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BIO 3350: Biological Basis of Health and Disease

Dr. SAPOZHNIKO

!"S! 3
ersion B
1 ECG graph paper:
A. runs at a paper speed of 25 mm/s
B. consists of small blocks hich translate to .!" seconds
C. consists of large blocks hich translate into .!2" seconds
D. Both and A and B
E. All of the abo#e
2 $ong%term regulation of blood pressure depends on function of the:
A. arterial baroreceptors
B. chemoreceptors
C. autonomic ner#ous s&stem
D. #idne$s in ter%s of reg&lating 'od$ le(els of salt and )ater
' (he openings of the coronar& arteries are located in the:
A. )ulmonar& arter&
B. $eft #entricle under mitral #al#e
*. Aorta a'o(e the aortic (al(e
*. ne+t to the coronar& sinus in the right atrium
" ,hich a#e on the ECG represents #entricular depolari-ation.
A. ( a#e
B. +,S )a(e
C. ) a#e
*. / a#e
5 Atherosclerosis e+erts its effects through:
A. narroing of the #essel lumen and production of ischemia
B. disruption of endothelial lining of the #essel that leads to blood clot formation
C. eakening of the #essel all ith aneur&sm formation
*. A and C
". A- B- and *
0. (he arterial blood pressure is directl& determined b& the:
A. cardiac output
B. #enous blood #olume
C. peripheral #ascular resistance
D. A and *
E. A1 B1 and C
2. (he diastolic blood pressure represents the pressure maintained b& the peripheral blood #essels during:
A. Diastole . the /eriod of ti%e )hen the heart rela0es after s$stole and the (entricles fill )ith 'lood.
B. 3&stole 4 the period of time hen the heart contracts after diastole1 dri#ing blood out of the chambers.
C. *iastole 4 the period of time hen the heart contracts after diastole1 dri#ing blood out of the chambers.
*. 3&stole 4 the period of time hen the heart rela+es after s&stole and the #entricles fill ith blood.
5. 6actors that predispose to the de#elopment of essential h&pertension include:
A. o'esit$ and high sodi&% inta#e
B. coarctation of the aorta and kidne& disease
C. atherosclerosis and pregnanc&
*. brain ischemia and e+cess adrenal cortical hormone le#els
7. A common earl& s&mptom of target organ damage in long%term h&pertension is:
A. migraine headaches
B. noct&ria
C. anger
*. flushed skin
1! ,hat is the order of impulse conduction in the heart.
A. SA Node . A node . B&ndle of HIS . P&r#in1e s$ste%
B. Bundle of 893 4 )urkin:e s&stem 4 A; node 4 3A node
C. A; node 4 3A node 4 Bundle of 893 4 )urkin:e s&stem
*. )urkin:e s&stem 4 Bundle of 893 4 3A node 4 A; node
11. 9n rapid tach&cardia1 the cardiac output ma& fall due to:
A. negati#e inotropic effect of h&po+ia
B. red&ction in ti%e for diastolic filling
C. reduction in #enous return
*. all of the abo#e
12. According to the American 8eart Association1 ma:or risk factors for atherosclerosis that can be changed
include:
A. h$/ertension- cigarette s%o#ing- 'lood cholesterol le(els
B. heredit&1 female se+1 cigarette smoking
C. ph&sical inacti#it&1 male se+1 blood cholesterol le#els
*. stress1 h&pertension1 smoking1 high%densit& lipoprotein le#els
1'. (o factors that predispose to the de#elopment of #aricose #eins are:
A. o'esit$ and standing for long /eriods of ti%e
B. eight loss and increased use of the skeletal muscle pumps
C. immobilit& and aging
*. menopause and h&pertension
1". *uring the iso#olumetric contraction period of the cardiac c&cle:
A. both the atrio#entricular and pulmonic and aortic #al#es are closed
B. there is an abrupt rise in #entricular pressures
C. blood continues to enter the atria
*. A and C
". A- B- and *
15. Atherosclerosis affects:
A. large2 and %edi&%2si3ed arteries
B. small arteries
C. #eins
*. #essels of the microcirculation
10. (he opening of the semilunar #al#es
A. controls the flo) of 'lood o&t of the (entricles d&ring s$stole
B. controls the flo of blood out of the right atrium during diastole
C. controls blood flo out of the left atrium during diastole
*. represents the third and forth heart sounds
12. (he effects of h&pertension on the heart are largel& manifested in terms of:
A. cardiac d&srh&thmias
B. aortic #al#e d&sfunction
*. left (entic&lar h$/ertro/h$
15. $imiting salt intake is recommended as an initial nonpharmacological treatment for h&pertension because it:
A. helps a person lose eight
B. red&ces )ater retention and decreases (asc&lar (ol&%e
C. reduces s&mpathetic ner#ous s&stem acti#it&
*. increases cardiac output and reduces renal blood flo
17. An embolus can in#ol#e all E<CE)(:
A. a blood clot in the arterial s&stem
B. an o'str&ction of 'lood flo) d&e to a sta'le atherosclerotic /lac4&e
C. a foreign mass that is transported in the blood stream
*. a mo#ing blood clot
2!. Causes of h&po#olemic shock include:
A. (o%iting and loss of 'od$ fl&ids
B. allergic reactions to drugs
C. cardiac failure
*. h&pogl&cemia
21. ,hich one of the folloing t&pes of medication is fre=uentl& prescribed to reduce the risk of coronar&
thrombosis >in the absence of angina?.
A. @itrogl&cerin
B. Beta%adrenergic blocking drugs
*. Anti/latelet dr&gs s&ch as as/irin
*. Calcium%channel%blocking drugs
22. )regnanc&%induced h&pertension is thought to be related to:
A. high salt intake and salt sensiti#it&
B. to0ic %ediators released as a res&lt of i%/aired /erf&sion of the /lacenta that alter the f&nction of
the endothelial cells of 'lood (essels
C. s&mpathetic%mediated #asoconstriction
2'. (he s&mpathetic ner#ous s&stem regulates blood pressure through its effect on:
A. heart rate- strength of %$ocardial contraction- and /eri/heral (asc&lar resistance
B. blood #essel tone and indirectl& through its effect on an+iet& le#els
C. #ascular #olume
2". (he cardiac reser#e refers too:
A. Abilit& of the coronar& #essels to suppl& blood to the m&ocardium.
B. Abilit& of the heart to increase its rate
*. 5a0i%&% /ercentage of increase in cardiac o&t/&t 6as co%/ared to the resting in/&t7 that can 'e
achie(ed
*. All of the abo#e
25. ;entricular repolari-ation is represented b& the AAAAAAAA a#e hile atrial depolari-ation is represented b&
the AAAAAAAA a#e.
A. ! : P
B. ) : (
C. ( : BC3
*. ( : /
20. (he signs and s&mptoms of m&ocardial infarction include:
A. chest pain that is affected b& breathing and is relie#ed b& nitrogl&cerin
B. se(ere cr&shing chest /ain and sensation of na&sea and indigestion
C. an+iet& and chest pain that is affected b& mo#ement
*. pain in the left arm that occurs on arising and is accompanied b& tingling and eakness in the hand
22. ,hich one of the folloing e+erts the greatest effect on blood flo.
A. essel radi&s
B. ;essel length
C. Change in blood pressure
*. Blood #iscosit&
25. (he cardiac c&cle is used to describe:
A. the different /hases of cardiac filling and e1ection of 'lood
B. the changes in blood pressure that occur as the heart e:ects blood into the aorta
C. the changes in heart rate that occur during cardiac s&stole and diastole
27. Cigarette smoking and h&pertension are thought to enhance atherosclerosis b&:
A. increasing stress
B. causing h&perlipidemia
*. disr&/ting the endothelial la$er of arteries
*. reducing #asoconstriction
'!. (he preload ork of the heart represents the:
A. a%o&nt of 'lood in the (entricles at the end of diastole the heart /&%/s- or the (ol&%e )or# of the
heart
B. the pressure that the heart must generate to pump blood into the pulmonar& or s&stemic circulations or
the the pressure ork of the heart
'1. (he central circulation contains blood that is in the:
A. heart
B. lungs
C. pulmonar& blood #essels
*. A and C
". A- B- and *
'2. ,hat group of medications for h&pertension act b& decreasing angiotension 99 and its multiple effects on
blood pressure.
A. *iuretics
B. Beta%adrenergic blockers
*. A*"2inhi'itors
*. Calcium channel blockers
''. (he most common complication of earl& m&ocardial infarction is:
A. congesti#e heart failure
B. d$srh$th%ias
C. cardiogenic shock
*. rupture of the heart
'". (he pale1 cool1 and Dclamm&E skin that is often obser#ed in an indi#idual ith shock can best be e+plained
in terms of:
A. loss of red blood cells
B. the 'od$8s atte%/t to sh&nt 'lood to (ital organs '$ constricting s#in (essels
C. decreased metabolic needs that accompan& shock
*. the bod&Fs attempt to conser#e heat loss
'5. Causes of secondar& h&perlipoproteinemia include:
A. genetic lipoprotein disorders
B. dia'etes %ellit&s and o'esit$
C. h&pertension
'0. (he pulse pressure can be defined as:
A. the pressure reading on the manometer hen &ou hear the first Gorotkoff sound
B. the a#erage blood pressure in the circulator& s&stem
*. the difference 'et)een s$stolic and diastolic /ress&res
*. the pressure reading on the manometer hen &ou hear the last Gorotkoff sound
'2. (he rennin%angiotensin%aldosterone mechanism1 the release of A*81 and the renal%bod& fluid s&stem
increase blood pressure b&:
A. influencing the =uantit& and =ualit& of the urine produced
B. influencing the tone of the #ascular smooth muscle in arteries
C. influencing the amount of ater retained in the bod&
D. all of the a'o(e
'5. Autoregulation of blood flo in the microcirculation is primaril& controlled b&:
A. the %eta'olic needs of the tiss&es
B. the blood pressure
C. autonomic ner#ous s&stem
*. cardiac output
'7. ,hich one of the folloing statements is @H( (C/E as it relates to the #enous
s&stem.
;eins:
A. are thin%alled #essels that function in the storage of blood
B. lack inner#ations b& the s&mpathetic ner#ous s&stem
*. has high intral&%inal /ress&res
*. are not influenced b& the effects of gra#it&
"!. 3&mpathetic stimulation of the heart ill:
A. increase heart rate and increase the strength of cardiac contraction
B. constrict coronar& blood #essels and decrease the metabolic acti#it& of the heart
C. increase heart rate and decrease the strength of m&ocardial contraction
*. decrease heart rate and increase the metabolic acti#it& of the heart
"1. 9n hich segment of the arterial s&stem ould &ou normall& e+pect to find the greatest pulse pressure.
A. the aorta
B. the brachial arter&
C. the dorsalis pedis
"2. 9solated s&stolic h&pertension in the elderl& can best be e+plained in terms of:
A. increased salt retention that occurs ith aging
B. increased baroreceptor function that occurs ith aging
*. increased rigidit$ of the aorta that occ&rs )ith aging
*. increased blood #iscosit& that occurs ith aging
"'. Angina due to spasm of a coronar& blood #essel is often referred to as:
A. classical angina
B asos/astic angina
C. /nstable angina
*. silent angina
"". Anginal pain does not de#elop in a number of people ith ad#anced coronar& atherosclerosis due to:
A. their inabilit& to percei#e pain
B. their sedentar& lifest&le
C. the de#elopment of ade=uate collateral circulation
D. all of the a'o(e
"5. Cardiac output is:
A. (he heart rate multiplied b& the stroke #olume
B. (he #olume of o+&genated blood being pumped b& the heart
C. (he #olume of blood being pumped b& the heart per minute
D. A and *
"0. ,here is the location of the 3A node in the heart.
A. $eft atrium
B. $eft #entricle
*. ,ight atri&%
*. Cight #entricle
"2. Compensator& mechanisms that come into pla& in heart failure include:
A. m&ocardial h&pertroph&
B. increased s&mpathetic stimulation
C. renin%angiotensin%aldosterone mechanism
D. all of the a'o(e
"5. $ifest&le factors that increase the risk of atherosclerosis b& producing a decrease in 8*$ include:
A. s%o#ing cigarettes
B. moderate alcohol use
C. control of blood glucose in diabetes
*. regular e+ercise
"7. (he local tissue buildup of 8
I
1 GI1 and nitric o+ide promote:
A. #asoconstriction
B. (asodilation
C. smooth muscle contraction
*. bronchoconstriction
5!. (he order of blood flo in the human bod& is:
A. $eft atrium1 left #entricle1 lung1 right atrium1 right #entricle1 organs
B. ,ight atri&%- right (entricle- l&ng- left atri&%- left (entricle- organs
C. Hrgans1 right atrium1 left atrium1 left #entricle1 right #entricle1 lungs
*. Hrgans1 left atrium1 right atrium1 right #entricle1 left #entricle1 lungs
51. (he most common initial manifestations of dilated cardiom&opathies relate to:
A. muscle ischemia
B. inflammation
C. #asoconstriction
D. heart fail&re
52. (he cardiac conduction s&stem consists of:
A. ner#e fibers that are inner#ated b& the autonomic ner#ous s&stem
B. s/eciali3ed t$/es of %$ocardial cells- ca/a'le of initiation of and ra/id cond&ction of i%/&lses
C. special ner#e fibers ith pacemaker properties attached to m&ocardial cell capable of rapid conduction of
impulses
5'. 3peciali-ed pacemaker cells in the heart generate impulses at a faster rate than other cardiac cells. @ormall&1
the pacemaker is located in the:
A. )urkin:e s&stem
B. SA node
C. ;entricular muscle
*. A; node
5". (he #essel endothelium produces and releases substances that inhibit platelet aggregation and causes
#asodilatation. (o e+amples are:
1. Angiotensin 99
2. Epinephrine
'. @itric o+ide
". )rostaglandin%prostac&clin
A. 1 and '
B. 3 and 9
C. 2 and "
*. 1 and 2
55. ,hat has been suggested as the cause for the high fre=uenc& of m&ocardial infarction from 0:!! am to
noon.
A. $o le#els of cortisol secretion in the morning
B. *oronar$ (essels are %ore sensiti(e to the (asoconstricting action of catechola%ines d&ring the
%orning
C. Hccupational stress and coffee ingestion1 hich are higher in the morning
*. Getting out of bed
50. ,hich one of the folloing en-&me tests is the first to be increased in m&ocardial infarction.
A. 5$oglo'in
B. CG%JB
C. (otal CG
*. (roponin 9
52. (he lipoprotein that carries cholesterol to the li#er for remo#al is AAAAAAAAAA1 hile the lipoprotein that
carries cholesterol to the blood #essels is AAAAAAAAA.
A. $*$ and 8*$
B. ;$*$ and $*$
*. HD: and :D:
*. 8*$ and ;$*$
55. Congesti#e heart failure can best be described as:
A. e+cessi#e h&pertroph& of the heart
B. ina'ilit$ of the heart to /&%/ s&fficient 'lood to %eet the needs of the 'od$
C. a condition that de#elops because of coronar& heart disease
*. impaired pumping abilit& due to cardiac d&srh&thmias
57. Conditions that contribute to the de#elopment of #enous thrombosis include:
A. i%%o'ilit$
B. h&pertension
C. a decrease in le#el of coagulation factors
*. eight loss
0!. ,hat is the e+planation of the mechanism of cardiac cell contraction..
A. A cross bridge that is formed beteen m&osin and epinephrine
B. A cross bridge that is formed beteen actin and epinephrine
*. A cross 'ridge that is for%ed 'et)een %$osin and actin
*. A cross bridge that is formed beteen actin and prolactin