Anda di halaman 1dari 7



(Affiliated to J.N.T.U)
Dolly Jain
III B.Tech
Phone No: 09949402512
V. Poornima Visalakshi
III B.Tech
Now days there are many problems in the
power system due to increasing demand. FACTS
controllers are emerging as viable and economic
solutions to the problems of large interconnected
AC networks, which can endanger the system
security. These devices are characterized by their
fast response, absence of inertia, and minimum
maintenance requirements. Thyristors controlled
equipments require passive elements (reactors and
capacitors) of large ratings. In contrast, an all solid
state device using GTOs (gate turn-off thyristor
valves) leads to reduction in equipment size and has
improved performance.
The Unified Power Flow Controller
(UPFC) is an all-solid state power flow controller
that can be used to control the active and reactive
power in the line independently in addition to
control of local bus voltage. The unique capability
of the Unified Power Flow Controller is that it
maintains prescribed real and active power flow in
the line and independently controls them as well at
both the sending- and the receiving-ends of the
transmission line.
In this paper, we present a control scheme
for the UPFC to improve stability and damping.
UPFC is able to control both the transmitted real
power and, independently, the reactive power flows
at the sending- and the receiving-end of the
transmission line. The paper describes the basic
concepts of the proposed generalized P and Q
controller and compares it to the more conventional
power flow controllers.
As explained above, the UPFC basically
has three controllable parameters the magnitude
and angle of the series injected voltage and the
magnitude of the shunt reactive current. The internal
control systems provide the gating signals to the
The Unified Power Flow Controller
(UPFC) was proposed for real-time control and
dynamic compensation of ac transmission systems,
providing the necessary functional flexibility to
solve many of the problems faced by the utility
The UPFC primarily injects a voltage in
series with the line whose phase angle can vary
between 0 to 2 with respect to the terminal voltage
and its magnitude can be varied (depending on the
rating of the device). Hence, the device must be
capable of both generating and absorbing both real
and reactive power. This can be achieved by using
two Voltage Source Converters (VISSC) employing
GTOs (gate turn-off thyristor valves) as shown in
fig 1.
Fig. 1 - UPFC Configuration
The two converters are operated from a
common dc link provided by a DC storage
capacitor. Converter 2 is used to inject the required
series voltage via an injection transformer. The
basic function of converter 1 is to supply or absorb
the real power demanded by Converter 2 at the
common dc link. Converter 1 can also generate or
absorb controllable reactive power, thus, providing
shunt compensation for the line independently of the
reactive power exchanged by Converter 2. Thus,
the UPFC can be modeled by a controllable voltage
source Vser in series with the line and a controllable
current source Ish in shunt as shown in Fig2
converter valves so as to operate them to provide the
command series voltage and simultaneously draw
the desired shunt reactive current. The external
controls on the other hand, decides the reference
values of the series voltage and shunt reactive
current. These values can be set to some constant
values or dictated by an outer feeder control loop to
meet specific requirements. Automatic control of
the shunt reactive power to regulate the bus voltage
is well known for SVC and STATCON. The same
principle can be extended to the control of the shunt
reactive current of the UPFC. However, the control
of the series injected voltage can be achieved in
different ways to meet various objectives. The focus
of this paper is on the control of the series injected
voltage in steady state and under disturbances to
damp power oscillations and improve stability.
Consider Fig 3. (a) a simple two
machine(or two bus ac inter-tie) system with
sending-end voltage Vs, receiving-end voltage Vr,
and line (or tie) impedance X(assumed for,
simplicity, inductive) is shown.
At (b) the voltages of the system in form of
a phasor diagram are shown with transmission angle
and |Vs | = |Vr | = V. At(c) the transmitted power P
{P=(V*V/X) sin } and the reactive power Q= Qs
= Qr {Q=(V*V/X)(1-cos)} supplied at the ends of
the line are shown plotted against angle . At (d) the
reactive power Q = Qs = Qr is shown plotted against
the transmitted P corresponding to the stable
values of (i.e. 0 90).
Fig .3 Simple two machine system (a), related
voltage phasor (b), real and reactive power versus
transmission angle (c), and sending-end/receiving-
end reactive power
Consider Fig 4. where the simple power
system of Fig 3. is expanded to include UPFC. The
UPFC is represented by a controllable voltage
source in series with the line which, as explained in
previous section, can generate or absorb reactive
power that it negotiates with the line, but the real
power it exchanges must be supplied to it, or
absorbed from it by the sending-end generator. The
voltage injected by the UPFC in series with the line
is represented by phasor Vpq having magnitude Vpq
(0 Vpq 0.5pu) and angle (0 360)
measured from the given phase position of phasor
Vs as illustrated in the figure. The line current,
represented by phasor Is, flows through series
voltage source, Vpq, and generally results in both
reactive and real power exchange. In order to
represent the UPFC properly, the series voltage
source is stipulated to generate only the reactive
power Qpq it exchanges with the line. Thus, the real
power Ppq it negotiates with the line is assumed to
be transferred to the sending-end generator as if a
perfect coupling for real power flow between it and
the sending-end generator existed. This is in
arrangement with the UPFC circuit structure in
which the dc link between the two constituent
inverters establishes a bi-directional coupling for
real power flow between the injected series voltage
source and the sending-end bus. As Fig. 4 implies,
in the present discussion it is further assumed for
clarity that the shunt reactive compensation
capability of the UPFC is not utilized. That is, the
UPFC shunt inverter is assumed to be operated at
unity power factor, its sole function being to transfer
the real power demand of the series inverter to the
sending-end generator. With these assumptions, the
series voltage source, together with the real power
coupling to the sending-end generator as shown in
fig 4, is an accurate representation of the basic
It can be readily observed in fig 4 that the
transmission line sees Vs+Vpq as the effective
sending-end voltage. Thus it is clear that the UPFC
affects the voltage (both its magnitude and angle)
across the transmission line and therefore it is
reasonable to expect that it is able to control, by
varying the magnitude and angle of Vpq, the
transmittable real power as well as the reactive
power demand of the line at any given transmission
angle between the sending-end and receiving-end
Control Of Series Injected Voltage:
The series injected voltage can be adjusted to meet a
required P and Q demand in the transmission line.
The series injected voltage can be decomposed into
two components: a component in phase with the
sending (receiving) end voltage which mainly
affects the reactive power flow and a component in
quadrature with the sending (receiving) end voltage
which mainly affects the real power flow. These
components can be controlled to meet the required
power demand.
An alternative to using either the sending-
end or the receiving-end voltages as reference is to
use current as the reference. The injected voltage
can be split into two components: one component in
phase with the current and the other in quadrature
with the current. Inserting a component of voltage in
phase with the current is equivalent to inserting a
resistance (positive or negative) in the line and
inserting a voltage component in quadrature with
current is equivalent to inserting a reactance
(capacitive or inductive). The controller discussed in
this paper is designed to control the magnitudes of
the two components of the series injected voltage:
Vser1 in phase with the current and Vser2 in
quadrature with the current, independently to
regulate P and Q at the receiving-end. In addition,
the control scheme is aimed at damping the power
swings and maintaining stability after a disturbance.
Controller for UPFC:
If the sending end voltage is Vs and the
receiving end voltage is Vr, and injected voltage is
assumed to be made of two voltage sources whose
magnitudes are Vser1 and Vser2 in series, the line
with the UPFC can be represented by Fig 5., if the
power demand at the receiving end (PR and QR )
and the receiving end voltage Vr are specified, the
current required to meet this demand and the voltage
Vs2 can be computed from
Vr Ir = Pr + j Qr (1)
Vs2 = Vr + j Ir Xr (2)
The magnitude of the in-phase component,
Vser1, is controlled to maintain the magnitude of
Vs2 at the value obtained from (2) and the
magnitude of the quadrature component, Vser2,
controlled to meet the required power demand PR.
PR and QR demands are decided by the changing
conditions in the system and can be varied
according to the load conditions at any given point
of time. However, during a contingency the constant
power control is not desirable in the interest of
stability. Hence, the power flow in the line has to be
suitably modulated to improve stability and damp
the oscillations.
Controller Structure for UPFC:
Controller for Vser1:
The in phase component is used to regulate
the magnitude of voltage Vs2. The controller
structure is as shown in Fig 6a. In the figure Vs2ref
is the value of the desired magnitude of voltage Vs2
obtained from equation (2). Tmeas is the time
constant to represent delay in measurements. A
simple integral controller is used for control for
Vser1. A positive voltage insertion corresponds to a
negative series resistance. During a contingency,
Vs2ref can be varied.
Fig. 6(a)-Controller for Vser1
Controller for Vser2:
Vser2 is controlled to meet the real power
demand in the line. The controller structure is
shown in Fig 6b. Peo is the steady state power, Dc
and Kc are constants to provide the damping and
synchronizing powers in the line, sm is the
generator slip, Tmeas is the measurement delay and
Pline is the actual power flowing in the line. It is to
be noted that a positive voltage injection
corresponds to a capacitive voltage. A wash out
circuit is provided to eliminate any steady state bias
in the controller.
A few points are to be noted in the above
controller structure. Setting of Dc and Kc to zero
results in a constant power controller where the
injected voltage is controlled so as to maintain the
line power at Peo. Peo itself can be changed so as to
UPFC is an actively controlled voltage
source, it can force upto 0.5p.u. real power flow in
either direction and also control reactive power
exchange between the sending and receiving end
2. TCSC is series impedance and thus the
compensating voltage it produces is proportional to
the line current, which is as a function of line
UPFC is a voltage source the maximum
compensating voltage it produces is independent of
line current.
obtain different steady state power flows depending 3. The range of TCSC for real power control
on changing network conditions. The constants Dc
and Kc have to be carefully chosen so that the
system is neither over damped nor under damped.
The gain of the integral controller should be tuned
properly to prevent too frequent hitting of the limits
that would give an undesirable response.
remains a constant percentage of the power
transmitted by the uncompensated line at all
transmission angle. The actual changes in
transmitted power progressively increases with
increase in and it reaches that of the UPFC at
4. Maximum transmitted power of 1.5p.u.
obtained with the TCSC at full compensation. Is
associated with 1.5p.u. reactive power demand at
the receiving end when compensated with TCSC.
The 1.5p.u. power transmission is achieved by
1.0p.u. reactive power demanded when the line is
compensated with UPFC.
5. UPFC has superior power flow control
characteristics compared to TCSC.
6. UPFC cant produce series resonance with
the line reactance while TCSC produces series
resonance with line reactance.
The UPFC being a very versatile device can
be used for fast control of active and reactive power
in the line. In this paper, we have proposed a control
scheme for the series injected voltage of the UPFC,
wherein, the injected voltage is split into
components in phase with and in quadrature with
1. TCPAR consists of shunt connected
the line current. This control scheme provides a
excitation transformer, series insertion transformer
and thyristor switch arrangement.
UPFC consists of two switching
converters, shunt transformer.
locally measurable control signal as opposed to
using the sending end voltage as control signals
which would require either synthesis or telemetry of
these signals, unless the UPFC is located close to
2. In TCPAR total VA exchanged by the
them. The component in phase with the current is
series insertion transformer appears at the primary
of the excitation transformer, as load demanded.
Thus, both the real and reactive power the phase
angle regulator supplied to, or absorb from the line.
UPFC itself generates the reactive power
part of the total VA it exchanges as the result of the
series voltage injection and it presents only the real
power part to the AC system as a load demand.
3. The UPFC has a wider range for real power
control and facilitates the independent control of the
used indirectly to control the reactive power by
voltage regulation of the UPFC receiving end bus
and the quadrature component controlled to control
the real power flow in the line. By addition of
damping and synchronizing torques during
contingencies, it is possible to modulate the real
power flow so as to damp the power oscillations
very fast and also improve transient stability.
receiving end reactive power control over a broad
1. L. Gyugyi et al., The unified power flow
controller: a new approach to power transmission
control, IEEE Trans. On power delivery, vol. 10,
No.2 April 1995, pp.1085-1097.
1. TCSC is an actively controlled but
2. L. Gyugyi, Unified power flow concept
functionally passive impedance. If the current
through the line is zero then both P and Q are zero
irrespective of the value of Xc.
for flexible AC transmission systems, IEE
proceedings-C, July 1992.