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AQA Level 1/2 Certificate in Physics

Scheme of Work
This scheme of work suggests ossi!le teaching an" learning activities for each section of the secification# There are far more
activities suggeste" than it woul" !e ossi!le to teach# \$t is inten"e" that teachers shoul" select activities aroriate to their
stu"ents an" the curriculum time availa!le# The first two columns summarise the secification references% whilst the Learning
&utcomes in"icate what most stu"ents shoul" !e a!le to achieve after the work is comlete"# The 'esources column in"icates
resources commonly availa!le to schools% an" other references that may !e helful# The timings are only suggeste"% as are the
Possi!le Teaching an" Learning Activities% which inclu"e references to e(erimental work# 'esources are only given in !rief an" risk
assessments shoul" !e carrie" out#
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#

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Summary of the
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
1 .orces an" their effects
1#1 /otion
a
b
c
Scalars are
quantities that have
magnitude only.
Vectors are
quantities that have
magnitude and an
associated
direction.
If an object moves
in a straight line,
how far it is from a
certain point can be
represented by a
distance-time
graph.
The speed of an
nderstand the difference
between scalar and vector
quantities and give e!amples
of both.
Students should be aware
that distance, speed and
time are e!amples of scalars
and displacement" velocity,
acceleration, force and
momentum are e!amples of
vectors.
#e able to construct and
interpret distance-time
graphs for an object moving
in a straight line when the
body is stationary or moving
with constant speed.
\$now how to calculate the
% Activity0 Sort quantities into &scalars'
and &vectors'.
Activity0 (atalogging equipment to
graph distance and time.
Activity0 (rawing and interpreting
)ards showing the names of
quantities to sort into &scalars'
and &vectors'.
(atalogging equipment, graph
paper.
Interactive motion graph can
\$now some
e!amples of both
scalars and
vectors.
#e able to
construct
distance-time
graphs for an
object moving in a
straight line.
#e able to
determine the
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Summary of the
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
d
e
object can be
determined from
distance-time
graph. If an object
is accelerating its
speed at any
particular time can
be determined by
of the tangent of
the distance-time
graph at that time.
The velocity of an
object is its speed
in a given direction.
The velocity of an
object is given by
the equation
speed of an object from the
graph.
nderstand the difference
between speed and velocity.
\$now how to calculate the
speed of an object from the
equation.
distance-time graphs and using them
to determine speed.
Activity0 se of train timetables to
build distance-time graphs to compare
fast and slow trains.
Activity0 )arry out calculations using
1omework0 Students s*etch a
distance-time graph of their journey to
school.
be found at
http+,,www.nuffieldfoundation.o
rg,practical-physics,simple-
motion-e!periments-
datalogger
Train timetables
graph.
#e able to draw a
tangent to a graph
and determine its
f The acceleration of
an object is given
by the equation
\$now how to calculate the
acceleration of an object
from the equation.
-
Activity0 )arry out calculations using
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Summary of the
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
g
h
The acceleration of
an object can be
determined from
velocity-time graph.
The distance
travelled by an
object can be
determined from
the area under a
velocity-time graph.
#e able to construct and
interpret velocity-time graphs
for an object moving in a
straight line when the body is
moving with a constant
speed, accelerating or
decelerating.
\$now how to calculate the
acceleration of an object
velocity-time graph.
\$now how to calculate the
distance travelled by an
object from the area under a
velocity-time graph.
Activity0 View interactive software to
show velocity-time graphs.
Activity0 (rawing and interpreting
graphs and calculating acceleration
and distance.
1omework0 ##) .)S/ #itesi0e
&1epresenting motion2.
Interactive software to show
velocity-time graphs can be
found at
mulation,moving-man
.raph paper
Information on representing
motion can be found on the
##) .)S/ #itesi0e website
at
www.bbc.co.u*,schools,gcsebi
#e able to
determine the
area under a
graph.
Ta*e care to
chec* whether
you are dealing
with a distance-
time graph or a
velocity-time
graph in
e!amination
questions.
1#2 'esultant forces
a 4henever two
objects interact, the
nderstand that forces occur
in pairs, acting on different
-.5 Activity+ &Tug of war' type e!periments
using forcemeters.
6orcemeters, ramps and toy
cars.
\$now what is
meant by a
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Summary of the
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Learning &utcomes
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
b
c
d
e
forces they e!ert on
each other are
equal and opposite.

7 number of forces
acting at a point
may be replaced by
a single force that
has the same effect
on the motion as
the original forces
all acting together.
This single force is
called the resultant
force.
7 resultant force
acting on an object
may cause a
change in its state
of rest or motion.
objects.
nderstand the term
&resultant force' and be able
to determine the resultant of
opposite or parallel forces
acting in a straight line.
nderstand that a resultant
force acting on an object
may affect its motion.
nderstand that if the
resultant force acting on a
stationary object is+
0ero 8 the object will
Activity0 Toy cars rolling down ramps
of different surfaces and heights to
demonstrate the effects of resultant
forces.
1omework0 9uestions on drawing
forces acting on objects and
calculating the resultant force.
resultant force
and the effect that
a resultant force
has on the motion
of an object.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Summary of the
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
remain stationary
not 0ero 8 the object will
accelerate in the
direction of the resultant
force.
nderstand that if the
resultant force acting on a
moving object is+
0ero 8 the object will
continue to move at the
same speed and in the
same direction.
not 0ero 8 the object will
accelerate in the
direction of the resultant
force.
f The relationship
between force
mass and
acceleration is
#e able to use the equation
relating force, mass and
acceleration.
-.5 2emo0 (emonstration of datalogging
equipment to measure force and
acceleration of a trolley on a friction-
compensated runway.
Activity0 Investigating acceleration.
(atalogging equipment,
trolleys and runways.
Information on force, mass
and acceleration can be found
on the ##) .)S/ #itesi0e
website at
www.bbc.co.u*,schools,gcsebi
\$now the terms in
the equation and
their units.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Summary of the
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
Activity0 )arry out calculations
involving
1omework0 ##) .)S/ #itesi0e
'6orce, mass and acceleration.
1#3 /omentum
a
b
The relationship
between
momentum mass
and velocity is
In a closed system
the total
momentum before
\$now how to calculate the
momentum of a moving
object.
nderstand that momentum
is conserved in collisions and
e!plosions.
: Activity0 ;a*e measurements to
determine the momentum of moving
objects.
Activity0 )arry out calculations using
2emo0 (emonstration of simple
colliding system, eg moving trolley
)olliding trolleys equipment"
method of measuring
velocities, eg datalogging, light
gates and timers etc.
Information on momentum can
be found on the ##) .)S/
#itesi0e website at www.
bbc.co.u*,schools,
\$now the terms in
the equation and
their units.
#e able to
perform
calculations for
collision and
e!plosions.
1emember that
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
c
an event is equal to
the total
momentum after
the event. This is
called the
conservation of
momentum.
The relationship
between force,
change in
momentum and
time is
)omplete calculations
involving two objects
colliding or e!ploding.
se the relationship to
e!plain safety features such
as air bags, seat belts,
gymnasium crash mats,
cushioned surfaces for
playgrounds and cycle
helmets.
colliding with and adhering to a
stationary trolley" measuring masses
and velocities to calculate momentum
before and after the collision.
2emo0 (emonstration of simple
e!ploding system, eg two stationary
trolleys joined by a compressed
spring, and then released" measuring
masses and velocities to calculate
momentum after the collision, having
started at rest.
Activity0 )arry out calculations using

2iscuss0 (iscussion of use of jet
pac*s for moving in space, and roc*et
travel. 4or* done by e!ternal force
changing momentum of a body, eg
gcsebitesi0e,science,
momentum has a
direction.
\$now the terms in
the equation and
their units.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Summary of the
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
wor* done by force changing shape of
car in crumple 0ones. Importance of
time during which wor* is done
reducing the force involved.
1omework+ Visit ##) .)S/ #itesi0e
for information on momentum.
1#4 .orces an" !raking
a
b
4hen a vehicle
speed the resistive
forces balance the
driving force.
The greater the
speed of a vehicle
the greater the
bra*ing force
needed to stop it in
a certain distance.
The stopping
distance of a
vehicle is the sum
of the distance the
vehicle travels
nderstand that for a given
bra*ing force the greater the
speed, the greater the
stopping distance.
nderstand the concept of
reaction time.
nderstand the distinction
between thin*ing distance,
bra*ing distance and
stopping distance.
7ppreciate that distractions
may affect a driver's ability to
react and *now the factors
which could affect a driver's
reaction time.
%
Activity0 ;easurement of reaction
times using stopwatches or falling
rulers.
Invite an outside spea*er from police
2iscuss0 Small group discussion
distance.
5i"eo0 4atch video clips on speed
and stopping distance, and
distractions and driving.
1omework0 1esearch stopping
distances at different speeds" design a
distance.
Stopwatches and rulers.
stopping distance can be
found at http+,,www.seattle-
duiattorney.com,media,dui-
videos.php
and driving can be found at
http+,,thin*.direct.gov.u*,inde!.
html
\$now the
difference
between thin*ing
distance, bra*ing
distance and
stopping distance.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Summary of the
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
c
d
e
during the driver's
reaction time
<thin*ing distance=
and the distance it
travels under the
bra*ing force
<bra*ing distance=.
7 driver's reaction
time can be
affected by
tiredness, drugs
and alcohol.
4hen the bra*es of
a vehicle are
applied, wor* done
by the friction force
between the bra*es
and the wheel
reduces the *inetic
energy of the
vehicle and the
temperature of the
bra*es increases.
7 vehicle's bra*ing
distance can be
wet or icy conditions= and
poor condition of the car
<bra*es or tyres= affect
bra*ing distance.
'esearch0 1esearch which mar*ings
on roads are used to try to ma*e
and those which are to try and ma*e
drivers reduce their speed.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
f
conditions and poor
condition of the
vehicle.
1#6 .orces an" terminal velocity
a The faster an
object moves
\$now which forces act on an
object moving through a
% 2emo0 (emonstrate streamlined and
non-streamlined shapes falling through
>ong glass tubes containing
water or washing-up liquid,
nderstand why
the use of a
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
b
c
through a fluid the
greater the
frictional force that
acts on it.
7n object falling
through a fluid will
initially accelerate
due to the force of
gravity. /ventually
the resultant force
will be 0ero and the
object will move at
its terminal velocity
The relationship
between weight,
mass and
gravitational field
strength is
W ? m @ g.
fluid.
#e able to describe and
e!plain how the velocity of
an object falling through a
fluid changes as it falls.
nderstand why the use of a
parachute reduces the
parachutist's terminal
velocity.
#e able to calculate the
weight of an object, given its
mass.
water,washing-up liquid.
5i"eo0 4atch videos on s*ydiving.
Activity0 Investigating the relationship
between mass and weight, eg
weighing objects on an electric
balance and a force-meter.
Activity0 Investigate the effect of area
of a paper parachute on a falling
mass.
2iscuss0 The difference between
&mass' and &weight'.
Activity0 )arry out calculations using
W ? m @ g.
1omework0 1esearch the shape of
performance vehicles in reducing air
resistance.
plasticine shapes, stopwatch,
electric balances, force-
meters, sheets of paper,
cotton, masses, stopwatches.
Aaper ca*e cases, available in
various si0es, are very
effective.
Video clips of s*ydiving can be
found at
http+,,science.discovery.com,vi
velocity.html
parachute
reduces the
parachutist's
terminal velocity.
\$now the terms in
the equation and
their units.
1#7 .orces an" elasticity
a 7 force acting on
an object may
cause a change in
the shape of the
object.
% Activity0 Investigate the effect of
forces on the e!tension of a spring.
Activity0 Investigate the effect of
stretching elastic band catapults by
Springs, rulers, hanging
masses and elastic bands.
Ine!pensive toys can act as a
good stimulus.
#e able to convert
from cm to m.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
b
c
d
7n object behaves
elastically if it
returns to its
original shape
when the force is
removed.
7 force applied to
an elastic object
will result in the
object stretching
and storing elastic
potential energy.
6or an object
behaving
elastically, the
e!tension is directly
proportional to the
force applied,
provided that the
limit of
proportionality is
not e!ceeded. The
relationship
between the force
nderstand that when an
elastic object is stretched it
stores elastic potential
energy.
nderstand the relationship
between force and e!tension
of an elastic object and be
able to use the equation.
different amounts on the distance a
fired paper pellet travels.
Activity0 Investigating forces and the
elasticity of springs.
Activity0 )arry out calculations using
F?k@e
1omework0 Students draw graphs to
show their investigation results.
Br
Students research toys they have had
that have wor*ed using stored
potential energy, e.g. pull bac* &motor'
cars.
nderstand what
is meant by
&directly
proportional'.
\$now the terms in
the equation and
their units.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
and the e!tension
is
F?k@e
1#8 .orces an" energy
a
b
c
d
4or* is done when
a force causes an
object to move
through a distance.
The relationship
between wor*
done, force and
distance moved in
the direction of the
force is W?F@d
/nergy is
transferred when
wor* is done.
4or* done against
frictional forces
\$now how to calculate the
wor* done on an object and
the power developed.
% Activity0 )alculating Students' wor*
done and power output in different
situations, eg running up stairs, lifting
sandbags onto a table etc.
2emo0 ;otor lifting a mass, and
calculation of wor* and power.
Activity0 )arry out calculations using
W?F@d
Activity0 ;easurement of initial
gravitational potential energy <.A/=
#athroom scales, rulers,
stopwatches, falling object,
light gate and timer.
\$now the terms in
the equations and
their units.
#e able to convert
from g to *g.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
1\$
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Summary of the
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What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
e
f
causes energy
transfer by heating.
The relationship
between power,
wor* done or
energy transferred
and time
is
The relationship
between
gravitational
potential energy,
mass, gravitational
field strength
<acceleration of
free fall= and height
is
Ep ?m@g@h
nderstand that when an
object is raised vertically,
wor* is done against
gravitational force and the
object gains gravitational
potential energy.
\$now how to calculate the
change in gravitational
potential energy of an object.
nderstand the transfer of
*inetic energy in particular
situations, such as space
shuttle re-entry or meteorites
burning up in the
atmosphere.
\$now how to calculate the
*inetic energy of a moving
and final *inetic energy <\$/= of a
falling object, eg using a light gate and
timer.
Activity0 )arry out calculations using

Ep ?m@g@h
E* = -C% @m@v
2
1omework0 )alculations using the
different equations.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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What most students should
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
g The relationship
between *inetic
energy, mass and
speed is
E* = -C% @m@v
2
object.
1#9 Centre of mass
a
b
c
The centre of mass
of an object is the
point at which the
mass of the object
may be thought to
be concentrated.
If freely suspended,
an object will come
to rest with its
centre of mass
directly below the
point of
suspension.
The centre of mass
of a symmetrical
object is along the
a!is of symmetry.
(escribe how to find the
centre of mass of a thin,
irregular sheet of a material.
Suggest an appropriate
position for the centre of
mass of different objects.
\$now some applications of
the pendulum, such as
simple fairground and
playground rides.
% Activity0 Investigations to find the
centre of mass of both regular and
irregular pieces of flat card.
Activity0 Investigations to measure
the time period of a simple pendulum
and determine the factors that affect
the time period.
)ard shapes, plumb lines and
pins in cor*s to suspend card.
Simple pendulums, rulers and
stopwatches.
#e able to
suggest an
appropriate
position for the
centre of mass of
different objects.
\$now why in a
timing e!periment
you should
measure the time
for, say, -D
oscillations and
divide by -D to
determine T.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
be able to do
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
d
e
The relationship
between time
period and
frequency is
The time period of
a pendulum
depends on its
length.
se the equation. 1omework0 )arry out calculations
using the equation.
\$now the terms in
the equation and
their units.
1#: /oments
a
b
The turning effect
of a force is called
the moment.
The relationship
between the
moment, turning
force and
nderstand the concept of a
turning moment and use the
equation.
: 2emo0 Situations where force and
distance combine to produce a
moment, eg opening a door, using a
spanner etc.
Activity0 Suspended rulers and
hanging weights to verify the law of
moments.
Suitable demonstration
objects.
\$now how to
calculate the
moment of a
force.
\$now how to use
the law of
moments to
calculate a force
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
c
d
e
perpendicular
distance from the
force to the pivot is
M?F@d
If an object is not
turning, the total
cloc*wise moment
must be e!actly
balanced by the
total anticloc*wise
pivot.
Simple levers can
be used as force
multipliers.
If the line of action
of the weight of an
object lies outside
the base of the
object there will be
a resultant moment
Aerform calculations
involving moments and
balanced objects.
nderstand how a lever can
be used as a force multiplier.
7nalyse the stability of
objects by evaluating their
tendency to topple.
nderstand that objects with
a wide base and low centre
of mass are more stable than
those with a narrow base
and a high centre of mass.
Activity0 )lass e!periment to find the
weight of an object using the law of
moments.
1omework0 )arry out moments
calculations.
5i"eo0 4atch video clips or view
images of levers.
1omework0 (esign a poster showing
how different levers wor*.
2emo0 Stable objects, eg #unsen
burner and unstable objects, eg tall
thin vase.
1omework0 1esearch the design of
objects for stability, eg racing cars etc.
Suspended rulers, hanging
weights.
7 video clip of levers can be
searching for &The >ever, a
Simple ;achine'.
or distance
needed for
balance.
#e able to
analyse the
stability of objects
by evaluating their
tendency to
topple.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
1&
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
and the body will
topple.
se the idea of a resultant
as applied to vehicles and
simple balancing toys.
1#1; Circular motion
a
b
4hen an object
moves in a circle it
continuously
accelerates
towards the centre
of the circle. This
acceleration
changes the
direction of motion
of the body, not its
speed.
The resultant force
causing this
acceleration is
called the
centripetal force
and is always
directed towards
the centre of the
nderstand why an object in
circular motion accelerates
towards the centre of the
circle, and what is meant by
centripetal force.
nderstand that a centripetal
force does not e!ist in its
own right but is always
provided by other forces
such as gravitational force,
friction or tension.
#e able to identify which
force<s= provide<s= the
centripetal force in a given
situation.
% 2emo0 Bbject in circular motion flying
off tangentially when force is removed.
Activity0 )lass e!periment measuring
centripetal force on rubber bung tied to
string moving in circular motion 8
effect of different speeds and different
1omework0 Arepare a group
presentation on circular motion.
Second lesson 8 students give their
presentations.
1ubber bungs, string and
force-meters.
seful information and videos
can be found at
http+,,scicast.org.u*,films,%D--
,DE,centripetal-force.html
#e able to identify
which force<s=
provide<s= the
centripetal force
in a given
situation.
#e able to identify
the factors which
will increase the
centripetal force
in a given
situation.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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What most students should
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
c
circle.
The centripetal
force needed to
ma*e an object
perform circular
motion increases
as+ the mass of the
object increases,
the speed of the
object increases
the circle
decreases.
1#11 1y"raulics
a
b
>iquids are virtually
incompressible,
and the pressure in
a liquid is
transmitted equally
in all directions.
The relationship
between pressure,
force and cross-
sectional area is
nderstand that a force
e!erted at one point on a
liquid will be transmitted to
other points in the liquid.
se the equation to calculate
pressure.
- 2emo0 (emonstration of water
pressure, eg water coming out of holes
at different depths in a tall container.
Activity0 )lass e!periment showing
the basic idea of a hydraulic machine,
eg two different diameter syringes
containing water connected together
by plastic tubing.
2emo0 (emonstration of hydraulic
machine.
4ater pressure demonstration
apparatus, model hydraulic
machine.
\$now the terms in
the equation and
their units.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
c
The use of different
cross-sectional
areas on the effort
hydraulic system
enables the system
to be used as a
force multiplier.
nderstand the action of a
hydraulic machine.
1omework0 )arry out calculations
using the equation.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#

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What most students should
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
2 Waves
2#1 <eneral roerties of waves
a
b
c
d
4aves transfer
energy and
information without
transferring matter.
4aves may be
either transverse or
longitudinal.
/lectromagnetic
waves are
transverse, sound
waves are
longitudinal and
mechanical waves
may be either
transverse or
longitudinal.
4aves can be
reflected, refracted
nderstand that in a
transverse wave the
oscillations are perpendicular
to the direction of energy
transfer.
nderstand that in a
longitudinal wave the
oscillations are parallel to the
direction of energy transfer.
nderstand the terms
&compression' and
&rarefaction2.
nderstand the
circumstances where a wave
is reflected, refracted or
diffracted.
#e able to complete
wavefront diagrams for
: 2emo0 (emonstration of transverse
and longitudinal waves using slin*y
springs or other equipment.
5i"eo0 4atch a video on wave
properties.
1omework0 Aroduce a poster to show
transverse and longitudinal waves.
2emo0 (emonstration of reflection,
refraction and diffraction of waves
using a ripple tan*.
Slin*y springs, wave machine
equipment and computer
access.
7 useful interactive video clip
can be found on ##) .)S/
#itesi0e &7n Introduction to
waves' at
http+,,www.bbc.co.u*,schools,g
csebitesi0e,science,aqa,waves
,
1ipple tan* and accessories.
#e able to e!plain
the difference
between
transverse and
longitudinal
waves.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
e
f
g
and diffracted.
4hen identical sets
of waves overlap
they interfere with
each other.
4aves may be
described in terms
of their frequency,
wavelength, time
period and
amplitude.
The relationship
between wave
speed, frequency
and wavelength is
v?f@
reflection, refraction and
diffraction. 7ppreciate that
for appreciable diffraction to
ta*e place the wavelength of
the wave must be of the
same order of magnitude as
the si0e of the obstacle or
gap.
#e able to complete
diagrams to illustrate
interference.
nderstand the terms
&frequency', &wavelength' and
&amplitude' and be able to
annotate a diagram to show
these terms.
Activity0 )arry out calculations using
the equation
v?f@.
1omework0 Aroduce a poster to show
what is meant by &frequency',
&wavelength' and &amplitude'.
\$now the terms in
the equation and
their units.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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What most students should
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
2#2 The electromagnetic sectrum
a
b
c
d
/lectromagnetic
waves form a
continuous
spectrum and all
types of
electromagnetic
wave travel at the
same speed
through a vacuum
<space=.
microwaves,
infrared and visible
light can be used
for communication.
/lectromagnetic
waves have many
uses.

/!posure to
electromagnetic
waves can be
\$now the order of
electromagnetic waves within
the spectrum, in terms of
energy, frequency and
wavelength.
7ppreciate that the
wavelengths of the
electromagnetic spectrum
range from -D
--5
to -D
F
and
beyond.
\$now situations in which
waves are typically used for
communication.
.ive e!amples of the uses of
: 'esearch0 .roup research into
properties and uses of electromagnetic
waves.
'esearch0 .roup research into
ha0ards of electromagnetic waves and
appropriate precautions.
1omework0 ;a*e a display poster
showing the properties and uses of
electromagnetic waves.
Br
;a*e up an illustrated mnemonic
showing the order of the waves in the
electromagnetic spectrum.
2iscuss0 The concerns surrounding
possible ris*s related to mobile phone
use.
2emo0 (emonstration of microwave
properties using microwave transmitter
and detector.
&Sending Information' can be
found on ##) .)S/ #itesi0e
at
http+,,www.bbc.co.u*,schools,g
csebitesi0e,science,aqa,waves
,
)omputer access, microwave
transmitter and detector
apparatus.
)omputer or reference boo*
access.
\$now the order of
the
electromagnetic
waves within the
spectrum in terms
of energy,
frequency and
wavelength.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
\$
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What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
e
f
g
h
ha0ardous.
G-rays are part of
the electromagnetic
spectrum. They
have a very short
wavelength, high
energy and cause
ionisation.
Aroperties of G-
rays.
G-rays can be used
to diagnose and
treat some medical
conditions.
The use of high
energy ionising
dangerous
each part of the
electromagnetic spectrum.
.ive e!amples of the
ha0ards associated with
each part of the
electromagnetic spectrum.
\$now that G-rays affect a
photographic film in the
same way as light, are
absorbed by metal and bone
but are transmitted by soft
tissue.
nderstand that G-rays can
be used for diagnosis of
bone fractures and dental
problems, in computerised
tomography <)T= scans, and
in treatment by *illing cancer
cells.
\$now that the use of ))(s
allows images to be formed
Activity0 view images of G-rays.
'esearch0 .roup research into uses
and dangers of G-rays.
Activity0 Visit to G-ray department at a
local hospital.
1omework0 1esearch into discovery
of G-rays.
7n interesting article on G-ray
images, &7rtist's G-ray images
see* beauty underneath', can
be found at
http+,,www.msnbc.msn.com,id,
%FHI%F5:
wor*.
7 video clip on the medical
uses of G-rays can be found
on the ##) website at
http+,,www.bbc.co.u*,learning0
one,clips,medical-uses-of-!-
rays-the-electromagnetic-
spectrum,-F55.html
\$now the uses
and dangers of
medical G-rays.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
electronically.
.ive e!amples of the
precautions that need to be
ta*en to monitor and
minimise the levels of
wor* with it are e!posed to.
2#3 Soun" an" ultrasoun"
a
b
c
Sound waves are
longitudinal waves
and cause
vibrations in a
medium, which are
detected as sound.
The range of
human hearing.
The pitch of a
sound is
\$now how sound waves are
produced.
\$now that the range is about
%D K0 to %D DDD K0.
nderstand the relationship
between the pitch of a sound
: 2emo0 Aroperties of sound using
signal generator, loudspea*er and
cathode ray oscilloscope <)1B=.
2emo0 &/lectric bell in bell jar' type
apparatus to show the need for a
medium.
2emo0 (emonstration of echoes from
an outside wall.
1omework0 1esearch what happens
to the range of audible sounds as a
Signal generator, loudspea*er,
)1B,
#ell in bell jar apparatus,
7 useful video clip on echoes
and their use in sonar can be
found on the ##) website at
http+,,www.bbc.co.u*,learning0
one,clips,echoes-and-their-
\$now the
relationships
between pitch and
frequency,
loudness and
amplitude.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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What most students should
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
d
e
f
determined by its
frequency and
loudness by its
amplitude.
Sound waves can
be reflected
<echoes= and
diffracted.
ltrasound is
acoustic <sound=
energy, in the form
of waves with a
frequency above
the human hearing
range.
/lectronic systems
can be used to
produce ultrasound
waves, which have
a frequency higher
than the upper limit
of hearing for
and the frequency of the
sound wave.
nderstand how echoes are
formed.
\$now that sound waves of
higher frequencies than
%D DDD K0 are referred to as
ultrasound.
nderstand the principle of
ultrasound echoes.
person ages.
2emo0 (emonstration of limit of
human hearing using signal generator
and loudspea*er.
5i"eo0 4atch video clips or view
images of medical ultrasound scans.
Activity0 )alculations involving
distance between interfaces using
s?v@t.
1omework0 1esearch into the
medical uses of ultrasound.
use-in-sonar,-F.html
Signal generator and
loudspea*er.
7 video clip and news article
on :( ultrasounds can be
found on the Jorthwest )able
Jews website at
http+,,www.nwcn.com,news,he
alth,ltrasound-shows-babies-
in-:(--DD%HL%LI.html
\$now the
definition of
&ultrasound'.
\$now some
e!amples of the
medical uses of
ultrasound.
1emember that in
calculations
involving
ultrasound
echoes the
ultrasound has
travelled from the
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
g
h
humans.
ltrasound waves
are partially
reflected when they
meet a boundary
between two
different media.
The time ta*en for
the reflections to
reach a detector
can be used to
determine how far
away such a
boundary is.
The distance
between interfaces
in various media
can be calculated
using s?v@t.
se the equation to calculate
distances between interfaces
and use data from diagrams
of oscilloscope traces.
/valuate the medical use of
ultrasound and G-rays,
including an understanding
that some of the differences
in use are because
ultrasound waves are non-
ionising and G-rays are
ionising.
transducer to the
reflecting surface
and bac*.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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What most students should
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
i ltrasound waves
can be used in
medicine.
ultrasound, G-rays or )T
scans in terms of safety
issues and the quality of
image formed.
\$now e!amples of the use of
ultrasound in medicine for
diagnosis e.g. pre-natal
scanning and treatment e.g.
the removal of *idney stones.
2#4 'eflection
a
b
c
4hen waves are
reflected the angle
of incidence is
equal to the angle
of reflection.
The normal is a
construction line
perpendicular to
the reflecting
surface at the point
of incidence.
The image
produced in a plane
(raw diagrams showing rays
of light being reflected from a
plane mirror, labeling
incident and reflected rays,
angles of incidence and
reflection, and the &normal'.
nderstand how an image is
formed by a plane mirror,
% Activity0 Investigate into the reflection
of light at different angles from a plane
mirror.
5i"eo0 4atch video clip on wave
reflection.
1omework0 Aractice drawing ray
diagrams to show the image formed in
a plane mirror.
Alane mirrors, raybo!es and
protractors.
7 video clip on wave reflection
can be found on the ##)
website at
http+,,www.bbc.co.u*,learning0
one,clips,wave-
reflection,F55F.html
#e able to
construct a ray
diagram to show
the image formed
in a plane mirror.
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
mirror is virtual. and why it is virtual.
2#6 'efraction an" total internal reflection
a
b
c
>ight waves
undergo a change
of direction when
they pass from one
medium to another
at an interface. This
is called refraction.
1efraction by a
dispersion.
1efractive inde!
can be defined in
terms of wave
nderstand that
when light enters a more
dense medium it is
refracted towards the
normal
when light enters a less
dense medium it is
refracted away from the
normal 4aves are not
refracted if travelling along
the normal
4aves are refracted due
to a change of speed.
% Activity0 )lass e!periment to measure
angles &i' and &r' for light passing
through a rectangular glass bloc*.
2emo0 Interactive demonstration of
refraction.
2emo0 (emonstration of dispersion by
a prism.
Activity0 )arry out calculations using
the equation n ? sin
sin r
Activity0 Investigation using semi-
circular bloc*s to observe total internal
1ectangular glass bloc*s,
raybo!es and protractors.
7n interactive demonstration
of refraction can be found at
http+,,www.upscale.utoronto.ca
,AV#,Karrison,6lash,Bptics,1
efraction,1efraction.html
Semi-circular glass bloc*s,
protractors, raybo!es, optical
\$now the
direction in which
light is refracted in
different
situations.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
d
e
f
g
speed.
The relationship
between refractive
inde!, angle of
incidence and
angle of refraction
is n ? sin
sin r
The relationship
between refractive
inde! and critical
angle is
Total internal
reflection.
Visible light can be
transmitted through
optical fibres by
total internal
\$now that the refractive
inde! of a medium, n, is
defined as

speed of light in vacuum
speed of light in the medium
and
n ? sin
sin r
nderstand the concept of
critical angle.
nderstand that total internal
reflection is a special case of
refraction, which occurs if the
angle of incidence within the
more dense medium is
greater than the critical
angle.
reflection and to measure the critical
angle.
2emo0 Bbservation of light passing
through optical fibres.
2emo0 (emonstration of total internal
reflection by laser focused on jet of
water coming from a pierced
carbonated drin*s bottle.
Activity0 )arry out calculations using
the equations
and
1omework0 1esearch what a laser is
and what its medical uses are.
fibres.
7 computer simulation of total
internal reflection can be found
at
http+,,www.upscale.utoronto.ca
,AV#,Karrison,6lash,Bptics,1
efraction,1efraction.html
1emember that
total internal
reflection only
occurs when the
light is passing
from a more
dense to a less
dense medium
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
reflection. and the angle of
incidence is
greater than the
critical angle.
2#7 Lenses an" the eye
a
b
c
7 lens forms an
image by refracting
light.
In a conve! lens,
parallel rays of light
are brought to a
focus at the
principal focus.
The distance from
the lens to the
principal focus is
called the focal
length.
nderstand how a lens
refracts light.
nderstand the terms
associated with lenses,
which include &conve!',
&converging' and &concave',
&diverging', &principal focus'
and &focal length'.
nderstand the terms
associated with images,
which include &upright' and
&inverted', &real' and &virtual',
&enlarged' and &diminished'.
F Activity0 Bbserving images of objects
at different distances from converging
and diverging lenses of different focal
lengths.
Activity0 Bbserve passing parallel
rays of light through converging and
diverging lenses of different focal
lengths.
Activity0 ;easurement of the focal
length of a converging lens by
focusing a distant object on a screen.
1omework0 1esearch uses of lenses.
)onverging and diverging
lenses of different focal
lengths, ray bo!es.
(raw ray
diagrams neatly
using a ruler.
\$now the
meaning of the
terms &conve!',
&converging',
&concave',
&diverging',
&principal focus'
and &focal length'.
;a*e sure you
recognise the
symbols that
represent
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
d
e
f
g
The focal length of
a lens is
determined by the
refractive inde! of
the material from
which the lens is
curvature of the two
surfaces of the
lens.
6or a given focal
length, the greater
the refractive inde!,
the flatter the lens.
In a concave lens,
parallel rays of light
diverge as if
coming from the
principal focus.
The nature of an
image is defined by
its si0e relative to
the object, whether
it is upright or
inverted relative to
the object and
\$now the nature of the
images formed by a
converging lens when the
object is at different
distances from the lens, and
the images formed by a
diverging lens.
(raw diagrams to show the
nature of the images formed
by a converging lens when
the object is at different
distances from the lens, and
the images formed by a
diverging lens.
se the focal length
equation.
se the magnification
equation.
se the power of a lens
Activity0 (raw ray diagrams to show
image formation by converging and
diverging lenses.
se the diagrams to wor* out
magnification.
1omework0 (rawing ray diagrams.
Activity0 Aractical investigation of the
relationship
Activity0 )arry out calculations using
the equation
1omework0 )arry out calculations
using the equations
;agnification ? image height
Are-drawn outlines on graph
paper showing the object and
the lens, for students to
complete.
>enses <of different focal
lengths= and holders, metre
rules, ray bo!es, screens with
cross-wires.
converging and
diverging lenses.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
h
i
j
*
whether it is real or
virtual.
1ay diagrams may
be constructed to
show the formation
of images by
converging and
diverging lenses.
The relationship
between object
distance, image
distance and focal
length is
The magnification
produced by a lens
may be calculated
using the equation
;agnification
? image height
object height
The relationship
between the power
equation.
\$now that the power of a
converging lens is positive
and the power of a diverging
lens is negative.
object height
and
! ? -
f
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
l
m
n
o
of a lens and focal
length is
! ? -
f
The structure of the
eye.
The near point and
the far point of the
human eye. The
range of vision.
>enses can be
used to correct
defects of vision.
>asers are a
concentrated
\$now the function of parts of
the eye+ retina, lens, cornea,
pupil,iris, ciliary muscle and
suspensory ligaments.
nderstand how the action of
the ciliary muscle causes
changes in the shape of the
lens, which allows the light to
be focused at varying
distances.
\$now that the near point is
appro!imately %5cm and the
far point is infinity.
nderstand that the distance
between these two points is
the range of vision.
#e aware of uses of lasers
such as in eye surgery.
2emo0 (emonstration of model eye,
eg biological model in sections.
'esearch0 4hat causes short sight
and long sight and how they are
corrected.
2emo0 (emonstration of model eye
with short and long sight and the use
of lenses to correct these defects.
1omework0 (esign a poster showing
how the eye wor*s and how defects
are corrected.
#iological model eye
;odel of eye with defects,
lenses to correct.
\$now the function
of the parts of the
eye.
#e able to give
e!amples of
similarities and
differences
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
p
source of light and
can be used for
cutting, cauterising
and burning.
)omparison
between the
structure of the eye
and the camera.
#e aware that the film in a
camera or the )harge-
coupled devices <))(s= in a
digital camera is the
equivalent of the retina in the
eye.
Activity0 The eye and the camera.
2iscuss0 The similarities and
differences between a camera and the
eye.
1omework0 Aroduce a chart showing
the similarities and differences
between a camera and the eye.
between a
camera and the
eye.
2#8 'e"=shift
a
b
If a wave source is
moving relative to
an observer there
will be a change in
the observed
wavelength and
frequency. This is
*nown as the
(oppler effect.
There is an
observed increase
in the wavelength
of light from most
distant gala!ies.
The further away
the gala!ies, the
faster they are
#e able to e!plain the
(oppler effect.
\$now that when the source
moves away from the
observer, the observed
wavelength increases and
the frequency decreases"
when the source moves
towards the observer, the
observed wavelength
decreases and the frequency
increases.
#e able to e!plain the term
&red-shift'.
\$now that the further away
: 2emo0 (emonstration of (oppler
effect using sound.
'esearch0 .roup research into the
origins of the universe.
5i"eo0 4atch video clips of &red-shift',
&#ig #ang' theory, and );#1.
1omework0 1esearch into the
7pparatus to demonstrate
(oppler effect, eg length of
tubing swung in a circle.
Video clips of &red- shift', the
&#ig #ang' theory, and );#1
can be found at
http+,,www.pbs.org,wgbh,nova,
space,origins-series-
overview.html
#e able to e!plain
the (oppler
effect.
#e able to e!plain
the term &red-
shift' and the &#ig
#ang' theory.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
c
d
moving and the
bigger the
observed increase
in wavelength. This
effect is called &red-
shift'.
The observed red-
shift provides
evidence that the
universe is
e!panding and
supports the &#ig
#ang' theory <that
the universe began
from a very small
initial point=.
)osmic microwave
bac*ground
a form of
electromagnetic
universe. It comes
was present shortly
after the beginning
the gala!ies are, the faster
they are moving, and the
bigger the observed increase
in wavelength.
#e able to e!plain how &red-
shift' provides evidence that
the universe is e!panding.
\$now that the &#ig #ang'
theory indicates that the
universe began from a very
small initial point.
\$now that );#1 comes
present shortly after the
beginning of the universe.
discovery of );#1.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
e
of the universe.
The #ig #ang
theory is currently
the only theory that
can e!plain the
e!istence of
);#1.
3 1eating rocesses
3#1 >inetic theory
a
b
c
\$inetic theory can
be used to e!plain
the different states
of matter.
The particles of
solids, liquids and
gases have
different amounts
of energy.
The specific heat
capacity of a
substance is the
amount of energy
required to change
the temperature of
one *ilogram of the
(raw simple diagrams to
model the difference
between solids, liquids and
gases.
(escribe the states of matter
in terms of the energy of their
particles.
nderstand the meaning of
specific heat capacity.
/valuate different materials
according to their specific
heat capacities, eg hot water,
which has a very high
specific heat capacity, oil-
: Activity0 Individual,class
demonstration of interactive *inetic
theory modelling computer
programme.
1omework0 (esigning a poster to
illustrate the arrangement, movement
and energy of the particles in solids,
liquids and gases.
Activity0 )lass e!periment using small
immersion heaters to heat bloc*s of
metal,containers of water.
2iscuss0 (iscussion as to whether the
filling in hot pies is hotter than the
pastry when removed from the oven,
or similar e!ample. 4hy do some
foods with a filling of differing specific
7ccess to computers"
interactive *inetic theory
modelling programme.
seful information can be
found at
http+,,www.preparatorychemist
ry.com,#ishop3\$;T3frames.h
tm
#e able to
describe the
arrangement and
movement of
particles in solids,
liquids and gases.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
d
e
f
substance by one
degree )elsius.
The relationship
between energy,
mass, specific heat
capacity and
temperature
change is
E?m@"@#
The specific latent
heat of vaporisation
of a substance is
the amount of
energy required to
change the state of
one *ilogram of the
substance from a
liquid to a vapour
with no change in
temperature.
The relationship
storage heaters containing
concrete.
nderstand the meaning of
specific latent heat of
vaporisation.
nderstand the meaning of
the filling being hotM
1omework0 )arry out calculations
using the equation
E?m@"@#
2emo0 /!periment to determine the
latent heat of vapori0ation of water.
Activity0 )arry out calculations using
the equation
E ? m @ \$v
Activity0 )lass e!periment to
Specific heat capacity
apparatus, eg immersion
heater, voltmeter, ammeter,
stopwatch, metal bloc*s, top
pan balance, thermometer.
Specific latent heat apparatus,
\$now the units of
each of the
quantities in the
specific heat
capacity equation"
*now how to
convert grams to
*ilograms and
joules to
*ilojoules.
nderstand that
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guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
g
h
i
between energy%
mass and specific
latent heat of
vaporisation is
E ? m @ \$v
The specific latent
heat of fusion of a
substance is the
amount of energy
required to change
the state of one
*ilogram of the
substance from a
solid to a liquid with
no change in
temperature.
The relationship
between energy%
mass and specific
latent heat of fusion
is
E ? m @ \$f
The melting point of
a solid and the
boiling point of a
specific latent heat of fusion. determine the latent heat of fusion of
ice.
Activity0 )arry out calculations using
the equation
E ? m @ \$f
1omework0 1esearch the effect of
impurities on the melting point of a
solid and the boiling point of a liquid.
eg immersion heater,
voltmeter, ammeter, hot water,
ice, stopwatch, top pan
balance
while a substance
is changing state
there is no
change in
temperature.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
liquid are affected
by impurities.
3#2 +nergy transfer !y heating
a /nergy may be
transferred by
conduction and
convection.
nderstand in simple terms
how the arrangement and
movement of particles
determine whether a material
is a conductor or an
insulator.
nderstand the role of free
electrons in conduction
through a metal.
se the idea of particles
moving apart to ma*e a fluid
less dense and to e!plain
simple applications of
convection.
F 2emo0 (emonstrations of conduction,
eg heating a metal bar with tac*s stuc*
on with wa!" rods of different materials
held in a flame etc" heating rods on
heat sensitive paper.
Activity0 )lass investigation
measuring the temperature of hot
water in a container with different
materials wrapped round it.
2emo0 (emonstrations of convection,
eg paper coil held above heat source,
tracing convection currents in water
etc.
se of jumbo blac* bag lifted by
convection to s*y
1omework0 ;a*e a survey or
collection of material used in the ta*e
away food industry, e!plaining why it
has been chosen.
)onduction demonstrations
*its
)ontainers of hot water
wrapped in different materials.
)onvection demonstration *its
Aroduct of Kaw*in's #a0aar,
Science museum shop.
7 video clip on heat transfer
can be found on the ##)
website at
http+,,www.bbc.co.u*,learning0
\$now that air is
an e!cellent
insulator and
e!amples of
insulation
materials using
trapped air.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
b
c
d
e
/nergy may be
transferred by
evaporation and
condensation.
The rate at which
an object transfers
energy by heating
depends on a
number of factors.
The bigger the
temperature
difference between
an object and its
surroundings, the
faster the rate at
which energy is
transferred by
heating.
;ost substances
e!pand when
/!plain evaporation and the
cooling effect this causes
using the *inetic theory.
\$now that the rate at which
an object transfers energy by
heating depends on+
Nsurface area and volume
Nthe material from which the
Nthe nature of the surface
with which the object is in
contact
Nthe temperature difference
between the object and its
surroundings.
#e able to e!plain the design
of devices in terms of energy
transfer, eg cooling fins.
#e able to e!plain animal
energy transfer, eg relative
ear si0e of animals in cold
and warm climates.
nderstand that the
Activity0 Individual use,class
demonstration of interactive *inetic
theory modelling computer programme
to e!plain evaporation and
condensation.
2iscuss0 Summary of the factors
affecting the rate at which an object
transfers energy by heating.
Activity0 In small groups, students
prepare a presentation on a topic to
present to the class, eg animal
transfer, how each of the factors
affects the rate at which an object
transfers energy by heating and an
application of this etc.
1omework0 Students create an
imaginary animal which has evolved to
deal with certain climatic conditions.
2emo0 (emonstration of e!panding
one,clips,frying-an-egg-with-a-
paper-pan,LHE%.html
7ccess to computers,
interactive *inetic theory
modelling programme.
#e able to e!plain
why evaporation
causes the
surroundings to
cool.
#e able to apply
*nowledge of the
factors that affect
the rate of energy
transfer to
different practical
situations.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
heated. e!pansion of substances on
heating may be a ha0ard or
useful.
on heating e.g. ball and hoop, bi-
metallic strip.
1omework0 1esearch e!amples
where the e!pansion of substances on
heating is a ha0ard <e.g. roofs and
bridges= and where it is useful <e.g. the
bi-metallic strip.
#all and hoop, bi-metallic strip,
#unsen burner.
3#3 \$nfrare" ra"iation
a
b
c
d
7ll objects emit and
absorb infrared
The hotter an
object is the more
time.
(ar*, matt surfaces
are good absorbers
and good emitters
of infrared
>ight, shiny
surfaces are poor
absorbers and poor
nderstand what infrared
nderstand the difference
between emission and
absorption of infrared
\$now the factors that affect
the rate at which an object
% 5i"eo0 4atch a video clip or view
images of thermographs.
'esearch into thermographic imaging
to detect tumours, or locate bodies
following natural disasters
2emo0 (emonstration of >eslie's cube
or similar apparatus.
Activity0 )lass e!periment to measure
the cooling of hot water in shiny and
dar* cans. (iscussion of independent,
dependent and control variables.
2emos0 (emonstrations of dar*,shiny
objects absorbing heat, eg use of
datalogging temperature of water in
two cans near a radiant heater.
Video clip,images of
thermographs can be found at
searching for &Infrared+ ;ore
Than Oour /yes )an See'.
>eslie's cube and infrared
detector or similar apparatus.
)ans with light shiny and dar*
matt outer surfaces,
thermometers.
(atalogging temperature
shiny,blac* cans.
nderstand the
difference
between an object
emitting infrared
absorbing infrared
\$now how the
nature of a
surface affects
the amount of
infrared emitted
and absorbed.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
e
emitters of infrared
>ight, shiny
surfaces are good
reflectors of
\$now the factors that affect
the rate at which an object
1omework0 /!plain why marathon
runners are wrapped in foil blan*ets
following a race and why *ettles are
light coloured.
1omework0 /!plain why houses and
cars in hot countries tend to be light in
colour.
3#4 +nergy transfers an" efficiency
a
b
c
/nergy can be
transferred usefully,
stored or
dissipated, but
cannot be created
or destroyed.
4hen energy is
transferred only
part of it may be
usefully transferred"
the rest is &wasted'.
4asted energy is
eventually
transferred to the
surroundings,
which become
(escribe the energy
transfers and the main
energy wastages that occur
in a range of situations or
appliances.
% Activity0 )ircus of energy transfer
devices.
1omework0 1esearch into Pames
Poule's e!periments.
1omework0 se retail catalogues e.g.
for washing machines and fridges, to
see how manufacturers are aware of
the need for efficiency, and how it may
influence the choice of appliance by
consumers.
/nergy transfer devices,
eg battery operated electric
bell, wind-up toy etc.
seful information on &Keat
transfer and efficiency' can be
found on the ##) website at
http+,,www.bbc.co.u*,schools,g
csebitesi0e,science,aqa,energ
yefficiency,
\$now how to use
the efficiency
equations to
calculate the
efficiency either
as a decimal or as
a percentage.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
d
e
warmer. This
energy becomes
out and so
becomes less
useful.
The efficiency of a
device can be
calculated using
/fficiency ?
useful energy out
total energy in
and

/fficiency ?
useful power out
total power in
The energy flow in
a system can be
represented using
San*ey diagrams.
nderstand the concept of
efficiency and why an
efficiency can never be
greater than -DDQ.
se the equations to
calculate efficiency as a
decimal or percentage.
Interpret and draw a San*ey
diagram.
Activity0 )arry out calculations using
the efficiency equations.
Activity0 (raw San*ey diagrams,
having identified major sources of
wasted energy.
nderstand why a
device or process
can never be
greater than
-DDQ efficient.
#e able to draw
and interpret
San*ey diagrams.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
46
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
3#6 1eating an" insulating !uil"ings
a
b
c
d
Solar panels may
contain water that
is heated by
Sun.
There are a range
of methods used to
reduce energy loss
and consumption.
-values measure
how effective a
material is as an
insulator.
The lower the -
value, the better
the material is as
an insulator.
nderstand that the water
from solar panels may be
used to heat buildings or
provide domestic hot water.
#e able to evaluate the
effectiveness of different
types of material used for
insulation, including -values
and economic factors
including paybac* time.
#e able to evaluate the
efficiency and cost
effectiveness of methods
used to reduce &energy
- 2emo0 (emonstration of model solar
panel water heater.
'esearch0 Students research -
values of common insulating materials.
1omework0 .iven data calculate the
paybac* time for different methods of
insulation.
;odel solar panel water
heater.
nderstand the
term &pay-bac*'
time in relation to
heating
and insulation of
buildings.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
be able to do
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
consumption'.
4 +lectricity
4#1 +lectrical circuits
a
b
c
d
/lectrical charges
can move easily
through some
substances, for
e!ample metals.
/lectric current is a
flow of electric
charge.
The relationship
between current,
charge and time is
The relationship
between potential
difference, energy
transferred and
charge is &
nderstand that a flow of
electrical charge constitutes
a current.
se the equation relating
current, charge and time.
se the equation relating
potential difference, charge
and time
% 5i"eo0 4atch video clips or computer
simulations of current as a flow of
charge.
Activity0 Set up simple circuits and
using an ammeter to measure current
and a voltmeter to measure p.d.
Activity0 )arry out calculations using
the equations
Video clips or computer
simulations of current as a
flow of charge can be found at
mulation,circuit-construction-
*it-dc
/quipment for setting up
simple circuits, eg battery
pac*s, small value resistors,
ammeters, low voltage light
bulbs, variable resistors etc.
Small white boards for
showing circuits.
#e able to
recognise and
draw the electrical
circuit symbols.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
e
)ircuit diagrams
use standard
symbols.
\$now the standard circuit
symbols as shown in the
specification.
(raw and interpret circuit
diagrams.
and &
Activity0 Translating real circuits into
circuit diagrams. Teacher &dictates'
circuits which students draw.
1omework0 >earn circuit symbols.
f
g
)urrent8potential
difference graphs
are used to show
how the current
through a
component varies
with the potential
difference across it.
The resistance of a
component can be
found by measuring
the current through
and potential
difference across,
the component.
\$now and e!plain the
features of current-potential
difference graphs for a
resistor, a filament bulb and
a diode.
nderstand that the greater
the resistance the smaller
the current for a given
potential difference across a
component.
/!plain resistance in terms
of ions and electrons.
: There are a huge number of
from the Aractical Ahysics
website, which can be found at
http+,,www.nuffieldfoundation.o
rg,practical-physics,water-
circuit-modelling-current-and-
potential-difference
/lectric circuits apparatus, eg
battery pac*s, low value
resistors, ammeters,
voltmeters, filament light
bulbs, diodes, >/(s etc.
\$now the shapes
of the current 8
potential different
graphs for
different
components and
be able to e!plain
them
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
h
i
j
*
The current through
a component
depends on its
resistance.
The relationship
between potential
difference% current
and resistance is
&?'@(
The current through
a resistor <at a
constant
temperature= is
directly proportional
to the potential
difference across
the resistor.
The resistance of a
filament bulb
increases as the
temperature of the
filament increases.
se the equation relating
current, potential difference
and resistance.
Activity0 )lass investigation
measuring current through and
potential difference across a fi!ed
resistor, as the current is varied.
Activity0 )lass investigation
measuring current through and
potential difference across, a filament
light bulb, as the current is varied.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
l The current through
a diode flows in
one direction only.
The diode has a
very high
resistance in the
reverse direction.
Activity0 )lass investigation
measuring current through and
potential difference across a diode, as
the current is varied.
Activity0 )arry out calculations using
the equation &?'@(
1omework0 (raw graphs of
e!perimental results.
1omework0 Aractice calculations
using the equation &?'@(
m
n
The potential
difference provided
by cells connected
in series is the sum
of the potential
differences of each
cell.
6or components
connected in series
how the resistance,
current and
\$now how to wor* out the
potential difference provided
by a number of cells in
series, ta*ing in to account
the direction in which they
are connected.
\$now that for components in
series, the total resistance is
the sum of the resistance of
each component.
: Activity0 ;easuring current at
different places in a series circuit.
Activity0 ;easuring potential
difference across each resistor and the
battery in a series circuit.
Activity0 ;easuring current at
different places in a parallel circuit.
Activity0 ;easuring potential
difference across each resistor and the
battery in a parallel circuit.
1omework0 Interactive learning
activities,games related to electrical
/lectric circuits apparatus e.g.
battery pac*s, low value
resistors, ammeters,
voltmeters, filament bulbs.
seful information and
activities can be found at
www.hyperstaffs.info,wor*,phy
sics,child,main.html
7nd www.what%learn.com
\$now the
properties of the
current and
potential
difference in
series and parallel
circuits.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
o
potential difference
are affected.
6or components
connected in
parallel how the
current and
potential difference
are affected.

\$now that for components in
series, there is the same
current through each
component.
\$now that for components in
series, the total potential
difference of the supply is
shared between the
components.
\$now that for components in
parallel, the potential
difference across each
component is the same.
\$now that for components in
parallel, the total current
through the whole circuit is
the sum of the currents
through the separate
components.
nderstand the use of
thermistors in circuits, e.g.
thermostats.
nderstand the use of light-
circuits.
Activity0 Bbserve the effect of light
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
p
q
7n >/( emits light
when a current
flows through it in
the forward
direction
4hen an electrical
charge flows
through a resistor,
the resistor gets
hot.
dependent resistors in
circuits e.g. for switching on
lights when it gets dar*.
\$now that there is an
increasing use of light
emitting diodes <>/(s= for
lighting, as they use a much
smaller current than other
forms of lighting.
nderstand that a lot of
energy is wasted in filament
bulbs by heating. >ess
energy is wasted in power
saving lamps such as
)ompact 6luorescent >amps
<)6>s=.
intensity on the resistance of a >(1
Activity0 )lass investigation observing
the effect of current direction on the
output of an >/(.
Activity0 Bbserve the effect of
temperature on the resistance of a
resistor.
'esearch0 The use of thermistors in
circuits e.g. thermostats, and the use
of light-dependent resistors in circuits,
e.g. switching on lights when it gets
dar*.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
4#2 1ousehol" electricity
a
b
c
d
)ells and batteries
supply current that
always passes in
the same direction.
This is called direct
current <d.c.=.
7n alternating
current <a.c.= is one
that is constantly
changing direction.
;ains electricity is
an a.c. supply. In
the \$ it has a
frequency of 5D
cycles per second
<5D hert0= and is
7 diode may be
used for half wave
rectification of a.c.
nderstand the difference
between direct current and
alternating current.
)ompare and calculate
potential differences of d.c.
supplies and the pea*
potential differences of a.c.
supplies from diagrams of
oscilloscope traces.
(etermine the period and
hence the frequency of a
supply from diagrams of
oscilloscope traces.
(escribe the oscilloscope
trace produced by half wave
rectified a.c.
: 2emo0 (emonstration of cathode ray
oscilloscope <)1B= traces of d.c. and
a.c. and effect of increasing the p.d.
and the frequency on the shape of the
trace" measurement of p.d. and
frequency from the trace.
2emo0 (emonstration of )1B traces
of half wave rectified a.c.
)1B, variable voltage d.c.
supplies and variable
frequency a.c. supply, e.g.
signal generator, diodes three-
pin plugs, cable, wire cutters,
screwdrivers, fuse wire,
ammeter, 1))#.
seful information on mains
electricity can be found on the
##) .)S/ #itesi0e at
www.bbc.co.u*,schools,gcsebi
city
\$now how to
calculate the
potential
differences of d.c.
supplies and pea*
potential
differences of a.c.
supplies from
oscilloscope
traces.
\$now how to
calculate the
period and
frequency of a
supply from
oscilloscope
traces.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
e
f
g
;ost electrical
appliances are
connected to the
mains using a
cable and a three-
pin plug.
If an electrical fault
causes too great a
current to flow, the
circuit is
disconnected by a
fuse or a circuit
brea*er in the live
wire.
4hen the current in
a fuse wire
e!ceeds the rating
of the fuse it will
melt, brea*ing the
circuit.
\$now what materials are
used in three-pin plugs and
understand why they are
used.
\$now the colour coding of
the covering of the three
wires used in three-pin plugs.
nderstand the purpose and
the action of the fuse and the
earth wire.
nderstand the lin* between
cable thic*ness and fuse
value.
\$now that some appliances
are double insulated, and
therefore have no earth wire
connection.
Activity0 )lass e!periment to wire a
three-pin plug.
2emo0 (emonstration of the
measurement of an increasing current
through a length of fuse wire.
1omework0 Identifying and
correcting wiring faults in a number of
diagrams of a three-pin plug.
1omework0 Identify some domestic
appliances that may not require an
earth wire.
three-pin plugs, cable, wire
cutters, screwdrivers, fuse
wire, ammeter, 1))#.
\$now the
1))# compared
to a fuse.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
h
j
*
Some circuits are
protected by
1esidual )urrent
)ircuit #rea*ers
<1))#s=, which
operate much
faster than a fuse.
7ppliances with
metal cases are
usually earthed.
The earth wire and
fuse together
protect the wiring of
a circuit.
\$now that 1))#s operate
by detecting a difference in
the current between the live
and neutral wires.
\$now that an 1))#
operates much faster than a
fuse.
4#3 Transferring electrical energy
a
The rate at which
energy is
transferred by an
appliance is called
the power.
se the equation connecting
power with energy
transferred and time.
%
Activity0 )lass e!periment to measure
the power of a low voltage light bulb
and the energy transferred by
measuring current, potential difference
and time.
/lectric circuits apparatus, eg
battery pac*s, low value
resistors, ammeters,
voltmeters, filament light bulbs
etc.
>ow voltage motor set up to lift
\$now the terms in
the equation and
their units" be
able to convert
from hours and
minutes into
seconds.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
b
c
d
e
The relationship
between power,
energy transferred
and time is
The relationship
between power,
current and
potential difference
is !?'@&
The relationship
between energy
transferred,
potential difference
and charge is
E?&@)
/veryday electrical
appliances are
se the equation connecting
power with current and
potential difference.
se the equation connecting
energy with potential
difference and charge.
)alculate the current through
an appliance from its power
and the p.d. of the supply
and from this determine the
si0e of fuse needed.
.ive e!amples of electrical
appliances and the energy
transfers they are designed
2emo0 (emonstration of measuring
the energy transferred to a low voltage
motor as it lifts a load <and compare to
the gravitational potential energy
Activity0 )arry out calculations using
the equations
and E?&@)
Activity0 )alculate the current through
an appliance from its power and the
p.d. of the supply and from this
determine the si0e of fuse needed.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
f
g
designed to bring
transfers.
The amount of
energy an
appliance transfers
depends on how
long the appliance
is switched on for
and its power.
The relationship
between energy
transferred from the
mains, power and
time is E?!@t
)alculate the cost of mains
electricity given the cost per
*ilowatt-hour.
Interpret electricity meter
cost over a period of time.
1omework0 )alculate the cost of
using electrical appliances given the
cost per *ilowatt-hour. Interpret
total cost of mains electricity over a
period of time.
4#4 The ?ational <ri"
a /lectricity is
distributed from
power stations to
consumers along
the Jational .rid.
Identify and label the
essential parts of the
Jational .rid.
-
5i"eo0 4atch video clips of the
Jational .rid.
2emo0 (emonstration model of main
components of the Jational .rid.
Video clips of the Jational
.rid can be found on
searching for &Kow the
Jational .rid responds to
demand'.
#e able to identify
and label a
diagram of the
main parts of the
Jational .rid.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
b
c
6or a given power,
increasing the
voltage reduces the
current required.
This reduces the
energy losses in
the cables.
Step-up and step-
down transformers
are used to change
voltages in the
Jational .rid.
\$now why transformers are
an essential part of the
Jational .rid.
2iscuss0 (iscussion of the
lines.
1omework0 Aroduce poster to
illustrate the Jational .rid.
7 useful video on the
generation of electricity can be
found on the ##) website at
http+,,www.bbc.co.u*,learning0
one,clips,electricity-
generation-and-
transmission,F55I.html
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
6 /otors generators an" transformers
6#1 The motor effect
a
b
c
;agnets attract
and repel other
magnets.
4hen a current
flows through a
wire a magnetic
field is produced
around the wire.
4hen a wire
carrying a current is
placed in a
magnetic field it
e!periences a
force. This is called
the motor effect.
1ecognise magnetic field
patterns using one or two bar
magnets.
\$now how to produce a
uniform magnetic field using
two bar magnets.
nderstand that a current in
a conductor produces a
magnetic field and that this is
the basis for electromagnets,
applications of which include
their use on cranes for lifting
iron or steel.
nderstand the principle of
: Activity0 Investigate magnetic field
patterns produced by one and two bar
magnets.
2emo0 (emonstration of magnetic
field around a wire carrying a current
and inside a solenoid coil.
1omework0 1esearch some uses of
electromagnets e.g. cranes for lifting
iron or steel.
1omework0 1esearch the structure of
a simple loudspea*er.
2emo0 (emonstration of the motor
effect.
Activity0 Students ma*e simple
motors from *its.
#ar magnets and iron filings in
sealed bag or magna probe.
(emonstration equipment for
magnetic field around a wire
and solenoid" demonstration
equipment for the motor effect
and motor *its.
seful information on an
electric motor can be found at
www.schoolscience.co.u* by
searching for &electric motors'.
7n interactive motor
demonstration can be found at
http+,,www.walter-
fendt.de,ph-Fe,electricmotor.h
tm
#e able to use
6leming's >eft-
hand 1ule to
identify the
direction of the
force on a current
carrying
conductor.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
d
e
The si0e of the
force can be
increased by+
increasing the
strength of the
magnetic field or
increasing the si0e
of the current.
The direction of the
force is reversed if
either the direction
of the current or the
direction of the
magnetic field is
reversed.
the motor effect and *now
how to use 6leming's >eft-
hand 1ule to identify the
direction of the force
produced.
\$now how the si0e and
direction of the force
produced can be altered.
'esearch0 Students research the
structure and action of a motor.
1omework0 7pplying 6leming's left-
hand rule to different situations.
6#2 The generator effect
a If an electrical
conductor &cuts'
through a magnetic
field a potential
nderstand the principle of
electromagnetic induction.
% 2emo0 (emonstration of
electromagnetic induction.
2iscuss0 (iscussion of the differences
between the motor effect and
;agnets, sensitive voltmeters,
insulated wire,
\$now how an
electric current
can be generated
in a wire.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
b
c
d
e
difference is
induced across the
ends of the
conductor.
If a magnet is
moved into a coil of
wire a potential
difference is
induced across the
ends of the coil.
This is called the
generator effect.
The generator
effect also occurs if
the magnetic field
is stationary and
the coil is moved.
If the coil of wire is
part of a complete
circuit, a current is
induced in the wire.
If the direction of
motion, or the
/!plain the action of a simple
a.c. generator and a simple
d.c. generator, including
graphs of potential difference
generated across the coil
against time.
electromagnetic induction.
1omework0 Aoster describing
electromagnetic induction.
2emo0 (emonstration of a simple a.c.
generator.
2emo0 (emonstration of a simple d.c.
generator.
1omework0 1esearch a wind 8up
.enerator *its #e able to s*etch
graphs of
potential
difference against
time for an a.c.
generator and a
d.c. generator.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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S
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
f
polarity of the
magnet, is
reversed, the
direction of the
induced potential
difference and any
induced current is
reversed.
The si0e of the
induced potential
difference
increases when+
the speed of the
movement
increases, the
strength of the
magnetic field
increases, the
number of turns on
the coil increases
or the area of the
coil increases.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
be able to do
S
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
6#3 Transformers
a
b
7 basic transformer
consists of a
primary coil and a
secondary coil
wound on a soft
iron core.
7n alternating
current in the
primary coil of a
transformer
produces a
changing magnetic
field in the iron core
and hence in the
secondary coil.
This induces an
alternating potential
difference across
the ends of the
secondary coil.
nderstand the basic
structure of the transformer.
/!plain how a transformer
wor*s.
: Activity0 )lass e!periments ma*ing a
simple transformer using )-cores and
insulated wire 8 observing the effect of
d.c. and a.c. inputs, observing the
effect of different coil ratios.
2emo0 (emonstration transformer 8
measuring voltages.
Iron )-cores, insulated wire,
demonstration transformer.
7n e!periment that shows the
basic principle of any
transformer can be found at
http+,,www.nuffieldfoundation.o
rg,practical-physics,model-
transformer
\$now the
components of a
transformer and
be able to
describe how it
wor*s.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
c
d
In a step-up
transformer the
potential difference
across the
secondary coil is
greater than the
potential difference
across the primary
coil.
In a step-down
transformer the
potential difference
across the
secondary coil is
less than the
potential difference
across the primary
coil.
nderstand the difference
between a step-up
transformer and a step-down
transformer.
se the transformer
equations.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Learning &utcomes
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
e
f
The potential
differences across
the primary and
secondary coils of
a transformer are
related to the
number of turns on
the coils by
If transformers are
assumed to be
-DDQ efficient, the
electrical power
output would equal
the electrical power
input.
&p @lp ?&s@ls
Activity0 )arry out calculations using
equations

&p @lp ?&s@ls
Activity0 )omputer simulations of
transformer action.
1omework0 Aractice using
transformer equations.
)omputer access
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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What most students should
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S
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
g
Switch mode
transformers are
transformers that+
operate at a high
frequency, often
between 5D and
%DD *K0. Switch
mode transformers
use very little
power when they
are switched on but
nderstand the difference
between a switch mode
transformer and a
conventional transformer.
uses of switch mode
transformers.
'esearch0 Students should research
switch mode transformers.
1omework0 Students should write a
summary of their research.
\$now the
switch mode
transformer.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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What most students should
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
7 ?uclear hysics
7#1 atomic structure
a
b
c
The basic structure
of an atom is a
small central
nucleus composed
of protons and
neutrons
surrounded by
electrons.
The relative
masses and
relative electric
charges of protons,
neutrons and
electrons.
In an atom the
number of
electrons is equal
to the number of
protons in the
nucleus. The atom
(escribe the structure of an
atom.
\$now that, according to the
nuclear model, most of the
atom is empty space.
\$now that an atom has no
overall charge.
/!plain how results from the
1utherford and ;arsden
scattering e!periments led to
the &plum pudding' model
being replaced by the
nuclear model.
nderstand that new
evidence can cause a theory
to be re-evaluated.
nderstand the terms atomic
number and mass number.
(escribe how an ion is
- Activity0 ;a*e model atoms from
different coloured plasticene.
5i"eo0 4atch video clips of atomic
structure.
2iscuss0 (iscussion of how results
from the 1utherford and ;arsden
scattering e!periments led to the &plum
pudding' model being replaced by the
nuclear model.
)oloured plasticene
Video clips of atomic structure
can be found on
searching for &Juclear /nergy
Aart -'.
Information on 7toms and
Isotopes can be found on ##)
.)S/ #itesi0e at
http+,,www.bbc.co.u*,schools,g
>earn the relative
masses and
charges of the
particles.
\$now the
definition of
&isotopes'.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
6%
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
d
e
has no overall
electrical charge.
7toms may lose or
gain electrons to
form charged
particles called
ions.
The atoms of an
element always
have the same
number of protons,
but have a different
number of neutrons
for each isotope.
The total number
of protons in an
atom is called its
atomic number.
The total number of
protons and
neutrons in an
atom is called its
mass number.
formed.
nderstand how atoms are
represented in terms of their
mass number and atomic
number e.g.
<;ass number= %:
Ja
<7tomic number= --
1omework0 &6ill in the gaps' e!ercise
relating to the number of protons,
neutrons and electrons, atomic
number and mass number of atoms of
different isotopes.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
7#2 Atoms an" ra"iation
a
b
c
Some substances
from the nuclei of
their atoms all the
time, whatever is
done to them,
These substances
are said to be
The origins of
bac*ground
7n alpha particle
consists of two
neutrons and two
protons, the same
#e aware of the random
\$now and understand that
originates from both natural
sources, such as roc*s and
cosmic rays from space, and
the fallout from nuclear
weapons tests and nuclear
accidents.
1ecall the nature of the three
emitted from various sources, eg
luminous watch.
5i"eo0 4atch video clips of the
1omework0 Visit the ##) .)S/
#itesi0e website 8 bac*ground
1omework0 6ind out about the wor*
of ;arie )urie or similar.
Activity0 Interactive activities on alpha
decay, beta decay and the scattering
of alpha particles.
.eiger-;Rller <.;= tube and
Information on bac*ground
radiation can be found on the
##) .)S/ #itesi0e website
at
http+,,www.bbc.co.u*,schools,g
\$now the natural
sources of
bac*ground
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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S
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Possi!le teaching an" Learning
Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
d
e
f
as a helium
nucleus. 7 beta
particle is an
electron from the
nucleus. .amma
electromagnetic
nucleus.
Juclear equations
may be used to
show single alpha
and beta decay.
7lpha and beta
deflected by both
electric and
magnetic fields but
not.
not deflected by
electric or magnetic
fields.
#alance nuclear equations,
limited to the completion of
atomic number and mass
number.
\$now that alpha particles are
deflected less than beta
particles and in an opposite
direction. /!plain this in
terms of the relative mass
and charge of each particle.
#e able to describe the
dangers and some uses of
nderstand how the
properties of each type of
ma*e it suitable for specific
1omework0 9uestions on balancing
nuclear equations.
2emo0 (emonstrations of the
properties of alpha, beta and gamma
<nature, si0e, speed=.
Activity0 )omputer simulation of
5i"eo0 4atch video clips of the uses
1omework0 9uestions on the uses
and dangers of each type of nuclear
selection of an appropriate isotope for
a given situation.
Interactive websites showing
the nature of each type of
at
mulation,alpha-decay
1T only Juclear equations to
show single alpha and beta
decay.
mulation,beta-decay
Information on /lectrostatic
model of alpha particle
scattering can be found on the
Aractical Ahysics website at
http+,,www.nuffieldfoundation.o
rg,practical-
physics,electrostatic-model-
alpha-particle-scattering
substances can be found on
##) .)S/ #itesi0e website
http+,,www.bbc.co.u*,schools,g
#e able to
balance equations
by completing
atomic number
and mass
number.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Activities
Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
g
h
There are uses and
dangers associated
with each type of
The half-life of a
is+ either the
average time it
ta*es for the
number of nuclei of
the isotope in a
sample to halve, or
the time it ta*es for
the count rate from
a sample
containing the
isotope to fall to
half its initial level.
uses. /valuate the possible
ha0ards associated with the
use of different types of
1ecall the definition of half-
life.
nderstand the shape of a
wor* out the half-life from it.
/valuate the appropriateness
particular uses, including as
tracers, in terms of the
and their half-lives.
Activity0 )lass e!periment to model
radioactive decay using dice, coins or
mar*ed cubes.
Activity0 (rawing graphs to show
half-life from the graph.
Activity0 1esearching uses of
lives.
1omework0 )alculations and graphs
involving half-life.
>arge number of dice or
similar.
\$now the
definitions of half-
life.
#e able to
calculate the half-
life from a decay
curve.
7#3 ?uclear fission
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
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Summary of the
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
a
b
c
d
e
Juclear fission is
the splitting of an
atomic nucleus.
There are two
fissionable
substances in
common use in
nuclear reactors,
uranium-%:5 and
plutonium-%:I.
6or fission to occur
the uranium-%:5 or
plutonium-%:I
nucleus must first
absorb a neutron.
The nucleus
undergoing fission
splits into two
smaller nuclei,
releasing two or
three neutrons and
energy.
These neutrons
may go on to start
nderstand the concepts of
nuclear fission and chain
reactions.
S*etch or complete a
labelled diagram to illustrate
how a chain reaction may
occur.
-.5 5i"eo0 4atch video clips of nuclear
fission and chain reactions.
1omework0 Students prepare a
presentation or poster on nuclear
fission.
Video clips of nuclear fission
and chain reactions can be
found at http+,,phet.
simulation,nuclear- fission
#e able to s*etch
a labelled
diagram to
illustrate a chain
reaction.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
73
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Summary of the
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Learning &utcomes
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Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
a chain reaction.
7#4 ?uclear fusion
a
b
c
d
Juclear fusion is
the joining of two
atomic nuclei to
form a larger one.
Juclear fusion is
the process by
which energy is
released in stars.
Stars form when
enough dust and
gas from space is
pulled together by
gravitational
attraction. Smaller
masses may also
form and be
attracted by a
larger mass to
become planets.
(uring the &main
sequence' period of
nderstand the process of
nuclear fusion.
nderstand with the chart
shown in the specification
that shows the life cycles of
stars.
/!plain how stars are able to
maintain their energy output
for millions of years.
\$now that elements up to
iron are formed during the
stable period of a star, and
elements heavier than iron
are formed in a supernova.
/!plain why the early
niverse contained only
hydrogen but now contains a
large variety of different
-.5 5i"eo0 4atch video clips describing
nuclear fusion.
1omework0 Students prepare a
presentation or poster about the life
cycle of stars.
Information on nuclear fission
and fusion can be found on
##) .)S/ #itesi0e website
http+,,www.bbc.co.u*,schools,g
Video clips showing the life
cycle of stars can be found on
www.brainpop.com by
searching for &lifecycle of
stars'.
\$now the stages
in the life of large
and small stars.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
74
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Summary of the
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Learning &utcomes
What most students should
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Homework
'esource +(amination
,hints an" tis-
Students should:
e
f
its life cycle a star
is stable because
the forces within it
are balanced.
7 star goes through
a life cycle. This life
cycle is determined
by the si0e of the
star.
6usion processes
in stars produce all
of the naturally
occurring elements.
These elements
may be distributed
throughout the
niverse by the
e!plosion of a
massive star
<supernova= at the
end of its life.
elements.
AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number 1073334) and a company limited by
guarantee registered in England and Wales (number 364473)! "ur registered address is AQA#
7\$