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CIVL439 / WOOD476 2003

Timber Connections Timber Connections


Timber connections Timber connections
Keep in mind:
Wood has a very low tension perpendicular
strength
Wood has a very low shear strength
Compression properties are very favourable
The moral of the story is therefore:
Avoid complex connections, especially those that
induce tension perpendicular and shear stresses
Aim for compression connections as much as
possible
The variety of timber connections The variety of timber connections
steel columns
dimension lumber joists
glulam beams
PSL
beam
s
Heavy steel bracket
to connect atrium
trusses
riveted heavy steel bracket
toe nailed joists
Nailed light metal hangers
Heavy steel
support bracket
Typical Timber Fastener Capacities Typical Timber Fastener Capacities
Fastener type
Lateral Capacity
(parallel to grain)
min. max.
Nails
132 N (30 lb)
1common, SPF
3,000 N (675 lb)
6common, D-Fir
Glulam Rivets
1560 N (351 lb)
40 mm, Spruce GL
2,700 N (608 lb)
90 mm, D.Fir-L
Lag Screws
1540 N (347 lb)
, 70 mm, North
15,100 N (3,400 lb)
, 171 mm, D.Fir
Bolts
2170 N (488 lb)
, 38 mm, North
21,000 N (4,725 lb)
1, 191 mm, D.Fir-L
Split Rings
Shear Plates
12,600 N (2835 lb)
2 split ring,
Northern species
36,800 N (8,280 lb)
4, shear pl., 7/8
bolt, D.Fir-L
Traditional Traditional
connections connections
Compression structure Compression structure
CIVL439 / WOOD476 2003
An ancient truss bridge resembling an arch
structure made primary from wooden logs, which
are very difficult to connect for tension loads
Complex timber node with simple connections Complex timber node with simple connections
Compression connections Compression connections
Compression Compression
connection connection
for tension for tension
members members
Compression connections Compression connections
The connector The connector- -less connection less connection
CIVL439 / WOOD476 2003
Simple Simple
beam beam
supports supports
Compression
perpendicular to
grain stresses
Assure adequate
bearing area
Beam on Beam on
column column
support support
Use a hardwood block to
reduce bearing stresses
Face mounted Face mounted
beam hangers beam hangers
with timber rivets with timber rivets
notch
Compression
perpendicular to
grain
Saddle beam hangers Saddle beam hangers
seat
saddle
Bolted Bolted
beam beam
supports supports
Support connections Support connections
CIVL439 / WOOD476 2003
Haunch Haunch
connections connections
Connection Design Connection Design
Calculate connection force
Choose fastener type based on
available space
fastener capacity
structural configuration
aesthetics
fastener availability
ductility requirement
Calculate capacity
Connectors loaded at an angle to Connectors loaded at an angle to
the grain the grain

2 2
cos Q sin P
Q P
N
r r
r r
r

P
r
Q
r N
r

Hankinsons Interaction Equation


= 90
o
= 0
o
Nail connections Nail connections
Nailed trusses Nailed trusses
Nails and Spikes Nails and Spikes
Most common fastener in N. America
Widely used in Wood Frame Construction
Easy to install
No pre-drilling (careful splitting!)
Ductile connection - no group effect
Efficient - especially with panel products
Limited by spacing requirements (2 times
crack growth length)
CIVL439 / WOOD476 2003
Connection Configuration Connection Configuration
loaded
end distance
spacing
edge
distance
row
spacing
no. of rows
and other parameters
Bolted connections Bolted connections
Bolted Connections Bolted Connections
Based on ultimate capacity
Quantified by Johansen yield model
Ductility depends on bolt slenderness,
spacing, end distance
Load
Displacement
Slender bolts
Stocky bolts
Brittle failure modes Brittle failure modes
loaded end distance > 7d
(preferably > 10d)
Spacing > 7d
edge distance
> 3d
row spacing
> 3.5d
Similar rules exist for perpendicular
to grain loading
Avoid brittle failure modes by following
spacing rules:
Group Group
effects effects
Auditorium
University of Northern BC
Prince George
CIVL439 / WOOD476 2003
Group effects in bolted Group effects in bolted
connections connections
Factor to account for no. of bolts in a row
J
G
= 0.33 (l/d)
0.5
(s/d)
0.2
N
-0.3
< 1.0
End distance effect End distance effect
J
L
= loaded end distance factor
= 1.0 for e = 10d
= 0.75 for e = 7d
Load
Displacement
e > 10d
e = 10d
e = 7d
Group effects in bolted Group effects in bolted
connections connections
Row factor
J
R
= 1.0 for 1 row
= 0.8 for 2 rows (2 or more bolts in row)
= 0.6 for 3 rows (2 or more bolts in row)
Lag Screws Lag Screws
Similar to single shear bolt connection
Use Johansen yield model
Penetration length = main member thickness
Also have
substantial
withdrawal
resistance
(P
rw
)
High strength fasteners
Provide larger grip surface on wood
Wood failure modes typical
Split Rings and Shear Plates Split Rings and Shear Plates
shear plates
split ring
Split Rings and Split Rings and
Shear Plates Shear Plates
CIVL439 / WOOD476 2003
Installation of Split Installation of Split
Rings and Shear Rings and Shear
Plates Plates
Installation:
special tools
tight fit
ideal for pre-
fabrication
Shear plate Shear plate
installation installation
Load transfer with Load transfer with
Split Rings and Shear Plates Split Rings and Shear Plates
Large split ring Large split ring
connections connections
Shear plate connection
Glulam Rivet
connections
Lag screw for
positioning
Analysis of split Analysis of split
ring connection ring connection
Note: Split rings can carry loads
at different angles to grain. Shear
plates always carry loads in the
same direction as the member load
CIVL439 / WOOD476 2003
Applications for Applications for
split rings split rings
Applications Applications
for shear for shear
plates plates
Example of a shear plate Example of a shear plate
connection connection
Ridge connection with split ring Ridge connection with split ring
Glulam Rivets Glulam Rivets
High strength nailed connection for heavy timber
construction
Special nail
High strength (high capacity)
Oval cross-section (less splitting, tight spacing
Steel side plates (better load distribution)
Wedged head (fixed head, force double curv.)
Beam hanger Beam hanger
connections with connections with
glulam rivets glulam rivets
CIVL439 / WOOD476 2003
Glulam Rivet connection geometry Glulam Rivet connection geometry
L
P
needed for
calculating capacity
On On- -site installation of glulam rivet site installation of glulam rivet
connection connection
loaded perpendicular to
grain (V)
loaded parallel to grain (T)
loaded in withdrawal (T)
Load Load
directions directions
seat takes vertical load (V)
T
V
Failure Mode Failure Mode
Erection of Atrium Trees Erection of Atrium Trees
Erection Erection
of Atrium of Atrium
Trusses Trusses
Steel plates
fastened to PSL
members with
Glulam Rivets
On-site bolted
connection
CIVL439 / WOOD476 2003
Trusses with light metal gauge connectors Trusses with light metal gauge connectors
Failure modes Failure modes
1. Teeth pulling out
N
u
= n
u
(K
D
K
SF
K
T
)J
H
=0.6
J
H
is a moment factor for
heel connections
1
slope Slope J
H
<1 / 4 0.85
>1 / 4 to 1 / 3 0.8
>1 / 3 to 1 / 2.4 0.75
>1 / 2.4 to 1 / 2.2 0.7
>1 / 2.2 0.65
Failure modes Failure modes
2. Tensile failure of plate
T
r
= t
p
= 0.6
3. Shear failure of plate
V
r
= v
p
= 0.6
Calculating tooth resistance Calculating tooth resistance
N
u
and N
s
are based on test values
(N/mm
2
) listed in CCMC reports
N
u
= 0.8 (Test value)(A
gross
)
or
N
u
= (Test value) (A
net
)
Where A
gross
is the total area covered by
the truss plate, and A
net
is the total area
covered less the end zones as shown in
the next slide
Net areas Net areas
for tooth for tooth
resistance resistance
a = end distance
= max (12mm or
0.5 tooth length)
e = edge distance
= max (6mm or
0.25 tooth length)
Load Directions Load Directions
n
u
= p
u
n
u
= q
u
n
u
= p
u
n
u
= q
u
CIVL439 / WOOD476 2003
Load Directions Load Directions

2 2
cos sin u u
u u
u
q p
q p
n


2 2
cos sin
u u
u u
u
q p
q p
n


2 2
cos ' sin '
' '
'
u u
u u
u
q p
q p
n

Load Directions Load Directions


Interpolate between
n
u
and n
u
Note:
p
u
, q
u
, p
u
and q
u
are gi ven in CCMC
evaluation reports
Slip resistance Slip resistance
For serviceability limit state (unfactored
loads)
Slip resistance
N
rs
= N
s
K
SF
This is calculated similarly to the ultimate
strength
High Strength High Strength
Connections Connections
Oslo Airport, Norway Oslo Airport, Norway
High strength dowel connections High strength dowel connections
CIVL439 / WOOD476 2003
Field Field
Connection Connection
Slotted-in
steel plates
Small tight
fitting dowels
Field installed
dowel
Pedestrian bridge with tight Pedestrian bridge with tight
fitting dowel connections fitting dowel connections
Note: only untreated
timber used
Design for durability Design for durability
Roof overhang
Protective siding
Lillehammer Olympic Ice Skating arena
(98 m span)
Arched trusses with
tight fitting dowel
connections
The The bedframe bedframe
connection connection
a quick solution for a quick solution for
temporary buildings temporary buildings
The The Induo Induo
connector connector
Dowel-type connector
Cast steel connector
element
Accurate machining
required
Threaded connection to
other elements
CIVL439 / WOOD476 2003
Grouted dowel connection Grouted dowel connection
Grouted BVD Connection Grouted BVD Connection
Grouted connector installed
Grouted connectors in section
Grouted BVD Connection Grouted BVD Connection
BVD Connector types
Section of BVD
Connectors installed
The Delft Tube Connector The Delft Tube Connector
The Tube The Tube
Connector Connector
Expanded tube installed Deformed connector
High High
capacity capacity
glued glued- -in in- -rod rod
connection connection
CIVL439 / WOOD476 2003
Glued Glued- -in specialty in specialty
connectors connectors
the the TisCo TisCo
A grouted-in tube
connector
Poly-vinyl-esther
grout, commonly
used for anchoring
into concrete
Threaded
connection to other
elements
A combination of A combination of
haunched columns and haunched columns and
underpinned curved underpinned curved
beams beams
Longspan arch Longspan arch
splice splice
CIVL439 / WOOD476 2003
Transportation Transportation
challenge challenge
High strength connections mass High strength connections mass
produced produced
Thalkirchen Bridge, Munich
Design for durability Design for durability
Large Large
fingerjoints for fingerjoints for
on on- -site site
connections connections
Expensive connections Expensive connections
CIVL439 / WOOD476 2003
Lateral Lateral
bracing bracing
Group effects Group effects
. and what (not) to do about it.