorchidism are:
A. sterility
B. erectile dysfunction
C. increased ris5 of testicular cancer
D. A and C
0. A) B) and C
"3. (n a hydrocele in/ol/es:
A. e$cess fluid in the tunica /aginalis
B. herniation of the tunica /aginalis
C. herniation of the %ladder into the /agina
D. %ulging of the uterus into the /agina
"4. A cystocele in/ol/es:
A. e$cess fluid in the tunica /aginalis
B. herniation of the tunica /aginalis
C. herniation of the %ladder into the /agina
D. %ulging of the uterus into the /agina
",. #esticular torsion in/ol/es:
A. the de/elopment of fluid in the scrotal sac
B. t&isting of the spermatic cord that suspends the testes
C. /aricosities of the paminiform ple$us
"7. #he leading cause of cancer deaths among males 1. to '. years old is:
A. scrotal cancer
B. testicular cancer
C. prostate cancer
D. cancer of the penis
'-. :ost scrotal cancers are lin5ed to:
A. chronic inflammation
B. e$posure to tar) soot) and oils
C. poor hygiene
D. all of the a%o/e
0. none of the a%o/e
'1. #he disease that occurs most fre?uently in the age group of o/er 3. is:
A. #esticular cancer
B. rostate cancer
C. enile cancer
D. Leiomyomas
'". #he only period that the tunica /aginalis around the testes contains fluid is during a
A. #rue
B. False
''. During the follicular stage of menstruation) increasing le/els of &hat hormone e$ert a negati/e
feed%ac5 effect on FSH1
A. 0strogen
B. Luteini*ing hormone
C. rogesterone
D. Follicle9stimulating hormone
'+. Leiomyomas are:
A. %enign neoplasms of smooth muscle in the uterus
B. malignant tumors of the uterine muscle

'.. <ne of the greatest ris5s associated &ith estrogen depri/ation during menopause is:
A. osteoporosis
B. endometrial cancer
C. %reast cancer
D. pulmonary em%oli
'3. :il5 is produced %y the:
A. ductile tissue of the %reast
B. al/eolar tissue of the %reast
'4. #he most common causes of /aginitis in the &omen of child%earing age are:
A. Candida albicans
B. Trichomonas vaginalis
C. %acterial /aginosis
D. A and C
0. A) B) and C
',. #he ap smear that e$amines cells from the surface of the cer/i$ and endocer/i$ is used to
A. normal and cancerous cells
B. normal and precancerous cells
C. %oth precancerous and cancerous cells
'7. 0ndometriosis can %e descri%ed as a condition in &hich:
A. there is inflammation of the endometrium
B. functional endometrial tissue is found in ectopic sites outside the uterus
C. endometrial glands and stroma are found &ithin the myometrium
+-. A surge in &hich one of the gonadotrophic hormones is necessary for o/ulation to occur:
C. rolactin
+1. Candidiasis is caused %y &hat type of microorganism1
A. A /irus
B. A yeast
C. A %acteria
D. A proto*oan
+". #he reason that anti%iotic therapy predisposes to /ul/o/aginal candiasis is that it:
A. produces a decrease in immune function
B. suppresses the normal protecti/e flora
C. decreases the pH of /aginal secretions
D. increases /aginal glycogen stores
+'. A serious complication of chlamydial infections in &omen is:
A. cer/icitis and increased ris5 of cer/ical cancer
B. pel/ic inflammatory disease and infertility or ectopic pregnancy
C. urinary fre?uency
D. endometriosis
++. A /aginal infection that causes copious) frothy) malodorous) green or yello& discharge is:
A. %acterial /aginosis
B. chlamydia
C. trichomoniasis
D. candidiasis
+.. Which infection may progress &ithout treatment to damage the aorta) li/er) and C2S1
A. Syphilis
B. !onorrhea
C. Chlamydia
D. #richomoniasis
+3. 0strogen
A. Acne
B. Decreased testicular si*e and a*oospermia
C. remature closure of the epiphysis in prepu%eral males
D. A and C
0. A) B and C
+4. #esticular de/elopment and em%ryonic production of testosterone re?uires:
A. An 6 chromosome
B. A @ chromosome
C. #&o @ chromosome
D. #&o 6 chromosome
+,. :enometrorrhagia descri%es a condition in &hich there is:
A. Bleeding %et&een menustrual periods
B. Hea/y %leeding during the menstrual period
C. Hea/y %leeding %oth during and %et&een menustral periods
D. (rregular menustral periods
+7. (n the menstrual cycle) the corpus luteum is formed in &hich stage:
A. Corpal stage
B. Luteal stage
C. Follicular stage
D. A and B
0. All of the a%o/e
.-. #his structure secretes a fluid &hich ser/es as a %uffer and prolongs the life of
spermato*oa once they reach the /agina. What is the name of this structure1
A. Seminal /esicles
B. rostate gland
C. #estes
D. ;as deferens
.1. A gradual cessation of o/arian function and diminished estrogen le/els during perimenopause
and menopause may lead to :
A. ;asomotor insta%ility
B. (ncrease in s5in elasticity
C. (ncrease in %reast tissue
D. </aries and /agina increases in si*e
.". Sperm motility re?uires energy &hich is pro/ided %y the presence of AAAAAAAAAAA in
seminal fluid:
A. rostate fluid
B. Citric acid
C. 0n*ymes
D. Fructose
.'. Which hormone reduces testosterone secretion:
C. (nhi%in
D. rogesterone
0. rolactin
.+. #he actions of progesterone include:
A. promotion of o/arian follicle gro&th
B. promotion of the cycle glandular de/elopment of the endometrium
C. proliferation and cornification of /aginal mucosa
D. contri%ute to the gro&th of a$illary and pu%ic hair
... Which t&o hormones are responsi%le for e8ection of mil5 into the ductal system of the
A. prolactin and estrogen
B. prolactin and o$ytocin
C. o$ytocin and progesterone
D. o$ytocin and androgen
.3. A ma8or ris5 factor for endometrial cancer is:
A. genital herpes /irus infection
B. human papilloma/irus =H;> infection
C. prolonged estrogen stimulation =indi/iduals &ith o%esity or dia%etes mellitus>
D. increased progesterone le/els
.4. #he cause of tu%al pregnancy is delayed o/um transport. Factors that increase the ris5 of
tu%al pregancy include all of the follo&ing 06C0#:
A. pel/ic inflammatory disease
B. lo& estrogen le/els
C. tu%al ligation or tu%al ligation re/ersal
D. use of fertility drugs to induce o/ulation
0. all of the a%o/e are true
.,. #he greatest danger associated &ith tu%al pregnancy is:
A. a%ortion
B. fetal a%normalities
C. tu%al rupture
.7. Chocolate cysts often form in the o/aries in:
A. o/arian cancer
B. ductal disorders
C. endometriosis
D. rectocele
3-. What is thought to %e responsi%le for the fluid retention in :S1
A. Cere%ral irrita%ility due to estrogen e$cess
B. (ncreased aldosterone secretion
C. Congestion of reproducti/e organs) &hich puts pressure on /enous return from legs
D. ;ascular insta%ility related to decrease in estrogen