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Civil Services
Examination 2016
Guide to your success with Geography optional
Ryan Kishan
6/6/2014


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Table of Contents

Preliminary Examination ................................................................................................................................................ 3
Paper 1 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Paper 2 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Main Examination ............................................................................................................................................................ 4
Essay Syllabus ................................................................................................................................................................ 5
General Studies ............................................................................................................................................................. 5
GS Paper 1 ............................................................................................................................................................ 5
GS Paper 2 ............................................................................................................................................................ 5
GS Paper 3 ............................................................................................................................................................ 6
GS Paper 4 ............................................................................................................................................................ 6
Geography ..................................................................................................................................................................... 7
Geography Paper 1 .............................................................................................................................................. 7
Geography Paper 2 .............................................................................................................................................. 9




















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Preliminary Examination

Paper I - (200 marks)
Duration: Two Hours

1. Current events of national and international importance
2. History of India and Indian National Movement
3. Indian and World Geography - Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World
4. Indian Polity and Governance - Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights
Issues, etc.
5. Economic and Social Development Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics,
Social Sector initiatives, etc.
6. General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change - that do not require
subject specialization.
7. General Science




Paper II- (200 marks)
Duration: Two hours

1. Comprehension
2. Interpersonal skills including communication skills
3. Logical reasoning and analytical ability
4. Decision-making and problem solving
5. General mental ability
6. Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc. - Class X level)
7. Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. - Class X level)
8. English Language Comprehension skills (Class X level).















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Mains Examination
Duration: Three Hours each

Qualifying Papers :
Hindi (30% qualifying marks & maximum: 300 Marks)
English (25% qualifying marks & maximum: 300 Marks)
Papers to be counted for merit
Paper-I
Essay (250 Marks)
Paper-II
General Studies-I (250 Marks) (Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World
and Society)
Paper-III
General Studies -II (250 Marks) (Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International
relations)
Paper-IV
General Studies -III (250 Marks) (Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment,
Security and Disaster Management)
Paper-V
General Studies -IV (250 Marks) (Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude)
Paper-VI
Geography - Paper 1 (250 Marks) (Principles of Geography)
Paper-VII
Geography - Paper 2 (250 Marks) (Geography of India)



Sub Total (Written test) = 1750 Marks
Personality Test = 275 Marks
Grand Total = 2025 Marks
(40% = 810, 43% = 875, 45% = 912, 47% = 950, 50% = 1012, 52% = 1053, 54% = 1100, 57% = 1155)













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ESSAY Syllabus
Duration: Three Hours

Candidates may be required to write essays on multiple topics. They will be expected to keep closely to the subject of the essay to
arrange their ideas in orderly fashion and to write concisely. Credit will be given for effective and exact expression.

GENERAL STUDIES Syllabus
General Studies- I: Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society (250 marks)
Duration: Three Hours

Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues
The Freedom Struggle - its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national
boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and
effect on the society.
Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
Role of women and women's organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization,
their problems and their remedies.
Effects of globalization on Indian society.
Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
Salient features of world's physical geography.
Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible
for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)
Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and
their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the
effects of such changes.


General Studies- II: Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations. (250 marks)
Duration: Three Hour

Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution
of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries
Parliament and State Legislatures- structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of
these.
Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government;
pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
Salient features of the Representation of People's Act.
Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies
Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and
implementation.
Development processes and the development industry- the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors,
charities, institutional and other stakeholders
Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes;
mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations,
and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
Role of civil services in a democracy.

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India and its neighborhood- relations.
Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India's interests
Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India's interests, Indian Diasporas.
Important International institutions, agencies and fore- their structure, mandate.


General Studies- III: Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security (250 marks)
Duration: Three Hour

Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
Government Budgeting.
Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage,
transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers
Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives,
functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-
rearing.
Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements,
supply chain management.
Land reforms in India.
Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
Investment models.
Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life
Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual
property rights.
Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment
Disaster and disaster management.
Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security
challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention
Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism
Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate


General Studies- IV: Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude (250 marks)
Duration: Three Hour

This paper will include questions to test the candidates' attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public
life and his problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society. Questions may utilize the
case study approach to determine these aspects. The following broad areas will be covered:
Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics;
ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and
administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behavior; moral and political attitudes; social
influence and persuasion.
Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public
service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.
Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in
government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and
ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and
funding; corporate governance.
Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and
transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen's Charters, Work culture, Quality
of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
Case Studies on above issues

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GEOGRAPHY Syllabus


PAPER I PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY

Physical Geography:
1. Geomorphology:
a. Factors controlling landform development
b. Endogenetic and exogenetic forces
c. Origin and evolution of the earths crust
d. Fundamentals of geomagnetism
e. Physical conditions of the earths interior
f. Geosynclines
g. Continental drift Isostasy
h. Plate tectonics
i. Recent views on mountain building
j. Vulcanicity
k. Earthquakes and Tsunamis
l. Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development
m. Denudation chronology
n. Channel morphology
o. Erosion surfaces Slope development
p. Applied Geomorphology
q. Geo-hydrology
r. Economic geology and environment.
2. Climatology:
a. Temperature and pressure belts of the world
b. Heat budget of the earth
c. Atmospheric circulation
d. Atmospheric stability and instability
e. Planetary and local winds
f. Monsoons and jet streams
g. Air masses and fronto genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones
h. Types and distribution of precipitation
i. Weather and Climate
j. Koppens, Thornthwaites and Trewarthas classification of world climates
k. Hydrological cycle
l. Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes
m. Applied climatology and Urban climate.
3. Oceanography:
a. Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans
b. Temperature and salinity of the oceans
c. Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits
d. Waves, currents and tides
e. Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources
f. Coral reefs, coral bleaching
g. Sea-level changes law of the sea and marine pollution.
4. Biogeography:
a. Genesis of soils
b. Classification and distribution of soils
c. Soil profile
d. Soil erosion, Degradation and conservation
e. Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals
f. Problems of deforestation and conservation measures


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g. Social forestry
h. Agro-forestry
i. Wild life
j. Major gene pool centers.
5. Environmental Geography:
a. Principle of ecology
b. Human ecological adaptations
c. Influence of man on ecology and environment
d. Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances
e. Ecosystem their management and conservation
f. Environmental degradation, management and conservation
g. Biodiversity and sustainable development
h. Environmental policy Environmental hazards and remedial measures
i. Environmental education and legislation
Human Geography:
1. Perspectives in Human Geography:
a. Areal differentiation regional synthesis
b. Dichotomy and dualism
c. Environmentalism
d. Quantitative revolution and locational analysis
e. Radical, behavioral, human and welfare approaches
f. Languages, religions and secularization
g. Cultural regions of the world
h. Human development index.
2. Economic Geography:
a. World economic development: measurement and problems
b. World resources and their distribution
c. Energy crisis
d. The limits to growth
e. World agriculture:
f. Typology of agricultural regions
g. Agricultural inputs and productivity
h. Food and nutrition problems
i. Food security
j. Famine: causes, effects and remedies
k. World industries: locational patterns and problems
l. Patterns of world trade.
3. Population and Settlement Geography:
a. Growth and distribution of world population
b. Demographic attributes
c. Causes and consequences of migration
d. Concepts of over-under-and optimum population
e. Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being
and quality of life

f. Population as social capital
g. Types and patterns of rural settlements
h. Environmental issues in rural settlements
i. Hierarchy of urban settlements
j. Urban morphology: Concepts of primate city and rank-size rule
k. Functional classification of towns
l. Sphere of urban influence
m. Rural - urban fringe
n. Satellite towns


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o. Problems and remedies of urbanization
p. Sustainable development of cities
4. Regional Planning:
a. Concept of a region
b. Types of regions and methods of regionalization
c. Growth centers and growth poles
d. Regional imbalances
e. Regional development strategies
f. Environmental issues in regional planning
g. Planning for sustainable development.
5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography:
a. Systems analysis in Human geography
b. Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models
c. Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch
d. Perroux and Boudeville
e. Von Thunens model of agricultural location
f. Webers model of industrial location
g. Ostovs model of stages of growth
h. Heartland and Rimland theories
i. Laws of international boundaries and frontiers
Total Topics: 110
PAPER II GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA

1. Physical Setting:
a. Space relationship of India with neighboring countries
b. Structure and relief Drainage system and watersheds
c. Physiographic regions
d. Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns,
e. Tropical cyclones and western disturbances
f. Floods and droughts
g. Climatic regions
h. Natural vegetation
i. Soil types and their distributions.
2. Resources:
a. Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources
b. Forest and wild life resources and their conservation
c. Energy crisis
3. Agriculture:
a. Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power
b. Institutional factors: land holdings, land tenure and land reforms
c. Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop
combination, land capability

d. Agro and social-forestry
e. Green revolution and its socio- economic and ecological implications
f. Significance of dry farming
g. Livestock resources and white revolution
h. Aqua - culture
i. Sericulture, apiculture and poultry
j. Agricultural regionalization
k. Agro-climatic zones
l. Agro-ecological regions.
4. Industry:
a. Evolution of industries
b. Locational factors of:


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i. Cotton
ii. Jute
iii. Textile
iv. Iron and steel
v. Aluminum
vi. Fertilizer
vii. Paper
viii. Chemical and pharmaceutical
ix. Automobile
x. Cottage and agro-based industries
c. Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings
d. Industrial regionalization
e. New industrial policies
f. Multinationals and liberalization
g. Special Economic Zones
h. Tourism including eco -tourism.
5. Transport, Communication and Trade:
a. Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary
roles in regional development

b. Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade
c. Trade balance
d. Trade Policy
e. Export processing zones
f. Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts
on economy and society

g. Indian space program
6. Cultural Setting:
a. Historical Perspective of Indian Society
b. Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities
c. Religious minorities
d. Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems
e. Cultural regions
f. Growth, distribution and density of population
g. Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force,
dependency ratio, longevity

h. Migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associated
problems

i. Population problems and policies
j. Health indicators.
7. Settlements:
a. Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements
b. Urban development
c. Morphology of Indian cities
d. Functional classification of Indian cities
e. Conurbations and metropolitan regions
f. Urban sprawl
g. Slums and associated problems
h. Town planning
i. Problems of urbanization and remedies.
8. Regional Development and Planning:
a. Experience of regional planning in India
b. Five Year Plans
c. Integrated rural development programs
d. Panchayati Raj and decentralized planning


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e. Command area development
f. Watershed management
g. Planning for backward area, desert, drought prone, hill, tribal area development
h. Multi-level planning
i. Regional planning and development of island territories.
9. Political Aspects:
a. Geographical basis of Indian federalism
b. State reorganization
c. Emergence of new states
d. Regional consciousness and interstate issues
e. International boundary of India and related issues
f. Cross border terrorism
g. Indias role in world affairs
h. Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.
10. Contemporary Issues:
a. Ecological issues
b. Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts
c. Epidemics
d. Issues relating to environmental pollution
e. Changes in patterns of land use
f. Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management
g. Population explosion and food security
h. Environmental degradation
i. Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion
j. Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest
k. Regional disparities in economic development
l. Concept of sustainable growth and development
m. Environmental awareness
n. Linkage of rivers
o. Globalization and Indian economy.
NOTE: Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered
by this paper.
Total Topics: 80

All together: 190