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DanKevinCastroMandocdoc

FundamentalsofThesisWritingI
11July2013

Avoidplagiarizinganotherswork
Aidthefutureresearcherndonessources
Provideevidenceforonesargument

Notanovernightthing
Tips:
Settleonathesistopicasearlyaspossible
Completethecitationdetailswhilewritingthe

body

Primaryauthorities
Secondaryauthorities
Books
Journalarticles
Theses
Newsclips
Reliablewebsites

AteneoJ.D.thesisrequirements:
Footnotes
ALJLegalCitationGuide
TheBluebook
Bibliography
Atty.Arriola:ModiedTurabian

Generalrules:
Footnotes=sentences
Accuracy
Subsequentcitations

Blockquotev.directquotev.paraphrasing
Footnotereferenceplacement

Afterthepunctuationmark/quotationmark

PhilippineConstitution:

PHIL.CONST.art.___,___,___.

Note:
AlwayscitetheConstitutioninfull.

1. PHIL.CONST.art.II,3.
2. PHIL.CONST.art.II,3.

Codes/Statutes:

FullTitle,[ShortTitle],StatuteNumber,
subdivisions,(year).
3. AnActtoOrdainandInstitutetheCivil
CodeofthePhilippines[CIVILCODE],
RepublicActNo.386,art.21(1950).

Subsequentcitations:

ShortTitle,subdivisions.
4. PHIL.CONST.art.I.
5. CIVILCODE,art.3.
6. Id.art.207.

SupremeCourtDecisions:

CaseTitle,volumenumberSCRA/SCAD/
Phil.rstpage,citedpage(year).
7. Tumaruv.Go,436SCRA30,41(2007).

Subsequentcitations:

FirstParty,volumenumberSCRA/SCAD/
Phil.atcitedpage.
8. Tumaru,436SCRAat54.
9. Id.
10.Id.at52.

Separateopinions

Citelikeanordinarycase(J.Surnameof
Justice,separate/concurring/dissenting
opinion).
11.Buanv.Sta.Maria,436SCRA30,41
(2007)(J.Roco,dissentingopinion).
12.Id.at59(J.Agas,concurringopinion).

BookswithSingleAuthor

AUTHOR,TITLEcitedpage(yearof
publicationoreditionnumberyearof
publication).
13.FLORENZD.REGALADO,CRIMINALLAW
CONSPECTUS45(4thed.2009).
14.Id.at342.

BookswithMultipleAuthors

AUTHOR1&AUTHOR2ORAUTHOR1,ETAL.,
TITLEcitedpage(yearofpublicationor
editionnumberyearofpublication).
15.JOSEC.VITUG&ERNESTOD.ACOSTA,TAX
LAWANDJURISPRUDENCE89(3ded.2006).

SubsequentCitations

SURNAMEOFAUTHOR(S),supranotefootnote,
atpagebeingcited.
16.REGALADO,supranote13,at13.
17.VITUG&ACOSTA,supranote15,at432.

ConsecutivelyPaginatedJournals

Author,TitleoftheArticle,volumenumber
JOURNALrstpage,citedpage(year).
18.RyanJeremiahD.Quan,Revisitingthe
ElementofExploitationintheDenition
ofTrackinginPersonsinRepublicAct
No.9208,57ATENEOL.J.402,405(2012).
19.Id.at408.

UnpublishedTheses

Author,TitleoftheArticle,atpagenumber(date)
(description,institutionthatawardedthedegree)
(source).
20.JoseP.TejadaJr.,ACritiqueofthe
JurisprudenceontheMatterofSupreme
CourtsAdministrativeSupervision,at11
(2002)(unpublishedJ.D.thesis,Ateneode
ManilaUniversity)(onlewiththeProfessional
SchoolsLibrary,AteneodeManilaUniversity).

Websites

Author,TitleoftheArticle,availableatURL
(lastaccesseddate).
21.UnitedNationsOceoftheHigh
CommissionerforHumanRights,Whatare
humanrights?,availableathttp://
www.ohcch.or/en/issues/Pages/
WhatareHumanRights.aspx(lastaccessed
June26,2012).

NewsArticlesOnline

Author(ifavailable),Headline,NEWSPAPER,
dateofpublication,availableatURL(last
accesseddate).
22.MailaAger,Tupasondisclosureofevidence:
Whatswrong?,PHIL.DAILYINQ.,Jan.4,
2012,availableathttp://newsinfo.inquirer.
net/122301/tupasondisclosureof
evidencewhatswrong(lastaccessedJune
26,2012).

SubsequentCitations

23.Quan,supranote18,at430.
24.TejadaJr.,surpanote20,at35.
25.Ager,supranote22.

Otherusesoffootnotes:Explanations
Theuseoffootnotesforexplanationsmakesthe

thesismorefocusedandcohesive.

HasthePhilippinessuccessfullytransitioned
fromitsMarcosian26past?
26.TheProponentusesthetermMarcosiantoreferto
themassiveviolationsofcivilandpoliticalrightsand
theeconomicplundercommittedbythoseinpublic
oceduringthetimeofMarcos.

Otherusesoffootnotes:IndirectCitations
Introductorysignals
Conveytherelationbetweenthetextandtheauthority
citedinthefootnotetext
Maysignifysupport,comparison,ordivergence.
Italicizedforemphasis.

IntroductorySignals
Support
See
See,e.g.,
Seegenerally

IntroductorySignals
Comparison
Compare____with_____.
Contrast____with_____.

IntroductorySignals
Divergence
Contra
Butsee

Tip:Useintroductorysignalstomakeyour

thesismorescholarly.

Theuseofintroductorysignalsgivesthe

impressionthatyouconductedathorough
research
Italsogivesmakesyourthesismoreholistic

TheBibliographyisthesummaryofthe

sourcesyouusedduringyourresearch
Itmustbeorganizedbasedonthese:
Grouping
Clustering
Sequencing

Note:PanelistschecktheBibliography.
Tip:Startearly,xtheBibliographyasearly

asthissemestersoyoucanfocusonthe
substantivepartofthethesis.

Grouping
FirstPart:PrimaryAuthorities
SecondPart:SecondaryAuthorities

Clustering

Organizesourcesofthesameclasstogether
Example:Allbooksmustbelistedtogether.

Grouping+Clustering
I. PrimaryAuthorities
A. Constitution
B. Statutes
C. Cases
II. SecondaryAuthorities
A. Books
B. Journals
C. InternetSources

Sequencing
Forprimarysources:
Constitutionbasedonyearofeectivity
Statutesbasedonclass(BP,PD,RA)
Then,basedonyearofeectivity
Ifsameyear,basedonBP/PD/RAnumber.
Format:ALJBluebook(samewithfootnotes)

Casesbasedonlevelofcourt(SC,CA,RTC)
Then,alphabetically
Format:ALJBluebook

Treaties,UNDocuments,etc.followruleonstatutes.

Sequencing

I.PrimaryAuthorities
A.Constitution
1973PHIL.CONST.
1987PHIL.CONST.
B.Statutes
BatasPambasa
PresidentialDecrees
RepublicActs
C.Jurisprudence
SupremeCourt
CourtofAppeals

Sequencing
Forsecondarysources:Turabian
Surnamerst
Alphabetical