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PENDIDIKAN DOKTER FAKULTAS KEDOKTERAN

UNIVERSITAS AIRLANGGA
SURABAYA 2007
Kuntaman
Ilmu Kedokteran Tropis
Penyakit tropis
Tropical diseases
M-03, 2 SKS, 1/1, Sem IV
TUJUAN INSTRUKSIONAL UMUM
Setelah menyelesaikan modul ini mahasiswa S1
FK diharapkan mengetahui, memahami dan bisa
menjelaskan terjadinya penyakit tropis; Serta
mengetahui dan memahami penanggulangan
penyakit tropis
TUJUAN INSTRUKSIONAL KHUSUS
Konsep dasar muncul & menyebarnya penyakit tropis
Mengetahui, memahami dan bisa menjelaskan faktor
lingkungan
Mengetahui, memahami dan bisa menjelaskan faktor
genetik
Mengetahui, memahami dan bisa menjelaskan faktor
perilaku dan sosio-budaya;
Mengetahui dan memahami beberapa penyakit tropis
yang banyak di Indonesia maupun Negara lain;
Mengetahui dan memahami prinsip dasar mengendalikan
muncul dan menyebarnya penyakit tropis
DESKRIPSI SINGKAT
Prevalensi penyakit: Tropis Non-tropis
Indonesia: Tropis, Luas, multi etnik, genetik,
sosio-budaya
Penyakit Tropis/infeksi: Interaksi inang, agen dan
lingkungan; dipengaruhi: genetik, perilaku-sosial
budaya dan lingkungan.
Penyakit tropis: penyakit infeksi & Non-infeksi
Pengendalian penyakit tropis: Komprehensif,
dasar faktor2
introduction
Concept of TD
Area
Framework
Examples
Concept of Disease control
Bangkok School of Tropical Medicine,
Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University
of Science in Tropical Medicine ..the
program focuses on tropical diseases and enriches
student understanding of the biological,
epidemiological, and social dimension of tropical
disease particularly in the South east Asia
Institute of Tropical Medicine,
Nagasaki University
.. The institute of Tropical Medicine , Nagasaki University
aim to : overcome tropical disease, particularly infectious
disease and various health problem associated with them,
in cooperation with related institution, for excelence in the
following area :
1. research in the tropical medicine and international health
2. Global contribution through disease control and health
tropics by applying the fruit of the research promotion in
the tropics by applying the fruit of research
3. Cultivation of the researchers and specialists in the above
fields
Dominant determinant factors in tropical disease
medical genetic
tropical disease
tropical environment sosio cultural
Development of tropical disease
Inang
Agents Environment
Tropical Disease
Mengetahui, memahami dan bisa menjelaskan
muncul dan menyebarnya penyakit tropis (PT)
Menjelaskan muncul dan menyebarnya PT dari aspek
genetik, lingkungan dan perilakusosio budaya
Mengetahui dan memahami interaksi
H, A, E sbg penyebab munculnya PT
Menjelaskan faktor
genetik terhadap
munculnya PT
Menjelaskan faktor perilaku
sbg penyebab muncul dan
menyebarnya PT
Mampu menjelaskan faktor
lingkungan, thd muncul
dan menyebarnya PT
Tropical Diseases
Lingkungan
Agent
Parasit
Mikroba
Agen lain/fisik/kimia
Host
Sifat Genetik
Status Imunologi
Status Nutrisi
Kharakter Genetik
Perubahan genetik
Evolusi genetik
Budaya
Sosio-antropol/
Perilaku
Env.
Genetic
Socio-
Culture
Dominant factors to be discussed in
Tropical Medicine
1. Primary care: provision of promotive, preventive, curative,
and rehabilitative
a) Disease control programmes
b) Nutritional supplementation
c) Clean and safe water supply
2. Epidemiology of Dis.:
a) Distribution and determinant of TD
b) Focus on six deadly diseases: pneumonia, diarrhoeal
illness, malaria, measles and HIV/AIDS. BUT also
others high fatality rates cases: Ebola, Hantavirus,
Nipah Virus
Dominant factors to be discussed in
Tropical Medicine
3. Traditional medicine healers:
a) Frequently the first point of contact for Pts in the Tropic
b) Play a significant role in access to health care
c) Have an important role in the framework in the
treatment of common tropical illness.
4. Genetics:
a) Pattern of autosomal and sex linked inheritance
b) Deversity of human genome
c) Selective pressure of human genome
(~haemoglobinopathy)
d) Genetic constribution to common disease (i.e.: HLA
type that confer resistance or susceptibility)
Dominant factors to be discussed in
Tropical Medicine
5. Immunological aspect of TD:
a) Host factor
b) Illustrate the delicate balance involving the host and
invading pathogens
c) Mechanisms involved in host susceptibility and
parasite evasion
6. Economic and financing:
a) Focuses on the effects of poverty and inadequate
resources
b) Most developing countries (mostly in the tropic) have
an inability to reduce the burden of diseases, due to
economic reasons
c) Poverty is underlying factor for poor health in tropic
d) Poor people are more vulnerable to disease (TD)
Diminished food
-Absorbtion
-Intake
-Micronutrient store
Increase food
-Requirements
-Untilization
Diarrhoea
- Cell med immunity
- humoral immunity
- secretory IgA
- complement
- neutrophil function
- external barrier
malnutrition
infection
Produces
reduces
increases
Induces
Tropical Disease
- The word of TROPICAL DISEASES is more convenient
than accurate
Deseases peculiar to, and confined to, the tropics
All diseases occuring in the tropics
Medicine in the tropics OR Tropical medicine?
- Pathogenic microbes:
1973 Ebola Virus Acute haemorrh.fever
1977 Legionella pneu. Legionnaires dis
1981 Toxin S.aureus TSSyndrome
1982 E coli O157:H7 Haemorrh. Colitis
1983 HIV AIDS
1989 Hepatitis C Hepatitis
1993 Hanta virus Adult Resp Distress Syndr.
1996 nvCJD (Prion) Creutzfeldt-Jacob Dis
1997 H5N1 Influenzae
1999 Nipah Severe encedphalitis
Tropical Disease
- Vaccine preventable infectious diseases:
Measles
Hepatitis B
Tetanus (neonatal)
- Emerging and resurgent diseases:
Ebola
Dengue fever
Diphtheria
CholeraNipah virus
AI (Hongkong)
Malnutrisi
54%
Malaria
5%
Campak
7%
Diare
19%
ISPA
18%
Perinatal
18%
Lain-lain
32%
Primary Health Care
Primary Health Care
Distribusi penyebab kematian balita disemua
negara berkembang, 1995 (WHO)
Kematian karena
malnutrisi,
justru tinggi
Epidemiologi Penyakit
Epidemiologi Penyakit
Perinatal
6%
Faktor Ibu
2%
Nutrisi
1%
Penyakit
menular
45%
Penyakit
tidak
menular
35%
Kecelakaan
11%
Estimasi, 1998, penyebab utama kematian dinegara
berpendapatan rendah, Asteng dan Afrika (WHO)
Tutorial Modul Integrasi
Kasus 1:
Separuh Kelompok
Tutorial 1
Tutorial 2
Tutorial 3
Kasus 1 Pleno Kasus 2
Kasus 2:
Separuh Kelompok
Jawablah pertanyaan ini?
1. Jelaskan makna penyakit tropis
2. Faktor apa yang mempermudah berkembangnya
penyakit tropis
3. Apakah penyakit tropis itu penyakit infeksi?
4. Coba cari sosio-budaya etnis di Indonesia yang
bisa mempermudah penyebaran penyakit tropis
5. Terangkan salah satu gangguan genetik yang
bisa mencegah terjangkitnya penyakit tropis.
Khususnya yang disertai kelainan morfologi sel
darah merah.
Tropical Disease Center
TDC-UNAIR
Terima kasih
Mansons Tropical Disease