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Bachelor of Architectural Technology and

Construction Management

Cracks in Different Types of Concrete
Construction and Renovation

Longhu Li [12!"

Consultant# Tommy Bendi$ %illadsen
%&A 'ni(ersity College) *orsens) Denmar+
,o(em-er 2.12

Cracks in Different Types of Concrete Construction
and Renovation

Bachelor of Architectural Technology and
Construction Management

Consultant# Tommy Bendi$ %illadsen
2 Co/ies 0 1ont %erdana 12
22 /ages
32)451 characters

NOTE: This dissertation 6as com/leted as /art of an Architectural
Technology and Construction Management degree course 0 no
responsibility is taken for any advice, instruction or conclusion
given within!

All rights reser(ed 0 no /art of this /u-lication may -e re/roduced
6ithout the /rior /ermission of the author.

Longhu Li [12!"

7ignature# 88888888888888888888

%&A 'ni(ersity College) *orsens) Denmar+
,o(em-er 2.12

Nov 2012



My /ro-lem statement is *o6 to sol(e crac+ /ro-lems in different +ind
of concrete construction. & had internshi/ in an Architecture Com/any
in China. 9nce 6e got a /ro-lem: the -uilding 6hich the com/any had
-uilt last year start crac+ing and our com/any had the res/onsi-ility
to reno(ate the -uilding. & didn;t ha(e the chance to -e in(ol(ed in the
reno(ation /ro<ect) -ut & 6as so interested in the crac+ing /ro-lem)
6hy it is ha//ening. 7o & 6ill find out the reason of occurring crac+s)
is it /ossi-le to reno(ate) if it;s /ossi-le ho6 to reno(ate the crac+s.

Crac+s are one +ind of uni(ersal /ro-lem of concrete construction) it
affects the -uilding artistic and the function) and it also destroys the
6all;s integrity) affects the structure safety) e(en reduce the dura-ility
of structure. Therefore 6e should ta+e measures to reduce and
/re(ent the crac+s to occur.

This dissertation starts from some descri/tions of concrete) such as
concrete history) ra6 material) ad(antage and disad(antage of
concrete construction and so on. Crac+ 6ill -e descri-ed as the main
/ro-lem of disad(antage) /oint out s/ots and characteristics of the
crac+s) and the causes of 6all crac+ 6ill -e descri-ed. Corres/onding
/re(ention measures are /ro/osed in order to control crac+ from
design and construction) summari=e the crac+ a//raisal methods and
the crac+ re/air methods.

1inally the summary of the crac+ reno(ation 6ill -e -rought u/.

>ey ?ords# Construction) crac+s) history) ra6 material) reno(ate

Nov 2012



! "ntroduction #
1.1 Bac+ground &nformation
1.2 @ationali=ation of choice of su-<ect
1.3 Aro-lem statement
1. 7ummary of 6or+ing /rocess 0 Methodology

$! Concrete construction and cracks #
2.1 Concrete *istory B De(elo/ment
2.2 Concrete Material !
2.3 Concrete Construction Ad(antage B Disad(antage !
2. The Dangers and Affect of Crac+ in Building 7
2.2 Main @eason for Crac+s 4
2.! Control @eCuirements of Crac+s in Concrete 7tructures 4

%! Concrete construction cracks &
3.1 Classification of Crac+s in Concrete Construction 5
3.2 The Cause of Crac+s on Concrete Construction 5
3.3 The Aosition and Characteristics of the Concrete
Construction Crac+s 11
3. Arecaution of Concrete Construction Crac+s 12
3.2 @eno(ation of Concrete Construction Crac+s 13

#! 'rick(Concrete Construction Cracks #
.1 Characteristics of Crac+s caused -y Thermal stress 1
.2 Characteristics of crac+ caused -y settlement 1!
.3 Arecaution of Bric+DConcrete Construction crac+s 14
. @eno(ation of Bric+DConcrete Construction crac+s 15

)! *ro+ect E,a-ple Analysis and .easures $/
2.1 &ntroduction of Construction and Crac+s 2.
2.2 Cause Analysis 2.
2.3 Treatment Measures 21

0! Conclusion $

1ist of "llustration $%

1ist of 2eferences $#

Nov 2012


1. Introduction

1.1 Bac+ground &nformation

&t is a 7
semester dissertation for the Bachelor of Architectural
Technology and Construction Management education. &t;s a-out
concrete construction crac+s. 9ccurring of crac+s) ty/es of crac+s)
/recaution of crac+s 6ill -e descri-ed in this dissertation.

1.2 @ationali=ation of Choice of 7u-<ect

?hen & 6as 6or+ing in &nternshi/ Com/any) 6e got a -ig /ro-lem
-ecause of -uilding crac+s. & had concrete su-<ect in 3
semester) -ut
that 6asn;t enough to sol(e crac+ /ro-lem in real /ro<ect) so & 6ant
ha(e more +no6ledge 6hich can really sol(e the /ro-lem in real

1.3 Aro-lem 7tatement

1. ?hy crac+s ha//enedE
2. ?hat +ind of crac+sE
3. *o6 to /re(ent crac+s ha//eningE
. *o6 to reno(ate crac+sE

1. 7ummary of ?or+ing Arocess 0 Methodology

This dissertation 6as 6ritten mainly 6ith the hel/ of articles and
internet 6e-D/ages. & made /ro-lem statement and structure
according 6hich & follo6ed u/ during my dissertation in 6riting

2. Concrete Construction and Cracks

2.1 Concrete *istory B De(elo/ment

Concrete is -ecoming more and more /o/ular as construction
Nov 2012


material in modern city) it has high /ressureDresistance) good
dura-ility) and 6ide range of intensity le(el) -ecause of such
ad(antage) not only -e used in a (ariety of ci(il engineering) the
concrete is also an im/ortant materials in
shi/-uilding) machinery industry) marine
de(elo/ment) geothermal engineering.

Fose/h As/din G1774D1422H mi$ed
limestone and clay to ma+e first artificial
Aortland cement in 142) and o-tain the
/atent on 21
9ct 142) it;s -ecame the
-eginning of the cement industry.

Later tensile strength of concrete 6as the
-iggest /ro-lem) 1rench technician
gra--ed the -ar-ed 6ire into the concrete to ma+e a small -oat) and
e$hi-ited at the Aaris I$/osition in the second year) it is the first @C
G@einforcement ConcreteH /roducts.

7ince then 1rancois Conigne and
?il+inson im/ro(ed Lam-ot;s
/roducts and Fose/h Monier used
crossed reinforcement into -ridge
/anel and got the /atent in 14!7)
@C /rocess started im/ro(ing fast.
14!7 is considered as the earliest
@C -ridge erection year.

>onan in(estigated concrete -ear
the /ressure and reinforcements
-ear the tension) and F.Bushinger confirmed the reinforcements in the
concrete are not suffering from corrosion and other /ro-lems) so @C
structure has a ne6 de(elo/ment in 1477.

Concrete structure has -een started a//lying since the midD15

century) -ecause of the lo6 Cuality of cement and concrete in that
time) so the de(elo/ment 6as slo6. 'ntil the end of the 15
concrete structure 6as getting faster de(elo/ment 6ith the
de(elo/ment of /roduction) e$/erimental 6or+) com/utational theory
and im/ro(ement of construction techniCues) material. &t -ecame one
of the most 6idely used -uilding materials in the modern

Figure 1 Joseph Aspdin &
Portland Cement
Figure 2 Bridge on Chazelet castle, uilt in
1!"5 # Joseph $onier
Nov 2012


2.2 Concrete @a6 Material

Cement) aggregate and 6ater mi$ture can
-e the normal ra6 material. &n general)
drin+ing 6ater can fulfill the reCuirements
of the concrete mi$ing 6ater) e$cess
amount of acid) al+ali and salt can -ring
harmful effects to concrete. @a6 material
also affect to ca/acity)
6eight) strength and other
/ro/erties of concrete.

Admi$tures can -e added to im/ro(e certain
/ro/erties of concrete) -ecause admi$tures ha(e
significant technical and economical effects) it is
-ecoming indis/ensa-le material of the concrete) it
can -e airDentraining 6ater reducer) efficient
airDentraining 6ater) retarding su/er/lastici=er)
efficient retarding su/er/lastici=er) and efficient
/um/ing agent.

2.3 Concrete Construction Ad(antage B Disad(antage

1. Ad(antage
G1H Iasy to find the ra6 material# sand) stone are generally local
material: industrial material Gsuch as slag) cinderH can -e used to
ma+e artificial material for concrete.

G2H *igh fire resistance and dura-ility# it;s not easy to corrode
reinforcement 6hen it 6ra//ed -y concrete) less cost for
maintenance. The concrete is fire resistance material) 6hen there
is fire) concrete act as insulation.

G3H Jood integrity# can -e -uilt different tem/lates) styles and
si=es according to need. After concrete dry) it has good integrity
and stiffness.

GH Lo6 maintenance fees# concrete structures need less
maintenance) doesn;t li+e steel and 6ood structures that reCuires
freCuent maintenance.

Figure 3 aggregate
Figure 4 &lic'(Pa' ))
concrete pumping aid
Nov 2012


2. Disad(antage
G1H Big selfD6eight# it;s difficult to ha(e -ig s/an on the high

G2H Lo6 crac+ resistance# -ecause of lo6 tensile strength of
concrete) it often ha//ens crac+s) 6hen -uild the construction
6hich doesn;t allo6 to ha(e crash or has high reCuirement a-out
crac+s) /ro<ect cost 6ill -e increased

G3H Long 6or+ing time# su-<ect to seasonal (ariations.

There are many 6ays to reduce disad(antages# i.e. LightD6eight)
highDstrength material and /reDstressed concrete can -e used to
reduce the structural 6eight and im/ro(e the crac+ resistance of
the structure.

2. The Dangers and Affect of Crac+ in Building

Building crac+ es/ecially means concrete sla- crac+ and concrete 6all
crac+: it -ecomes uni(ersal /ro-lem of current -uildings. Many
concrete constructions ha(e different forms of crac+ in /rocess of
construct and use. Car-on dio$ide /enetrates into the concrete
through the crac+s and s/eed u/ car-onation s/eed around the crac+s)
thus shortening the structure usage. The crac+s in the concrete 6all
6ould cause the lea+age of the -uilding: it reduces the stiffness)
dura-ility and seismic /erformance of -uildings) if the crac+s in the
6all e$/end) it might -e a -ig threat to human life and /ro/erty safety.
1or e$am/le#

1. 7ome /enetrate crac+s on the 6all can reduce /erformance)
es/ecially affect to the -uilding;s usage and seismic /erformance.

2. Crac+s on the e$ternal 6all cause lea+age reduce e$ternal 6all
moistureD/roof function.

3. &f crac+s are too dense) e(ery tem/erature change accelerates the
e$/ansion of the crac+) 6ill cause -igger crac+s.

. Crac+s on the 6all surface damage to the later rendering) 6ill
affect to the a//earance.

2. May cause rendering layer crac+ off
Nov 2012


2.2 Main @eason for Crac+s

There are t6o +inds of issues cause the crac+s on the 6all) they are
e$ternal loads and nonDload issue Gi.e. Tem/erature) shrin+age)
differential settlement) etcH

The cause of nonDload issue caused crac+s reCuires deformation of the
construction) 6hen the deformation cannot -e fulfilled) it ma+es
stress) and the stress e$ceeds a certain (alue crac+s caused) after the
crac+s a//ear deformation are fulfilled or /artially fulfilled. 7ome
structures) although the strength of the material is not high) -ut ha(e
good toughness: it can -e ada/ted to deformation reCuirements and
has high crac+ resistance.

I$ternal load issue such as earthCua+e) settlement) and landslide
Getc.H can -e the caused crac+s. Crac+s caused -y the earthCua+e can
-e seen as the foundation of the dynamic deformation. Landslide and
settlement cause foundation deformation) it causes crac+s.

According to the research data) accounts for a-out 4.K of crac+s are
caused -y nonDload issue: other 2.K are caused -y load issue.

2.! Control @eCuirements of Crac+s in Concrete 7tructures

There are micro or macro crac+s) and harmful or harmless crac+s. The
crac+ 6idth of the -uilding is less than ...2 mm is microDcrac+s)
-igger than ...2 mm are macroDcrac+s. The differences -et6een
harmful and harmless crac+s are de/ends on the uses) /ro/erties)
en(ironment of -uilding and crac+ /osition) 6idth. ,ormally the
crac+s -ring follo6ing conseCuences called harmful crac+s) such as#
damage to the -uilding function) reduce the structural stiffness) affect
to the integrity of the -uilding damage to the surface function of the
structure and so on. &f the crac+s need to -e fi$ed or not) should -e
-ased on crac+s; /ro/erties) 6idth) en(ironment) structure category
and so on. The tem/erature shrin+age deformation crac+s in normal
indoor en(ironment ha(e the lo6er control reCuirements.

I(ery country has the different control reCuirements) -ut it is
im/ossi-le to ensure that the concrete structure doesn;t crac+#
American @egulation ACL22 s/ecified harmful crac+ 6idth from
..1.4mm: 1rance @egulation CCBA s/ecified the harmful crac+ 6idth
from ..27mm: Canadian @egulation s/ecified harmful crac+ 6idth
Nov 2012


from ...!mm: Aoland @egulation s/ecified harmful crac+ 6idth from
..142mm and so on.

3. Concrete Construction Cracks

3.1 Classification of Crac+s in Concrete ?alls

According to the /enetration) crac+s can -e di(ided into surface
crac+s and /enetrating crac+s. &f crac+s a//ear on the -oth sides of
6all symmetrically) the direction of e$tension and the length are
similar) they are almost including in /enetrating crac+s. &f the crac+s
only a//ear on side of 6all) or a//ear on -oth sides of 6all) -ut the
e$tend direction and length are different) they are surface crac+s.

According to the time of the crac+s on the 6all) crac+s can -e di(ided
into early crac+s and late crac+s. Iarly crac+s means cast concrete
a//ears crac+s during dry) early crac+s normally are mostly hori=ontal
crac+s and (ertical crac+s. Late crac+s means crac+s a//ear after cast
concrete dry) normally hori=ontal crac+s a//ear in the middle of the
concrete 6all) diagonal crac+s a//ear around 6indo6) door o/enings
and (ertical crac+s a//ear at connection -et6een -eam and 6all in
late crac+s.

3.2 The Cause of Crac+s on Concrete Construction

The causes of concrete 6all crac+s are (ery com/le$) the 6all
shrin+age from drying) dura-ility reducing) changing of tem/erature
and humidity) the Cuality of construction fails) and unreasona-le
construction measures factors may ha(e an im/act on the concrete
6all deformation and crac+ing.

1. The effect of shrin+age of concrete construction crac+s#

7hrin+age from drying is one of the main reasons 6hich cause
crac+s. Drying shrin+age is a significant feature in (arious ty/es of
concrete) it is necessary to control the drying shrin+age of the
concrete 6all: other6ise it 6ill ha(e e(en -igger crac+s) ma+e the
6hole 6all crac+s.

2. The effect of tem/erature stress on concrete construction crac+s#
Nov 2012


The thermal stress may e$ceed the tensile strength and -ond
strength of the concrete) it 6ill cause crac+s on the concrete 6all)
and concrete 6ill Cuic+ly dehydrate in high tem/erature) it
e$acer-ated the shrin+age of concrete) and increase dehydration
of mortar that reduce -ond strength. And the stress caused -y
seasonal tem/erature can also cause the concrete 6all crac+s.
Because of the e$terior tem/erature cannot -e controlled) should
a(oid 6or+ing on concrete at hot season.

3. The effect of concrete dura-ility on concrete construction crac+s#

Car-onation and 6etDdry circulation ha(e a -ig im/act to concrete
com/ressi(e) tensile and fle$ural strength.

&f there isn;t 6all surface finishes) the concrete surface car-onation
6ill affect in short /eriod of time) so that /art 6hich got affected
6ill -e reduced com/ressi(e strength and crac+ resistance.

@ainfall causes the change of concrete moisture of e$ternal 6alls:
humidity changes and lea+age cause the change of concrete
moisture of internal 6alls. ?hen the concrete moisture increase)
stiffens 6ill -e decrease. And 6etDdry circulation causes
deformation of concrete) 6hen the deformation is restrained) 6all

. Construction Cuality causes crac+s in the concrete construction#

Many construction 6or+ers don;t +no6 (ery 6ell a-out concrete
construction) and -ric+ 6or+s 6as /o/ular -efore and e(en no6)
that;s 6hy a lot 6or+ers using the same 6ay as -ric+ 6or+s to -uild
concrete construction. Mortar <oint cannot full fill the regulation
demand) many (ertical mortar <oints are less than some of
them are only 2D3mm) and it reduces shear strength and -onding
strength -et6een mortar and concrete 6all -loc+) so that the
(ertical crac+ ha//ens.

*ori=ontal mortar <oints ha(e different /ro-lem) it easy to fulfill the
regulation demand) -ut it often ha//ens that mortar <oint is much
-igger than regulation demand) it not only 6aste cement)
shrin+age of the mortar <oint 6ill -e increased as 6ell) higher
shrin+age causes higher concrete 6all settlement) so that the
connection -et6een concrete 6all and -eam or dec+ crac+s.

Nov 2012


3.3 The Aosition and Characteristics of the Concrete
Construction crac+s

The crac+s in the concrete 6alls mainly occur as# (ertical crac+s)
hori=ontal crac+s and other crac+s and crac+s normally occur on the
surface layer) sometimes it causes entire 6all surface crac+) e(en
crac+s through the 6all. The /osition and characteristics of the crac+s
in the concrete 6all#

1. There are hori=ontal and diagonal crac+s around door and 6indo6
o/enings) -elo6 lintel. And around the hole drilled for -uried
electrical eCui/ment) fire hydrants and other eCui/ment often
a//ear e$tended u/6ard crac+s along the to/ corner of hole.

2. The connections -et6een 6all and -eam often a//ear hori=ontal
crac+s: the crac+s normally /enetrate through the 6all. The
connections -et6een 6all and column often a//ear (ertical crac+s:
the crac+s normally /enetrate through the 6all. The 6alls -elo6
the -eam also easily a//ear (ertical and diagonal crac+.

Figure % the crac's around drilled hole
Figure ! crac's on the column
Figure " crac' elo, the eam
Figure 5 crac's around ,indo, opening
Nov 2012


3. Crac+s in the middle of 6all normally a//ear as hori=ontal crac+s
and (ertical crac+s) those crac+s caused -y destruction of mortar)
and the length of crac+s are -ig.

3. Arecaution of Concrete Construction Crac+s

1. During the concrete elements deli(er from factory to -uilding
site) should use co(er to /rotect: /ut 6ooden -atten under
concrete elements: +ee/ distance -et6een t6o elements in
order to ha(e (entilation ca/ -et6een each other: a(oid -eing
6et in -uilding site.

2. Better to -e used after t6o month of maintenance) ne(er use
-efore 24days since /roduced. &f the concrete elements ha(en;t
dry yet) should use some measures to ma+e them dry in order
to reduce shrin+age of concrete 6all.

3. Try to a(oid 6or+ing in hot day or cold day) if it has to -e 6or+
in such days) should s/rin+le 6ater on concrete in hot days or
use insulation /rotect concrete in cold days.

. &f the 6all longer than 2m) should set load -earing column in the
6all) and set around reinforcement concrete -eams
under 6indo6s.

2. 7et e$/ansion <oints in e(ery certain distance Gde/ends on the
regulationH according -uilding regulation.

!. 7hould not erect concrete elements more than 1.4m high e(ery
day) if the 6all is higher than 3m) lea(e the to/ 2 layers of
concrete element for ne$t day in order to finish settlement on
Figure 1+ horizontal crac's in the middle o-
Figure * .ertical crac's i n the middle o- ,all
Nov 2012


-ottom layer.

7. >ee/ in touch 6ith electrician) /lum-er in order to ma+e sure
6here the electricity 6ire and se6er /i/e is) a(oid recessing
again on the finished 6all.

3.2 @eno(ation of Concrete Construction Crac+s

1. 'se steel 6ire mesh# G1H
remo(e e$isting
rendering from -oth
sides of crac+s) G2H
recess %Dsha/e)
dee/ groo(e along the
crac+s) G3H fill in fle$i-le
/utty in the groo(e GH
/aste 6ide nonD6o(en fa-rics on the groo(e) G2H /lace
steel 6ire mesh on to/ of nonD6o(en fa-rics) G!H rendering 6ith

2. 1ill in fle$i-le /utty# G1H
remo(e e$isting
rendering from -oth sides
of crac+s) G2H recess
%Dsha/e) dee/
groo(e along the crac+s)
G3H fill in fle$i-le /utty in
the groo(e) GH /aste
nonD6o(en fa-rics G2H rendering 6ith mortar.

3. @e/air surface of crac+ed 6all# smear fle$i-le /utty direct on to/
of crac+ed 6all.

Figure 11 use steel ,ire mesh repair
Figure 12 -ill in -le/ile putt#
Figure 13 non(,o.en -arics
Figure 14 Fle/ile putt#
Nov 2012


After crac+s a//ear) should ta+e a certain /eriod time to o-ser(e) it
-etter to 6or+ 6hen the crac+s are not e$/anding anymore) and the
am-ient tem/erature should -e -elo6 3..

. Bric+DConcrete Construction Crac+s

The -ric+Dconcrete construction
is a traditional structure system:
it;s -uilt -y clay -ric+ and cement.
Characteristics of clay -ric+s are
high com/ressi(e strength)
tensile strength) -ending
strength. Bric+Dconcrete 6all has
often t6o +inds of crac+s 6hen it
has deformation# one is due to
thermal stress caused crac+s on the 6all: another one is due to
settlement of foundation caused crac+s on the 6all. The one caused
-y thermal stress Ge$ce/t se(ere crac+sH does not endanger the
structure safety) and often o(erloo+ed. But the one caused -y
settlement reduces carrying ca/acity of 6all) and causes the house
tilting. *ori=ontal crac+s) (ertical crac+s) diagonal crac+s and irregular
crac+s can -e ha//ened on -ric+Dconcrete 6all.

.1 Characteristics of Crac+s caused -y Thermal stress

1. %ertical crac+s

There are three +inds of (ertical crac+s caused -y thermal stress.
1irst crac+ runDthrough from to/ to -ottom of 6hole -uilding. ?hen
the floor is castDin concrete dec+ element) due to the lo6ering
Figure 14 Fle/ile putt#
Figure 15 ric' ,all crac's
Figure 1% .ertical crac's under ,indo, Figure 1" .ertical crac's under cornice
Nov 2012


tem/erature caused dec+ element shrin+) -ut the dec+ element
-ound to the 6all) so that dec+ element under tension) it causes
dec+ element crac+. &f the -uilding is long and doesn;t set
e$/ansion <oints) then e(ery certain distance occurs crac+s 6hich
runDthrough from to/ to -ottom) and it normally ha//ens around
6indo6 and door o/ening.

The second one ha//ens under cornice and 6indo6sill. &t normally
ha//ens on the -uilding 6hich -uilt in cold regions: long 6all
doesn;t set e$/ansion <oints) no heating system or constructing
through 6inter.

The third one ha//ens under the
connection -et6een 6all and
reinforcement concrete -eam. &t
ha//ens often 6hen the -eam is too
long) and sometimes it also ha//ens
as diagonal crac+.

2. *ori=ontal crac+s

There are t6o +inds of hori=ontal crac+s caused -y thermal stress.
9ne is normally ha//ens on the <oints under roof) crac+s are
normally distri-uted along to/ of the 6all) -oth ends of the 6all are
6orst. The other one ha//ens around 6indo6sill) it often ha//ens
tall and 6ide -uilding.

3. Diagonal crac+s

The crac+s caused -y thermal
stress normally has three
+inds of sha/e. They are LM NO
sha/e) LN MO sha/e and LPO
sha/e) LM NO sha/e ha//ens
more often than others.
Crac+s normally ha//en
around -oth end one or t6o
o/enings of to/ floor facade) sometimes ha//ens on ga-le.

&n cold region) diagonal crac+ also ha//ens under 6indo6sill and
around the corner of 6all. There are three reasons occur diagonal
crac+ ha//ens# first the -uilding is in cold region) second the
-uilding has long faQade and doesn;t set e$/ansion <oint) third the
Figure 1! crac's under eam
Figure 1* diagonal crac's on the top -loor
Nov 2012


-uilding doesn;t ha(e heating system.

.2 Characteristics of Crac+ caused -y 7ettlement

%ertical crac+s

?hen the foundation settlement under
the 6all -et6een t6o 6indo6 o/enings
is -igger than the foundation
settlement under 6indo6) the (ertical
crac+ ha//ens under 6indo6sill)
-ecause the different settlement
ma+es the 6all under 6indo6 ha(e
different -ending deformation.

?hen one /art of foundation has
-igger settlement) then the to/ of 6all
has tensile stress) it ma+es the 6all
crac+ starting from to/: this (ertical
crac+ starts from the same (ertical
/oint 6hich foundation deformation.
These t6o (ertical crac+s; to/ are 6ide
and -ottom are narro6.

*ori=ontal crac+s

There are t6o ty/es of
hori=ontal crac+s. 1irst ty/e
ha//ens on the 6all -et6een
t6o 6indo6 o/enings) and t6o
crac+s ha//ens together) one
is to/ corner) another one is
-ottom corner) -ut different
sides. 7ettlement larger side
has the crac+ on the -ottom
corner: settlement lo6er side has the crac+ on the to/ corner.

Another hori=ontal crac+ ha//ens 6hen the foundation /artially
colla/se) this +ind of crac+ is rare. There are many reasons occur
foundation /artially colla/se) such as foundation flooding) 6in=e)
drain) tom-s under the foundation.
Figure 2+ crac's under ,indo, caused
# settlement
Figure 21 crac's caused # -oundation
Figure 22 horizontal crac's ne/t to ,indo, caused
# settlement
Nov 2012


LM NO or LN MO 7ha/e Crac+s

?hen the middle of -uilding;s
settlement -igger than -oth sides;
settlement) LM NO crac+ ha//ens on
the 6all. &t often ha//ens on the
-uilding 6hich has eCual height.

?hen the middle of -uilding;s
settlement smaller than -oth sides;
settlement) LN MO sha/e crac+
ha//ens on the 6all. &t ha//ens on
the eCual height -uilding on the soft

?hen the faQade has different
height and -uilding is not se/arated)
the settlements are different
-et6een high /art foundation and
lo6 /art foundation: it ma+es
crac+s near the connection -et6een
high /art of -uilding and lo6 /art of

Most of LM NO sha/e crac+s going through the 6indo6s from one corner
to other side corner) closer to 6indo6 crac+s are -igger) and the
direction is going u/ from -igger settlement side to smaller settlement
side. They are often ha//ens on the -ottom of faQade) sometimes
ha//ens on the to/ of faQade: on eCual height roof -uilding) crac+s
more ha//en on -oth end side of 6all) less ha//en in the middle of

Diagonal crac+s

?hen one side of foundation is
6ea+er or one side of -uilding is
-igger) one side of settlement is
-igger than the other side
settlement: it causes diagonal
crac+s on the 6all.
Figure 23 0 1 shape crac' around ,indo,
Figure 24 1 0 shape crac's around ,indo,
Figure 25 0 1 shape crac's on di--erent height
Figure 2% crac's on di--erent height uilding
Nov 2012


?hen the -uilding /lan has LLO)
LO. LO sha/es) the connection
/art of foundation o(erla/ stress)
so that connection /art has -igger
settlement) it causes crac+s
around the connection /art.

&f the une(en settlement ha//ens
on the -uilding 6hich has different
height on the faQade and set e$/ansion <oints) -oth lo6 and high /art
of -uilding 6ill incline to the e$/ansion <oints) -ecause sometimes the
e$/ansion <oint is too small or e$/ansion <oint filled 6ith ru--ish
during constructing) hori=ontal e$trusion /ressure occurs) it ma+es
the crac+s on the lo6 -uilding.

.3 Arecaution of Bric+DConcrete Construction Crac+s

Crac+s caused -y thermal stress#

1. Crac+s caused -y thermal stress normally ha//en on the to/
floor) so the roof should -e insulated (ery 6ell.

2. 7hould set re(eals on roof co(ering) fill in elastic ointment in the
re(eals) reinforcement -ar must -e se/arated re(eal.

3. &ncrease mortar strength class on to/ floor) higher than design

. 7et /ouring -elt e(ery 12R2.m on the connection -et6een roof
and 6all) /ouring -elt 6idth should -e ! 7et
reinforcement -ar in the ga/) cast concrete in the ga/ after
cou/le of 6ee+s.

Crac+s caused -y settlement#

1. Aros/ect for ground soil) re/lace or fill in soil in 6ea+ /art.

2. 7et settlement <oint -et6een different ty/es of construction)
different heights of construction.

Figure 2" crac's on 232 shape uilding
Nov 2012


3. 7et lintel -ric+ under 6indo6 in order to /re(ent (ertical crac+s
under 6indo6.

. &ncrease the strength of to/ floor in order to im/ro(e the shear
strength of the 6all.

2. @educe the scale -et6een length and height. The scale should
-e lo6er or eCual to 2.2 at soft ground.

. @eno(ation of Bric+DConcrete Construction Crac+s

&f the crac+s ha//ened) don;t rush to deal 6ith it) should carefully
o-ser(e. There are fe6 6ays to chec+ the crac+s# G1H /aste a /a/er on
the crac+s) after a 6hile) if the /a/er is fractured) means the crac+s
are e$/anding: G2H or use calcium /laster instead of /a/er. &f the
crac+s are e$/anding) it should -e carried out -y /rofessional /erson.

According the situation) crac+s can -e reno(ated -y different 6ay.

1. ?i/ing 6ith mortar# if the crac+ is not e$/anding anymore) and
doesn;t affect the structural safety) 6i/e the crac+ use mortar
should -e enough.

2. Change the -ric+s around crac+s# if the crac+s are irregular and the
6idth is different) remo(e -ric+s from -oth sides of crac+s) s/ray
mortar into the 6all) and then re/lace ne6 -ric+s into the 6all.

3. 7/ray mortar# if the crac+ are not se(ere) and doesn;t need to
re/lace the -ric+s) s/ray mortar into 6all and rendering on the

. Demolish and re-uild /art of crac+ 6all# if the crac+s harmful to the
structural safety) should re/lace the crac+ed 6all. Add some
su//orts in ne6 6all and use reinforcement -ar to connect
-et6een ne6 6all and old 6all.

2. 'se reinforcement net# if the crac+s ha//ened) -ecause the 6all
material is not strong) /lace reinforcement net on the e$isting 6all)
use steel -ar go through the 6all fi$ reinforcement net on the 6all.

Nov 2012


5. Project Example Analysis and Measures

2.1 &ntroduction of Construction and Crac+s

9ffice -uilding of reinforcement concrete structure) length 25.4m)
6idth 12m) construction area 25..m
) -ric+Dconcrete e$ternal 6all)
concrete internal 6all) -uilding com/leted in 9cto-er 2..3. 7ince May
2..) crac+s start a//earing) lo6er floor has 6orse crac+s) the
-iggest crac+ 6idth is 2mm. According the in(estigation) there are
four +inds of se(erity crac+s#

1. Crac+s in the middle of nonDload -earing 6all) 6idth 1R2mm)
/er/endicular to ground) /enetrate the 6all) there are 1R2
small crac+s near the -ig crac+) account for a-out 23K of the
total num-er of crac+s in the 6all.

2. 7te/ crac+s) 6idth ..1R..2mm)
normally do not /enetrate) mostly in
the middle of 6all) account for a-out
.K of total num-er of crac+s in the

3. There are small) narro6) nonD/enetrated hori=ontal crac+s and
diagonal crac+s on the connection -et6een -eam or column and
6all) account for a-out 7R4K of total num-er of crac+s in the

. There are diagonal crac+s on the corner of 6indo6 and door
o/enings) the 6idths are different) account for a-out 2.K of
total num-er of crac+s in the 6all.

2.2 Cause Analysis

According the /osition and circumstances of crac+s) the crac+s mainly
due to the follo6ing#

1. Moisture content of concrete is too -ig.

2. 7ome of concrete element got 6et in -uilding site during
Figure 2! step crac's
Nov 2012


3. After erect the concrete element) immediately render the 6all)
there is humidity still left in the 6all.

2.3 Treatment Measures

Crac+s caused -y shrin+age of concrete in this -uilding) and most of
them ha//ened on nonDload -earing 6all) do not affect the structural
safety. 7o the treatment measures as follo6s#

1. 'se high strength) small shrin+age) and microDe$/ansion
cement re/air -ig crac+s Gthe 6idth -igger than 1..mmH.
@ecess 1.R12mm 6idth) de/th ga/ along the crac+)
scra/e 1R2mm de/th rendering around crac+) and then clear
the dust) s/ray 6ater around crac+) use 1#2.2 cement 6hich
mi$ed 6ith 1.K of 'IA e$/ansi(e agent fill in the ga/. After
3R7days le(eling the surface of the 6all.

2. 1or the small crac+s Gthe 6idth small than 1..mmH) scra/e
rendering on the surface) and then use high strength fle$i-le
/utty to fill in the crac+s) later use /a/er stri/ mi$ed lime mortar
co(er the crac+s.

6. Conclusion

Different ty/es of -uilding crac+s 6ere descri-ed in this dissertation.
&t starts from the reason of crac+s such as design) material)
construction techniCues and so on: analy=e the im/act of (arious
ty/es of crac+s) identification method of crac+s) /recaution of crac+s)
and then made a -rief introduction of crac+s reno(ation in real

The crac+s in concrete construction caused -y the tem/erature and
humidity changes) une(en settlement and so on: such crac+s
generally do not affect the use of structure) -ut the a//earance of
crac+s and e$/ansion 6ill reduce the dura-ility of the structure.

7unshine) season changes and some other reasons caused thermal
stress on concrete) it ma+es crac+s) and reduce tem/erature changes
is the -est 6ay to /re(ent the crac+s ha//ening.

Nov 2012


Crac+s caused -y shrin+age are another main reason of concrete
construction. Concrete shrin+age mainly from cement shrin+age)
higher rate of 6ater content causes higher shrin+age) so control the
rate of 6ater content is (ery im/ortant. And also /re(ent the concrete
get 6et in -uilding site.

7ettlement is also one of the main reasons 6hich cause crac+s. Chec+
ground soil carefully) if it is necessary should re/lace soil) and
reinforce foundation on soft ground.

There are a lot of reasons cause crac+s) most of them can -e /re(ent
-efore crac+ ha//ens) and some of them can;t -e a(oid -ut still
/ossi-le to -e reno(ated.

Nov 2012


ist o! Illustrations
1igure 1 Fose/h As/din B Aortland Cement 2

1igure 2 Bridge on Cha=elet castle) -uilt in 1472 -y Fose/h Monier 2

1igure 3 aggregate !

1igure 7lic+DAa+ && concrete /um/ing aid !

1igure 2 crac+s around 6indo6 o/ening 11

1igure ! the crac+s around drilled hole 11

1igure 7 crac+ -elo6 the -eam 11

1igure 4 crac+s on the column 11

1igure 5 hori=ontal crac+s on the middle of 6all 12

1igure 1. (ertical crac+s on the middle of 6all 12

1igure 11 use steel 6ire mesh re/air 13

1igure 12 fill in fle$i-le /utty 13

1igure 13 nonD6o(en fa-rics 13

1igure 1 fle$i-le /utty 13

1igure 12 -ric+ 6all crac+s 1

1igure 1! (ertical crac+s under 6indo6 1

1igure 17 (ertical crac+s under cornice 1

1igure 14 crac+s under -eam 12

1igure 15 diagonal crac+s on the to/ floor 12

1igure 2. crac+s under 6indo6 caused -y settlement 1!

1igure 21 crac+s caused -y foundation deformation 1!

Nov 2012


1igure 22 hori=ontal crac+s ne$t to 6indo6 caused -y settlement 1!

1igure 23 M N sha/e crac+ around 6indo6 o/ening 17

1igure 2 N M sha/e crac+s around 6indo6 o/ening 17

1igure 22 M N sha/e crac+s on different height -uilding 17

1igure 2! crac+s on different height -uilding 17

1igure 27 crac+s on SLS sha/e -uilding 14

1igure 24 ste/ crac+s 2.

ist o! "e!erences


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LThe causes of crac+s and /re(ention measuresG
HO De/ing Liu) Mar 2..7

LConcrete crac+ing and reno(ating methodGHO
Chengyong ?ang) 9ct 2.1.

LConcrete de(elo/ment of history and /ros/ectsG
HO PiaoCing Li) 1e- 2.1.

LConcrete crac+s reno(ationGHO Fiang Whang)
Mar 2..5

LThe strengths and 6ea+nesses of the reinforced concrete structure
GHO Whulong structural design GH

LA,ALU7&7 91 M&C@9C@AC>&,J &, IA@LU AJI C9,C@ITI
7'BFICTID T9 TIMAI@AT'@I %A@&AT&9, BU AC9'7T&C IM&77&9,O
*A ,J9C 79,) 7e/ 2.1.