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- Instrumentation and Control
- Nr-410204-Power System Operation and Control
- FLEXIBLEAC TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS (FACTS)
- static var compensator
- chap16
- Ee472 Final Report Pr2
- ac
- Network Analysis and Synthesis
- Static Sustenance of Power System Stability Using FLC Based UPFC in SMIB Power System
- voltage tip mitigation in distribution system
- Shah Rara
- Power factor improvement for CFL
- Simulation of Five Bus System
- Optimal Placement of Facts Devices Using Particle Swarm Optimization Technique for the Increased Loadability of a Power System
- Question
- AC Circuits & Series RLC
- Ar 4101248255
- power pactor
- Thevenin+Equivalent
- Lab-Manual Exp 231

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(Affiliated to J.N.T.U)

KAKINADA-533003, ANDHRA PRADESH

UNIFIED POWER FLOW CONTROLLER

AUTHORS:

Dolly Jain

III B.Tech

CONTACT ADDRESS

Phone No: 09949402512

Email: dollyjaindj@gmail.com

V. Poornima Visalakshi

III B.Tech

ABSTRACT:

Now days there are many problems in the

power system due to increasing demand. FACTS

controllers are emerging as viable and economic

solutions to the problems of large interconnected

AC networks, which can endanger the system

security. These devices are characterized by their

fast response, absence of inertia, and minimum

maintenance requirements. Thyristors controlled

equipments require passive elements (reactors and

capacitors) of large ratings. In contrast, an all solid

state device using GTOs (gate turn-off thyristor

valves) leads to reduction in equipment size and has

improved performance.

The Unified Power Flow Controller

(UPFC) is an all-solid state power flow controller

that can be used to control the active and reactive

power in the line independently in addition to

control of local bus voltage. The unique capability

of the Unified Power Flow Controller is that it

maintains prescribed real and active power flow in

the line and independently controls them as well at

both the sending- and the receiving-ends of the

transmission line.

In this paper, we present a control scheme

for the UPFC to improve stability and damping.

UPFC is able to control both the transmitted real

power and, independently, the reactive power flows

at the sending- and the receiving-end of the

transmission line. The paper describes the basic

concepts of the proposed generalized P and Q

controller and compares it to the more conventional

power flow controllers.

As explained above, the UPFC basically

has three controllable parameters the magnitude

and angle of the series injected voltage and the

magnitude of the shunt reactive current. The internal

control systems provide the gating signals to the

INTRODUCTION:

The Unified Power Flow Controller

(UPFC) was proposed for real-time control and

dynamic compensation of ac transmission systems,

providing the necessary functional flexibility to

solve many of the problems faced by the utility

industry.

The UPFC primarily injects a voltage in

series with the line whose phase angle can vary

between 0 to 2 with respect to the terminal voltage

and its magnitude can be varied (depending on the

rating of the device). Hence, the device must be

capable of both generating and absorbing both real

and reactive power. This can be achieved by using

two Voltage Source Converters (VISSC) employing

GTOs (gate turn-off thyristor valves) as shown in

fig 1.

Fig. 1 - UPFC Configuration

The two converters are operated from a

common dc link provided by a DC storage

capacitor. Converter 2 is used to inject the required

series voltage via an injection transformer. The

basic function of converter 1 is to supply or absorb

the real power demanded by Converter 2 at the

common dc link. Converter 1 can also generate or

absorb controllable reactive power, thus, providing

shunt compensation for the line independently of the

reactive power exchanged by Converter 2. Thus,

the UPFC can be modeled by a controllable voltage

source Vser in series with the line and a controllable

current source Ish in shunt as shown in Fig2

converter valves so as to operate them to provide the

command series voltage and simultaneously draw

the desired shunt reactive current. The external

controls on the other hand, decides the reference

values of the series voltage and shunt reactive

current. These values can be set to some constant

values or dictated by an outer feeder control loop to

meet specific requirements. Automatic control of

the shunt reactive power to regulate the bus voltage

is well known for SVC and STATCON. The same

principle can be extended to the control of the shunt

reactive current of the UPFC. However, the control

of the series injected voltage can be achieved in

different ways to meet various objectives. The focus

of this paper is on the control of the series injected

voltage in steady state and under disturbances to

damp power oscillations and improve stability.

BASIC PRINCIPLE OF P AND Q CONTROL:

Consider Fig 3. (a) a simple two

machine(or two bus ac inter-tie) system with

sending-end voltage Vs, receiving-end voltage Vr,

and line (or tie) impedance X(assumed for,

simplicity, inductive) is shown.

At (b) the voltages of the system in form of

a phasor diagram are shown with transmission angle

and |Vs | = |Vr | = V. At(c) the transmitted power P

{P=(V*V/X) sin } and the reactive power Q= Qs

= Qr {Q=(V*V/X)(1-cos)} supplied at the ends of

the line are shown plotted against angle . At (d) the

reactive power Q = Qs = Qr is shown plotted against

the transmitted P corresponding to the stable

values of (i.e. 0 90).

Fig .3 Simple two machine system (a), related

voltage phasor (b), real and reactive power versus

transmission angle (c), and sending-end/receiving-

end reactive power

Consider Fig 4. where the simple power

system of Fig 3. is expanded to include UPFC. The

UPFC is represented by a controllable voltage

source in series with the line which, as explained in

previous section, can generate or absorb reactive

power that it negotiates with the line, but the real

power it exchanges must be supplied to it, or

absorbed from it by the sending-end generator. The

voltage injected by the UPFC in series with the line

is represented by phasor Vpq having magnitude Vpq

(0 Vpq 0.5pu) and angle (0 360)

measured from the given phase position of phasor

Vs as illustrated in the figure. The line current,

represented by phasor Is, flows through series

voltage source, Vpq, and generally results in both

reactive and real power exchange. In order to

represent the UPFC properly, the series voltage

source is stipulated to generate only the reactive

power Qpq it exchanges with the line. Thus, the real

power Ppq it negotiates with the line is assumed to

be transferred to the sending-end generator as if a

perfect coupling for real power flow between it and

the sending-end generator existed. This is in

arrangement with the UPFC circuit structure in

which the dc link between the two constituent

inverters establishes a bi-directional coupling for

real power flow between the injected series voltage

source and the sending-end bus. As Fig. 4 implies,

in the present discussion it is further assumed for

clarity that the shunt reactive compensation

capability of the UPFC is not utilized. That is, the

UPFC shunt inverter is assumed to be operated at

unity power factor, its sole function being to transfer

the real power demand of the series inverter to the

sending-end generator. With these assumptions, the

series voltage source, together with the real power

coupling to the sending-end generator as shown in

fig 4, is an accurate representation of the basic

UPFC.

It can be readily observed in fig 4 that the

transmission line sees Vs+Vpq as the effective

sending-end voltage. Thus it is clear that the UPFC

affects the voltage (both its magnitude and angle)

across the transmission line and therefore it is

reasonable to expect that it is able to control, by

varying the magnitude and angle of Vpq, the

transmittable real power as well as the reactive

power demand of the line at any given transmission

angle between the sending-end and receiving-end

voltages.

Control Of Series Injected Voltage:

The series injected voltage can be adjusted to meet a

required P and Q demand in the transmission line.

The series injected voltage can be decomposed into

two components: a component in phase with the

sending (receiving) end voltage which mainly

affects the reactive power flow and a component in

quadrature with the sending (receiving) end voltage

which mainly affects the real power flow. These

components can be controlled to meet the required

power demand.

An alternative to using either the sending-

end or the receiving-end voltages as reference is to

use current as the reference. The injected voltage

can be split into two components: one component in

phase with the current and the other in quadrature

with the current. Inserting a component of voltage in

phase with the current is equivalent to inserting a

resistance (positive or negative) in the line and

inserting a voltage component in quadrature with

current is equivalent to inserting a reactance

(capacitive or inductive). The controller discussed in

this paper is designed to control the magnitudes of

the two components of the series injected voltage:

Vser1 in phase with the current and Vser2 in

quadrature with the current, independently to

regulate P and Q at the receiving-end. In addition,

the control scheme is aimed at damping the power

swings and maintaining stability after a disturbance.

Controller for UPFC:

If the sending end voltage is Vs and the

receiving end voltage is Vr, and injected voltage is

assumed to be made of two voltage sources whose

magnitudes are Vser1 and Vser2 in series, the line

with the UPFC can be represented by Fig 5., if the

power demand at the receiving end (PR and QR )

and the receiving end voltage Vr are specified, the

current required to meet this demand and the voltage

Vs2 can be computed from

Vr Ir = Pr + j Qr (1)

Vs2 = Vr + j Ir Xr (2)

The magnitude of the in-phase component,

Vser1, is controlled to maintain the magnitude of

Vs2 at the value obtained from (2) and the

magnitude of the quadrature component, Vser2,

controlled to meet the required power demand PR.

PR and QR demands are decided by the changing

conditions in the system and can be varied

according to the load conditions at any given point

of time. However, during a contingency the constant

power control is not desirable in the interest of

stability. Hence, the power flow in the line has to be

suitably modulated to improve stability and damp

the oscillations.

Controller Structure for UPFC:

Controller for Vser1:

The in phase component is used to regulate

the magnitude of voltage Vs2. The controller

structure is as shown in Fig 6a. In the figure Vs2ref

is the value of the desired magnitude of voltage Vs2

obtained from equation (2). Tmeas is the time

constant to represent delay in measurements. A

simple integral controller is used for control for

Vser1. A positive voltage insertion corresponds to a

negative series resistance. During a contingency,

Vs2ref can be varied.

Fig. 6(a)-Controller for Vser1

Controller for Vser2:

Vser2 is controlled to meet the real power

demand in the line. The controller structure is

shown in Fig 6b. Peo is the steady state power, Dc

and Kc are constants to provide the damping and

synchronizing powers in the line, sm is the

generator slip, Tmeas is the measurement delay and

Pline is the actual power flowing in the line. It is to

be noted that a positive voltage injection

corresponds to a capacitive voltage. A wash out

circuit is provided to eliminate any steady state bias

in the controller.

A few points are to be noted in the above

controller structure. Setting of Dc and Kc to zero

results in a constant power controller where the

injected voltage is controlled so as to maintain the

line power at Peo. Peo itself can be changed so as to

UPFC is an actively controlled voltage

source, it can force upto 0.5p.u. real power flow in

either direction and also control reactive power

exchange between the sending and receiving end

buses.

2. TCSC is series impedance and thus the

compensating voltage it produces is proportional to

the line current, which is as a function of line

voltage.

UPFC is a voltage source the maximum

compensating voltage it produces is independent of

line current.

obtain different steady state power flows depending 3. The range of TCSC for real power control

on changing network conditions. The constants Dc

and Kc have to be carefully chosen so that the

system is neither over damped nor under damped.

The gain of the integral controller should be tuned

properly to prevent too frequent hitting of the limits

that would give an undesirable response.

COMPARISON OF UPFC TO THE TCPAR:

remains a constant percentage of the power

transmitted by the uncompensated line at all

transmission angle. The actual changes in

transmitted power progressively increases with

increase in and it reaches that of the UPFC at

=90.

4. Maximum transmitted power of 1.5p.u.

obtained with the TCSC at full compensation. Is

associated with 1.5p.u. reactive power demand at

the receiving end when compensated with TCSC.

The 1.5p.u. power transmission is achieved by

1.0p.u. reactive power demanded when the line is

compensated with UPFC.

5. UPFC has superior power flow control

characteristics compared to TCSC.

6. UPFC cant produce series resonance with

the line reactance while TCSC produces series

resonance with line reactance.

CONCLUSION:

The UPFC being a very versatile device can

be used for fast control of active and reactive power

in the line. In this paper, we have proposed a control

scheme for the series injected voltage of the UPFC,

wherein, the injected voltage is split into

components in phase with and in quadrature with

1. TCPAR consists of shunt connected

the line current. This control scheme provides a

excitation transformer, series insertion transformer

and thyristor switch arrangement.

UPFC consists of two switching

converters, shunt transformer.

locally measurable control signal as opposed to

using the sending end voltage as control signals

which would require either synthesis or telemetry of

these signals, unless the UPFC is located close to

2. In TCPAR total VA exchanged by the

them. The component in phase with the current is

series insertion transformer appears at the primary

of the excitation transformer, as load demanded.

Thus, both the real and reactive power the phase

angle regulator supplied to, or absorb from the line.

UPFC itself generates the reactive power

part of the total VA it exchanges as the result of the

series voltage injection and it presents only the real

power part to the AC system as a load demand.

3. The UPFC has a wider range for real power

control and facilitates the independent control of the

used indirectly to control the reactive power by

voltage regulation of the UPFC receiving end bus

and the quadrature component controlled to control

the real power flow in the line. By addition of

damping and synchronizing torques during

contingencies, it is possible to modulate the real

power flow so as to damp the power oscillations

very fast and also improve transient stability.

References:

receiving end reactive power control over a broad

1. L. Gyugyi et al., The unified power flow

range.

COMPARISON OF UPFC AND TCSC:

controller: a new approach to power transmission

control, IEEE Trans. On power delivery, vol. 10,

No.2 April 1995, pp.1085-1097.

1. TCSC is an actively controlled but

2. L. Gyugyi, Unified power flow concept

functionally passive impedance. If the current

through the line is zero then both P and Q are zero

irrespective of the value of Xc.

for flexible AC transmission systems, IEE

proceedings-C, July 1992.

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