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LAMPIRAN A

PERHITUNGAN NERACA MASSA

Produksi ini menggunakan bahan baku tepung jagung dan hidrogen. Pendekatan yang
digunakan dalam perhitungan:
Kapasitas perancangan per tahun

= 65.000 ton/tahun

Waktu operasi dalam 1 tahun

= 330 hari

Laju alir produksi

=
= 8207,071 kg/jam
= 45,05121922 kmol/jam

1.

Tangki Perebusan (M-01)

Fungsi : Melarutkan tepung jagung dengan air menjadi slurry

Neraca massa total : F1 + F2 = F3


Tabel A.1 Komposisi tepung jagung jenis srikandi putih
Komponen
Pati
Lemak
Protein
abu
Serat
H2O

komposisi
0,7833
0,0238
0,0789
0,0108
0,0129
0,0924

Neraca massa komponen pati


F1pati = F3pati

F1lemak = F3lemak

F1pati = F3pati = 8760,481 kg/jam

F1protein = F3protein

F = 0,7833 x F1pati

F1serat = F3serat

F = 11184,069 kg/jam

F1abu = F3abu

F3H2O = 230,53 kmol/jam x 18 kg/kmol


= 4149,702 kg/jam
1

H2O +

F2H2O = F3H2O

F2H2O = F3H2O - F1H2O


= 4149,702 1033,408
= 3116,294 kg/jam

= 882,423 kg/jam

Untuk H2O
F1H2O = 0,0924 x F

F1serat = 0,0129 x F

= 1033,408 kg/jam

= 144,274 kg/jam

Untuk lemak
F1lemak = 0,0238 x F
= 266,181 kg/jam

Untuk serat

Untuk abu
F1abu = 0,0108 x F
= 120,788 kg/jam

Untuk protein
F1protein = 0,0789 x F
Komposisi
Pati
Lemak
Protein
abu
Serat
H2O
TOTAL

Input (kg/Jam)
Aliran 1
Aliran 2
8760,481
266,181
882,423
120,788
144,274
1033,408
3116,294
11207,556
3116,294
14323,849

Output (kg/Jam)
Aliran 3
8760,481
266,181
882,423
120,788
144,274
4149,702
14323,849

2. Reaktor Hidrolisa (R-01)


Fungsi : Menghidrolisa pati (C12H22O11) menjadi glukosa (C6H12O6) dengan katalis
HCl.

Neraca massa total : F3 + F4 = F5


Neraca Massa komponen :
F5glukosa = F7glukosa
= 8306,779 kg/jam
N5glukosa =
= 46,108 kmol/jam
Konversi pati = 90%

Air yang bereaksi 10%

Xpati =

Xair =

0,9 =

0,1 =

N3pati = 25,615 kmol/jam

N3air = 230,538 kmol/jam

F3pati = 25,615 kmol/jam x 342 kg/kmol

F3air = 230,538 kmol/jam x 18 kg/kmol

= 8760,481 kg/jam
C12H22O11 + H2O
m:

25,615

r :

23,054

23,053

s :

2,562

207,485

= 4149,702 kg/jam
2 C6H12O6

230,53
46,108
46,108 kmol/jam

F3lemak = F5lemak = 266,181 kg/jam

F3serat = F5serat = 144,274 kg/jam

F3protein = F5protein = 882,423 kg/jam

F3abu = F5abu = 120,788 kg/jam

F5maltosa = F7maltosa = 332,271 kg/jam

F5dekstrin = F7dekstrin = 4,984 kg/jam

F5pati = 2,562 kmol/jam x 342 kg/kmol

= 876,048 kg/jam

F4 = 0,1 x F

= 413,811 kg/jam

= 0,1 x 11184,069 kg/jam

F4HCl = F5HCl = 413,811 kg/jam

= 1118,406 kg/jam

F4H2O = F4 - F4HCl

F4HCl = 0,37 x F4

= 1118,406 - 413,811

= 0,37 x 1118,406 kg/jam

= 704,596 kg/jam

F3 = F3pati + F3lemak + F3protein + F3abu + F3serat + F3air


= 8760,481 + 266,181 + 882,423 + 120,788 + 144,274 + 4149,702
= 14323,849 kg/jam
5

H2O

= (F3+ F4) (F5pati + F5lemak + F5protein + F5abu + F5serat + F5glukosa + F5maltosa +


F5dekstrin + F5HCl )
= (14323,849 + 1118,406) (876,048 + 266,181 + 882,423 + 120,788 +
144,274 + 8306,779 + 332,271 + 4,984 + 413,811)
= 4094,695 kg/jam
Komposisi
Pati
Lemak
Protein
Abu
Serat
Glukosa
Maltosa
Air
Dekstrin
HCl
TOTAL

Output
(kg/Jam)
Aliran 3
Aliran 4
Aliran 5
8760,481
876,0481
266,181
266,181
882,423
882,423
120,788
120,788
144,274
144,274
8306,781
332,271
4149,702
704,596
4094,695
4,984
413,811
413,811
14323,849 1118,407
15442,26
15442,26
Input (kg/Jam)

3. Filter Press (F-01)


Fungsi : Memisahkan sisa pati, protein, lemak, dan serat yang bercampur dalam
larutan glukosa.

Neraca Massa total : F6 = F8+ F7

Neraca massa komponen aliran 6:

F6pati = F5pati = 876,04813 kg/jam

F6glukosa = F5glukosa = 8306,781 kg/jam

F6lemak = F5lemak = 223,389 kg/jam

F6maltosa = F5maltosa= 332,271 kg/jam

F6protein = F5proten = 418,346 kg/jam

F6air = F5air = 4094,695 kg/jam

F6abu = F5abu = 69,047 kg/jam

F6dekstrin = F5dekstrin = 4,984 kg/jam

F6serat = F5serat = 89,355 kg/jam

F6HCl = F5HCl = 413,811 kg/jam

Asumsi : pati, lemak, protein, abu dan serat 100% terbuang sedangkan glukosa,
maltose, dekstrin, HCl dan air yang ikut terbuang sebesar 0,1%.

Neraca massa komponen aliran 7:

F7pati = F6pati = 876,04813 kg/jam

= 0,001 x 8306,781 kg/jam

F7lemak = F6lemak = 223,389 kg/jam


7

protein =

proten =

418,346 kg/jam

= 8,307 kg/jam
7

air=

0,1% x F6air

F7abu = F6abu = 69,047 kg/jam

= 0,001 x 4094,695 kg/jam

F7serat = F6serat = 89,355 kg/jam

= 4,095 kg/jam

F7glukosa = 0,1% x F6glukosa

F7maltosa= 0,1% x F6maltosa

= 0,001 x 332,271 kg/jam


= 0,332 kg/jam

F7dekstrin= 0,1% x F6dekstrin

HCl=

0,1% x F6HCl
= 0,001 x 413,811 kg/jam

= 0,001 x 4,984 kg/jam

= 0,005 kg/jam
7

= 0,414 kg/jam

Neraca massa komponen aliran 8:


8

glukosa =

99,9% x F6glukosa

= 331,939 kg/jam

= 0,999 x 8306,781 kg/jam


= 8298,474 kg/jam

F8dekstrin= 99,9% x F6dekstrin


= 0,999 x 4,984 kg/jam

F8air = 99,9% x F6air

= 4,979 kg/jam
F8HCl = 99,9% x F6HCl

= 0,999 x 4094,695 kg/jam


= 4090,601 kg/jam

= 0,999 x 413,811 kg/jam

F8maltosa= 99,9% x F6maltosa

= 413,397 kg/jam

= 0,999 x 332,271 kg/jam


Komposisi
Pati
Lemak
Protein
Abu
Serat
Glukosa
Maltosa
Air
Dekstrin
HCl
TOTAL

Input (kg/Jam)
Aliran 6
876,048
223,389
418,346
69,047
89,355
8306,781
332,271
4094,695
4,984
413,811
14828,727

Output (kg/Jam)
Aliran 7
Aliran 8
876,04813
223,389
418,346
69,047
89,355
8,307
8298,474
0,332
331,939
4,095
4090,601
0,005
4,979
0,414
413,397
1689,338 13139,389
14828,727

4. Tangki Netralizer (TK-04)


Fungsi : Menetralkan asam didalam larutan glukosa.

Neraca Massa total : F8+ F9 = F10

Neraca massa komponen aliran 8:


F8glukosa = 8298,474 kg/jam
F8air = 4090,601 kg/jam
F8maltosa= 331,939 kg/jam
F8dekstrin= 4,979 kg/jam
F8HCl = 413,397 kg/jam
F8 = F8glukosa + F8air + F8maltosa + F8dekstrin + F8HCl
= 8298,474 + 4090,601 + 331,939 + 4,979 + 413,397
= 113139,389 kg/jam

Neraca massa komponen aliran 9:


N8HCl =
= 11,326 kmol/jam
Asumsi : HCl dan NaOH habis bereaksi sehingga yang bereaksi 11,326
kmol/jam.
HCl

NaOH

m:

11,326

11,326

r :

11,326

11,326

s :

NaCl

H2O

11,326

11,326

11,326

11,326

F9NaOH = 11,326 kmol/jam x 40 kg/kmol


= 453,038 kg/jam
Konsentrasi NaOH yang digunakan adalah 95%
F9NaOH = 95% x F9
F9 =

= 476,882 kg/jam

F9air = F9 F9NaOH
= 476,882 kg/jam - 453,038 kg/jam
= 23,844 kg/jam

Neraca massa komponen aliran 10:


Glukosa, maltose dan dekstrin tidak ikut bereaksi, sehingga :
F10glukosa = F8glukosa = 8298,474 kg/jam
F10maltosa= F8maltosa= 331,939 kg/jam
F10dekstrin= F8dekstrin= 4,979 kg/jam
F10NaCl = 11,326 kmol/jam x 58,5 kg/kmol
= 662,567 kg/jam
10

H2O =

(F8 + F9) (F10glukosa + F10maltosa + F10dekstrin + F10NaCl)

= (113139,389 + 476,882) (8298,474 + 331,939 + 4,979 + 662,567 )


= 4318,312 kg/jam
Komposisi
Glukosa
Maltosa
Air
Dekstrin
HCl
NaOH
NaCl
TOTAL

Input (kg/Jam)
Aliran 8
Aliran 9
8298,474
331,939
4090,601
23,844
4,979
413,397
453,038

Output (kg/Jam)
Aliran 10
8298,474
331,939
4318,312
4,979

662,567
13139,389
476,882
13616,271

13616,271

5. Dekanter (DK-01)
Fungsi : Memisahkan NaCl yang bercampur didalam larutan glukosa.

Neraca Massa total : F10 = F12+ F11

Neraca massa komponen aliran 10:


F10glukosa = 8298,474 kg/jam
F10maltosa= 331,939 kg/jam
F10dekstrin= 4,979 kg/jam
F10NaCl = 662,567 kg/jam
F10H2O = 4318,312 kg/jam

Neraca massa komponen aliran 11:


Asumsi : NaCl terpisahkan seluruhnya dari produk dan kemungkinan glukosa,
maltose, air dan dekstrin yang ikut terbuang adalah sebesar 0,1%.
F11NaCl = F10NaCl = 662,567 kg/jam
F11glukosa = 0,1% x F10glukosa
= 0,001 x 8298,474 kg/jam
= 8,298 kg/jam
F11maltosa = 0,1% x F10maltosa
= 0,001 x 331,939 kg/jam
= 0,332 kg/jam

F11air = 0,1% x F10air


= 0,001 x 4318,312 kg/jam
= 4,318 kg/jam
F11dekstrin = 0,1% x F10dekstrin
= 0,001 x 4,979 kg/jam
= 0,005 kg/jam

Neraca massa komponen aliran 12:


F12glukosa= F10glukosa- F11glukosa

F12air= F10air - F11air

= 8298,474 - 8,298

= 4318,312 - 4,318

= 8290,175 kg/jam

= 4313,993 kg/jam

F12maltosa= F10 maltosa - F11 maltosa

F12dekstrin= F10 dekstrin - F11 dekstrin

= 331,939 - 0,332

= 4,979 - 0,005

= 331,607 kg/jam

= 4,974 kg/jam

Komposisi
Glukosa
Maltosa
Air
Dekstrin
NaCl
TOTAL

Input (kg/Jam)
Aliran 10
8298,474
331,939
4318,312
4,979
662,567
13616,271

Output (kg/Jam)
Aliran 11
Aliran 12
8,298
8290,175
0,332
331,607
4,318
4313,993
0,005
4,974
662,567
675,521 12940,750
13616,271

6. Decoloring (DC-01)
Fungsi : Menghilangkan zat warna yang ada didalam larutan glukosa dengan
menggunakan karbon aktif.

Neraca Massa total : F12+ F13 = F14

Neraca massa komponen aliran 12:


F12glukosa= 8290,175 kg/jam

F12air= 4313,993 kg/jam

F12maltosa= 331,607 kg/jam

F12dekstrin= 4,974 kg/jam

Neraca massa komponen aliran 13:


Asumsi : 2,2% karbon aktif yang masuk dari umpan bahan baku.
F13karbon aktif= 2,2% x F
= 0,022 x11184,069 kg/jam
= 246,050 kg/jam

Neraca massa komponen aliran 14:


F14glukosa= F12glukosa= 8290,175 kg/jam
F14maltosa= F12maltosa= 331,607 kg/jam
F14air= F12air= 4313,993 kg/jam
F14dekstrin= F12dekstrin= 4,974 kg/jam
F14dekstrin= F12dekstrin= 246,050 kg/jam

Komposisi
Glukosa
Maltosa
Air
Dekstrin
Karbon Aktif
TOTAL

Input(kg/Jam)
Output(kg/Jam)
Aliran 12
Aliran 13
Aliran 14
8290,175
8290,175
331,607
331,607
4313,993
4313,993
4,974
4,974
246,050
246,050
12940,750
246,050
13186,799
13186,799

7. Filter Press (F-02)


Fungsi : Memisahkan karbon aktif yang bercampur didalam larutan glukosa.

Neraca Massa total : F14 = F15 + F16

Neraca massa komponen aliran 14:


F14glukosa= 8290,175 kg/jam
F14maltosa= 331,607 kg/jam
F14air= 4313,993 kg/jam
F14dekstrin = 4,974 kg/jam
F14karbon aktif= 246,050 kg/jam

Neraca massa komponen aliran 16:


Karbon aktif terpisahkan 100% sedangkan glukosa, maltose, air dan dekstrin
yang ikut terbuang sebesar 0,1%.
F16KA= F14KA= 246,050 kg/jam

F16glukosa = 0,1% x F14glukosa

= 0,001 x 8290,175 kg/jam

= 0,001 x 4313,993 kg/jam

= 8,290 kg/jam

= 4,314 kg/jam

F16maltosa = 0,1% x F14maltosa

F16dekstrin = 0,1% x F14dekstrin

= 0,001 x 331,607 kg/jam

= 0,001 x 4,974 kg/jam

= 0,332 kg/jam

= 0,005 kg/jam

F16air = 0,1% x F14air

Neraca massa komponen aliran 15:


F15glukosa= F14glukosa- F16glukosa

F15air= F14air- F16air

= 8290,175 - 8,290

= 4313,993 - 4,314

= 8281,885 kg/jam
15

maltosa=

14

maltosa-

16

maltosa

= 4309,679 kg/jam
15

dekstrin=

F14 dekstrin - F16 dekstrin

= 331,607 - 0,332

= 4,974 - 0,005

= 331,275 kg/jam

= 4,969 kg/jam

Komposisi
Glukosa
Maltosa
Air
Dekstrin
Karbon Aktif
TOTAL

Input (kg/Jam)
Aliran 14
8290,175
331,607
4313,993
4,974
246,050
13186,799

Output (kg/Jam)
Aliran 16
Aliran 15
8,290
8281,885
0,332
331,275
4,314
4309,679
0,005
4,969
246,050
258,990
12927,809
13186,799

8. Evaporator (EV-01)
Fungsi : Memekatkan larutan glukosa hingga 78%.

Neraca Massa total : F15 = F17 + F18

Neraca massa komponen aliran 15:


F15glukosa = 8281,885 kg/jam
F15maltosa= 331,275 kg/jam
F15air= 4309,679 kg/jam
F15dekstrin= 4,969 kg/jam

Neraca massa komponen aliran 17:


Untuk memekatkan sirup glukosa menjadi 78% berarti harus menghilangkan
kandungan airnya sebesar 22%.
F15air= F18air + F17air
F15air= (0,78 x F15air) + F17air
0,22 F15air = F17air
F17air = 0,22 x 4309,679 kg/jam
= 948,129 kg/jam
F17glukosa = F15glukosa = 8281,885 kg/jam
F17maltosa= F15maltosa= 331,275 kg/jam
F17dekstrin= F15dekstrin= 4,969 kg/jam

Neraca massa komponen aliran 18:


F18air= F15air - F17air
F18air= 4309,679 kg/jam - 948,129 kg/jam
= 3361,550 kg/jam

Input (kg/Jam)
Aliran 15
8281,885
331,275
4309,679
4,969

Komposisi
Glukosa
Maltosa
Air
Dekstrin
TOTAL

12927,809

Output (kg/Jam)
Aliran 18
Aliran 17
8281,885
331,275
3361,550
948,129
4,969
3361,550
9566,259
12927,809

9. Reaktor Hidrogenasi (R-02)

19

20

21
Reaksi : C6H12O6 + H2 C6H14O6Berdasarkan US Patent No 4.322.569
perbandingan mol glukosa dan hidrogen yaitu 1:1200.

Tabel L1 mutu dan uji glukosa


Komposisi persentasi
Glukosa

50%

Maltosa

2%

Air

47.97%

Dekstrin

0.03%

(Sumber: Departemen Perindustrian)


Basis 1kg sirup glukosa terdapat 50% glukosa
mol C6H12O6 =

0,5 kg/jam

= 0,00277 kmol/jam

180,156 kg/kmol
mol H2 = 1200 x 0,00277
= 3,330446946 kmol/jam
Konversi glukosa menjadi sorbitol 98% dan yield 99%( US Patent No 4.322.569)
mol C6H14O6 = 98% x 0,00277
= 0,002719865 kmol/jam
C6H12O6

H2

C6H14O6

m : 0,002775372

3,330446946

r : 0,002719865

0,002719865 0,002719865

s : 5,55074E-05

3,327727081 0,002719865

untuk kapasitas 65000 ton/ tahun maka


scale up = 45,05121922

= 16563,7703 kmol/jam

0,002719865
mol C6H12O6 = 16563,7703 x 0.002775372
= 45,97063185 kmol/jam
mol H2 = 45,97063185 x 1200
= 55164,75822 kmol/jam

mol C6H14O6 = 45,05121922 kmol/jam


reaksi yang terjadi:
C6H12O6

H2

C6H14O6

m : 45,97063185

55164,75822

r : 45,05121922

45,05121922

45,05121922

s : 0,919412637

55119,707

45,05121922

reaksi samping :
C12H22O11

H2

C12H24O11

0,967803907

55119,707

0,958125868

0,958125868

0,958125868

0,009678039

55118,74888

0,958125868

mol Maltosa = 331,2754061

= 0,967803907

342,296
mol Maltilol

= 99% x 0,967803907
= 0,958125868

glukosa yang dibutuhkan

= 45,97063185 x 180,156
= 8281,885152 kg/jam

Sirup glukosa yang dibutuhkan = 8281,885152


0,5
Hidrogen yang dibutuhkan = 55164,75822 x 2
= 111212,1526 kg/jam
Aliran F19
Glukosa = 50% x 16563,7703
= 8281,885152 kg/jam
Maltosa = 2% x 16563,7703
= 331,2754061 kg/jam
Air

= 47,97% x 16563,7703

= 16563,7703 kg/jam

= 7945,640615 kg/jam
Dextrin = 0,03% x 16563,7703
= 4,969131091 kg/jam
Aliran F20
Hidrogen recycle = 75% x F26
= 75% x 111108.2858
= 83331.21435 kg/jam
Hidrogen make up = 111212,1526 - 83331,21435
= 27880.93823 kg/jam
Hidrogen

= 83331.21435 + 83331.21435 kgk/jam


= 111212,1526 kg/jam

Aliran F21
Glukosa

= 0,919412637 x 180,156
= 165,637703 kg/jam

Maltosa

= 0,009678039 x 342,296
= 3,312754061 kg/jam

Hidrogen

= 55118,74888 x 2
= 111119,3977 kg/jam

Sorbitol

= 45,05121922 x 182,172
= 8207,070707 kg/jam

Maltilol

= 0,958125868 x 344,312
= 329,8942338 kg/jam

Air

= 47,97% x 16563,7703
= 7945,640615 kg/jam

Dextrin

= 0,03% x 16563,7703
= 4,969131091 kg/jam

Komponen
Glukosa
Maltosa
Air
Dekstrin
Hidrogen
Maltitol
Sorbitol
Subtotal
Total

Masuk (Kg/Jam)
Keluar (Kg/Jam)
F19
F20
F21
8281.885152
165.637703
331.2754061
3.312754061
7945.640615
7945.640615
4.969131091
4.969131091
111212.1526
111119.3977
329.8942338
8207.070707
16563.7703 111212.1526
127775.9229
127775.9229
127775.9229

10. Separator (SE-01)

25

23

24

efisiensi separator = 99-100% (sumber : US. Patent No.4.322.569) dan efisiensi


separator Flash drum =99,99 % (Suherman,2009)
Aliran F23
Glukosa

= 0,919412637 x 180,156
= 165,637703 kg/jam

Maltosa

= 0,009678039 x 342,296
= 3,312754061 kg/jam

Hidrogen

= 55118,74888 x 2
= 111119,3977 kg/jam

Sorbitol

= 45,05121922 x 182,172
= 8207,070707 kg/jam

Maltilol

= 0,958125868 x 344,312
= 329,8942338 kg/jam

Air

= 7945,640615 kg/jam

Dextrin

= 4,969131091 kg/jam

Aliran F25
Hidrogen

= 99,99% x F25 Hidrogen


= 111108.2858 kg/jam

Glukosa

= 0,01% x F25 Glukosa


= 0.01656377 kg/jam

Maltosa

= 0,01% x F25 Maltosa


= 0.000331275 kg/jam

Air

= 0,01% x F25 Air


= 0.794564061 kg/jam

Dekstrin

= 0,01% x F25 Dekstrin


= 0.000496913 kg/jam

Maltitol

= 0,01% x F25 Maltitol


= 0.032989423 kg/jam

sorbitol

= 0,01% x F25 Sorbitol


= 0.820707071 kg/jam

Aliran F24
Hidrogen

= 111119,3977 - 111108.2858
= 11.11193977 kg/jam

Glukosa

= 165,637703 - 0.01656377
= 165.6211393 kg/jam

Maltosa

= 3.312754061 - 0.000331275
= 3.312422785 kg/jam

Air

= 7945,640615 - 0.794564061
= 7944.846051 kg/jam

Dekstrin

= 4,969131091 - 0.000496913
= 4.968634178 kg/jam

Maltitol

= 329.8942338 - 0.032989423
= 329.8612444 kg/jam

sorbitol

= 8207,070707 - 0.820707071
= 8206.25 kg/jam

Komponen

Glukosa
Maltosa
Air
Dekstrin
Hidrogen
Maltitol
Sorbitol
Subtotal
Total

Masuk (Kg/Jam)
F23
165.637703
3.312754061
7945.640615
4.969131091
111119.3977
329.8942338
8207.070707
127775.9229
127775.9229

Keluar (Kg/Jam)
F25
0.01656377
0.000331275
0.794564061
0.000496913
111108.2858
0.032989423
0.820707071
111109.9515

F24
165.6211393
3.312422785
7944.846051
4.968634178
11.11193977
329.8612444
8206.25
16665.97143
127775.9229

11. Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA-01)


31

25

30

Berdasarkan US Patent No 4.322.569 hidrogen yang dihasilkan dari unit PSA 75%
Aliran 25
Hidrogen

= 99,99% x F25 Hidrogen


= 111108.2858 kg/jam

Glukosa

= 0,01% x F25 Glukosa


= 0.01656377 kg/jam

Maltosa

= 0,01% x F25 Maltosa


= 0.000331275 kg/jam

Air

= 0,01% x F25 Air


= 0.794564061 kg/jam

Dekstrin

= 0,01% x F25 Dekstrin


= 0.000496913 kg/jam

Maltitol

= 0,01% x F25 Maltitol


= 0.032989423 kg/jam

sorbitol

= 0,01% x F25 Sorbitol


= 0.820707071 kg/jam

Aliran 31
Hidrogen

Air
= 75% x 111108.2858
= 83331.21435 kg/jam

= 0.794564061 kg/jam
Dekstrin

Aliran 30
Glukosa

= 0,01% x F25 Dekstrin


= 0.000496913 kg/jam

= 0,01% x F25 Glukosa

Maltitol

= 0.01656377 kg/jam
Maltosa

= 0,01% x F25 Air

= 0,01% x F25 Maltosa


= 0.000331275 kg/jam

Komponen
Glukosa
Maltosa
Air
Dekstrin
Hidrogen
Maltitol
Sorbitol
Subtotal
Total

= 0,01% x F25 Maltitol


= 0.032989423 kg/jam

sorbitol

= 0,01% x F25 Sorbitol


= 0.820707071 kg/jam

Masuk (Kg/Jam)
Keluar (Kg/Jam)
F25
F31
30
0.01656377
0.01656377
0.000331275
0.000331275
0.794564061
0.794564061
0.000496913
0.000496913
111108.2858 83331.21435 27777.07145
0.032989423
0.032989423
0.820707071
0.820707071
111109.9515 83331.21435 27778.7371
111109.9515
111109.9515

12. Evaporator (EV-02)


28

26

27

Berdasarkan US Patent No 4.322.569 sorbitol yang terbentuk dari unit Evaporator


sebesar 70%
Aliran 26
Glukosa

= 165,637703 - 0.01656377
= 165.6211393 kg/jam

Maltosa

= 3.312754061 - 0.000331275
= 3.312422785 kg/jam

Air

= 7945,640615 - 0.794564061
= 7944.846051 kg/jam

Dekstrin

= 4,969131091 - 0.000496913
= 4.968634178 kg/jam

Maltitol

= 329.8942338 - 0.032989423
= 329.8612444 kg/jam

Sorbitol

= 8207,070707 - 0.820707071
= 8206.25 kg/jam

F26 total

= 165.6211393 + 3.312422785 + 7944.846051 + 4.968634178 +


329.8612444 + 8206.25

Massa umpan = 16654.85949 kg/jam


massa bahan kering = F27 total F27 air
= 16654.85949 - 7944.846051
= 8710.013441 kg/jam
Fraksi air (Xf) = 8710.013441

= 0.522971295

16654.85949
Fraksi liquid (Xl) = 0,7
neraca massa komponen total
F . Xf = (L . Xl) + (V . Xv)
F . Xf

= 16654.85949 x 0.522971295
= 8710.013441

V . Xv

=0

L = (F . Xf) / Xl

= 8710.013441

= 12442.87634

0,7
jumlah air yang diuapkan
V=FL

= 16654.85949 - 12442.87634
= 4211.983148 kg/jam

Aliran F28
Air

= 4211.983148 kg/jam

Aliran 27
Glukosa

= 165,637703 - 0.01656377
= 165.6211393 kg/jam

Maltosa

= 3.312754061 - 0.000331275
= 3.312422785 kg/jam

Air

= 7944.846051 - 4211.983148
= 3732.862903 kg/jam

Dekstrin

= 4,969131091 - 0.000496913
= 4.968634178 kg/jam

Maltitol

= 329.8942338 - 0.032989423
= 329.8612444 kg/jam

Sorbitol

= 8207,070707 - 0.820707071
= 8206.25 kg/jam
Komponen
Glukosa
Maltosa
Air
Dekstrin
Maltitol
Sorbitol
Subtotal
Total

Masuk (kg/Jam)
Keluar (Kg/Jam)
F26
F28
F27
165.6211393
165.6211393
3.312422785
3.312422785
7944.846051 4211.983148
3732.862903
4.968634178
4.968634178
329.8612444
329.8612444
8206.25
8206.25
16654.85949 4211.983148
12442.87634
16654.85949
16654.85949

LAMPIRAN B
PERHITUNGAN NERACA ENERGI

Basis perhitungan

= 1 hari operasi

Satuan operasi

= kJ/jam

Temperatur basis

= 250C

Dari Reklaitis 1983 & Carl L Yaws .1999 diperoleh harga kapasitas panas
untuk masing masing komponen yang terlibat dalam pembuatan sorbitol adalah
sebagai
berikut:

Nilai Cp pada temperatur 298.15K


Air
Cp(l) J/mol K Cp(v) J/mol K
a
18.2964
7.9857
b
0.472118
0.00046332
c
-0.00133878
1.4028E-06
d
0.000001314
-6.5784E-10
e
(Sumber : Reklaitis 1983 & Carl L Yaws .1999)

Hidrogen (gas) J/mol K


25.399
2.02E-02
-3.85E-05
3.19E-08
-8.76E-12

Perhitungan Cp pada temperatur 298.15K metode Kopps Rule


elemen

Cp(J/g atom C)
Solid
7.5
9.6
17

C
H
O

Liquid
12
18
25

komponen
glukosa

formula
C6H12O6

heat capacity (J/mol K)


2.89E+02

maltosa

C12H22011

1021.311514

dekstrin

(C6H10O5)10

22378.46604

maltitol

C12H24O11

1072.705517

sorbitol
pati
hidrogen

C6H12O6
C6H10O5
H2

292.115453
223.5914333
0.141706755

Untuk Abu

Cp(kJ/kmol.K)
A
0,18
B
0,000078
Cp = A + BT

Untuk HCl
A
B
C
D

Cpl(kJ/kmol.K)
17,7227
0,904261
-0,00564496
1,13383E-05

Perhitungan Panas (dQ/dt)


Panas dapat dihitung dengan menggunakan rumus;
dQ/dt = FCpdT

(Reklaitis,1983)

Dimana:
dQ/dt = jumlah panas persatuan waktu, J/jam
F = jumlah massa masing masing komponen persatuan waktu, kg/jam
Cp = kapasitas panas masing masing komponen, kkal/kgoC
dT = Temperatur masing masing komponen dikurangi temperatur referensi, oC

Perhitungan kapasitas panas :

Untuk padatan :
Pati (C12H22O11)

= (12 x 7,5) + (22 x 9,6) + (11 x 17)


= 488,2 J/g-atom 0C x 342 g/mol
= 166964,4 J/mol 0C = 611,255 kJ/kmol 0K

Lemak (C15H31COOH)

= (16 x 7,5) + ( 32 x 9,6) + (2 x 17)


= 461,2 J/g-atom 0C x 256 g/mol
= 118067,2 J/mol 0C = 432,24 kJ/kmol 0K

Serat ((C6H10O5)1000)

= (6000 x 7,5) + ( 10000 x 9,6) + (5000 x 17)


= 226000 J/g-atom 0C x 162000 g/mol
= 20114000 J/mol 0C = 73637,19 kJ/kmol 0K

Protein (CH3(CHNH2)COOH)= (3 x 7,5) + ( 7 x 9,6) + (2 x 17) + (1 x 26)


= 149,7 J/g-atom 0C x 89 g/mol
= 24251400 J/mol 0C = 88784,18 kJ/kmol 0K

Untuk liquid :
Pati (C12H22O11)

= (12 x 12) + (22 x 18) + (11 x 25)


= 815 J/g-atom 0C x 342 g/mol
= 278730 J/mol 0C = 1020,428 kJ/kmol 0K

Lemak (C15H31COOH)

= (16 x 12) + ( 32 x 18) + (2 x 25)


= 818 J/g-atom 0C x 256 g/mol
= 209408 J/mol 0C = 766,64 kJ/kmol 0K

Serat ((C6H10O5)1000)

= (6000 x 12) + ( 10000 x 18) + (5000 x 25)


= 377000 J/g-atom 0C x 162000 g/mol
= 6,107 x 1010 J/mol 0C
= 2,235 x 108 kJ/kmol 0K

Protein (CH3(CHNH2)COOH) = (3 x 12) + ( 7 x 18) + (2 x 25) + (1 x 33)


= 245 J/g-atom 0C x 89 g/mol
= 21805 J/mol 0C = 79,827 kJ/kmol 0K

1. Tangki Perebusan (M-01)

Temperatur basis

= 250C = 298,15 K

Temperatur umpan

= 300C = 303,15 K

Temperature produk = 500C = 323,15 K

Panas yang masuk (Qi) aliran 1 :

Qpati

) x 611,255 kJ/mol 0K x (303,15 - 298,15) K

= 78287,881 kJ/jam
Qair

) x 374,645 kJ/mol

= 21489,89 kJ/jam

Qprotein =

) x 88784,18 kJ/kmol 0K x (303,15 - 298,15) K

= 4401416,34 kJ/jam
Qabu

) x 1,017 kJ/kmol

= 1,614 kJ/jam

Qlemak =

) x 432,24 kJ/kmol 0K x (303,15 - 298,15) K

= 2247,164 kJ/jam
Qserat

) x 73637,19 kJ/kmol 0K x (303,15 - 298,15) K

=
= 327,900 kJ/jam

Qair umpan=
=

) x 374,64 kJ/kmol

= 64803,86 kJ/jam
Total panas yang masuk
dQ/dT =78287,881 + 21489,89 + 4401416,34 + 1,614 + 2247,164 + 327,900 +
64803,86

= 4568574,66 kJ/jam

Panas yang keluar (Qo) aliran 3 :

Qpati

) x 611,255 kJ/kmol 0K x (323,15 - 298,15) K

= 391439,408 kJ/jam
Qair

) x 1878,589 kJ/kmol

= 432703,559 kJ/jam
Qprotein =

) x 443920,922 kJ/kmol 0K x (323,15 - 298,15) K

= 22007081,7 kJ/jam
Qabu

) x 0,067 kJ/kmol

= 0,106 kJ/jam

Qlemak =

) x 2161,21 kJ/kmol 0K x (323,15 - 298,15) K

= 11235,82 kJ/jam
Qserat

) x 368185,97 kJ/kmol 0K x (323,15 - 298,15) K

=
= 1639,50 kJ/jam
Total panas yang keluar
dQ/dT

=391439,408 + 432703,559 + 22007081,7 + 0,106 + 11235,82 +


1639,50
= 22844100,1 kJ/jam

Agar temperatur menjadi 100oC maka perlu ditambahkan steam.


Panas yang dilepas

= 22844100,1 - 4568574,66
= 18275525,43 kJ/jam

Cp air = 4,18 kJ/kg K


Q = m x Cp x dT
m = 87442,705 kg/jam

Komponen

Qin(kJ/jam)

Pati
air
protein
abu
lemak
serat
SUBTOTAL
Steam
TOTAL

78287,88156
21489,89626
4401416,338
1,614947134
2247,164655
327,9002753
64803,8618
4568574,657
18275525,43
22844100

2. Reaktor (R-01)

Temperature slurry

= 500C = 323,15 K

Temperature HCl

= 300C = 303,15 K

Temperature produk = 1350C = 408,15 K

Panas yang masuk (Qi) aliran 3 :


Qpati

= 391439,408 kJ/jam

Qair

= 432703,559 kJ/jam

Qprotein = 22007081,7 kJ/jam


Qabu

= 0,106 kJ/jam

Qlemak = 11235,82 kJ/jam

Qout(kJ/jam)
391439,4078
432703,5591
22007081,69
0,106535825
11235,82328
1639,501376
22844100,09
22844100,09

Qserat

= 1639,50 kJ/jam

Panas yang masuk (Qi) aliran 4 :


Qair

) x 374,645 kJ/kmol

= 120009,386 kJ/jam
QHCl

=
=

) x 437,38 kJ/kmol

= 4958,713 kJ/jam
Total panas yang masuk
dQ/dT

= 391439,408 + 432703,559 + 22007081,7 + 0,106 + 11235,82 +


1639,50 + 120009,386 + 4958,713
= 22798393,3 kJ/jam

Panas yang keluar (Qi) aliran 5 :


Qpati

) x 611,255 kJ/kmol 0K x (408,15 - 298,15) K

= 287525,956 kJ/jam
Qair

) x 464,316 kJ/kmol

= 8563,443 kJ/jam

Qprotein =

) x 443920,922 kJ/kmol 0K x (408,15 - 298,15) K

= 87063,156 kJ/jam
Qabu

=
=

) x 22,83 kJ/kmol

= 36,244 kJ/jam

Qlemak =

) x 2161,21 kJ/kmol 0K x (408,15 - 298,15) K

= 87684,247 kJ/jam
Qserat

) x 368185,97 kJ/kmol 0K x (408,15 - 298,15) K

= 21903947,1 kJ/jam

Qglukosa =

) x 288,882 kJ/kmol 0K x (408,15 - 298,15) K

= 1465204,79 kJ/jam

Qdekstrin =

) x 22378,466 kJ/kmol 0K x (408,15 - 298,15) K

= 6216621,44 kJ/jam

Qmaltosa =

) x 1021,311 kJ/kmol 0K x (408,15 - 298,15) K

= 1635,811 kJ/jam
QHCl

=
=

) x 15273,036 kJ/kmol

= 173154,618 kJ/jam
Total panas yang keluar
dQ/dT

= 287525,956 + 8563,443 + 87063,156 + 36,244 + 87684,247 +


21903947,1 + 1465204,79 + 6216621,44 + 1635,811 + 173154,618
= 30231436,8 kJ/jam

Tabel Hf 298
Komponen
C6H12O6
C12H22O11
H2O
Maltosa

Hr298

-1.065,121 kJ/mol
-1864,9762 kJ/mol
-13564,627 kJ/mol
-1962.17048 kJ/mol

( Sumber: Carl L Yaws.1999 & metode verma dan doraiswamy)


Reaksi yang terjadi :
C12H22O11 + H2O

2 C6H12O6

Hf 298,15 =[n.H C6H12O6 - (n.H C12H22O11 + n.H H2O)]


Hf 298,15= -1065,121 kJ/mol
H408,15 = (n. Cp.dT produk - n. Cp.dT reaktan)
H408,15 = (n. Cp.dT C6H12O6 - (n. Cp.dT C12H22O11 + n. Cp. dT H2O))
= - 88,827 kJ/mol
H reaksi = Hf 298,15 + H408,15
= -1153,949 kj/mol
Q reaksi = Hr x mol bereaksi
Q reaksi = -1153,949 kJ/mol x 46,1088 mol/jam
Q reaksi = -53207,208 kJ/jam
Q in = Q out + Qreaksi + Q cooler

(Felder, 2005)

Q cooler = Q in (Q out + Qreaksi)


Q cooler = 22798393,3 (34103488,87+ (-53207,208))
Q cooler = -7525414,784 kJ/jam
Q cooler = m cooler x Cp air x (T cooler out T cooler in)
Apabila Cp air = 4,181 kJ/kg.K
Tcooler in

= 30 oC = 303,15 K

Tcooler out

= 60 oC = 333,15 K

m cooler =
m cooler = 60011,282 kg/jam

Komponen
Pati
air
protein
abu
lemak
Serat
Glukosa
Dekstrin
Maltosa
HCl
SUBTOTAL
Qpendingin
Qreaksi
TOTAL

Qin(kJ/jam)
653468,0814
120009,3867
22007081,69
0,106535825
11235,82328
1639,501376

4958,713508
22798393,3

22798393,3

3. Cooler (C-01)

T masuk

= 135oC (408.15K)

T keluar

= 60oC (333.15K)

T air pendingin in

= 25oC (298.15K)

T air pendingin out

= 50oC (323.15K)

Qout(kJ/jam)
287525,9558
154141,9752
87063,15641
36,24395165
87684,24791
21903947,06
1465204,79
6216621,439
1635,810827
173154,6179
30377015,29
-7.525.414,784
-53.207,208
22798393,3

Aliran 5
Qpati

) x 611,255 kJ/kmol 0K x (408,15 - 298,15) K

= 287525,956 kJ/jam
Qair

) x 8357,695 kJ/kmol

= 154141,975 kJ/jam

Qprotein =

) x 443920,922 kJ/kmol 0K x (408,15 - 298,15) K

= 87063,156 kJ/jam
Qabu

) x 22,83 kJ/kmol

= 36,244 kJ/jam
Qlemak =

) x 2161,21 kJ/kmol 0K x (408,15 - 298,15) K

= 87684,247 kJ/jam
Qserat

) x 368185,97 kJ/kmol 0K x (408,15 - 298,15) K

= 21903947,1 kJ/jam
Qglukosa =
=

) x 288,882 kJ/kmol 0K x (408,15 - 298,15) K

= 1465204,79 kJ/jam

Qdekstrin =

) x 22378,466 kJ/kmol 0K x (408,15 - 298,15) K

= 6216621,44 kJ/jam

Qmaltosa =

) x 1021,311 kJ/kmol 0K x (408,15 - 298,15) K

= 1635,811 kJ/jam
QHCl

=
=

) x 15273,036 kJ/kmol

= 173154,618 kJ/jam
Total panas yang masuk
dQ/dT

= 287525,956 + 154141,975 + 87063,156 + 36,244 + 87684,247 +


21903947,1 + 1465204,79 + 6216621,44 + 1635,811 + 173154,618
= 30377015,3 kJ/jam

Aliran 6
Qpati

) x 611,255 kJ/kmol 0K x (

- 298,15) K

= 91485,534 kJ/jam
Qair

) x 2633,43 kJ/kmol

= 4568,66 kJ/jam
Qprotein =
=

) x 443920,922 kJ/kmol 0K x (

= 13133,1391 kJ/jam

- 298,15) K

Qabu

) x 5,428 kJ/kmol

= 4,926 kJ/jam

Qlemak =

) x 2161,21 kJ/kmol 0K x (

- 298,15) K

= 23414,34 kJ/jam
Qserat

) x 368185,97 kJ/kmol 0K x (

- 298,15) K

= 4316453,32 kJ/jam

Qglukosa =

) x 288,882 kJ/kmol 0K x (

- 298,15) K

= 466201,524 kJ/jam

Qdekstrin =

) x 22378,466 kJ/kmol 0K x (

- 298,15) K

= 1978015,91 kJ/jam

Qmaltosa =

) x 1021,311 kJ/kmol 0K x (

- 298,15) K

= 520,485 kJ/jam
QHCl

=
=

) x 3423,846 kJ/kmol

= 38817,087 kJ/jam
Total panas yang keluar
dQ/dT

= 91485,534 + 4568,66 + 13133,1391 + 4,926 + 23414,34 +

4316453,32 + 466201,524 + 1978015,91 + 520,485 + 38817,087


= 6976614,94 kJ/jam
Panas yang diterima = 6976614,94 - 30377015,3
= -23400400,4 kJ/jam
Cp air = 4,18 kj/kg K
T

= -85 K

Air pendingin yang dibutuhkan


Q = m x Cp x dT
m = 65860,963 kg/jam
Komponen
Pati
air
protein
abu
lemak
serat
Glukosa
Dekstrin
Maltosa
HCl
SUBTOTAL
Panas yang diserap
TOTAL

Qin(kJ/jam)
287525,9558
154141,9752
87063,15641
36,24395165
87684,24791
21903947,06
1465204,79
6216621,439
1635,810827
173154,6179
30377015,29
-23400400,36
6976614,937

Qout(kJ/jam)
91485,5314
48568,66784
13133,13912
4,926736389
23414,34036
4316453,322
466201,5241
1978015,912
520,4852633
38817,08712
6976614,937
6976614,937

4. Evaporator (EV-01)

Temperatur masuk = 80oC

(353.15K)

Temperatur keluar = 110oC (383.15K)


Temperatur uap air = 100oC (383.15K)
Aliran 15
Qair

) x 4148,39 kJ/kmol

= 76280 kJ/jam
Qglukosa =

) x 288,882 kJ/kmol 0K x (

- 298,15) K

= 730406,785 kJ/jam
Qdekstrin =

) x 22378,466 kJ/kmol 0K x (

- 298,15) K

= 3772,10079 kJ/jam
Qmaltosa =
=

) x 1021,311 kJ/kmol 0K x (

= 707235,489 kJ/jam

- 298,15) K

Total panas masuk


dQ/dT

= 76280 +730406,785 +3772,10079 +707235,489


= 1517694,44 kJ/jam

Aliran 18
Qair

) x 703,863 kJ/mol

= 131331,761 kJ/jam
Aliran 17
Qair

) x 6435,066 kJ/mol

= 338658,731 kJ/jam
Qglukosa =

) x 288,882 kJ/mol 0K x (383.15 - 298,15) K

= 1128810,49 kJ/jam
Qdekstrin =

) x 22378,466 kJ/kmol 0K x (383.15- 298,15) K

= 5829,61 kJ/jam
Qmaltosa =
=

) x 1021,311 kJ/kmol 0K x (383.15 - 298,15) K

= 84016,4882 kJ/jam
Total panas keluar
dQ/dT

= 131331,761+338658,731 +1128810,49 +5829,61 + 84016,4882


= 1688647,08 kJ/jam

Panas yang dilepas

= 1688647,08 - 1517694,44

= 170952,638 kJ/jam
Superheated steam pada 1atm 150oC, H(150) = 2776.3 kJ/kg
Saturated steam pada 1 atm, 100 oC, Hv(100) = 2691.3 kJ/kg
HL(100) = 461.3 kJ/kg (Reklaitis, 1983)
= [H(150) - Hv(100)] + [Hv(100) - HL(100)]
= 2315 kj/kg
m = Q yang dilepas /
m = 73,845 kg/jam

Komponen
air(liquid)
Glukosa
Dekstrin
Maltosa
air(vap)
SUBTOTAL
Panas yang dilepas
TOTAL

Qin(kJ/jam)
76280,06521
730406,785
3772,100794
707235,4888
1517694,44
170952,6376
1688647,077

5. Cooler (C-02)

Temperatur masuk

= 110oC (383,15K)

Qout(kJ/jam)
338658,7315
1128810,486
5829,610317
84016,48822
131331,7614
1688647,077
1688647,077

Temperatur keluar

= 100oC (373,15K)

T air pendingin in

= 25oC (298,15K)

T air pendingin out

= 50oC(323,15K)

Aliran 17
Qair

= 338658,731 kJ/jam

Qglukosa = 1128810,49 kJ/jam


Qdekstrin = 5829,61 kJ/jam
Qmaltosa = 84016,4882 kJ/jam
Total panas masuk
dQ/dT

=338658,731 +1128810,49 +5829,61 + 84016,4882


= 1557315,32 kJ/jam

Aliran 19
Qair

) x 5670,725 kJ/kmol

= 298433,723 kJ/jam
Qglukosa =

) x 288,882 kJ/kmol 0K x (373.15 - 298,15) K

= 996009,252 kJ/jam
Qdekstrin =

) x 22378,466 kJ/kmol 0K x (373.15- 298,15) K

= 5143,773 kJ/jam
Qmaltosa =
=

) x 1021,311 kJ/kmol 0K x (373.15 - 298,15) K

= 74132,195 kJ/jam
Total panas keluar

dQ/dT

= 298433,723 +996009,252 +5143,773 + 74132,195


= 1373718,94 kJ/jam

Panas yang diterima = 1373718,94 1557315,32


= -183596,37 kJ/jam
Cp air = 4,18 kj/kg K
T

= -60 K

Air pendingin yang dibutuhkan


Q = m x Cp x dT
m = 732,0429 kg/jam

Komponen
air
Glukosa
Dekstrin
Maltosa
SUBTOTAL
Panas yang diserap
TOTAL
6. Heater (HE-03)

Temperatur masuk = 30oC (303,15 K)

Qin(kJ/jam)
338658,7315
1128810,486
5829,610317
84016,48822
1557315,316
-183596,3712
1373718,945

Qout(kJ/jam)
298433,7231
996009,2522
5143,77381
74132,19549
1373718,945
1373718,945

Temperatur keluar = 100oC (373,15 K)


Aliran 33
= F33x

Hidrogen

dT

= 55164758,22 x 143,8791569
= 7937058902 J/jam
Aliran 20
= F20x

Hidrogen

dT

= 55164758,22 x 2168.800684
= 1,19542E+11 J/jam
Agar temperatur menjadi 100oC maka perlu ditambahkan steam.
Panas yang dilepas

= 1,19542E+11-7937058902
= 1,11605E+11J/jam
= 111604521,4 kj/jam

Cp air = 4,18 kj/kg K


T

= 70 K

Steam yang dibutuhkan


Q = m x Cp x dT
m = 381423,518 kg/jam

komponen
H2
steam
total

Masuk (J/jam)
F33
7937058902
1.11605E+11
1.19542E+11

Keluar (J/jam)
F20
1.19542E+11
1.19542E+11

7. Reaktor (R-02)

19

21

Temperatur masuk = 100oC (373,15 K)


Temperatur keluar = 145oC (418,15 K)
Glukosa

= F19 x Cp x dT
= 45970,63185 x 288,8827677 x (373,15-298,15)
= 996009252,2 J/jam

Maltosa

= F19 x Cp x dT
= 967,8039068 x 1021,311514 x (373,15-298,15)
= 74132195,49 J/jam

Dextrin

= F19 x Cp x dT
= 275,8176671 x 22378,46604 x (373,15-298,15)
= 462928222,4 J/jam
= F19 x

Air

dT

= 4900,481445 x 5671.178789
= 27791506.43 J/jam
Hidrogen

= F19 x

dT

= 55164758,22 x 2168.800684
= 1.19641E+11
Total panas masuk
dQ/dT =(996009252,2+74132195,49+462928222,4+27791506,43+1.19641E+11)
= 1,21202E+11 J/jam

Aliran 21
Glukosa

= F21 x Cp x dT
= 919,4126371 x 288,8827677 x (418,15-298,15)
= 31872296,07 J/jam

Maltosa

= F21 x Cp x dT
= 9,678039068 x 1021,311514 x (418,15-298,15)
= 1186115,128 J/jam

Dextrin

= F21 x Cp x dT
= 275,8176671 x 22378,46604 x (418,15-298,15)
= 740685155,8 J/jam
= F21 x

Air

dT

= 4900,481445 x 9133,392257
= 44758019,29 J/jam
Hidrogen

= F21 x

dT

= 55118748,88 x 3478,586535
=1,91735E+11 J/jam
Sorbitol

= F21 x Cp x dT
= 23836,14485 x 292,115453 x (418,15-298,15)
= 835548750,4 J/jam

Maltilol

= F21 x Cp x dT
= 1810,894285 x 1072.705517 x (418,15-298,15)
= 233106754,9 J/jam

Total panas keluar


dQ/dT= (31872296,07+1186115,128+740685155,8+44758019,29+1,91735E+11
+835548750,4+233106754,9)
= 1,93622E+11 J/jam

Tabel Hf 298
reaktan
H (kj/mol)
produk
C6H12O6
-1065.12088
C6H14O6
H2
0
C12H22O11 -1864.97616
C12H24O11
H2
0
( Sumber: Carl L Yaws.1999 & metode verma dan doraiswamy)

H (kj/mol)
-1140
-1962.17048

reaksi yang terjadi:


C6H12O6

H2

C6H14O6

C12H24O11

reaksi samping :
C12H22O11

H2

reaksi utama
Hf 298,15 =[n.H C6H14O6 - (n.H C6H12O6 + n.H H2)]
Hf 298,15= -74,87912 KJ/mol
reaksi samping
Hf 298,15=[n.H C12H24O11 - (n.H C12H22O11 + n.H H2)]
Hf 298,15= -97,19432 KJ/mol
Hf 298,15 total = (H298,15 utama) + (H298,15 samping)
Hf 298,15 total = -172,07344 KJ/mol
reaksi utama
H418,15 = (n. Cp.dT produk - n. Cp.dT reaktan)
H = (n. Cp.dT C6H14O6 - (n. Cp.dT C6H12O6 + n. Cp. dT H2))
= -3,090664294 kj/mol
reaksi samping
H418,15 = (n. Cp.dT produk - n. Cp.dT reaktan)
H = (n. Cp.dT C12H24O11 - (n. Cp.dT C12H22O11 + n.Cp. dT H2))
= 9,64586693 kj/mol
H418,15 total = (H418,15 utama) + (H418,15 samping)
H418,15 total = 6,555202636 kj/mol

H reaksi = Hf 298,15 total + H418,15 total


= -165,5182374 kj/mol
Q reaksi = Hr x mol bereaksi
Q reaksi = -165,5182374 kJ/mol x 23836,14485 mol/jam
Q reaksi = -3945316.682 kJ/jam
Q in = Q out + Qreaksi + Q cooler

(Felder, 2005)

Q cooler = Q in (Q out + Qreaksi)


Q cooler = 1.21202E+11 (1.93622E+11 + (-3945316682))
Q cooler = -68474951533 J/jam
Q cooler = -68474951,53 kJ/mol
Q cooler = m cooler x Cp air x (T cooler out T cooler in)
Apabila Cp air = 4,181 kJ/kg.K
Tcooler in

= 30 oC = 303,15 K

Tcooler out

= 60 oC = 333,15 K

m cooler =
m cooler = 546052,2451kg/jam
komponen
Glukosa
Maltosa
Dextrin
Air
H2
Sorbitol
Maltilol
subtotal
Q pendingin
Q reaksi
total

masuk (J/jam)
19
996009252.2
74132195.49
462928222.4
27791506.43
1.19641E+11

1.21202E+11

keluar (J/jam)
21
31872296.07
1186115.128
740685155.8
44758019.29
1.91735E+11
835548750.4
233106754.9
1.93622E+11
-68474951533
-3945316682
1.21202E+11

8. Cooler (C-03)

T masuk

= 145oC (418.15K)

T keluar

= 90oC (363.15K)

T air pendingin in

= 25oC (298.15K)

T air pendingin out

= 40oC (313.15K)

Aliran 22
Glukosa

= F22 x Cp x dT
= 919,4126371 x 288,8827677 x (418,15-298,15)
= 31872296,1 J/jam

Maltosa

= F22 x Cp x dT
= 9,678039068 x 1021,311514 x (418,15-298,15)
= 1186115,13 J/jam

Dextrin

= F22 x Cp x dT
= 275,8176671 x 22378,46604 x (418,15-298,15)
= 740685156 J/jam

Air

= F22 x

dT

= 4900,481445 x 9133,392257
= 44758019,3 J/jam
Hidrogen

= F22 x
= 55118748,88 x 0,141706755

dT

= 937283882 J/jam
Sorbitol

= F22 x Cp x dT
= 23836,14485 x 292,115453 x (418,15-298,15)
= 835548750 J/jam

Maltilol

= F22 x Cp x dT
= 1810,894285 x 1072.705517 x (418,15-298,15)
= 233106755 J/jam

Total panas masuk


dQ/Dt =( 31872296,07+ 1186115,128+ 740685155,8+ 44758019,29
+ 937283882,1+ 835548750,4+233106755)
= 2824440974 J/jam
Aliran 23
Glukosa

= F23 x Cp x dT
= 919,4126371 x 288,8827677 x (363,15-298,15)
= 17264160,4 J/jam

Maltosa

= F23 x Cp x dT
= 9,678039068 x 1021,311514 x (363,15-298,15)
= 642479,028 J/jam

Dextrin

= F23 x Cp x dT
= 275,8176671 x 22378,46604 x (363,15-298,15)
= 401204459 J/jam

Air

= F23 x

dT

= 4900,481445 x 4908,964192
= 24056287,9 J/jam
Hidrogen

= F23 x
= 55118748,88 x 0,141706755
= 7810699,02 J/jam

Sorbitol

= F23 x Cp x dT

dT

= 23836,14485 x 292,115453 x (363,15-298,15)


= 452588906 J/jam
Maltilol

= F23 x Cp x dT
= 1810,894285 x 1072.705517 x (363,15-298,15)
= 126266159 J/jam

Total panas keluar


dq/dT=(17264160,4+642479,028+401204459+24056287,9+7810699,02
+ 452588906+ 126266159 )
= 1029833151 J/jam
Panas yang diterima = 1029833151-2824440974
= -1794607823 J/jam
= -1794607.823 kj/jam
Cp air = 4,18 kj/kg K
T

= -105 K

Air pendingin yang dibutuhkan


Q = m x Cp x dT
m = 4088,876333 kg/jam

komponen
Glukosa
Maltosa
Dextrin
Air
H2
Sorbitol
Maltilol
subtotal
air pendingin
Total

masuk (J/jam)
F22
31872296.07
1186115.128
740685155.8
44758019.29
937283882.1
835548750.4
233106754.9
6678715099
-5648881947
1029833151

keluar (J/jam)
F23
17264160.37
642479.0275
401204459.4
24056287.94
7810699.017
452588906.4
126266158.9

1029833151

9. Evaporator (EV-02)

Steam 150 oC

28

26

27

Steam 100oC

Temperatur masuk = 90oC

(363.15K)

Temperatur keluar = 110 C (383.15K)


Temperatur uap air = 110oC (383.15K)
Aliran 26
Glukosa

= F26 x Cp x dT
= 919,4126371 x 288,8827677 x (363,15-298,15)
= 17264160,4 J/jam

Maltosa

= F26 x Cp x dT
= 9,677071264 x 1021,311514 x (363,15-298,15)
= 642414,7796 J/jam

Dextrin

= F26 x Cp x dT
= 275,7900854 x 22378,46604 x (363,15-298,15)
= 401164339 J/jam

Air

= F26 x
= 4899,991397 x 4908,964192
= 24053882,31 J/jam

Sorbitol

= F26 x Cp x dT

dT

= 23833,76124 x 292,115453 x (363,15-298,15)


= 452543647,6 J/jam
Maltilol

= F26 x Cp x dT
= 958,0300552 x 1072.705517 x (363,15-298,15)
= 66799468,17 J/jam

Total panas masuk


dq/dT= (17264160,4+642414,7796+401164339+24053882,31+452543647,6
+66799468,17)
= 962466185,7 J/jam
Aliran 28
Air

= F28 x

dT

= 2089277,355 x 703,8637317
= 1470566556 J/jam
Aliran 27
Glukosa

= F27 x Cp x dT
= 919,4126371 x 288,8827677 x (383,15-298,15)
= 22573952,1 J/jam

Maltosa

= F27 x Cp x dT
= 9,677071264 x 1021,311514 x (383,15-298,15)
= 840080,8657 J/jam

Dextrin

= F27 x Cp x dT
= 275,7900854 x 22378,46604 x (383,15-298,15)
= 524599520,2J/jam

Air

= F27 x

dT

= 2302.246764 x 6435,587376
= 14816310,21 J/jam
Sorbitol

= F27 x Cp x dT
= 45046,71409 x 292,115453 x (383,15-298,15)

= 1118501510 J/jam
Maltilol

= F27 x Cp x dT
= 958,0300552 x 1072,705517 x (383,15-298,15)
= 87353150,69 J/jam

Total panas keluar


dq/dT = (1470566556+ 22573952,1+840080,8657+524599520+14816310,21
+1118501510+87353150,69 )
= 3239251080 J/jam
Panas yang dilepas

= 3239251080-962466185,7
= 2276784894 J/jam
= 2276784,894 kj/jam

Superheated steam pada 1atm 150oC, H(150) = 2776.3 kJ/kg


Saturated steam pada 1 atm, 100 oC, Hv(110) = 2691.3 kJ/kg
HL(110) = 461.3 kJ/kg (Reklaitis, 1983)
= [H(150) - Hv(110)] + [Hv(110) - HL(110)]
= 2315 kj/kg
m = Q yang dilepas /
m = 983,4923949 kg/jam

Komponen
Glukosa
Maltosa
Dextrin
Air
Maltitol
Sorbitol
subtotal
steam
Total

Masuk(J/jam)
F26
17262433.96
642414.7796
401164339
24053882.31
66799468.17
452543647.6
962466185.7
2276784894
3239251080

Keluar (J/jam)
F28
F27
22573952.1
840080.866
524599520
1470566556 14816310.2
87353150.7
1118501510

3239251080

10. Cooler (C-04)

Temperatur masuk

= 110oC (383,15K)

Temperatur keluar

= 30oC (303,15K)

T air pendingin in

= 25oC (298,15K)

T air pendingin out

= 40oC(313,15K)

Aliran 27
Glukosa

= F27 x Cp x dT
= 919,4126371 x 288,8827677 x (383,15-298,15)
= 22573952,1 J/jam

Maltosa

= F27 x Cp x dT
= 9,677071264 x 1021,311514 x (383,15-298,15)
= 840080,8657 J/jam

Dextrin

= F27 x Cp x dT
= 275,7900854 x 22378,46604 x (383,15-298,15)
= 524599520,2J/jam

Air

= F27 x

dT

= 2302.246764 x 6435,587376
= 14816310,21 J/jam
Sorbitol

= F27 x Cp x dT
= 45046,71409 x 292,115453 x (383,15-298,15)

= 1118501510 J/jam
Maltilol

= F27 x Cp x dT
= 958,0300552 x 1072,705517 x (383,15-298,15)
= 87353150,69 J/jam

Total panas masuk


dq/dT = ( 22573952,1+840080,8657+524599520+14816310,21+1118501510
+87353150,69 )
= 1768684524 J/jam
Aliran 29
Glukosa

= F29 x Cp x dT
= 919,4126371 x 288,8827677 x (303,15-298,15)
= 1327879,535 J/jam

Maltosa

= F29 x Cp x dT
= 9,677071264 x 1021,311514 x (303,15-298,15)
= 49416,52151 J/jam

Dextrin

= F29 x Cp x dT
= 275,7900854 x 22378,46604 x (303,15-298,15)
= 30858795,31 J/jam

Air

= F29 x

dT

= 2302.246764 x 910,3465107
= 2095842,308 J/jam
Sorbitol

= F29 x Cp x dT
= 45046,71409 x 292,115453 x (303,15-298,15)
= 65794206,48 J/jam

Maltilol

= F29 x Cp x dT
= 958,0300552 x 1072,705517 x (303,15-298,15)
= 5138420,629 J/jam

Total panas keluar


dq/dT = (1327879,535+49416,52151+30858795,31+2095842,308+65794206,48
+5138420,629)
= 105264560,8 J/jam
Panas yang diterima = 105264560,8 - 1768684524
= -1663419963 J/jam
= -1663419,963 kj/jam
Cp air = 4,18 kj/kg K
T

= -80 K

Air pendingin yang dibutuhkan


Q = m x Cp x dT
m = 4974,341996 kg/jam

komponen
Glukosa
Maltosa
Dextrin
Air
Maltilol
Sorbitol
subtotal
air pendingin
TOTAL

Masuk(J/jam)
F27
22573952.1
840080.866
524599520
14816310.2
87353150.7
1118501510
1768684524
-1663419963
105264561

Keluar(J/jam)
F29
1327879.54
49416.5215
30858795.3
2095842.31
5138420.63
65794206.5

105264561