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Bachelor of Architectural Technology and

Construction Management
7
sem.
Dissertation








Cracks in Different Types of Concrete
Construction and Renovation










Longhu Li [12!"

Consultant# Tommy Bendi$ %illadsen
%&A 'ni(ersity College) *orsens) Denmar+
,o(em-er 2.12



Cracks in Different Types of Concrete Construction
and Renovation



Bachelor of Architectural Technology and
Construction Management
7
sem.
Dissertation


Consultant# Tommy Bendi$ %illadsen
2 Co/ies 0 1ont %erdana 12
22 /ages
32)451 characters


NOTE: This dissertation 6as com/leted as /art of an Architectural
Technology and Construction Management degree course 0 no
responsibility is taken for any advice, instruction or conclusion
given within!



All rights reser(ed 0 no /art of this /u-lication may -e re/roduced
6ithout the /rior /ermission of the author.




Longhu Li [12!"

7ignature# 88888888888888888888

%&A 'ni(ersity College) *orsens) Denmar+
,o(em-er 2.12


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Abstract

My /ro-lem statement is *o6 to sol(e crac+ /ro-lems in different +ind
of concrete construction. & had internshi/ in an Architecture Com/any
in China. 9nce 6e got a /ro-lem: the -uilding 6hich the com/any had
-uilt last year start crac+ing and our com/any had the res/onsi-ility
to reno(ate the -uilding. & didn;t ha(e the chance to -e in(ol(ed in the
reno(ation /ro<ect) -ut & 6as so interested in the crac+ing /ro-lem)
6hy it is ha//ening. 7o & 6ill find out the reason of occurring crac+s)
is it /ossi-le to reno(ate) if it;s /ossi-le ho6 to reno(ate the crac+s.

Crac+s are one +ind of uni(ersal /ro-lem of concrete construction) it
affects the -uilding artistic and the function) and it also destroys the
6all;s integrity) affects the structure safety) e(en reduce the dura-ility
of structure. Therefore 6e should ta+e measures to reduce and
/re(ent the crac+s to occur.

This dissertation starts from some descri/tions of concrete) such as
concrete history) ra6 material) ad(antage and disad(antage of
concrete construction and so on. Crac+ 6ill -e descri-ed as the main
/ro-lem of disad(antage) /oint out s/ots and characteristics of the
crac+s) and the causes of 6all crac+ 6ill -e descri-ed. Corres/onding
/re(ention measures are /ro/osed in order to control crac+ from
design and construction) summari=e the crac+ a//raisal methods and
the crac+ re/air methods.

1inally the summary of the crac+ reno(ation 6ill -e -rought u/.


>ey ?ords# Construction) crac+s) history) ra6 material) reno(ate













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Contents

! "ntroduction #
1.1 Bac+ground &nformation
1.2 @ationali=ation of choice of su-<ect
1.3 Aro-lem statement
1. 7ummary of 6or+ing /rocess 0 Methodology

$! Concrete construction and cracks #
2.1 Concrete *istory B De(elo/ment
2.2 Concrete Material !
2.3 Concrete Construction Ad(antage B Disad(antage !
2. The Dangers and Affect of Crac+ in Building 7
2.2 Main @eason for Crac+s 4
2.! Control @eCuirements of Crac+s in Concrete 7tructures 4

%! Concrete construction cracks &
3.1 Classification of Crac+s in Concrete Construction 5
3.2 The Cause of Crac+s on Concrete Construction 5
3.3 The Aosition and Characteristics of the Concrete
Construction Crac+s 11
3. Arecaution of Concrete Construction Crac+s 12
3.2 @eno(ation of Concrete Construction Crac+s 13

#! 'rick(Concrete Construction Cracks #
.1 Characteristics of Crac+s caused -y Thermal stress 1
.2 Characteristics of crac+ caused -y settlement 1!
.3 Arecaution of Bric+DConcrete Construction crac+s 14
. @eno(ation of Bric+DConcrete Construction crac+s 15

)! *ro+ect E,a-ple Analysis and .easures $/
2.1 &ntroduction of Construction and Crac+s 2.
2.2 Cause Analysis 2.
2.3 Treatment Measures 21

0! Conclusion $

1ist of "llustration $%

1ist of 2eferences $#



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1. Introduction

1.1 Bac+ground &nformation

&t is a 7
th
semester dissertation for the Bachelor of Architectural
Technology and Construction Management education. &t;s a-out
concrete construction crac+s. 9ccurring of crac+s) ty/es of crac+s)
/recaution of crac+s 6ill -e descri-ed in this dissertation.

1.2 @ationali=ation of Choice of 7u-<ect

?hen & 6as 6or+ing in &nternshi/ Com/any) 6e got a -ig /ro-lem
-ecause of -uilding crac+s. & had concrete su-<ect in 3
rd
semester) -ut
that 6asn;t enough to sol(e crac+ /ro-lem in real /ro<ect) so & 6ant
ha(e more +no6ledge 6hich can really sol(e the /ro-lem in real
/ro<ect.

1.3 Aro-lem 7tatement

1. ?hy crac+s ha//enedE
2. ?hat +ind of crac+sE
3. *o6 to /re(ent crac+s ha//eningE
. *o6 to reno(ate crac+sE

1. 7ummary of ?or+ing Arocess 0 Methodology

This dissertation 6as 6ritten mainly 6ith the hel/ of articles and
internet 6e-D/ages. & made /ro-lem statement and structure
according 6hich & follo6ed u/ during my dissertation in 6riting
/rocess.


2. Concrete Construction and Cracks

2.1 Concrete *istory B De(elo/ment

Concrete is -ecoming more and more /o/ular as construction
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material in modern city) it has high /ressureDresistance) good
dura-ility) and 6ide range of intensity le(el) -ecause of such
ad(antage) not only -e used in a (ariety of ci(il engineering) the
concrete is also an im/ortant materials in
shi/-uilding) machinery industry) marine
de(elo/ment) geothermal engineering.

Fose/h As/din G1774D1422H mi$ed
limestone and clay to ma+e first artificial
Aortland cement in 142) and o-tain the
/atent on 21
st
9ct 142) it;s -ecame the
-eginning of the cement industry.

Later tensile strength of concrete 6as the
-iggest /ro-lem) 1rench technician
gra--ed the -ar-ed 6ire into the concrete to ma+e a small -oat) and
e$hi-ited at the Aaris I$/osition in the second year) it is the first @C
G@einforcement ConcreteH /roducts.

7ince then 1rancois Conigne and
?il+inson im/ro(ed Lam-ot;s
/roducts and Fose/h Monier used
crossed reinforcement into -ridge
/anel and got the /atent in 14!7)
@C /rocess started im/ro(ing fast.
14!7 is considered as the earliest
@C -ridge erection year.

>onan in(estigated concrete -ear
the /ressure and reinforcements
-ear the tension) and F.Bushinger confirmed the reinforcements in the
concrete are not suffering from corrosion and other /ro-lems) so @C
structure has a ne6 de(elo/ment in 1477.

Concrete structure has -een started a//lying since the midD15
th

century) -ecause of the lo6 Cuality of cement and concrete in that
time) so the de(elo/ment 6as slo6. 'ntil the end of the 15
th
century)
concrete structure 6as getting faster de(elo/ment 6ith the
de(elo/ment of /roduction) e$/erimental 6or+) com/utational theory
and im/ro(ement of construction techniCues) material. &t -ecame one
of the most 6idely used -uilding materials in the modern
construction.

Figure 1 Joseph Aspdin &
Portland Cement
Figure 2 Bridge on Chazelet castle, uilt in
1!"5 # Joseph $onier
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2.2 Concrete @a6 Material

Cement) aggregate and 6ater mi$ture can
-e the normal ra6 material. &n general)
drin+ing 6ater can fulfill the reCuirements
of the concrete mi$ing 6ater) e$cess
amount of acid) al+ali and salt can -ring
harmful effects to concrete. @a6 material
also affect to ca/acity)
6eight) strength and other
/ro/erties of concrete.

Admi$tures can -e added to im/ro(e certain
/ro/erties of concrete) -ecause admi$tures ha(e
significant technical and economical effects) it is
-ecoming indis/ensa-le material of the concrete) it
can -e airDentraining 6ater reducer) efficient
airDentraining 6ater) retarding su/er/lastici=er)
efficient retarding su/er/lastici=er) and efficient
/um/ing agent.

2.3 Concrete Construction Ad(antage B Disad(antage

1. Ad(antage
G1H Iasy to find the ra6 material# sand) stone are generally local
material: industrial material Gsuch as slag) cinderH can -e used to
ma+e artificial material for concrete.

G2H *igh fire resistance and dura-ility# it;s not easy to corrode
reinforcement 6hen it 6ra//ed -y concrete) less cost for
maintenance. The concrete is fire resistance material) 6hen there
is fire) concrete act as insulation.

G3H Jood integrity# can -e -uilt different tem/lates) styles and
si=es according to need. After concrete dry) it has good integrity
and stiffness.

GH Lo6 maintenance fees# concrete structures need less
maintenance) doesn;t li+e steel and 6ood structures that reCuires
freCuent maintenance.


Figure 3 aggregate
Figure 4 &lic'(Pa' ))
concrete pumping aid
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2. Disad(antage
G1H Big selfD6eight# it;s difficult to ha(e -ig s/an on the high
-uilding.

G2H Lo6 crac+ resistance# -ecause of lo6 tensile strength of
concrete) it often ha//ens crac+s) 6hen -uild the construction
6hich doesn;t allo6 to ha(e crash or has high reCuirement a-out
crac+s) /ro<ect cost 6ill -e increased

G3H Long 6or+ing time# su-<ect to seasonal (ariations.

There are many 6ays to reduce disad(antages# i.e. LightD6eight)
highDstrength material and /reDstressed concrete can -e used to
reduce the structural 6eight and im/ro(e the crac+ resistance of
the structure.


2. The Dangers and Affect of Crac+ in Building

Building crac+ es/ecially means concrete sla- crac+ and concrete 6all
crac+: it -ecomes uni(ersal /ro-lem of current -uildings. Many
concrete constructions ha(e different forms of crac+ in /rocess of
construct and use. Car-on dio$ide /enetrates into the concrete
through the crac+s and s/eed u/ car-onation s/eed around the crac+s)
thus shortening the structure usage. The crac+s in the concrete 6all
6ould cause the lea+age of the -uilding: it reduces the stiffness)
dura-ility and seismic /erformance of -uildings) if the crac+s in the
6all e$/end) it might -e a -ig threat to human life and /ro/erty safety.
1or e$am/le#

1. 7ome /enetrate crac+s on the 6all can reduce /erformance)
es/ecially affect to the -uilding;s usage and seismic /erformance.

2. Crac+s on the e$ternal 6all cause lea+age reduce e$ternal 6all
moistureD/roof function.

3. &f crac+s are too dense) e(ery tem/erature change accelerates the
e$/ansion of the crac+) 6ill cause -igger crac+s.

. Crac+s on the 6all surface damage to the later rendering) 6ill
affect to the a//earance.

2. May cause rendering layer crac+ off
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2.2 Main @eason for Crac+s

There are t6o +inds of issues cause the crac+s on the 6all) they are
e$ternal loads and nonDload issue Gi.e. Tem/erature) shrin+age)
differential settlement) etcH

The cause of nonDload issue caused crac+s reCuires deformation of the
construction) 6hen the deformation cannot -e fulfilled) it ma+es
stress) and the stress e$ceeds a certain (alue crac+s caused) after the
crac+s a//ear deformation are fulfilled or /artially fulfilled. 7ome
structures) although the strength of the material is not high) -ut ha(e
good toughness: it can -e ada/ted to deformation reCuirements and
has high crac+ resistance.

I$ternal load issue such as earthCua+e) settlement) and landslide
Getc.H can -e the caused crac+s. Crac+s caused -y the earthCua+e can
-e seen as the foundation of the dynamic deformation. Landslide and
settlement cause foundation deformation) it causes crac+s.

According to the research data) accounts for a-out 4.K of crac+s are
caused -y nonDload issue: other 2.K are caused -y load issue.

2.! Control @eCuirements of Crac+s in Concrete 7tructures

There are micro or macro crac+s) and harmful or harmless crac+s. The
crac+ 6idth of the -uilding is less than ...2 mm is microDcrac+s)
-igger than ...2 mm are macroDcrac+s. The differences -et6een
harmful and harmless crac+s are de/ends on the uses) /ro/erties)
en(ironment of -uilding and crac+ /osition) 6idth. ,ormally the
crac+s -ring follo6ing conseCuences called harmful crac+s) such as#
damage to the -uilding function) reduce the structural stiffness) affect
to the integrity of the -uilding damage to the surface function of the
structure and so on. &f the crac+s need to -e fi$ed or not) should -e
-ased on crac+s; /ro/erties) 6idth) en(ironment) structure category
and so on. The tem/erature shrin+age deformation crac+s in normal
indoor en(ironment ha(e the lo6er control reCuirements.

I(ery country has the different control reCuirements) -ut it is
im/ossi-le to ensure that the concrete structure doesn;t crac+#
American @egulation ACL22 s/ecified harmful crac+ 6idth from
..1.4mm: 1rance @egulation CCBA s/ecified the harmful crac+ 6idth
from ..27mm: Canadian @egulation s/ecified harmful crac+ 6idth
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from ...!mm: Aoland @egulation s/ecified harmful crac+ 6idth from
..142mm and so on.


3. Concrete Construction Cracks

3.1 Classification of Crac+s in Concrete ?alls

According to the /enetration) crac+s can -e di(ided into surface
crac+s and /enetrating crac+s. &f crac+s a//ear on the -oth sides of
6all symmetrically) the direction of e$tension and the length are
similar) they are almost including in /enetrating crac+s. &f the crac+s
only a//ear on side of 6all) or a//ear on -oth sides of 6all) -ut the
e$tend direction and length are different) they are surface crac+s.

According to the time of the crac+s on the 6all) crac+s can -e di(ided
into early crac+s and late crac+s. Iarly crac+s means cast concrete
a//ears crac+s during dry) early crac+s normally are mostly hori=ontal
crac+s and (ertical crac+s. Late crac+s means crac+s a//ear after cast
concrete dry) normally hori=ontal crac+s a//ear in the middle of the
concrete 6all) diagonal crac+s a//ear around 6indo6) door o/enings
and (ertical crac+s a//ear at connection -et6een -eam and 6all in
late crac+s.

3.2 The Cause of Crac+s on Concrete Construction

The causes of concrete 6all crac+s are (ery com/le$) the 6all
shrin+age from drying) dura-ility reducing) changing of tem/erature
and humidity) the Cuality of construction fails) and unreasona-le
construction measures factors may ha(e an im/act on the concrete
6all deformation and crac+ing.

1. The effect of shrin+age of concrete construction crac+s#

7hrin+age from drying is one of the main reasons 6hich cause
crac+s. Drying shrin+age is a significant feature in (arious ty/es of
concrete) it is necessary to control the drying shrin+age of the
concrete 6all: other6ise it 6ill ha(e e(en -igger crac+s) ma+e the
6hole 6all crac+s.

2. The effect of tem/erature stress on concrete construction crac+s#
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The thermal stress may e$ceed the tensile strength and -ond
strength of the concrete) it 6ill cause crac+s on the concrete 6all)
and concrete 6ill Cuic+ly dehydrate in high tem/erature) it
e$acer-ated the shrin+age of concrete) and increase dehydration
of mortar that reduce -ond strength. And the stress caused -y
seasonal tem/erature can also cause the concrete 6all crac+s.
Because of the e$terior tem/erature cannot -e controlled) should
a(oid 6or+ing on concrete at hot season.

3. The effect of concrete dura-ility on concrete construction crac+s#

Car-onation and 6etDdry circulation ha(e a -ig im/act to concrete
com/ressi(e) tensile and fle$ural strength.

&f there isn;t 6all surface finishes) the concrete surface car-onation
6ill affect in short /eriod of time) so that /art 6hich got affected
6ill -e reduced com/ressi(e strength and crac+ resistance.

@ainfall causes the change of concrete moisture of e$ternal 6alls:
humidity changes and lea+age cause the change of concrete
moisture of internal 6alls. ?hen the concrete moisture increase)
stiffens 6ill -e decrease. And 6etDdry circulation causes
deformation of concrete) 6hen the deformation is restrained) 6all
crac+s.

. Construction Cuality causes crac+s in the concrete construction#

Many construction 6or+ers don;t +no6 (ery 6ell a-out concrete
construction) and -ric+ 6or+s 6as /o/ular -efore and e(en no6)
that;s 6hy a lot 6or+ers using the same 6ay as -ric+ 6or+s to -uild
concrete construction. Mortar <oint cannot full fill the regulation
demand) many (ertical mortar <oints are less than 1.mm) some of
them are only 2D3mm) and it reduces shear strength and -onding
strength -et6een mortar and concrete 6all -loc+) so that the
(ertical crac+ ha//ens.

*ori=ontal mortar <oints ha(e different /ro-lem) it easy to fulfill the
regulation demand) -ut it often ha//ens that mortar <oint is much
-igger than regulation demand) it not only 6aste cement)
shrin+age of the mortar <oint 6ill -e increased as 6ell) higher
shrin+age causes higher concrete 6all settlement) so that the
connection -et6een concrete 6all and -eam or dec+ crac+s.

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3.3 The Aosition and Characteristics of the Concrete
Construction crac+s

The crac+s in the concrete 6alls mainly occur as# (ertical crac+s)
hori=ontal crac+s and other crac+s and crac+s normally occur on the
surface layer) sometimes it causes entire 6all surface crac+) e(en
crac+s through the 6all. The /osition and characteristics of the crac+s
in the concrete 6all#

1. There are hori=ontal and diagonal crac+s around door and 6indo6
o/enings) -elo6 lintel. And around the hole drilled for -uried
electrical eCui/ment) fire hydrants and other eCui/ment often
a//ear e$tended u/6ard crac+s along the to/ corner of hole.

2. The connections -et6een 6all and -eam often a//ear hori=ontal
crac+s: the crac+s normally /enetrate through the 6all. The
connections -et6een 6all and column often a//ear (ertical crac+s:
the crac+s normally /enetrate through the 6all. The 6alls -elo6
the -eam also easily a//ear (ertical and diagonal crac+.













Figure % the crac's around drilled hole
Figure ! crac's on the column
Figure " crac' elo, the eam
Figure 5 crac's around ,indo, opening
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3. Crac+s in the middle of 6all normally a//ear as hori=ontal crac+s
and (ertical crac+s) those crac+s caused -y destruction of mortar)
and the length of crac+s are -ig.

3. Arecaution of Concrete Construction Crac+s

1. During the concrete elements deli(er from factory to -uilding
site) should use co(er to /rotect: /ut 6ooden -atten under
concrete elements: +ee/ distance -et6een t6o elements in
order to ha(e (entilation ca/ -et6een each other: a(oid -eing
6et in -uilding site.

2. Better to -e used after t6o month of maintenance) ne(er use
-efore 24days since /roduced. &f the concrete elements ha(en;t
dry yet) should use some measures to ma+e them dry in order
to reduce shrin+age of concrete 6all.

3. Try to a(oid 6or+ing in hot day or cold day) if it has to -e 6or+
in such days) should s/rin+le 6ater on concrete in hot days or
use insulation /rotect concrete in cold days.

. &f the 6all longer than 2m) should set load -earing column in the
6all) and set around 1..mm reinforcement concrete -eams
under 6indo6s.

2. 7et e$/ansion <oints in e(ery certain distance Gde/ends on the
regulationH according -uilding regulation.

!. 7hould not erect concrete elements more than 1.4m high e(ery
day) if the 6all is higher than 3m) lea(e the to/ 2 layers of
concrete element for ne$t day in order to finish settlement on
Figure 1+ horizontal crac's in the middle o-
,all
Figure * .ertical crac's i n the middle o- ,all
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-ottom layer.

7. >ee/ in touch 6ith electrician) /lum-er in order to ma+e sure
6here the electricity 6ire and se6er /i/e is) a(oid recessing
again on the finished 6all.

3.2 @eno(ation of Concrete Construction Crac+s

1. 'se steel 6ire mesh# G1H
remo(e 1..mm e$isting
rendering from -oth
sides of crac+s) G2H
recess %Dsha/e) 1.mm
dee/ groo(e along the
crac+s) G3H fill in fle$i-le
/utty in the groo(e GH
/aste 2.mm 6ide nonD6o(en fa-rics on the groo(e) G2H /lace
steel 6ire mesh on to/ of nonD6o(en fa-rics) G!H rendering 6ith
mortar.

2. 1ill in fle$i-le /utty# G1H
remo(e 1..mm e$isting
rendering from -oth sides
of crac+s) G2H recess
%Dsha/e) 1.mm dee/
groo(e along the crac+s)
G3H fill in fle$i-le /utty in
the groo(e) GH /aste
nonD6o(en fa-rics G2H rendering 6ith mortar.

3. @e/air surface of crac+ed 6all# smear fle$i-le /utty direct on to/
of crac+ed 6all.

Figure 11 use steel ,ire mesh repair
Figure 12 -ill in -le/ile putt#
Figure 13 non(,o.en -arics
Figure 14 Fle/ile putt#
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After crac+s a//ear) should ta+e a certain /eriod time to o-ser(e) it
-etter to 6or+ 6hen the crac+s are not e$/anding anymore) and the
am-ient tem/erature should -e -elo6 3..


. Bric+DConcrete Construction Crac+s

The -ric+Dconcrete construction
is a traditional structure system:
it;s -uilt -y clay -ric+ and cement.
Characteristics of clay -ric+s are
high com/ressi(e strength)
tensile strength) -ending
strength. Bric+Dconcrete 6all has
often t6o +inds of crac+s 6hen it
has deformation# one is due to
thermal stress caused crac+s on the 6all: another one is due to
settlement of foundation caused crac+s on the 6all. The one caused
-y thermal stress Ge$ce/t se(ere crac+sH does not endanger the
structure safety) and often o(erloo+ed. But the one caused -y
settlement reduces carrying ca/acity of 6all) and causes the house
tilting. *ori=ontal crac+s) (ertical crac+s) diagonal crac+s and irregular
crac+s can -e ha//ened on -ric+Dconcrete 6all.


.1 Characteristics of Crac+s caused -y Thermal stress

1. %ertical crac+s

There are three +inds of (ertical crac+s caused -y thermal stress.
1irst crac+ runDthrough from to/ to -ottom of 6hole -uilding. ?hen
the floor is castDin concrete dec+ element) due to the lo6ering
Figure 14 Fle/ile putt#
Figure 15 ric' ,all crac's
Figure 1% .ertical crac's under ,indo, Figure 1" .ertical crac's under cornice
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tem/erature caused dec+ element shrin+) -ut the dec+ element
-ound to the 6all) so that dec+ element under tension) it causes
dec+ element crac+. &f the -uilding is long and doesn;t set
e$/ansion <oints) then e(ery certain distance occurs crac+s 6hich
runDthrough from to/ to -ottom) and it normally ha//ens around
6indo6 and door o/ening.

The second one ha//ens under cornice and 6indo6sill. &t normally
ha//ens on the -uilding 6hich -uilt in cold regions: long 6all
doesn;t set e$/ansion <oints) no heating system or constructing
through 6inter.

The third one ha//ens under the
connection -et6een 6all and
reinforcement concrete -eam. &t
ha//ens often 6hen the -eam is too
long) and sometimes it also ha//ens
as diagonal crac+.

2. *ori=ontal crac+s

There are t6o +inds of hori=ontal crac+s caused -y thermal stress.
9ne is normally ha//ens on the <oints under roof) crac+s are
normally distri-uted along to/ of the 6all) -oth ends of the 6all are
6orst. The other one ha//ens around 6indo6sill) it often ha//ens
tall and 6ide -uilding.


3. Diagonal crac+s

The crac+s caused -y thermal
stress normally has three
+inds of sha/e. They are LM NO
sha/e) LN MO sha/e and LPO
sha/e) LM NO sha/e ha//ens
more often than others.
Crac+s normally ha//en
around -oth end one or t6o
o/enings of to/ floor facade) sometimes ha//ens on ga-le.

&n cold region) diagonal crac+ also ha//ens under 6indo6sill and
around the corner of 6all. There are three reasons occur diagonal
crac+ ha//ens# first the -uilding is in cold region) second the
-uilding has long faQade and doesn;t set e$/ansion <oint) third the
Figure 1! crac's under eam
Figure 1* diagonal crac's on the top -loor
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-uilding doesn;t ha(e heating system.

.2 Characteristics of Crac+ caused -y 7ettlement

%ertical crac+s

?hen the foundation settlement under
the 6all -et6een t6o 6indo6 o/enings
is -igger than the foundation
settlement under 6indo6) the (ertical
crac+ ha//ens under 6indo6sill)
-ecause the different settlement
ma+es the 6all under 6indo6 ha(e
different -ending deformation.

?hen one /art of foundation has
-igger settlement) then the to/ of 6all
has tensile stress) it ma+es the 6all
crac+ starting from to/: this (ertical
crac+ starts from the same (ertical
/oint 6hich foundation deformation.
These t6o (ertical crac+s; to/ are 6ide
and -ottom are narro6.

*ori=ontal crac+s

There are t6o ty/es of
hori=ontal crac+s. 1irst ty/e
ha//ens on the 6all -et6een
t6o 6indo6 o/enings) and t6o
crac+s ha//ens together) one
is to/ corner) another one is
-ottom corner) -ut different
sides. 7ettlement larger side
has the crac+ on the -ottom
corner: settlement lo6er side has the crac+ on the to/ corner.

Another hori=ontal crac+ ha//ens 6hen the foundation /artially
colla/se) this +ind of crac+ is rare. There are many reasons occur
foundation /artially colla/se) such as foundation flooding) 6in=e)
drain) tom-s under the foundation.
Figure 2+ crac's under ,indo, caused
# settlement
Figure 21 crac's caused # -oundation
de-ormation
Figure 22 horizontal crac's ne/t to ,indo, caused
# settlement
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LONGHU LI

1"


LM NO or LN MO 7ha/e Crac+s

?hen the middle of -uilding;s
settlement -igger than -oth sides;
settlement) LM NO crac+ ha//ens on
the 6all. &t often ha//ens on the
-uilding 6hich has eCual height.

?hen the middle of -uilding;s
settlement smaller than -oth sides;
settlement) LN MO sha/e crac+
ha//ens on the 6all. &t ha//ens on
the eCual height -uilding on the soft
ground

?hen the faQade has different
height and -uilding is not se/arated)
the settlements are different
-et6een high /art foundation and
lo6 /art foundation: it ma+es
crac+s near the connection -et6een
high /art of -uilding and lo6 /art of
-uilding.

Most of LM NO sha/e crac+s going through the 6indo6s from one corner
to other side corner) closer to 6indo6 crac+s are -igger) and the
direction is going u/ from -igger settlement side to smaller settlement
side. They are often ha//ens on the -ottom of faQade) sometimes
ha//ens on the to/ of faQade: on eCual height roof -uilding) crac+s
more ha//en on -oth end side of 6all) less ha//en in the middle of
6all.

Diagonal crac+s

?hen one side of foundation is
6ea+er or one side of -uilding is
-igger) one side of settlement is
-igger than the other side
settlement: it causes diagonal
crac+s on the 6all.
Figure 23 0 1 shape crac' around ,indo,
opening
Figure 24 1 0 shape crac's around ,indo,
opening
Figure 25 0 1 shape crac's on di--erent height
uilding
Figure 2% crac's on di--erent height uilding
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1!


?hen the -uilding /lan has LLO)
LO. LO sha/es) the connection
/art of foundation o(erla/ stress)
so that connection /art has -igger
settlement) it causes crac+s
around the connection /art.

&f the une(en settlement ha//ens
on the -uilding 6hich has different
height on the faQade and set e$/ansion <oints) -oth lo6 and high /art
of -uilding 6ill incline to the e$/ansion <oints) -ecause sometimes the
e$/ansion <oint is too small or e$/ansion <oint filled 6ith ru--ish
during constructing) hori=ontal e$trusion /ressure occurs) it ma+es
the crac+s on the lo6 -uilding.


.3 Arecaution of Bric+DConcrete Construction Crac+s

Crac+s caused -y thermal stress#

1. Crac+s caused -y thermal stress normally ha//en on the to/
floor) so the roof should -e insulated (ery 6ell.

2. 7hould set re(eals on roof co(ering) fill in elastic ointment in the
re(eals) reinforcement -ar must -e se/arated re(eal.

3. &ncrease mortar strength class on to/ floor) higher than design
reCuirement.

. 7et /ouring -elt e(ery 12R2.m on the connection -et6een roof
and 6all) /ouring -elt 6idth should -e !..R4..mm. 7et
reinforcement -ar in the ga/) cast concrete in the ga/ after
cou/le of 6ee+s.

Crac+s caused -y settlement#

1. Aros/ect for ground soil) re/lace or fill in soil in 6ea+ /art.

2. 7et settlement <oint -et6een different ty/es of construction)
different heights of construction.

Figure 2" crac's on 232 shape uilding
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1*

3. 7et lintel -ric+ under 6indo6 in order to /re(ent (ertical crac+s
under 6indo6.

. &ncrease the strength of to/ floor in order to im/ro(e the shear
strength of the 6all.

2. @educe the scale -et6een length and height. The scale should
-e lo6er or eCual to 2.2 at soft ground.


. @eno(ation of Bric+DConcrete Construction Crac+s

&f the crac+s ha//ened) don;t rush to deal 6ith it) should carefully
o-ser(e. There are fe6 6ays to chec+ the crac+s# G1H /aste a /a/er on
the crac+s) after a 6hile) if the /a/er is fractured) means the crac+s
are e$/anding: G2H or use calcium /laster instead of /a/er. &f the
crac+s are e$/anding) it should -e carried out -y /rofessional /erson.

According the situation) crac+s can -e reno(ated -y different 6ay.

1. ?i/ing 6ith mortar# if the crac+ is not e$/anding anymore) and
doesn;t affect the structural safety) 6i/e the crac+ use mortar
should -e enough.

2. Change the -ric+s around crac+s# if the crac+s are irregular and the
6idth is different) remo(e -ric+s from -oth sides of crac+s) s/ray
mortar into the 6all) and then re/lace ne6 -ric+s into the 6all.

3. 7/ray mortar# if the crac+ are not se(ere) and doesn;t need to
re/lace the -ric+s) s/ray mortar into 6all and rendering on the
6all.

. Demolish and re-uild /art of crac+ 6all# if the crac+s harmful to the
structural safety) should re/lace the crac+ed 6all. Add some
su//orts in ne6 6all and use reinforcement -ar to connect
-et6een ne6 6all and old 6all.

2. 'se reinforcement net# if the crac+s ha//ened) -ecause the 6all
material is not strong) /lace reinforcement net on the e$isting 6all)
use steel -ar go through the 6all fi$ reinforcement net on the 6all.


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2+

5. Project Example Analysis and Measures

2.1 &ntroduction of Construction and Crac+s

9ffice -uilding of reinforcement concrete structure) length 25.4m)
6idth 12m) construction area 25..m
2
) -ric+Dconcrete e$ternal 6all)
concrete internal 6all) -uilding com/leted in 9cto-er 2..3. 7ince May
2..) crac+s start a//earing) lo6er floor has 6orse crac+s) the
-iggest crac+ 6idth is 2mm. According the in(estigation) there are
four +inds of se(erity crac+s#

1. Crac+s in the middle of nonDload -earing 6all) 6idth 1R2mm)
/er/endicular to ground) /enetrate the 6all) there are 1R2
small crac+s near the -ig crac+) account for a-out 23K of the
total num-er of crac+s in the 6all.

2. 7te/ crac+s) 6idth ..1R..2mm)
normally do not /enetrate) mostly in
the middle of 6all) account for a-out
.K of total num-er of crac+s in the
6all.

3. There are small) narro6) nonD/enetrated hori=ontal crac+s and
diagonal crac+s on the connection -et6een -eam or column and
6all) account for a-out 7R4K of total num-er of crac+s in the
6all.

. There are diagonal crac+s on the corner of 6indo6 and door
o/enings) the 6idths are different) account for a-out 2.K of
total num-er of crac+s in the 6all.


2.2 Cause Analysis

According the /osition and circumstances of crac+s) the crac+s mainly
due to the follo6ing#

1. Moisture content of concrete is too -ig.

2. 7ome of concrete element got 6et in -uilding site during
stac+ing.
Figure 2! step crac's
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21


3. After erect the concrete element) immediately render the 6all)
there is humidity still left in the 6all.

2.3 Treatment Measures

Crac+s caused -y shrin+age of concrete in this -uilding) and most of
them ha//ened on nonDload -earing 6all) do not affect the structural
safety. 7o the treatment measures as follo6s#

1. 'se high strength) small shrin+age) and microDe$/ansion
cement re/air -ig crac+s Gthe 6idth -igger than 1..mmH.
@ecess 1.R12mm 6idth) 1.mm de/th ga/ along the crac+)
scra/e 1R2mm de/th rendering around crac+) and then clear
the dust) s/ray 6ater around crac+) use 1#2.2 cement 6hich
mi$ed 6ith 1.K of 'IA e$/ansi(e agent fill in the ga/. After
3R7days le(eling the surface of the 6all.

2. 1or the small crac+s Gthe 6idth small than 1..mmH) scra/e
rendering on the surface) and then use high strength fle$i-le
/utty to fill in the crac+s) later use /a/er stri/ mi$ed lime mortar
co(er the crac+s.


6. Conclusion

Different ty/es of -uilding crac+s 6ere descri-ed in this dissertation.
&t starts from the reason of crac+s such as design) material)
construction techniCues and so on: analy=e the im/act of (arious
ty/es of crac+s) identification method of crac+s) /recaution of crac+s)
and then made a -rief introduction of crac+s reno(ation in real
/ro<ect.

The crac+s in concrete construction caused -y the tem/erature and
humidity changes) une(en settlement and so on: such crac+s
generally do not affect the use of structure) -ut the a//earance of
crac+s and e$/ansion 6ill reduce the dura-ility of the structure.

7unshine) season changes and some other reasons caused thermal
stress on concrete) it ma+es crac+s) and reduce tem/erature changes
is the -est 6ay to /re(ent the crac+s ha//ening.

26
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Nov 2012
LONGHU LI

22

Crac+s caused -y shrin+age are another main reason of concrete
construction. Concrete shrin+age mainly from cement shrin+age)
higher rate of 6ater content causes higher shrin+age) so control the
rate of 6ater content is (ery im/ortant. And also /re(ent the concrete
get 6et in -uilding site.

7ettlement is also one of the main reasons 6hich cause crac+s. Chec+
ground soil carefully) if it is necessary should re/lace soil) and
reinforce foundation on soft ground.

There are a lot of reasons cause crac+s) most of them can -e /re(ent
-efore crac+ ha//ens) and some of them can;t -e a(oid -ut still
/ossi-le to -e reno(ated.






























26
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23

ist o! Illustrations
1igure 1 Fose/h As/din B Aortland Cement 2

1igure 2 Bridge on Cha=elet castle) -uilt in 1472 -y Fose/h Monier 2

1igure 3 aggregate !

1igure 7lic+DAa+ && concrete /um/ing aid !

1igure 2 crac+s around 6indo6 o/ening 11

1igure ! the crac+s around drilled hole 11

1igure 7 crac+ -elo6 the -eam 11

1igure 4 crac+s on the column 11

1igure 5 hori=ontal crac+s on the middle of 6all 12

1igure 1. (ertical crac+s on the middle of 6all 12

1igure 11 use steel 6ire mesh re/air 13

1igure 12 fill in fle$i-le /utty 13

1igure 13 nonD6o(en fa-rics 13

1igure 1 fle$i-le /utty 13

1igure 12 -ric+ 6all crac+s 1

1igure 1! (ertical crac+s under 6indo6 1

1igure 17 (ertical crac+s under cornice 1

1igure 14 crac+s under -eam 12

1igure 15 diagonal crac+s on the to/ floor 12

1igure 2. crac+s under 6indo6 caused -y settlement 1!

1igure 21 crac+s caused -y foundation deformation 1!

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LONGHU LI

24

1igure 22 hori=ontal crac+s ne$t to 6indo6 caused -y settlement 1!

1igure 23 M N sha/e crac+ around 6indo6 o/ening 17

1igure 2 N M sha/e crac+s around 6indo6 o/ening 17

1igure 22 M N sha/e crac+s on different height -uilding 17

1igure 2! crac+s on different height -uilding 17

1igure 27 crac+s on SLS sha/e -uilding 14

1igure 24 ste/ crac+s 2.


ist o! "e!erences

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Nov 2012
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25

tml 2.12 1. 24

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m 2.12 11 1.

htt/#MM666.concretenet6or+.comManne8-aloghMfrit=.htm 2.12 11 1.

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Articles#

LThe causes of crac+s and /re(ention measuresG
HO De/ing Liu) Mar 2..7

LConcrete crac+ing and reno(ating methodGHO
Chengyong ?ang) 9ct 2.1.

LConcrete de(elo/ment of history and /ros/ectsG
HO PiaoCing Li) 1e- 2.1.

LConcrete crac+s reno(ationGHO Fiang Whang)
Mar 2..5

LThe strengths and 6ea+nesses of the reinforced concrete structure
GHO Whulong structural design GH

LA,ALU7&7 91 M&C@9C@AC>&,J &, IA@LU AJI C9,C@ITI
7'BFICTID T9 TIMAI@AT'@I %A@&AT&9, BU AC9'7T&C IM&77&9,O
*A ,J9C 79,) 7e/ 2.1.