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ACROSS UNKNOWN

ACROSS UNKNOWN 1
SOUTH AMERICA
BY

A. HENRY SAVAGE-LANDOR
WITH 2 MAPS, 8 COLOURED PLATES, AND 260 ILLUSTRATIONS
FROM PHOTOGRAPHS BY THE AUTHOR

IN TWO VOLUMES

HODDER AND STOUGHTON

LONDON NEW YORK TORONTO

SOUTH AMERICA 2
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Across Unknown South America, by A. Henry Savage-Landor.

The Author.

Printed in 1913
Copyright in the United States of America
by A. Henry Savage-Landor

THIS WORK IS DEDICATED

to

LONDON NEW YORK TORONTO 3


The Project Gutenberg eBook of Across Unknown South America, by A. Henry Savage-Landor.

THE PEOPLE
of the

GREAT BRAZILIAN REPUBLIC

CONTENTS
VOL. I

Chapter Paragraph Description Pp.


  PREFACE v-xiii
  CONTENTS xv-xviii
  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xix-xxiv
I The Heart of Brazil—Brazil, its Size and its Immense Wealth—Rio de
Janeiro—Brazilian Men of Genius—São Paulo—The Bandeirantes—The Paulista
Railway 1-25
II Coffee—The Dumont Railway 26-37
III On the Mogyana Railway 38-51
IV The Terminus of the Railway—An Unpleasant Incident—The Purchase of
Animals—On the March with the Caravan 52-68
V Travelling across Country—A Musical Genius—Valuable Woods—Thermal Springs 69-85
VI Inquisitiveness—Snakes—A Wonderful Cure—Butterflies—A Striking Scene 86-101
VII In the City of Goyaz 102-117
VIII Fourteen Long and Weary Days—Disappointment—Criminals as Followers 118-131
IX The Departure—Devoured by Insects 132-148
X Fishing—Termites—The Great Araguaya River 149-159
XI The Tucano—Fish of the Araguaya River—A Bad Shot—A Strange Sight 160-178
XII Geological Speculation—Beautiful Pasture-land 179-195
XIII The River Barreiros—A Country of Tablelands 196-206
XIV The Bororo Indians 207-223
XV Bororo Superstitions—The Bororo Language—Bororo Music 224-241
XVI Bororo Legends—The Religion of the Bororos—Funeral Rites 242-263
XVII The River Das Garças—Majestic Scenery 264-279
XVIII The Salesian Fathers—A Volcanic Zone 280-291
XIX The Paredão Grande—A Cañon—A Weird Phenomenon—Troublesome Insects 292-310

THE PEOPLE 4
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Across Unknown South America, by A. Henry Savage-Landor.

XX Wild Animals—An Immense Chasm—Interesting Cloud Effects 311-327


XXI A Beautiful Lagoon—Strange Lunar Display—Waves of Lava—Curious
Grottoes—Rock Carvings—A Beautiful Waterfall 328-343
XXII In Search of the Highest Point of the Brazilian Plateau—Mutiny—Great
Domes—Travelling by Compass—A Gigantic Fissure in the Earth's Crust 344-358
XXIII The Jangada River—Demented Descendants of Slaves—Appalling
Degeneration—Giant Monoliths—The River Roncador—Gigantic Natural
Gateways—The Discovery of Fossils 359-376
XXIV A Swampy Valley—Impressive Scenery—"Church Rock"—Escaping before a Forest
Fire—The Rio Manso—Difficulties of marching across Virgin Country—Beautiful
Rapids 377-398
XXV The Blue Mountains—The Cuyabá River—Inaccurate Maps—A Rebellion in
Camp—Infamy of Author's Followers—The Lagõa dos Veados and the Seven
Lakes—Falling Back on Diamantino—Another Mutiny—Slavery—Descending from
the Tableland 399-432

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
VOL. I

Page
Photogravure
The Author
Frontispiece
Rio de Janeiro, showing the beautiful Avenida Central 4
Rio de Janeiro as it was in 1903 8
Dr. Pedro de Toledo, Minister of Agriculture, Brazil 12
Senador Alcindo Guanabara, a great Literary Genius and Patriot of Brazil 16
The Municipal Theatre, Rio de Janeiro 20
Baron de Rio Branco 24
Dr. Passos 28
A Beautiful Waterfall at Theresopolis 32
Antonio Prado's Coffee Estate 32
The Station and Shed of the Goyaz Railway, Araguary. Mr. Luiz Schnoor and his
48
two Engineers
Typical Trees of the Brazilian Forest, Goyaz. The Stem devoid of Branches and
48
Foliage up to a great Height
Author departing from Morro da Meza, showing style of Costume worn during the
56
Expedition
Alcides and Filippe the Negro 56
Goyaz Railway in Construction: the Cut leading to the Paranahyba River 64

VOL. I 5
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Across Unknown South America, by A. Henry Savage-Landor.

Author's Caravan crossing a Stream 64


Characteristic Types of Brazilians of the Interior. (Notice the Degenerate Faces and
68
Development of Goitre)
A Typical Village of the Province of Goyaz 68
Picturesque Ox-carts of Goyaz 76
A Home in Central Brazil 80
A Clever Automatic Pounding Machine 80
Brazilian Pack-saddles 88
A Typical Village. (The Higher Building is the Church) 88
Author's Caravan about to cross the River Corumba 96
Burity Palms 96
The President of Goyaz and his Family. (Giant Cactus in the background) 100
The Main Square of Goyaz City, showing Prison and Public Library 108
Some of the Baggage and Scientific Instruments used by Author on his Expedition 108
Author's Six Followers 112
View of Goyaz City from Sta. Barbara 120
Author's Men packing Animals 120
Some of Author's Pack Animals 128
Author's Caravan across the Immense Prairies of Matto Grosso 144
The Araguaya River (looking North) 152
The Araguaya (looking South) 152
Caraja Indian of the Upper Araguaya River 160
Typical Flat-topped Plateau of Central Brazil 168
One Night's Fishing on the Araguaya 168
The Paredãozinho 176
Typical Scenery of Matto Grosso 176
Volcanic Scenery of Matto Grosso (Chapada in foreground) 184
Peculiar Formation of Central Plateau 184
Curious Domes of Lava with Upper Stratum of Earth, Sand and Ashes 192
Great Undulating Campos of Matto Grosso 192
Typical Brazilian Plateau, showing Work of Erosion 200
On the Plateau of Matto Grosso (Alcides in foreground) 200
A Fine Bororo Type on a Visit To Author's Camp 208
Bororo Men, showing Lip Ornament 216
Bororo Men 216
Bororo Indians 224

VOL. I 6
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Across Unknown South America, by A. Henry Savage-Landor.

Bororo Men (the Aprons are not actually worn) 228


Bororo Warriors 232
Bororo Warriors 232
The Horrors of Photography: Bororo Children 236
Bororo Chief rattling Gourds filled with Pebbles, in order to call Members of his
238
Tribe (Coloured Plate)
Bororo Child showing strong Malay Characteristics 240
Bororo Girls 244
Bororo Girls (side view) 244
Bororo Women, showing Method of carrying Children 248
Bororos showing Formation of Hands 248
Bororo Women 252
Bororo Women 252
Bororos Thrashing Indian Corn 256
A Bororo Blind Woman 256
Bororo Children 260
Bororo Women 260
Isolated Conical Hills with Tower-like Rocky Formations on Summit 268
The Endless Campos of Matto Grosso 268
Geometrical Pattern on the Surface of a Flow of Lava (caused by Sudden
272
Contraction in Cooling)
The Observatory at the Salesian Colony. (Padre Colbacchini in the Foreground) 280
Bororo Women and Children 280
Strange Formation of Volcanic Rock 288
Volcanic Cavities (Matto Grosso) 288
A Vertical Mass of Solid Rock of a Brilliant Red Colour 292
The Paredão Grande (Matto Grosso) (Coloured Plate) 294
The Paredão Grande, showing Vertical Rocks with Great Arches 300
Mushroom-shaped Rocks of Volcanic Formation 308
A Great Earthquake Fissure in the Terrestrial Crust (Matto Grosso) 308
Strange Geometrical Pattern of Lava over Giant Volcanic Dome 316
Author's Troop of Animals wading across a Shallow Stream 324
Central Cluster of Trees and Palms in a Cuvette (Matto Grosso) 332
A Giant Wave of Lava 332
Strange Rock-Carvings of Matto Grosso 336
Weird Lunar Effect witnessed by Author (Coloured Plate) 340

VOL. I 7
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Across Unknown South America, by A. Henry Savage-Landor.

A Giant Quadrangular Block of Rock 344


Rock-Carvings in Matto Grosso 344
A Picturesque Waterfall on the S. Lourenço River 352
A Cañon of Matto Grosso 356
How Author's Animals rolled down Trailless Ravines 360
Hideous Types characteristic of Central Brazil. Two Women (Left) and Two Men
364
(Right)
Author's Caravan marching across Trailless Country 368
The Roncador River 368
Fossil Skull of a Giant Animal discovered by Author (Side View) 376
Fossil Skull of Giant Animal (seen from Underneath) 376
A Grand Rock ("Church Rock") 384
Church Rock (Side View) 384
Quadrangular Rocky Mountain connected by Natural Wall of Rock with the
388
Vertical-sided Range in Background
Quadrangular Rocky Mountain showing Rocky Wall connecting it with the
392
Neighbouring Range
Author's Caravan in the Heart of Matto Grosso 392
A Giant Dome of Lava 396
Campos and Chapada of Matto Grosso 396
Marvellous Scenery of the Central Brazilian Plateau. "Church Rock" standing in the
400
Centre (Coloured Plate)
A Street of Diamantino 404
The Dogs of the Expedition 404
Matto-Grosso Girl, a Mixture of Portuguese, Indian and Negro Blood 412
Brazilian Child, a Mixture of Portuguese and Negro 412
Map showing Author's Route 432
Map showing the Arinos and Arinos-Juruena Rivers 432

VOL. I 8
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Across Unknown South America, by A. Henry Savage-Landor.

The Mouth of the Putamayo River.

CONTENTS
VOL. II

Chapter Paragraph Description Pp.


  CONTENTS iii-viii
  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ix-xvi
I The River Arinos—A Rickety Canoe—Mapping the River—The Siphonia
Elastica—Rubber and its Collection—An Enormously Rich Country—A German
in Slavery 1-15
II Hoisting the British Flag—An Escaped Slave—A Dilemma—Benedicto—The
Lutra Brasiliensis—The Seringueiros—A Marvellous River—Rapids 16-32
III Dangerous Navigation—Eddies—Whirlpools—An Extraordinary Creature—The
Man X—Pedro de Toledo Island—An Interesting Rodent 33-50
IV Oleo Pardo Trees—Beautiful Palms—The River Bottom—Swarms of
Butterflies—Millions of Bees—A Continuous Torture 51-61
V 62-75

CONTENTS 9
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Across Unknown South America, by A. Henry Savage-Landor.

Great Islands—The Trinchão Fish—A Fisherman's Paradise—Alastor


Island—Plentiful Rubber—The Civilized Man's Idea of the Tropical Forest—The
War-Cries of the Indians—Swarms of Bees and Butterflies
VI The Tapirus Americanus—Striking Scenery—The Mate Tree—Photography in
Camp—Brazilian Way of Reasoning—A New Christopher Columbus—The
Selection of our Camps—Beautiful Fruit—A Large Tributary 76-91
VII Ideal Islands—Immense Figueira Trees—The "Spider Monkey"—Great Variety of
Fish in the Arinos—The Rocky Gateway into Diabolical Waters—Shooting
Dangerous Rapids—Cutting a Way through the Forest—A Nasty Rapid—Plentiful
Fish 92-111
VIII Magnificent Basins—Innumerable Rapids—Narrow Escapes—The Destructive
Sauba Ants—Disobedient Followers—A Range of Mountains—Inquisitive
Monkeys—Luck in Fishing—Rocky Barriers—Venus 112-128
IX Dogs—Macaws—Crocodiles—A Serious Accident: Men flung into a
Whirlpool—The Loss of Provisions and Valuable Baggage—More Dangerous
Rapids—Wonderful Scenery—Dangerous Work—On the Edge of a Waterfall—A
Risky Experience—Bravery of Author's Brazilian Followers—A High Wind from
the North-East—A Big Lake 129-150
X The Point of Junction of the Arinos and Juruena Rivers—Elfrida Landor
Island—Terrible Days of Navigation—Immense Islands—An Old Indian Camp—A
Fight between a Dog and an Ariranha—George Rex Island—A Huge Sucuriú
Snake 151-164
XI A Family of Ariranhas—Attacked by them—Three Nasty Rapids—Beautiful Sand
Beaches—Exciting Experiences—Going down a Thundering Cataract—Alcides'
Narrow Escape—A Night's Work in the Midst of a Foaming Rapid in order to
rescue the half-submerged Canoe—Filippe's Courage—Visited by a Snake 20 ft.
long 165-181
XII A Tiny Globular Cloudlet warning us—Tossed in a Merciless Manner—Saved by
Providence—Vicious Waters—A Diabolical Spot—A Highly Dangerous
Crossing—A Terrible Channel—More Bad Rapids—On the Verge of a Fatal Drop
down a Waterfall—Saved in Time—A Magnificent Sight—The August Falls—A
Mutiny—The Canoe, weighing 2,000 lb., taken across the Forest over a Hill-range 182-206
XIII A Double Whirlpool—Incessant Rapids of Great Magnitude—A Dangerous
Channel—Nothing to Eat—Another Disaster 207-219
XIV In the Hands of Providence—A Mutiny—Another Mutiny—Foodless—Hard and
Dangerous Work—A Near Approach to Hades—Making an Artificial Channel
among Thousands of Boulders—An Awe-inspiring Scene—The Fall of S.
Simão—A Revolt 220-234
XV Mutiny and Threats—Wasted Efforts—Awful Waters—The Canoe escapes in a
Violent Rapid—Another Mutiny—The Canoe recovered—An Appalling
Vortex—The Fall of S. Simão—Cutting an Artificial Channel in the Rocks 235-248
XVI At Death's Door—Mundurucu Indians—All Author's Followers poisoned by Wild 249-265
Fruit—Anxious Moments—Seringueiros—A Dying Jewish Trader—The Mori
Brothers—A New Hat—Where the Tres Barras meets the Arinos-Juruena—The

VOL. II 10
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Across Unknown South America, by A. Henry Savage-Landor.

Canoe abandoned
XVII A Fiscal Agency—Former Atrocities—The Apiacar Indians—Plentiful
Rubber—Unexploited Regions—Precious Fossils thrown away by Author's
Followers—A Terrific Storm—Author's Canoe dashed to pieces—The Mount St.
Benedicto 266-277
XVIII Starting across the Virgin Forest—Cutting the Way incessantly—A Rugged, Rocky
Plateau—Author's Men throw away the Supplies of Food—Attacked by
Fever—Marching by Compass—Poisoned—Author's Men break down—Author
proceeds across Forest endeavouring to reach the Madeira River—A Dramatic
Scene 278-298
XIX Benedicto and Filippe show Courage—Confronted with a Mountainous
Country—Steep Ravines—No Food—Painful Marches—Starving—Ammunition
rendered useless by Moisture—The "Pros" and "Cons" of Smoking—A Faint
Hope—A Forged Tin which should have contained Anchovies—Curious Effects of
Starvation upon the Brain—Where Money is of no avail—Why there was Nothing
to eat in the Forest—The Sauba Ants—Sniffed by a Jaguar—Filippe tries to
commit Suicide 299-320
XX Benedicto and the Honey—Constantly collapsing from Exhaustion—A Strange
Accident—Finding a River—People's Mistaken Ideas—Sixteen Days of
Starvation—An Abandoned Hut—Repairing a Broken-down Canoe—Canoe
founders—A Raft constructed of Glass 321-338
XXI The Launching of the Glass Raft—Accidents—The Raft sinking—Saved—Our
First Solid Meal—Its Consequences—The Canuma and Secundury
Rivers—Marching back across the Forest to the Relief of the Men left behind—A
Strange Mishap—A Curious Case of Telepathy 339-364
XXII Baggage Saved—The Journey down the Tapajoz River—Colonel
Brazil—Wrecked—From Itaituba to the Amazon—Benedicto and the Man X are
discharged 365-385
XXIII Santarem to Belem (Pará)—The Amazon—From Belem to Manaos—The
Madeira-Mamore Railway 386-404
XXIV Attacked by Beri-beri—A Journey up the Madeira River to the Relief of Filippe the
Negro and Recovery of Valuable Baggage left with him—Filippe paid off—A
Journey up the River Solimões—Iquitos 405-418
XXV From Iquitos to the Foot of the Andes up the Rivers Ucayalli, Pachitea and
Pichis—The Cashibos or "Vampire Indians" 419-438
XXVI Across the Andes—The End of the Trans-continental Journey 439-457
XXVII The Peruvian Corporation Railway—The Land of the Incas—Lake
Titicaca—Bolivia—Chile—The Argentine—A Last Narrow Escape—Back in
England 458-476
APPENDIX Some of the Principal Plants of
Brazil—Mammals—Birds—Fish—Reptiles—Vocabularies 477-496
  INDEX 497-504

VOL. II 11
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Across Unknown South America, by A. Henry Savage-Landor.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
VOL. II

Page
The Mouth of the Putamayo River (Coloured Plate) Frontispiece
Rubber Tree showing Incisions and the Collar and Tin Cup for the Collection of the Latex 4
Coagulating Rubber into a Ball 4
Balls of Rubber outside a Seringueiro's Hut 8
Method of pressing Rubber into Cakes, the Alum Process of Coagulation being used 8
The Upper Arinos River 12
The Arinos River above the Rapids 12
The First Rocks in the Arinos River 20
Enormous Globular Rocks typical of the Arinos River 20
A Rocky Barrier in the River 24
A Picturesque Double Waterfall on the Arinos River 24
An Island of the Arinos River 28
Vegetation on an Island in the River Arinos 28
Preparing the Canoe to descend a Rapid 36
A Cataract on the Arinos River 36
A Rapid on the Arinos River 44
Taking the Canoe through a Narrow Channel 44
A Formidable Vortex 64
Going down a Violent Rapid in a Narrow Channel 64
The Result of Half an Hour's Fishing on the Arinos-Juruena 84
Leading the Canoe down a Rapid by Rope 92
Characteristic Rocky Barrier across the Arinos River (Author's Sextant in Foreground) 92
Whirlpool at End of Rapid 100
In Shallow Water 100
Fishing on the Arinos: a Jahu 104
Fish of the Arinos River 104
A Fine Cataract on the Arinos-Juruena River 108
Preparing the Canoe prior to descending a Rapid 112
A Nasty Rapid 112

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 12
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Across Unknown South America, by A. Henry Savage-Landor.

A Giant Central Wave emerging from a Narrow Channel 116


A Dangerous Rapid 120
Taking the Canoe and Part of the Baggage down a Narrow Passage among Rocks 120
The Canoe being led down a Rapid 124
Crocodile about to attack one of the Dogs of the Expedition. Photographed by Author at a
128
Distance of Three Metres (Rio Arinos-Juruena)
Terrifying Rapid shot by Author and his Men in their Canoe 132
Author's Men shooting a Crocodile 136
A Cataract in the River Arinos 140
Author's Canoe among Great Volcanic Rocks 140
Preparing to descend a Rapid 144
A Cataract in the Arinos River 144
Lake formed where the Arinos and Juruena Rivers meet 148
Going through a Rapid 148
Author's Canoe going down a Cataract 152
The Immense Waves encountered by Author in emerging from the Channel, in the Rapid of
156
the Inferno. (The Canoe with its Occupants shot up Vertically in the Air)
A Giant Sucurí Snake with Entire Deer contained in its Digestive Organs 160
An Easy Rapid 164
Going through a Narrow Channel 164
A Dangerous Vortex 168
Preparing the Canoe to go down a Rapid 168
A Narrow Passage in the Arinos River 172
Treble Vortex. (The Water revolved in Three Different Directions in Succession) 172
At the August Falls 176
Author and His Men in Water up to their Necks for an Entire Night endeavouring to save their
178
Canoe, which in shooting a Rapid had become stuck between Rocks (Coloured Plate)
The Salto Augusto from Above 192
The Upper Terrace of the August Waterfall 184
Interesting Geological Formation below the Salto Augusto 188
The Salto Augusto (Upper Terrace) 192
Foliated Rock below the August Falls 196
The Wooden Railway constructed by Author in order to take the Canoe Overland for Two and
200
a Half Kilometres at the August Falls

VOL. II 13
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Across Unknown South America, by A. Henry Savage-Landor.

Formation of Rock below the August Falls 200


Photograph showing the Road cut by Author across the Forest in order to take the Heavy
204
Canoe Overland
Conveying the Canoe across the Forest on Improvised Railway and Rollers 208
Pushing the Canoe Uphill through the Forest. (Notice Men With Heads wrapped owing to
212
Torturing Insects)
Conveying the Canoe, weighing 2,000 lb., over a Hill Range—The Descent 216
Author's Canoe being made to travel across the Forest 220
Distant View showing Both Falls at the Salto Augusto 224
Launching the Canoe after its Journey over a Hill Range 224
A Most Dangerous Rapid navigated by Author and his Men 228
Letting the Canoe jump a Rapid 232
Artificial Canal made by Author and his Men in order to take their Canoe along where the
236
River was Impassable
Rapid through which Author took his Canoe 240
Conveying the Canoe by Hand down a Rapid 244
Canoe being taken along an Artificial Canal made by Author and his Men 248
A Moment of Suspense: Author and his Men in their Canoe going through a Narrow Channel
between Vertical Walls of Rock. The Water forced through from Three Large Arms of the 250
River joining at that Point formed a High and Dangerous Central Wave (Coloured Plate)
Conveying the Canoe through the Forest. (Notice the Side of the Canoe split and stuffed with
252
Pieces of Cloth)
Leading the Empty Canoe down a Dangerous Channel. (Photographed a Few Seconds before
256
the Rope snapped and Canoe escaped)
The S. Simão Waterfall 260
The Huge Canoe being taken through a Small Artificial Canal made in the Rocks by the
264
Author and his Men
Mundurucu Indians 268
Author taking Astronomical Observations on a Sandy Beach of the River Arinos-Juruena 272
Where the Rivers Arinos-Juruena and S. Manoel meet 276
José Maracati, Chief of the Mundurucus, Tapajoz 276
Apiacar Boy 280
Apiacar Indian 280
Apiacar Women 284
Mundurucu Women 288
Apiacar Children 288

VOL. II 14
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Across Unknown South America, by A. Henry Savage-Landor.

Raft constructed by the Author in order to navigate the Canuma River with his Two
336
Companions of Starvation (Coloured Plate)
Canoe made of the Bark of the Burity Palm 340
Indians of the Madeira River 340
Caripuna Indians 348
Indian Idols of the Putumayo District 348
Trading Boats landing Balls of Rubber, River Tapajoz 352
Itaituba 356
A Trading Boat on the Tapajoz River 360
The S.S. "Commandante Macedo" 360
Colonel R. P. Brazil and his Charming Wife 364
Where the Madeira-Mamore Railway begins 368
Madeira-Mamore Railway, showing Cut through Tropical Forest 368
Bolivian Rubber at Abuna Station on the Madeira-Mamore Railway 372
The Inauguration Train on the Madeira-Mamore Railway 372
Wreck of the "Mamoria" in the Calderão of the Solimões River 376
Indians of the Putumayo District. (Dr. Rey de Castro, Peruvian Consul at Manaos in the
376
Centre of Photograph)
A Street in Iquitos 380
The Launch "Rimac" on the Ucayalli River 380
A Trail in the Andes 384
Campas Indian Children 388
Campas Old Woman and her Son 392
Campas Indian Woman 396
Campas Woman 400
Campas Man, Woman and Child 400
The Ucayalli River 402
The Launch on which Author travelled almost to the Foot of the Andes 402
Campas Family wading across a Stream 404
A Farmhouse on the Andes 404
On the Andes: an Elevated Trail overlooking a Foaming Torrent. (See Arch cut in Rock) 406
La Mercedes 410
The Avenue of Eucalypti near the Town of Tarma (Andes) 410

VOL. II 15
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Across Unknown South America, by A. Henry Savage-Landor.

On the Andes 412


A Street of Tarma 412
The Market-Place, Tarma 414
The Highest Point where Author crossed the Andes before Reaching the Railway at Oroya 416
Oroya 420
Oroya, the Highest Railway Station in the World 420
In the Andes at 16,000 Feet above the Sea Level 422
The Highest Point of the Oroya Railway: the Galera Tunnel 422
The Oroya Railway (A Great Spring emerging from the Mountain-side) 424
Beautiful Scenery on the Peruvian Corporation Railway to Cuzco, Peru 424
A. B. Leguia, the President of the Peruvian Republic 426
The American Observatory, Arequipa, and Mount Misti, Peru 428
On the Peruvian Corporation Railway on the way to Cuzco 428
A Beautiful Example of Ancient Spanish Wood-carving, Peru 432
Wonderful Example of Old Spanish Wood-Carving, Peru 434
On the way to Cuzco: Railway Bridge partly carried away by Swollen River 436
Great Sand Dunes along the Peruvian Corporation Railway to Cuzco 438
Inca Bath or Fountain 438
Cuzco: Llamas in Foreground 440
A Famous Inca Wall, Cuzco. (The various Rocks fit so Perfectly that no mortar was used to
442
keep them in Place)
Inca Three-Walled Fortress of Sacsayhuaman, Cuzco 444
The Inca Temple of the Sun, with Spanish Superstructure 446
Inca Doorway, Cuzco 446
Inca Steps carved in a Dome of Rock, Cuzco. (Fortress noticeable in the Distance) 448
The "Round Table" of the Incas 452
Entrance to Inca Subterranean Passages 452
Inca Place of Amusement: a Toboggan Slide of Rock 454
An Inca Grave, Bolivia 454
Inca Remains near Cuzco 456
Where a Stone Fight took place in the Inca Country. (Notice the Innumerable Rocks which
458
have been thrown down the Hill from the High Inca Structure)
Entrance to Inca Subterranean Passages 458

VOL. II 16
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Across Unknown South America, by A. Henry Savage-Landor.

The Great Inca Ruins of Viraccocha, in Tinta (Cuzco) 460


Inca Pottery, Weapons and Ornaments of Gold and Copper 464
Inca Towers of Sillistayni, Puño (Lake Titicaca) 468
An Inca Statue, Bolivia 468
Lake Titicaca 470
Guaqui, the Port for La Paz on Lake Titicaca 470
On the Andes 474
Llamas in Bolivia 476
Borax Deposits, Bolivia 476

Printed by Hazell, Watson & Viney Ltd., London and Aylesbury.

Transcriber's Notes
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