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GEOG103: Physical Geography, section 004

Exam I: Chapter 1-5, lecture 01 lecture 07

Tuesday, September 27, 2011

Student Name: _______________________

Part I: True or False. Answer True (T) or False (F) in the right column for the statements in the
left column. [10 points]

STATEMENTS Answer (T or F)
1: Most Earth subsystems are open systems. T
2: A Global Positioning System (GPS) needs at least 3 satellites to
determine locations.

3: A radar system is an example of passive remote sensing systems. F
4: If you want a map with a lot of details about a small area like Las
Vegas, you need a large scale map.
5: In a sunny day, the sky is blue. This is because of the scattering of
short wavelengths of the visible lights by gas molecules in the
6: In Antarctic, the land surface is covered by fresh snow. It has a
higher albedo than the mountain areas where the surface is covered
mostly by forests.
7: In general, both the annual and daily range of temperature is larger
in continental locations than in marine locations.
8: Temperatures are the same among the points on an isotherm line. T
9: The Ozone layer is located in the troposphere. F
10: Oxygen is the most abundant gas in the Earths atmosphere. F

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Part II: Matching Terms. Pick out the term in the left column that best fits the definition/statement in
the middle column. Write the number of the term (a-t) in the right column. [20 points]

1. The process for plants to use carbon dioxide, light, and water to make
carbohydrates and oxygen.
2. The greatest distance between the earth and the sun in earths orbit
around the sun.
3. Molecule to molecule transfer of heat.
4. The movement of Earth around the sun is termed.
5. The reaction in which two atoms of hydrogen combine together to form
helium, which is the source of solar energy.
6. A unit to measure the distance that is about 9.5 trillion kilometers.
7. The place receiving maximum insolation. At this point, insolation rays
are perpendicular to the surface.

a. aphelion
b. conduction
c. photosynthesis
d. revolution
e. subsolar point
f. light year
g. fusion
h. aurora borealis
8. Interaction between the solar wind and the upper layers of Earths
atmosphere creates this phenomenon near the Earths north pole.
9. The hypothetical surface of the earth that coincides everywhere with
mean sea level.
10. A critical point at which the system can no longer maintain its character
and lurches to a new operational level.
11. A Geographic zone from about 23.5 to 35 latitude in both northern
and southern hemispheres of the Earth.
12. An energy and material system that remains balanced around a stable
average overtime.
13. All the lines defined by this term are great circles.
14. Crossing this line changes a day but you do not need to adjust the time
on your watch.
15. Except the 0 line, all other lines defined by this term are small circles.
16. Lines on a map, chart, or graph connecting points of equal value.
17. The coldest layer of the atmosphere.
18. The atmosphere layer that has the highest temperature.
19. The atmosphere layer that absorbs most of the ultraviolet rays and
safeguards life at Earths surface

i. Threshold
j. steady-state
k. subtropic zone
l. Geoid
m. International
Date Line
n. parallels
o. meridians
p. Isolines
q. Thermosphere
r. esosphere M
s. Troposphere
t. Ozonosphere
20. The lowest atmosphere layer on Earth and has the normal lapse rate
(temperature) of 6.4C/kilometer.

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Part III: Multiple choices. Notice that there will be 2 points for each question. [70 points]

1. An airplane company is planning their flights from city A in north America to city B in Asia. The shortest
distance (just mathematically, not considering the other factors such as Coriolis forces and winds)
between these two cities should be along ________________.
A) a great circle
B) a small circle
C) a straight line plus a some distance along a parallel
D) a straight line plus some distance along a meridian
Answer: __________A____________

2. Because of the global warming, the ice cover in the polar areas is decreasing. Due to the diminishing ice
cover, the Earth surfaces reflection decreases, enhancing ice melting and global warming. This is an
example of ________________.
A) negative feedback
B) positive feedback
C) system equilibrium
D) open system mess
Answer: _________B_____________

3. The 0 longitude line that passes through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England is called _______
A) the Tropic of Capricorn
B) the Prime Meridian
C) the International Date Line
D) the Tropic of Cancer
E) the Universal Time Line
Answer: _________B_____________

4. Which of the following can be considered as an example of a closed system?
A) A photosynthetic system.
B) A river drainage basin.
C) An atmospheric energy system.
D) The Earths material system.
E) All of A), B), and C).
Answer: ________D______________

5. If city A has the time right at 3:00 P.M. and at that moment city B has the time 1:00 P.M. What is the
longitudinal difference between city A and city B?
A) City A is 2 east of City B.
B) City A is 2 west of City B.
C) City A is 30 east of City B.
D) City A is 30 west of city B.
E) City A is 45 west of city B.
Answer: ________C______________

6. UTC refers to ____________
A) Pacific Time Zone.
B) Universal Time Conference.
C) Coordinated Universal Time.
D) University Time Constraints.
Answer: _________C_____________

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7. GIS is being used to:_______________
A) monitor the atmospheric pressure patterns.
B) plan agricultural cultivation.
C) analyze the ocean currents.
D) help city planner for microenvironmental analysis.
E) all of A), B), C), and D).
Answer: __________E____________

8. Which of the following map projection is the best for determining the shortest distance of two locations
across the globe? (Note that the shortest distance between two locations across the globe is along the great
A) Mercator or cylindrical projection
B) Oval projection
C) Gnomonic or planar projection
D) Conical projection
Answer: ________C______________

9. According to the planetesimal hypothesis, Earth, Sun and other planets in the solar system formed
specifically from ______________about 4.6 billion years ago.
A) the stones in the universe.
B) collision of hydrogen and helium atoms.
C) a nebula of dust and gases.
D) other stars many light years away.
Answer: _________C_____________

10. The plane of the Earth's orbit about the Sun is called _____________
A) A parallel.
B) aphelion.
C) the plane of the ecliptic.
D) perihelion.
Answer: _________C_____________

11. Ultraviolet waves have a __________ wavelength than visible light and are therefore __________
A) longer; less
B) longer; more
C) shorter; less
D) shorter; more
Answer: __________D____________

12. The Earth's __________ produces the continually changing daily pattern of day and night.
A) axial tilt
B) revolution around the sun
C) magnetic field
D) Rotation
Answer: _________D_____________

13. At the South Pole, 24 hours of daylight occur on the __________.
A) J une solstice
B) December solstice
C) vernal equinox
D) autumnal equinox
Answer: _______B_______________

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14. Which of the following is correct about the atmospheric gases?
A) The four most important gases in the atmosphere, in the order from most to less abundant, are
nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide.
B) Oxygen is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere.
C) Hydrogen is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere.
D) Argon is a solid rather than gas in the atmosphere, therefore its negligible.
Answer: _________A_____________
15. Based on temperature, the atmosphere is divided into__________.
A) one continuous region
B) two broad classifications: Homosphere and Heterosphere
C) four layers: Thermosphere, Mesosphere, Stratosphere, and Troposhere
D) the Ionosphere and Ozonosphere
Answer: __________C____________

16. The reason for the ozone damage (ozone hole) is because of ____________.
A) the release of carbon monoxide from cars
B) Particulate pollutions from power plants that burn coals for electricity.
C) release of chemically stable materials such as CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) that can be activated
by ultraviolet rays in the ozone zone and change O
to O

D) the change of normal lapse rate
E) Intensive volcanic eruptions
Answer: __________C____________

17. The highest temperatures in the atmosphere occur in the __________ because __________.
A) troposphere; infrared radiation from the ground heats this layer more than any other layer
B) stratosphere; methane is such an effective greenhouse gas
C) thermosphere; carbon dioxide has accumulated to very high levels in this layer
D) thermosphere; it is in direct contact with high energy solar radiation
E) mesosphere; high intensity solar radiation causes strong chemical reactions with ozone, and this
heats the layer to very high temperatures
Answer: _________D_____________

18. Which of the following is (are) correct about the infrared wavelengths?
A) Energy emitted from the Earths surface is within the infrared wavelengths.
B) Solar radiant energy contains some infrared wavelengths.
C) Infrared rays have longer wavelengths than visible lights.
D) The wavelengths of radio waves are longer than the infrared wavelengths.
E) All of A), B), C), and D are correct.
Answer: ________E______________

19. Which of the following is correct regarding lapse rates in the troposphere?
(Lapse rate refers to the temperature change with altitude in the troposphere)
A) The term "normal (average) lapse rate" refers to temperature increase in response to the increase
of altitude in the troposphere.
B) The environmental lapse rate is in average 6.4C/kilometer (decrease) from Earths surface to
higher altitude.
C) The normal lapse rate in the troposphere is in average 6.4C/kilometer (decrease) from Earths
surface to higher altitude.
D) The normal lapse rate in the troposphere is in average 6.4C/kilometer (increase) from Earths
surface to higher altitude.
Answer: ________C______________

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20. Temperature inversion occurs_______________.
A) when surface temperatures are higher than overlying layers of air
B) when there is good air drainage and ventilation of the surface air
C) when surface temperatures are lower than warmer overlying air
D) during episodes of reduced air pollution
E) More frequent in above the ocean than above lands
Answer: ________C______________

21. Rainbows and mirages are examples of __________.
A) refraction
B) reflection
C) diffuse radiation
D) transmission scattering
Answer: _________A_____________

22. Net radiation (NET R) in the energy budget analysis of the earth refers to_________________.
A) the net energy expended for ground heating and cooling
B) the balance of all radiation incoming and outgoing at Earth's surface
C) the amount of insolation coming into the surface
D) the amount of insolation not absorbed at the surface
Answer: ________B______________

23. From 36N latitude to the north pole and 36 S to the south pole, an energy __________ occurs in the
radiation balance.
A) surplus
B) deficit
C) balance
D) transmission
Answer: ________B______________

24. Albedo in Antarctic is higher than the Pacific ocean. This is because the ice-covered surface in Antarctic
has a higher ________rate to solar insolation than the seawater in the Pacific ocean.
A) reflection
B) absorption
C) emission
D) transmission
E) advection
Answer: ________A______________

25. If the earth were to suddenly turn into an ice-covered globe, the temperature of the planet would
__________ because __________ insolation would be absorbed.
A) decrease; less
B) decrease; more
C) increase; less
D) increase; more
Answer: _______A_______________

26. Consider the polar areas where glaciers cover the Earths surface. Which of the following is true
regarding the energy budget in those ice-covered polar areas? [Notice surface Net R = +SW (insolation)
SW (reflection) +LW (infrared) LW (infrared)]
A) The +SW (insolation) term is large.
B) The - SW (albedo) term is large
C) The +LW (incoming longwave infrared energy) term is small
D) both A and B
E) both B and C
Answer: _________B____________
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27. The ___________ temperature scale uses the absolute zero degree as 0 in temperature readings, at which
all atomic and molecular motion in matter stops.
A) Kaveney
B) Fahrenheit
C) Kelvin
D) Celsius
Answer: _________C_____________

28. In the high Mountains like the Himalayas, the larger daily temperature range is due to the fact that
A) thinner atmosphere at high altitude has less ability to hold the heat energy
B) the solar insolation in the high mountains is less
C) the refraction of lights in high mountains is stronger
D) mountains like to have lower temperature
Answer: ________A______________

29. In general, temperature changes in water bodies such as oceans and large lakes are slower than in soil or
rock because water has higher _____________.
A) specific temperature
B) volume
C) absolute heat
D) specific heat
Answer: ________D______________

30. Places with the lowest annual temperature ranges on Earth are __________________.
A) polar regions, where temperatures are very low year-round
B) middle latitudes, not too hot or too cold
C) found on the west coasts of continents
D) at low latitudes, where solar radiation is most constant and much of the surface is covered with
Answer: _______D_______________

31. Temperature maps commonly use lines of constant (equal) temperature called ____________ to portray
the spatial pattern of temperature.
A) isokelvins
B) isotherms
C) isobars
D) none of A), B) and C).
Answer: _______B_______________

32. If the temperature at the surface of the earth (at sea level) is 40C, what is the temperature at 2000 m if the
normal lapse rate is 5C/1000 m?
A) 30C
B) 50C
C) 35C
D) 45C
Answer: _________A_____________

33. The temperature on a cloudy night is likely to be __________ than that on a clear night because
A) colder; the clouds reflect more energy
B) colder; the clouds absorb heat energy and store it
C) warmer; the clouds absorb heat energy and then reradiate some of it back to the ground
D) warmer; the clouds absorb heat energy and store it
Answer: ________C______________
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34. According to the textbook and lecture, the ocean temperature rarely rises above 31C (88F) because of
__________ feedback caused by __________.
A) positive; evaporation
B) positive; ocean currents
C) negative; evaporation
D) negative; ocean currents
Answer: _________C_____________

35. As a result of the characteristics of water, cities located near the coast should experience a temperature
range that is __________ those of cities located in the interior at the same latitude.
A) the same as
B) smaller than
C) larger than
Answer: ________B______________

Part IV: Bonus Questions (4 points)

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