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Finite Element Analyses of Seismic Responses of

the Berkeley Town House


Fai C. Jor
LaMont Duke
Zhanjing Yu
Murat Karaca
Deb Hopkins
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
August, 22
Table of Contents
!ntro"uction #
$heoretica% &ackgroun" '
Mo"a% Ana%(sis '
)pectru* Ana%(sis +
Description o, the &ui%"ing -
Description o, the Mo"e% ..
/eo*etr( an" F0 !"ea%i1ation ..
0%e*ent $(pes .'
0%e*ent Constants .'
Materia% 2roperties .3
&oun"ar( Con"itions an" App%ie" )pectru* .-
Ana%(sis 2roce"ures an" 4ptions .5
6esu%ts an" Discussion 2
7atura% Fre8uencies an" Mo"a% )hapes o, the &ui%"ing 2
Disp%ace*ent an" Acce%eration 6esponses 2'
)tress Distributions 25
Conc%usions an" 6eco**en"ations #
Ackno9%e"ge*ents #.
6e,erences #.
Appen"i: ##
2
ntro!uction
$he L&7L is 9orking on a project to "e;e%op a net9ork o, 9ire%ess sensors in a
co%%aborati;e e,,ort 9ith He9%ett<2ackar" an" the Cit( o, &erke%e(. As part o, the
project, the 9ire%ess sensors 9i%% be "ep%o(e" in the &erke%e( $o9n House ,or seis*ic
*onitoring to "e*onstrate the ,unctiona%it( o, the s(ste*. $o ,aci%itate the ,ie%"
*onitoring an" pro;i"e in,or*ation on potentia% responses o, the bui%"ing to seis*ic
acti;ities, a #<D ,inite e%e*ent *o"e% 9as bui%t ,or ana%(ses base" on the b%ueprint
pro;i"e" b( the Cit( o, &erke%e(.
$he *o"e% inc%u"es a%% the structura% co*ponents o, the bui%"ing an" is co*pose"
o, t9o t(pes o, e%e*ents= 2<no"e bea* e%e*ents an" '<no"e she%% e%e*ents 9ith si:
"egrees o, ,ree"o* at each no"e. A tota% o, #># bea* e%e*ents an" 2#' she%% e%e*ents,
three t(pes o, *ateria%s properties an" .2 t(pes o, cross<sections 9ere use". Mo"a% an"
response spectru* ana%(ses 9ere per,or*e" on the *o"e%. $he "ata ,ro* the 0% Centro
earth8uake 9as use" ,or the response spectru* ana%(sis. $he resu%ts ,ro* the ana%(ses
inc%u"e 2 natura% ,re8uencies, ,i;e *o"a% shapes, the "isp%ace*ents an" acce%erations at
each no"e an" stresses in each e%e*ent. $he ,un"a*enta% ,re8uenc( obtaine" ,ro* the
*o"e% *atches 9e%% 9ith the e*pirica% ;a%ue, suggesting the *o"e% is a rea%istic one. $he
"isp%ace*ent an" acce%eration resu%ts can be use" to gui"e the "ep%o(*ent o, sensors an"
the stress "istribution *ap can pro;i"e the Cit( o, &erke%e( 9ith retro,itting in,or*ation.
#
Theoretical Back"roun!
$he pre"iction o, bui%"ing responses to seis*ic acti;ities is o, great interest to
scientists, engineers an" the genera% pub%ic. ?ariet( o, *etho"s has been "e;e%ope" in
this area. 4ne o, the *etho"s is to use ,inite e%e*ent *o"e% to stu"( the beha;ior o, a
bui%"ing in case o, an earth8uake. $he *etho" is ;er( 9e%% "e;e%ope" ,or %inear static an"
"(na*ic prob%e*s in so%i" an" structura% ana%(ses, an" to so*e e:tent, non%inear static
so%i" prob%e*s an" geo*etrica%%( non%inear prob%e*s. $he progra* use" in this stu"(,
A7)Y), is a 9e%%<kno9n, *u%ti<purpose ,inite e%e*ent progra*. A7)Y) can per,or*
se;era% t(pes o, "(na*ic ana%(ses, inc%u"ing *o"a%, transient, har*onic an" spectru*
ana%(ses. !n this stu"(, *o"a% an" spectru* ana%(ses are se%ecte" base" on the objecti;es
o, the project.
Modal Analysis
$he *o"a% ana%(sis in A7)Y) is a *o"e<,re8uenc( ana%(sis an" it assu*es
constant sti,,ness an" *ass, no "a*ping @,or spectru* ana%(sis purposeA an" ,ree
;ibration go;erne" b( the e8uation o, *otion=
B 8 CKDE B 8 MDE C = +

@.A
9here 8, M an" K are the "isp%ace*ents, *ass *atri: an" sti,,ness *atri:, respecti;e%(.
For a %inear s(ste*, the so%ution to 08. @.A is in the ,or* o, C.D=
A F < CEuBcos@G E8B =
@2A
'
9here EuB

is the eigen;ector that "e,ine the *o"es o, the s(ste*, is the natura%
,re8uenc(

, an" C

an"

are constants "epen"ing on the initia% con"itions. 2%ugging 08.
@2A into @.A (ie%"s=
CMDDEuB G CKD C
2
=
@#A
08. @#A can be satis,ie" b( either EuBH or
CMD G CKD
2
=
@'A
$he ,irst case is tri;ia% an" the secon" case represente" b( 08. @'A (ie%"s n eigen;a%ues,
2
i
G @i H ., 2, ..., nA, 9hich in turn gi;e the natura% ,re8uencies,
i
G . For each natura%
,re8uenc(, an eigen;ector can be ,oun" that "e,ine the *o"e shape o, the s(ste*. )uch
;ector is not uni8ue in the sense that i, one eigen;ector is a so%ution, then a constant
*u%tip%e o, that ;ector is a%so a so%ution. For ana%(sis purpose, eigen;ector is usua%%(
nor*a%i1e". $he *ost co**on nor*a%i1ation sche*e is "e,ine" as ,o%%o9s=
EuB
$
i
CMD EuB
i
H .

@+A
Another nor*a%i1ation sche*e in;o%;ing setting the %argest ;a%ue in the eigen;ector to .
an" a"justing the rest o, the ;a%ues. A7)Y) has both options, but i, a subse8uent
spectru* ana%(sis is "esire", then the sche*e "e,ine" b( 08. @+A *ust be use" C2D.
Spectrum Analysis
A spectru* ana%(sis is a proce"ure in 9hich the resu%ts ,ro* the *o"a% ana%(sis
are use" 9ith a kno9n response spectru* to ca%cu%ate the "isp%ace*ents, ;e%ocities,
acce%erations an" stresses o, a structure C2D. $he response spectru* is a graph o,
"isp%ace*ent, ;e%ocit( or acce%eration ;ersus natura% perio" or ,re8uenc(. !t sho9s the
peak responses o, s(ste*s 9ith kno9n natura% perio"s. $he spectru* can be constructe"
+
,ro* past earth8uake "ata. For the ;e%ocit( an" acce%eration response spectra, the ;a%ues
are ca%cu%ate" 9ith the ,o%%o9ing ,or*u%a C#D=
D
T
V
2
=
@3A
an"
D
T
a
2
2

=

@-A
respecti;e%(, 9here D is the "isp%ace*ent "ue to earth8uake groun" *otion an" $ is the
natura% perio". $he ;e%ocit( an" acce%eration "e,ine" b( 08s. @3A an" @-A are
appro:i*ations o, the true ;a%ues, an" there,ore, so*eti*es, the( are re,erre" to as
pseu"o<;e%ocit( an" pseu"o<acce%eration.
/i;en the response spectra, A7)Y) ca%cu%ates the responses o, the structure ,or
each *o"e as ,o%%o9s C2D=
i i i i
u D d B E B E =
@5A
9here B DE C B E N M u
T
i i
= @>A
E"B
i
is the *o"a% responses, "isp%ace*ent or acce%eration ,or the ith *o"e, D
i
is the
spectru* "isp%ace*ent or acce%eration ;a%ues @inputA an",E7B is an e:citation "irection
;ector. $he *o"a% responses are then co*bine" 9ith one o, the se;era% co*bination
*etho"s to obtain the tota% response o, the structure C2D.
$he stresses in the she%% e%e*ents are ca%cu%ate" 9ith the constituti;e re%ationship
bet9een stress an" strain, an" the strain is obtaine" ,ro* the no"a% "isp%ace*ents. $he
stresses at the top an" botto* o, the she%% are ca%cu%ate" separate%(. $he stresses in the
bea*s are obtaine" ,ro* the no"a% ,orces an" *o*ents 9hich are ca%cu%ate" ,ro* the
no"a% "isp%ace*ents C2D.
3
)pectru* ana%(sis "oes not gi;e the ti*e histor( response o, the structure an"
re"uces a "(na*ic ana%(sis to a series o, static ana%(ses C#D. For each *o"e, a static
ana%(sis is per,or*e" to ,in" the peak response an" the responses are then co*bine" to
obtain the tota% response. !t is, ho9e;er, sti%% a "(na*ic ana%(sis since the ;ibration
properties are use" C#D. )pectru* ana%(sis in;o%;es a coup%e o, appro:i*ations inc%u"ing
the re%ationships bet9een ;e%ocit( an" "isp%ace*ent, an" acce%eration an" "isp%ace*ent
as 9e%% as *o"e co*binations. !t re*ains a use,u% too% in structure "esign because o, its
si*p%icit( an" 9orse<case<scenario approach. As co*putation ti*e beco*es %ess o, a
,actor in F0 ana%(sis, *ore "etai%e" ti*e histor( ana%(sis *a( be pre,erre" o;er spectru*
ana%(sis.
#escription of the Buil!in"
$he structure stu"ie" in this project is the &erke%e( $o9n House %ocate" on 2++
Dana )treet, &erke%e(, Ca%i,ornia. !t 9as bui%t in .>3., an" is a nine<stor( rein,orce"
concrete bui%"ing as sho9n in Figure .. $he structure has a garage in the base*ent, a
s*a%% %ibrar(, a kitchen, an" a con;ersation corner on the .
st
,%oor, eight apart*ents each
on F%oors 2 through -, se;en apart*ents each on the 5
th
an" >
th
,%oors an" a penthouse an"
a *achine roo* on the roo, o, the bui%"ing.
$he base*ent o, the bui%"ing has a hori1onta% "i*ension o, .2- ,t 5> ,t 2 in.
an" a height o, 5 ,t # in. $he retaining 9a%%s o, the base*ent are 5 in. in thickness. 4n
the outer sur,ace o, the concrete 9a%%, there is a 9aterproo, *e*brane to pre;ent
un"ergroun" 9ater ,ro* seeping into the base*ent. A "ri;e9a( o, .'.+ ,eet runs ,ro*
the base*ent garage to the street outsi"e.
-
Figure .. $he &erke%e( $o9n House.
$he superstructure @,%oors . to >A has a hori1onta% "i*ension o, 5' ,t 3 in. 3> ,t
5 inches. $he outsi"e 9a%%s o, the superstructure are o,,set ,ro* the retaining 9a%%s o, the
base*ent b( a ;ariet( o, "istances e:cept at the southeastern corner 9here the 9ho%e
structure shares the sa*e shear 9a%% as sho9n in Figure 2. $he height o, the ,irst ,%oor is
.2 ,t - I in., the 2
n"
to the 5
th
,%oor is 5 ,t > I in., the >
th
,%oor is . ,t, an" the penthouse
an" the *achine roo* has a height o, > ,t .. in.
$he bui%"ing has t9o stairs an" t9o e%e;ators. )tair . is %ocate" in the stair9e%% o,
the center core, an" it runs ,ro* the base*ent to the roo, o, the bui%"ing. )tair 2 is
%ocate" on the ,ar 9est si"e o, the bui%"ing an" it runs ,ro* .
st
to >
th
,%oor. $he t9o
5
>
Figure 2. 2%an ;ie9 o, the structure.
e%e;ators are %ocate" in the e%e;ator 9e%% o, the center core ne:t to stair . as sho9n in
Figure 2. $he e%e;ator 9e%% has a hori1onta% "i*ension o, .2 ,t 3 in. . ,t .. in. an" the
hori1onta% "i*ension o, stair9e%% ,or stair 9e%% is .# ,t 5 in. > ,t. &oth e%e;ators run
,ro* the base*ent to the >
th
,%oor.
$he *ain supporting e%e*ents o, the bui%"ing are the ,oun"ation, center core,
co%u*ns, shear 9a%%s, an" ,%oor s%abs. $he ,oun"ation is rein,orce" concrete ra,t
,oun"ation an" its "epth ranges ,ro* ' ,t at the e"ge an" . ,t at the center core. $he
center core, 9hich houses the e%e;ators an" the stair9a(, is attache" to the ,oun"ation an"
is the *ain supporting e%e*ent, ,unctioning both as a co%u*n an" a shear 9a%%. $he core
is a%so *a"e o, rein,orce" concrete an" its "i*ensions can be ,oun" in $ab%e .. $he
bui%"ing has .2 rein,orce" concrete co%u*ns that run a%% the 9a( to the top o, the
structure. Jhen ;ie9ing ,ro* the east or the 9est si"e o, the bui%"ing, the co%u*ns ,or*
# ro9s perpen"icu%ar to the east 9a%%, an" the ro9s are space" at 25K2L or 25K'L 9ith each
other @Figure 2A. Co%u*n spacing ;aries ,ro* 22K5L to 2+K..L in the other "irection. $he
cross<sections o, the co%u*ns are sho9n in $ab%e 2. !n a""ition, there e:ist three
co%u*ns that support the roo, o, the base*ent on the 9est si"e. $he shear 9a%%s are
%ocate" at the ,our corners o, the bui%"ing as sho9n in Figure 2. $he shear 9a%%s on the
east en" o, the north 9a%% an" on the 9est en" o, south 9a%% are anchore" into the
,oun"ation an" the re*aining shear 9a%%s starts ,ro* the ,irst ,%oor. $he thickness o, the
shear 9a%%s is %iste" in $ab%e .. $he rest o, the outsi"e 9a%%s are architectura%
.
co*ponents. $he center core, co%u*ns an" ;ertica% 9a%%s are tie" together 9ith
rein,orce" concrete ,%oor s%abs an" the thickness o, the s%abs is > in.
$ab%e .. )hear Ja%% $hickness @in.A
)hear Ja%%s &ase*ent First )econ" $hir" Forth Fi,th )i:th )e;enth 0ighth 7inth
7orth @JestM0astA @M.2A @3M.2A @3M.2A @3M.2A @3M.2A @3M.2A @3M.2A @3M.2A @3M.2A @3M.2A
0ast 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
)outh @JestM0astA @.2MA @.2M3A @.2M3A @.2M3A @.2M3A @.2M3A @.2M3A @.2M3A @.2M3A @.2M3A
Jest 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
0%e;ator 7orth .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2
0%e;ator Jest 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
0%e;ator )outh .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2
0%e;ator 0astN)tair Jest 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
)tair )outh .' .' .' .2 .2 .2 . . 5 5
)tair 0ast 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
)tair 7orth .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2
$ab%e 2. Cross<)ections o, the Co%u*ns @in.A
F%oor .A, 2A, #A 'A .&, 2&, #& '& .C 2C, #C, 'C
3th to >th .' : .' .' : .' .' : .' .' : .' .' : .' .' : .'
& to +th 2 : 2 .5 : .5 22 : 22 .5 : 22 .5 : .5 2 : 2
$he F0M *o"e% is base" on the a,ore*entione" structura% co*ponents.
#escription of the $o!el
$he *o"e% is a three<"i*ensiona%, %inear, isotropic ,inite e%e*ent *o"e%. $he
"iscreti1ation o, "o*ain, geo*etr( o, the e%e*ents, *ateria% properties, boun"ar(
con"ition, %oa"s an" ana%(sis proce"ures are "escribe" be%o9.
Geometry and the FE Idealization
..
$he geo*etr( o, the *o"e% is obtaine" ,ro* the b%ueprint o, the bui%"ing an" ,ie%"
inspections. Detai%s o, the structure are gi;en in the pre;ious section, ODescription o, the
&ui%"ing.L $he origin o, the coor"inate s(ste* ,or the *o"e% is %ocate" at the southeast
corner o, the base*ent ,%oor. $he :, ( an" 1 a:es are in the J<0, )<7 an" ;ertica%
"irections, respecti;e%(. $he *o"e%, ,or the *ost part, is co*pose" o, the structura%
co*ponents o, the bui%"ing, na*e%(, the center core, the shear 9a%%s, the ,%oor s%abs an"
the ;ertica% co%u*ns, the "i*ensions o, 9hich can be ,oun" in Figure 2 an" $ab%es . an"
2. $he retaining 9a%%s aroun" the base*ent are a%so inc%u"e" in the *o"e%. $he
,oun"ation is not inc%u"e" in the *o"e%, but its beha;ior is re,%ecte" in the boun"ar(
con"itions. A%% the architectura% co*ponents inc%u"ing the *achine roo* at the roo, are
ignore" a%though a 2P *ass 9as a""e" to the *o"e% to account ,or those co*ponents
9hen the ana%(sis 9as con"ucte".
$9o t(pes o, e%e*ents, 9hich are "escribe" in the ne:t section, are use" in the
*o"e%= bea* e%e*ents an" she%% e%e*ents. $he .+ co%u*ns inc%u"ing the three ,or the
base*ent, are represente" 9ith bea* e%e*ents an" the rest o, the co*ponents are
"iscreti1e" 9ith she%% e%e*ents. $o *aintain a si1e<to<thickness ratio o, aroun" . ,or the
she%% e%e*ents, as suggeste" b( A7)Y), a genera% e"ge %ength o, > in. 9as use" ,or
*eshing the 9a%%s a%though e%e*ents 9ith other e"ge %engths 9ere a%so generate" because
o, the irregu%ar %ocations o, the structura% co*ponents. $he *ajorit( o, the she%% e%e*ents
are 8ua"ri%atera% 9ith a ,e9 triangu%ar ones to account ,or the irregu%arities o, the areas.
$he %engths o, the bea* e%e*ent are aroun" # in. A tota% o, #># bea* e%e*ents an"
2#' she%% e%e*ents 9ere generate" ,or the *o"e%. Figure # sho9s the *eshe" ,inite
e%e*ent *o"e%.
.2
Figure #. Finite 0%e*ent Abstract o, the &ui%"ing.
)o*e "i,,icu%ties 9ere encountere" 9hen generating the ,inite e%e*ent *esh. $he
"i,,icu%ties 9ere cause" b( the irregu%ar %ocations an" ;ar(ing "i*ensions o, the
structura% co*ponents an" b( the ,act that e%e*ents *ust be connecte" proper%(. For
e:a*p%e, a bea* e%e*ent can not pierce a she%% e%e*ent in the *i""%e geo*etrica%%( an"
it *ust *eet a she%% e%e*ents at a no"e. )i*i%ar%(, a no"e o, a she%% e%e*ent can not be
%ocate" in the *i""%e o, the e"ge o, another she%% e%e*ent. $he prob%e*s 9ere u%ti*ate%(
so%;e" b( re"ucing auto*atic *eshing an" increasing *anua% *eshing through the
creation o, *ore Ke(points an" *eshing the areas separate%(.
.#
Element Types
$he bea* e%e*ent use" in the *o"e% is &0AM' in A7)Y). &0AM' is a 2<no"e,
#<D, e%astic, unia:ia% e%e*ents 9ith tension, co*pression, torsion an" ben"ing
capabi%ities C2D. $he e%e*ent has si: "egrees o, ,ree"o* at each no"e, trans%ations in the
:, ( an" 1 "irections an" rotations about the :, ( an" 1 a:es. $he e%e*ent : a:is is
a%9a(s a%ong the a:is o, the bea* 9ith e%e*ent ( an" 1 a:es ,or*ing the cross<section
p%ane. 6e8uire" e%e*ent constants inc%u"e cross<section area, thickness in the ( an" 1
"irections @$KZ an" $KYA an" *o*ents o, inertia @!ZZ an" !YYA. $he re8uire"
*ateria% propert( inputs ,or the e%e*ent are YoungK *o"u%us @0QA an" "ensit( @D07)A.
4ther constant an" *ateria% input options are a%so a;ai%ab%e. $he e%e*ent stress is
ca%cu%ate" ,ro* no"a% ,orce an" *o*ents.
$he she%% e%e*ent use" in the *o"e% is )H0LL3# in A7)Y). )H0LL3# is a '<
no"e, #<D, e%astic she%% e%e*ent. $he e%e*ent has si: "egrees o, ,ree"o* at each no"e
si*i%ar to those o, a bea* e%e*ent. $he e%e*ent 1 a:is is a%9a(s perpen"icu%ar to she%%
sur,ace. 6e8uire" e%e*ent constants inc%u"e the thickness at each no"es @$K@!,A, $K@JA,
etc.A an" *ateria% properties inc%u"e YoungKs *o"u%us, 2oissonKs ratio an" "ensit( @0Q,
26QY an" D07)A. 4ther constants an" *ateria% properties can a%so be inputte"
"epen"ing on the app%ications. $he e%e*ent stress is ca%cu%ate" ,ro* the e%e*ent strain
an" the no"a% ,orces an" *o*ents are obtaine" ,ro* the e%e*ent stresses.
More "etai%s o, the e%e*ents can be ,oun" in A7)Y) usersK gui"e C2D.
Element Constants
.'
$9e%;e sets o, *ateria% constants 9ere use" in the *o"e%, si: ,or each t(pe o,
e%e*ents. $he nu*ber o, *ateria% constant sets *ain%( re,%ects the nu*ber o, e%e*ent
thickness in the *o"e%. $ab%es # an" ' %ist the e%e*ent constant sets ,or the bea* an"
she%% e%e*ents, respecti;e%(.
$ab%e #. 0%e*ent Constants ,or the &ea* 0%e*ents
)et R
A60A
@in.
2
A
!ZZ
@in.
'
A
!YY
@in.
'
A
$KZ
@in.A
$KY
@in.A
ADDMA)
@%b<sec
2
Nin.Nin.A
. #2' 5-'5 5-'5 .5 .5
2 #>3 .+>-2 .3>2 .5 22
# ' .#### .#### 2 2
' '5' .>+2. .>+2. 22 22
+ .>3 #2. #2. .' .'
3 .'' .-2' .-2' .2 .2
$ab%e '. 0%e*ent Constants ,or the )he%% 0%e*ents
)et R
$K
@in.A
ADM)SA
@%b<sec
2
Nin.Nin.
2
A
- 3
5 5
> > .'2
. .
.. .2
.2 .'
!n $ab%es # an" ', ADDMA) an" ADM)SA are the a""e" *ass per unit %ength ,or the
bea* e%e*ent an" a""e" *ass per unit area ,or the she%% e%e*ent, respecti;e%(, an" other
s(*bo%s are e:p%aine" pre;ious%(. Constant )et > is use" ,or the ,%oor s%abs an" a 2P
*ass 9as a""e" to the ,%oors to represent the *ass o, the ignore" ,eatures. For the she%%
e%e*ent, uni,or* thickness is app%ie" ,or each e%e*ent in the *o"e% an" there,ore, the
.+
thickness o, each no"e in a e%e*ent is the sa*e. $ab%e # an" ' re,%ect the thickness o, the
9a%% an" co%u*n "i*ensions %iste" in $ab%e . an" 2.
Material Properties
$hree sets o, *ateria% properties are use" in the *o"e%. $he nu*ber o, *ateria%
sets is base" on the t(pes o, concretes use" in the bui%"ing, as in"icate" on the b%ueprint,
an" the *o"e% abstraction. $here are t9o t(pes o, concretes 9ith a no*ina% strength o,
#-+ psi an" 2+ psi. $he structura% co*ponents 9ere constructe" 9ith #-+ concrete
an" the base*ent retaining 9a%% 9ith 2+ concrete. $he YoungKs *o"u%us is ca%cu%ate"
9ith the ,o%%o9ing ,or*u%a C'D=
T ..+
##9 0
c
f = @.A
9here 9 is the "ensit( in %bN,t
#
an"
T
c
f is the no*ina% strength o, the concrete in psi.
$he 2oissonKs ratio ,or concrete ranges ,ro* ..+ to .2+ C'D an" a ;a%ue o, .2 is chosen ,or
the *o"e%. $he "ensit( o, concrete ;aries ,ro* > to .++ %bN,t
#
an" a ;a%ue o, .+ 9as
se%ecte". !t *ust be pointe" out that in A7)Y), the "ensit( *ust be entere" as *ass per
unit ;o%u*e, not 9eight per unit ;o%u*e ,or *o"a% ana%(sis. 4ne can ;er( easi%( be
con,use" on this point, especia%%( ,or those 9ho are accusto*e" to static ana%(sis.
2erhaps, A7A)Y) shou%" consi"er a""ing a routine to per,or* a con;ersion ,ro*
9eightN;o%u*e to *assN;o%u*e so that the "ensit( can be entere" 9ith consistent unit ,or
both static an" "(na*ic ana%(ses. $he unit o, the "ensit( entere" in this *o"e% is %b<
sec
2
Nin.Nin.
#
.
!n the *o"e%, the e%e;ator "oors on each ,%oor 9ere ignore" to re"uce the
co*p%e:it( o, the *esh. $his o*ission 9as co*pensate" b( re"ucing the YoungKs
*o"u%us o, that si"e o, the 9a%% b( .N#.
.3
$he *ateria% properties are su**ari1e" in $ab%e +. !n the tab%e, Materia% )ets .,
2 an" # are ,or the structura% co*ponent, 9a%% o, the e%e;ator "oors an" the retaining
9a%%s, respecti;e%(.
$ab%e +. Materia% 2roperties
Materia% )et
0Q
@psiA
26QY
D07)
@%b<sec
2
Nin.Nin.
#
A
. #-.2+ .2 .22'55'
2 2'-+ .2 .22'55'
# ##.2 .2 .22'55'
Boundary Conditions and Applied Spectrum
$he boun"ar( con"itions ,or the ana%(sis are= aA a%% the no"es o, the she%% e%e*ents
at the ,oun"ation %e;e% are ,i:e", i.e., the "isp%ace*ents, trans%ationa% or rotationa%, 9ere
set to 1eroU an" bA ,or the bea* e%e*ents, the trans%ationa% "isp%ace*ents o, the no"es at
the ,oun"ation %e;e% 9ere set to 1ero, but rotations 9ere a%%o9e".
For the spectru* ana%(sis, the spectra ,or the 0% Centro earth8uake 9ith "a*ping
ratio o, 2P 9ere a"opte" in the ana%(sis. $he spectra are sho9n in Figure '. $he
spectru* ;a%ues 9ere entere" as a tab%e in A7)Y) as sho9n in $ab%e 3. A7)Y) takes
,re8uencies instea" o, perio"s 9hich ha;e a reciproca% re%ationship 9ith ,re8uencies.
$ab%e 3. 6esponse )pectru* ?a%ues Sse" in the Ana%(sis
Fre8uenc(
Disp%ace*ent
)pectru* @in.A
Acce%eration
)pectru* @gA
.
+
-.'- ..>.
..

+.>- .3.
2.

2.3- ..>
.-
Reponse Spectra
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
0 1 2 3
Period, sec
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
,

i
n
.
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
,

g
Displacement
Acceleration
Figure '. 6esponse spectra use" in the ana%(sis.C#D
Analysis Procedures and Options
$he ana%(sis proce"ure ,or the *o"a% ana%(sis is "escribe" in )ections #.' through
#.5 o, the A7)Y) )tructura% Ana%(sis /ui"e an" the proce"ure ,or a sing%e<point
response spectru* @)26)A ana%(sis is e:p%aine" in )ection 3.' o, the gui"e.
$he options use" in the *o"a% ana%(sis are sho9n in Figure + an" those ,or the
spectru* ana%(sis are in Figure 3. $he spectru* ana%(sis 9as con"ucte" ,or si: "i,,erent
%oa"ing cases= "isp%ace*ents in the e:citation "irections :, ( an" 1 an" acce%erations in
the e:citation "irections :, (, an" 1, respecti;e%(. Figure 3 sho9s on%( the case 9here the
spectru* ;a%ue is "isp%ace*ent an" the e:citation "irection is 1. 4ptions ,or other cases
are si*i%ar e:cept that the "isp%ace*ent *a( be rep%ace" b( acce%eration an" the ;a%ue ,or
)0DQ an" )0DY *a( take the ;a%ue o, one instea" o, 1ero 9here )0DQ, )0DY an"
)0DZ are i"enti,iers o, the e:citation "irection an" a ;a%ue o, one in"icates an e:citation
"irection.
.5
Figure +. Mo"a% ana%(sis options ,or the *o"e%.
.>
Figure 3. )pectru* ana%(sis options.
Results an! #iscussions
$he resu%ts obtaine" ,ro* the ana%(sis inc%u"e the natura% ,re8uencies an" *o"a%
shapes o, the bui%"ing, an" "isp%ace*ents, acce%erations an" stresses in"uce" b( seis*ic
%oa"ing.
Natural Freuencies and Modal Shapes o! the Buildin"
$9ent( natura% ,re8uencies an" ,i;e *o"a% shapes 9ere obtaine" ,ro* the *o"a%
ana%(sis. Fi;e o, the %o9est ,re8uencies are sho9n the $ab%e - an" correspon"ing *o"a%
shapes are sho9n in Figure - through ...
$he ,un"a*enta% perio" o, the bui%"ing is .5#+ sec. 9hich is co*parab%e 9ith the
esti*ate" ;a%ue o, .>' ,ro* the ,o%%o9ing e*pirica% ,or*u%a "e;e%ope" b( F0MA C+D
base" on actua% groun" shaking=
> .
.3 . H T
L
= @..A
9here
L
T an" H are the ,un"a*enta% perio" an" bui%"ing height, respecti;e%(. $his
sho9s that the *o"e% "e;e%ope" in this project is a rea%istic one.
2
$ab%e -. 7atura% Fre8uencies an" 2erio"s o, the &ui%"ing
Mo"e Fre8uenc( 2erio"
. ...>5 .5#+
2 ..53- .+#3
# 2..3> .'3.
' +..#. ..>+
+ +.253 ..5>
Figure -. $he ,irst *o"a% shape.
2.
Figure 5. $he secon" *o"a% shape.
Figure >. $he thir" *o"a% shape.
22
Figure .. $he ,ourth *o"a% shape.
Figure ... $he ,i,th *o"a% shape
2#
$he ,irst *o"e o, the bui%"ing is rotating about an a:is para%%e% to the :<a:is in the
0<J "irection an" the bui%"ing s9ings in the 7<) "irection @Figure -A. $he secon" an"
thir" *o"es are both t9isting, in c%ock9ise an" counter<c%ock9ise, respecti;e%( @Figure 5
an" >A. $he ,ourth *o"e is ben"ing in the 7<) "irection @Figure .A. $he %ast *o"e
sho9s se;ere ;ertica% *otion at the north9est part o, the bui%"ing an" so*e ben"ing
@Figure ..A.
#isplacement and Acceleration $esponses
)pectru* ana%(sis (ie%"e" a %ot o, in,or*ation. For each "isp%ace*ent e:citation,
there are eight "isp%ace*ent response ;a%ues at each no"e= trans%ationa% "isp%ace*ents in
the :, ( an" 1 "irection, rotations about the :, ( an" 1 a:is, an" tota% "isp%ace*ent an"
rotation. $he sa*e can be sai" about the acce%eration. $here,ore, a tota% o, '5
"isp%ace*ent an" acce%eration contour graphs can be generate". !n a""ition, ;ector
graphs can a%so be create". 4n%( the tota% "isp%ace*ent an" acce%eration graphs are
inc%u"e" in this section an" the rest can be ,oun" in the Appen"i:.
Figure .2 through .' sho9 the tota% "isp%ace*ent contours 9hen the e:citation is
in the :, ( an" 1 "irections, respecti;e%(, an" Figure .+ through .- are the contour *aps
,or the acce%eration. $hese ,igures in"icate that 9hen the e:citation is in the : or (
"irection, the *a:i*u* "isp%ace*ents an" acce%erations occur at the top %e;e% o, the
bui%"ing. Jhen the e:citation is in the 1 "irection, *a:i*u* ;a%ues occur in the
north9est part o, the bui%"ing 9here the north9est shear 9a%% is %ocate" at the so,test
spot ,or the entire bui%"ing @Figure .' an" .-A. $he ,act that the "istribution patterns o,
the "isp%ace*ents an" acce%erations are si*i%ar can be e:p%aine" b( 08s. - through >.
2'
Figure .2. $ota% "isp%ace*ent in"uce" b( e:citation in the :<"irection.
Figure .#. $ota% "isp%ace*ent in"uce" b( e:citation in the (<"irection.
2+
Figure .'. $ota% "isp%ace*ent "ue to e:citation in the 1<"irection.
Figure .+. $ota% acce%eration "ue to e:citation in the 1<"irection.
23
Figure .3. $ota% acce%eration "ue to e:citation in the (<"irection.
Figure .-. $ota% acce%eration "ue to e:citation in the 1<"irection.
2-
$he resu%ts suggest that the top an" the north9est part o, the bui%"ings are the *ost
sensiti;e areas ,or the 9ire%ess sensors to pick up *o;e*ents.
Stress #istri%utions
)i*i%ar to "isp%ace*ents an" acce%erations, a %ot o, "ata 9ere generate" ,ro* the
spectru* ana%(sis about ,orces an" stresses. 4n%( the ,irst principa% stress contours are
sho9n here. Figures .5 through 2 are the ,irst principa% stress "istributions "ue to
e:citations in the :, (, an" 1 "irection, respecti;e%(. Figures .5 an" .> in"icate that the
*a:i*u* stress concentrations occurs at the botto*s o, the shear 9a%%s an" center core
as 9e%% as the areas o, the ,irst ,%oor s%ab 9here the north9est an" southeast shear 9a%%s
sit on. $he *a:i*u* stresses in"uce" b( e:citation in the 1<"irection concentrate in the
north9est part o, the bui%"ing @Figure 2A, 9hich is consistent 9ith the "isp%ace*ent
"istribution.
Figure .5. Ma:i*u* principa% stress "ue to e:citation in the :<"irection.
25
Figure .>. Ma:i*u* principa% stress "ue to e:citation in the (<"irection.
Figure 2. Ma:i*u* principa% stress "ue to e:citation in the 1<"irection.
2>
$he *a:i*u* stresses range ,ro* .2.# psi to .>+.' psi 9hich ,ar e:cee" ..+ ti*es the
no*ina% strength ;a%ue o, the concrete, +32+ psi, in"icating that the bui%"ing cou%" be
"a*age" b( an earth8uake o, 0% Centro *agnitu"e.
)o*e suggestions on retro,itting can be *a"e base" on the ana%(sis. First, the
south9est an" northeast shear 9a%%s an" the center core, 9hich are a%% connecte" to the
,oun"ation, *a( nee" rein,orce*ent at the botto* ,ro* the ,oun"ation %e;e% to the ,irst
,%oor. )econ", co%u*ns shou%" be bui%t un"erneath the north9est an" southeast shear
9a%%s in the base*ent to sti,,en those corners.
Conclusions an! Recommen!ations
A #<D ,inite e%e*ent *o"e% 9as bui%t an" ana%(1e" in the stu"(. $he *o"e% is
base" on the actua% "i*ensions ,ro* the b%ueprint an" inc%u"es a%% structura% co*ponents
an" the retaining 9a%%. $he *ateria% properties o, the *o"e% are those reco**en"e" b(
AC!. Mo"a% an" spectru* ana%(ses 9ere per,or*e" 9ith the F0 package, A7)Y). $he
,un"a*enta% ,re8uenc( obtaine" ,ro* the *o"a% ana%(sis co*pares 9e%% 9ith the
e*pirica% ;a%ue. Disp%ace*ent, acce%eration an" stress "istributions are generate" ,ro*
spectru* ana%(sis 9ith the 0% Centro response spectru*. !t is suggeste" ,ro* the
ana%(ses that the *ost sensiti;e areas ,or the acce%erate *eters to pick up structura%
*otions are the top %e;e% an" the north9est part o, the bui%"ing. $he ana%(ses a%so
suggest that *ost o, the retro,itting spots are %ocate" in the base*ent area an" the
north9est portion o, the bui%"ing.
A%though the stu"( (ie%"s reasonab%e an" use,u% in,or*ation, it is sti%% %i*ite" in a
coup%e o, aspects. First o, a%%, the spectru* ana%(sis has its inheritant prob%e* o, too
#
*an( appro:i*ations as *entione" in the theoretica% "iscussions. Another %i*itation is
that the *o"a% ana%(sis "i" not inc%u"e "a*ping though it 9as ,actore" into the spectru*
ana%(sis. !n a""ition, the stu"( 9as constraine" b( ti*e an" resources.
)o*e o, the reco**en"ations ,or ,urther stu"( inc%u"e= .A con"ucting a*bient
;ibration tests to "eter*ine the natura% ,re8uencies o, the bui%"ing an" co*pare the*
9ith the F0 resu%tsU 2A consi"ering "a*ping e,,ect in *o"a% ana%(sisU an" #A per,or*
ti*e<histor( ana%(ses such as har*onic or transient stu"ies.
Acknowle!"ements
$he authors 9ou%" %ike to ackno9%e"ge the support o, 7)F, D40 an" 0;ergreen
?a%%e( Co%%ege through the Fa)$ progra*. Cre"its are a%so "ue to Dr. Caro% Corra"i o,
L&7L ,or A7)Y) suggestions an" Mr. Ja(ne La9 ,or his he%p in the structura%
engineering area.
References
.. Meiro;itch, L., 0%e*ents o, ?ibration Ana%(sis, Mc/ra9<Hi%%, 7e9 York,
.>53
2. A7)Y), !nc., Docu*entation 3.., 22
#. Chopra, A. K., D(na*ics o, )tructures<$heor( an" App%ications to
0arth8uake engineering, 2rentice Ha%%, 7e9 Jerse(, .>>+
'. AC!, AC! Manua% o, Concrete 2ractice, 2art ., Far*ington Hi%%s, M!, 2.
+. F0MA, 70H62 6eco**en"ations ,or )eis*ic 6egu%ations ,or 7e9
&ui%"ings an" 4ther )tructures, 2art 2, 2 0"ition V Co**entar(,
Jashington D. C., 2.
3. ?entura, C. 0. an" Hor(na, $., OMeasure" an" Ca%cu%ate" Mo"a%
Characteristics o, the Heritage Court $o9er in ?ancou;er, &. C.,L
#.
2rocee"ings o, !MAC<Q?!!!= A Con,erence on )tructura% D(na*ics, )an
Antonio, $Q, 2, pp. .-<.-'
-. Horta, J. an" Castano, ?. M., O)hi,t o, 7atura% Fre8uencies in &ui%"ings
Da*age" b( 0arth8uakes,L 2rocee"ings o, !MAC<Q?!!!= A Con,erence on
)tructura% D(na*ics, )an Antonio, $Q, 2, pp. .'.2<.'.+
#2
A%%EN#&' A!!itional Results from the $o!el
Figure A<.. Acce%eration in the :<"irection "ue to e:citation in the :<"irection.
Figure A<2. Acce%eration in the (<"irection "ue to e:citation in the :<"irection.
##
Figure A<#. Acce%eration in the 1<"irection "ue to e:citation in the :<"irection.
Figure A<'. Acce%eration in the :<"irection "ue to e:citation in the (<"irection.
#'
Figure A<+. Acce%eration in the (<"irection "ue to e:citation in the (<"irection.
Figure A<3. Acce%eration in the 1<"irection "ue to e:citation in the (<"irection.
#+
Figure A<-. ?ector p%ot o, the tota% acce%eration "ue to e:citation in the (<"irection.
Figure A<5. Acce%eration in the :<"irection "ue to e:citation in the 1<"irection.
#3
Figure A<>. Acce%eration in the (<"irection "ue to e:citation in the 1<"irection.
Figure A<.. Acce%eration in the 1<"irection "ue to e:citation in the 1<"irection.
#-
Figure A<... ?ector p%ot o, the tota% acce%eration "ue to e:citation in the 1<"irection.
A<.2. Disp%ace*ent in the :<"irection "ue to e:citation in the :<"irection.
#5
A<.#. Disp%ace*ent in the (<"irection "ue to e:citation in the :<"irection.
A<.'. Disp%ace*ent in the 1<"irection "ue to e:citation in the :<"irection.
#>
A<.+. Disp%ace*ent in the :<"irection "ue to e:citation in the (<"irection.
A<.3. Disp%ace*ent in the (<"irection "ue to e:citation in the (<"irection.
'
A<.-. Disp%ace*ent in the 1<"irection "ue to e:citation in the (<"irection.
A<.5. Disp%ace*ent in the :<"irection "ue to e:citation in the 1<"irection.
'.
A<.>. Disp%ace*ent in the (<"irection "ue to e:citation in the 1<"irection.
A<2. Disp%ace*ent in the 1<"irection "ue to e:citation in the 1<"irection.
'2
'#