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POSTWELD HEAT

TREATMENT












Table of Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 2
Principles of Heat Treatment ................................................................................................................... 5
Post Weld Heat Treatment ...................................................................................................................... 7
Thermal Stress Relief ............................................................................................................................... 8
Fundamentals of PREHEAT .................................................................................................................... 11
POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT ............................................................................................................... 15
The post and pre heating of the Residual Stresses .................................................................................. 17
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................ 18
References ............................................................................................................................................ 19










Introduction
Steel is a very important component in todays world. When Steel passes through the welding
zone and through the heating process all the heated portions synchronize into the microstructure
that is quite different from the base metal that is often known as HAZ, or in other words we can
also state it as Heat affected Zone. During the process of rapid cooling and heating that takes
place in several areas that produces the cycle of thermal zone near the line region. The thermal
cycle can easily cause the uniform heating and then cools the material that is within the heat
zone. The above process helps in generating harder heat affected zone that includes cracking
susceptibility in the base and the weld metal. These residual contraction of metals move along
with the length of the weld that is prevented from all the large adjacent cold body of the metal.
The residual tensile stresses are prepared along with the weld of the heating zone. All the
properties of the weld causes more problems that are often related with the base metal properties
and in many other cases all the performance of the above mentioned cases are also governed by
them. The post welding heat treatment machine can be more descriptively understood from the
figure given below.



The cubical structure of the Heat affected Zone (HAZ)







Post Weld Heat Treatment



All the problems in relation to the process is quite helpful for the process of production and to
also get rid of the problems that are caused due to some exclusive preheating process that takes
place after Welding and hence with the help of that process the Post Weld Heat Treatment can be
easily employed. The effective pre heating and post heating primary techniques can easily accept
all the heat affected properties that have the least potential for the hydrogen component that
creates the hydrogen induced cracking. These welding process is often used in bridges, ships and
pressure vessels that are used in several industrial machines and automobile stocks.
Principles of Heat Treatment
The heat treatment can be easily defined as the series of sequence process of cooling and heating
in respect to the desired combination that is associated with the properties of steel and the
changes in the properties of steel after the process of heat treatment is because of the structural
change and the and the transformation of phase that occurs during the treatment process and all
the factors that can determine the controlling structures which are known as the principle of heat
treatment process and at the same time is important for the principles of heat treatment procedure
that are explained in the points below :
1. Transformation Phase during the process of heating
2. Effect of controlling rate and the process of structural change that takes place during
cooling process.
3. The effect of carbon content and the process of alloying the elements that are used in Post
Weld Heat Treatment.
4. All the factors that constitute the structural changes that take place in the heating process.


The graph below explains the elementary process of heat treatment that takes place in Post Weld
Heat Treatment







Graph reflecting process of Post Weld Heat Treatment

The elements and their proportionality of heat emission


Post Weld Heat Treatment
The residual stress has high level occurrence level that is due to the process of weldment that
restrains the parent metal during the solidification of weld that stresses highly on the yield of the
material strength that are highly stressful and can yield high strength of material that easily
combines with the normal stress level that may exceed the design stress. The removal of all the
residual stress takes place because of the thermal effect and energy that is received by the metals
that allows the boundary of grain sliding from the defects such as vacancies, dislocation and
slip planes. The most significant prospect of Post Weld Heat Treatment is to prevent the system
from Brittle Fracture. The Post weld heat treatment helps the entire system to harden and soften
the zones that can make all the matches quite easy for the entire system. The removal of the
residual stresses can become quite necessary to achieve dimensional stability. The heat treatment
process consists the annealing solution and the stress relief factor that depends on all the
requirement that are important for the Post Weld Heat Treatment.






The Process of Post Weld Heat Treatment


Thermal Stress Relief
The result of the residual stress that is obtained from different welding process that reduces the
thermal post weld stress that provides a relief for the heat treatment. The residual stress that are
remaining in the material after the stress relief treatment that will be entirely depending on the
rate of cooling . The percentage of internal stress will be completely independent on the type of
steel that is the composition of the yield strength that is the effect of time varying the temper that
can be easily understood from the graph that is stated below.









The Thermal Stress Relief in PWHT
The temperature often reaches the optimum level during the stress relief statement that is quite
far from the greater effect that reveals all the stress that is quite stressful in the length of time and


has the specific specimen for the temperature that is most suitable for the entire process. The
more closer temperature will result in the re crystallization or the critical temperature subsequent
that will be more effective in removing the residual stresses. The thermal stress relief is the
treatment that can be easily employed to reduce the residual stresses that have many important
properties which are taken into account in this process of heating. The microstructure leaves a
tensile impact on the properties of heating that are affected by the stress relief treatment. The A
post weld that has the heat treatment at 1040 degree Celsius to 1090 degree Celsius that contains
the sphereoidizes, the ferrite that are present in different weldment that significantly reduces the
formation of sigma and the treatment also takes some of the ferrite solutions into the process that
has an intermediate and can easily hold at 595 degree Celsius and is often recommended for the
weldment that are used to relieve the residual stresses and at the same time reduces the
susceptibility for cracking all the post during the weld heat treatment. The heat affected zone is
on the verge of vicinity of the welded joints that are aided for consideration and the post welded
joints that are aided for consideration by the process of post weld heat treatments and the
properties that are in their specific zones are later improved with the help of reduction of residual
stresses that is together with all the metallurgical changes that takes place in the process of helps
in increasing the carbon content and the alloy content that are cross sectional in the thickness
part. The temperature is often recommended for relieving the low carbon steels that are between
595 degree Celsius and 675 Celsius. The process takes one hour per inch of the thickness to uses
it in the basis of the compound to determine the length of the desired temperature that are present
in larger periods and are also required at the temperature scale of 595 in order to achieve the



Graph Trending the Thermal stress Relief
same degree level of stress that is relieved at 675 degree Celsius. The thermal stress relief can be
easily conducted for the furnace that is suitable for the heating process in the entire weldment.
The same portions of weldment is heated only if the structure is uniformly cross sectional and are
unheated at most of the ends that are free to move and not to restrict the entire expansion of the
parts that are heated.








The Heat pattern and the Microstructure state of PWHT
The heating and the cooling process must be in a gradual form along with the rate that will make
sure that there is a uniform temperature across the wall full of thickness. In general the greater
difference between the maximum and the minimum thickness that should be a slower process as
the rate of temperature is also slow. The variables factors such as the strength characteristics of
the geometry and the metal of the parts are not possible to recommend the formula that is for
maximum heating and for cooling as well .

Mechanical properties of the components used in the PWHT process.

Fundamentals of PREHEAT
The heating operation of the metals are pre determined temperature before engaging into some
welding process that is primarily known as preheating. The different details and the modes that
are quite different in all the different situations that are basically done for the general purpose


and at the same time it greatly influences all the cooling behavior that takes place after welding
process, so that the level of shrinkage can be easily lowered and the cooling rate can be easily
milder. The pre heating prepares the metal that makes it more receptive in terms of welding and
understand the importance of preheating that increases the thickness of the base metal that is just
because of the rapid quench capability that is along with the rigidity of the welded structure
which is obtained from the derived constraints . Generally the higher amount of preheat
temperature lower the total heat input and satisfies the conditions that are more favorable for
resisting the marten site formulization that increasing the hardness of the compound and
contributes high quality welds. The precautions that hardens the steels must be preheated
properly in order to decrease the cooling rate that takes place after the welding process. For a
specific steel the requirement of the preheating process, requirements, and the critical evaluation
of the preheating temperature can be easily selected according to the percentage of carbon that is
present in steel.



Fundamental Of Preheat

Graville Weldability Diagram






Relationship among carbon equivalent and the critical preheat temperature

From the above tables we can easily recommend the interpass and the preheat temperature that is
completely based on chemistry of the base metals and also the thickness of the elements that are
structured.
The minimum temperature of the preheating process can be easily assured by avoiding all the
cracking that completely depends on the factors that are mentioned below:
The conditions for the base metal in respect to welding.
The different constraint level.
The available Hydrogen risk
Thickness of the base material
Carbon equivalence that expresses the content of carbon and other alloys.


The rapid heating and cooling process is one the most significant characteristics of welding that
produces a hard microstructure within the HAZ. The tough HAZ microstructure is one of the
factors that are responsible for the deterioration of the welds. The heat affected zone is often
cooled with different rates that includes all the different regions of microstructure that are
considered as the source of failure in the weak welded joints.
POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT
The post weld heat treatment is the procedure that is used to influence the structure of the
properties that are obtained in different weld and in all the heat affected zones. The
implementation of the proper provisions are important for welding the cooling retard in the
cooling rate after the Welding process. The functions of the PWHT is to measure the temper of
the weld metal and the HAZ that are used in order to reduce the hardness of the metal and at the
same time increases the toughness as well to decrease the residual stress that are associated with
the concept of welding.

The Post Weld Heat Treatment Process



The illustration of different single HAZ pass in reference to the Iron carbon equilibrium.

The available literature that is available on the concept of Post Heat Treatment can easily find
out that the recommendations are often dependent on different specific alloys that can filter the
metals that are involved in the above process and also for the restraint and the thickness of the
welded joints. The technique of post heating minimizes the hydrogen potential that is induced by
several cracking. The HIC provides three variables that must be present for a sensitive
microstructure that is quite sufficient for the hydrogen level and the necessity of the PWHT that
depends on the services and the materials that are involved in the process requirement.


The post and pre heating of the Residual Stresses

While going through the post pre welding het treatments are the properties of the mechanical
elements that represent the properties of the electronic beam that are in from of welded alloys
summarizes that the welded state of the existing samples are the ones that are above 80% ductile
and about 95% of the metals impacts the toughness of the base metals that have low temperature
along with stress relieving subsequent in respect to the welding operations that improves the
tensile properties of the residual stress and at the same time decreases the toughness of the fusion
department. The effect of the heat treatment that completely depends on the mechanical
characteristics are concluded to assess all the effects of the PWHT in respect to the mechanical
properties that have several properties such as tensile strength, hardness and the impact tests that
are employed on the welded joints that are under two different conditions which is the heat
treated condition and the welded condition. The results reflect the post weld heat treatment that
improves the toughness by 15% and figures out the tensile differences that has the effect of
reducing all the residual stress by 70%.

The Pre heating and Post Heating residual stress in Charts


Conclusion
The study of the above topic reviews the efficient post heat and pre heat that can be understood
with the help of primary means that are acceptable for the heat affected property zone that
provides the minimum potential for the elements that are hydrogen induced and has the
minimum cracking for all the residual stress that can be created in the heat zone. Many
researchers have concluded that the microstructure that are responsible for HAZ is quite
responsible for all the deterioration of the cold and the weld susceptibility that recommends all
the heat treatment that is necessary for several technical problems that are associated with the
conventional materials of steel and welding process that can be easily eliminated without the
post heating and the pre heating treatments that are applying with several welding process that
are consumable goods. Many of the researchers observes and increases the preheating the
PWHT microstructures that are welded goods that are specialized in all types of ferrous metals
while studying the effects of post and pre weld heating technique on the different mechanical
properties. Many researchers even said the all the residual stress increases the preheat
temperature and recommends that it is almost impossible to extract complete residual stress
among the welded structures by different experimental methods and these disadvantages can be
easily resolved by computational analysis technique.







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