n=0
m=0
(3)
Where
n
m
D are the wavelet coefficients and (t) is the
wavelet function with compressed factor m times and shifted
n times for each subcarrier (number k, 0 k N 1).The
wavelet coefficients are the representation of signals in scale
and position or time. At the receiver side, the process is
inversed. The output of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is
m
n
= J(k)2
m
2
,
(2
k
m
- n)
N-1
k=0
(4)
In the transmitter part, first data are generated in the
random binary form. The BPSK, QPSK and QAM modulation
methods are used to map the data. Then these symbols and
zeros pads are converted parallel to serial and then apply to
vector transpose. The output of this vector transpose is
considered as approximated coefficients and detailed
coefficients, respectively. This whole part is also known as
synthesis filters. Here no need to add cyclic prefix before
transmit the signal through channel. Because wavelet
transform has stronger ability to suppress the Inter Carrier
Interference and Inter Symbol Interferences.
2012 1st International Conference on Emerging Technology Trends in Electronics, Communication and Networking
978-1-4673-1627-9/12/$31.00 2012 IEEE
Figure 2. DWT Transmitter (The synthesis filters) [3]
After passing the signal through the AWGN channel, the
process is in reverse at the receiver side to recover the original
data and this part is known as analysis filters.
Figure 3. DWT Receiver (The analysis filters) [3]
The Discrete Wavelet Transform based OFDM has to
satisfy the orthonormal bases and perfect reconstruction
properties to be considered as wavelet transform [3].
According to this theory, simulation has been work. Proper
selection of parameters plays an important role in simulation.
IV. SIMULATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
Two transform methods FFT based OFDM system and
DWT based OFDM systems are implemented using
MATLAB and graphical results are found showing the bit
error rate probabilities of the systems. The parameters which
are used to simulate these both proposed systems are shown in
table 1.
Table 1. Parameters Selection for simulation of FFT-OFDM and DWT-
OFDM
Parameters
FFT-
OFDM
DWT-
OFDM
No. of data
subcarriers
56
56
Cyclic prefix
14 (1/4 of data
subcarriers)
0
FFT size
64 -
Pilot insertion
8 -
Total no. of
OFDM symbols
1000 1000
Wavelet -
Haar, db1, Sym4,
Coif1, Bior5.5,
Bior4.4
Modulation
Method
BPSK, DBPSK,
QPSK, DQPSK
and QAM
BPSK, DBPSK,
QPSK, DQPSK
and QAM
Channel
AWGN, Rayleigh
Fading
AWGN, Rayleigh
Fading
In this section, BER performance achieved using
MATLAB simulation of different modulation schemes
compared with FFT-OFDM and DWT-OFDM for AWGN
and Rayleigh fading channel.
A. Comparison of FFT-OFDM with DWT- OFDM system
over AWGN channel
The following Fig.4 BPSK over AWGN channel indicates
that at SNR = 4dB the BER performance is 10
-2
and at SNR=8
dB the BER performance is nearly equal to 10
-4
in DWT-
OFDM system which is less than FFT-OFDM system.
Figure 4. BER: BPSK over AWGN channel
In the case of SNR = 8 dB for DBPSK, the error of 0.0010
in FFT-OFDM, where an error of 0.0007 is obtained for
DWT-OFDM shown in Fig 5 DBPSK over AWGN channel.
Figure 5. BER: DBPSK over AWGN channel
According to Fig.6 QPSK over AWGN channel, in DWT-
OFDM, the BER performance is exactly 10
-3
at SNR = 10dB
and at SNR=12 dB it is 10
-4
which is less than FFT-OFDM
system.
Figure 6. BER: QPSK over AWGN channel
2012 1st International Conference on Emerging Technology Trends in Electronics, Communication and Networking
978-1-4673-1627-9/12/$31.00 2012 IEEE
The BER performance is exactly 10
-1
at SNR = 6dB and at
SNR=12 dB, it is nearly equal to 10
-3
in DWT-OFDM which
is less than FFT-OFDM system shown in Fig. 7 DQPSK over
AWGN channel.
Figure 7. BER: DQPSK over AWGN channel
According to Fig. 8 QAM over AWGN channel, it is
clearly shown that the BER performance is exactly 10
-4
at
SNR = 8dB in DWT-OFDM system whereas in FFT-OFDM
system the BER is more than DWT-OFDM system.
Figure 8. BER: QAM over AWGN channel
B. Comparison of modulation schemes of FFT-OFDM
system over AWGN channel
The comparison of different modulation schemes like
BPSK, DBPSK, QPSK, DQPSK and QAM of FFT-OFDM
system over AWGN channel are shown in Fig.9.
Figure 9. BER: Comparison of modulation schemes of FFT-OFDM over
AWGN channel
According to Fig.9, it summarized that as SNR is increased
BER is decreased in all the modulation schemes. But QAM
which gives better BER performance than others because
QAM is more bandwidth efficient than BPSK and other non-
conventional modulation schemes and is used to gain high
speed transmission.
C. Comparison of modulation schemes of DWT-OFDM
over AWGN channel
Fig.10 illustrates the comparison of different modulation
schemes like BPSK, DBPSK, QPSK, DQPSK and QAM of
DWT-OFDM system over AWGN channel.
Figure10. BER: Comparison of modulation schemes of DWT-OFDM
over AWGN channel
The BPSK and QAM which gives less BER performance
compared to others. So from Fig.10, it summarized that as
SNR is increased in DWT-OFDM system, the BER is
decreased in all the modulation schemes also. QAM is more
bandwidth efficient compare to BPSK. So it is used to gain
high speed transmission.
D. Comparison of FFT-OFDM with DWT-OFDM system
over Rayleigh fading channel
The BER performance is exactly 10
-4
in DWT-OFDM at
SNR=30dB whereas the same BER performance is given by
FFT-OFDM at SNR=34 dB shown in Fig.11.
Figure 11 BER: BPSK over Rayleigh Fading
The non-conventional modulation scheme DBPSK
illustrates in Fig.12. It is shown that up to SNR = 25, the
DWT-OFDM BER performance is decreased as SNR is
increased but after that it remains constant. So according to
Fig. 12, the performance is degraded in this non-conventional
modulation scheme.
0.0001
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
0 5 10
B
E
R
SNR(dB)
BPSK
DBPSK
QPSK
DQPSK
QAM
0.0001
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
0 10 20
B
E
R
SNR(dB)
BPSK
DBPSK
QPSK
DQPSK
QAM
2012 1st International Conference on Emerging Technology Trends in Electronics, Communication and Networking
978-1-4673-1627-9/12/$31.00 2012 IEEE
Figure 12. BER: DBPSK over Rayleigh F
The BER performance is 10
-3
in DWT-O
26dB whereas the same BER performance i
OFDM at SNR = 30 dB shown in Fig.13.
Figure 13. BER: QPSK over Rayleigh F
According to the Fig.14 it is shown that u
the DWT-OFDM BER performance is decre
increased but after that it remains constant.
Figure 14. BER: DQPSK over Rayleigh
Same as DBPSK modulation scheme, the
degraded in DQPSK modulation scheme. In
of the poor results, this technique can b
because of the following reasons: It is a diffe
so hardware implementation of receiver
complex and hence cost effective.
Fig. 15 illustrates the comparison of QAM
and DWT-OFDM over Rayleigh fading cha
performance is exactly 10
-4
in DWT-OFDM
whereas the same BER performance is given
at above SNR = 36 dB shown in Fig.15.
Fading
OFDM at SNR =
is given by FFT-
Fading
up to SNR = 30,
eased as SNR is
Fading
e performance is
spite of some
e used in OFDM
erential technique
section is less
M in FFT-OFDM
annel. The BER
M at SNR=32dB
n by FFT-OFDM
Figure 15. Comparison of QAM in FFT-O
Rayleigh fading c
E. Comparison of modulation sch
system over Rayleigh fading c
According to Fig.16, it summ
increased BER is decreased in all
But QAM which gives better BER
because QAM is more bandwidth
others and is used to gain high speed
Figure 16. BER: comparison of different
OFDM over Rayleigh fa
F. Comparison of modulation sch
system over Rayleigh fading c
Comparison of different modu
OFDM over Rayleigh fading chann
Figure 17. BER: Comparison of differen
OFDM over Rayleigh fa
The BER performance is decre
increased in conventional modu
performance is degraded in non
schemes over Rayleigh fading chann
0.0001
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
0 10
B
E
R
SNR(dB)
0.0001
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
0 10
B
E
R
SNR(dB)
OFDM and DWT- OFDM over
channel
hemes of FFT-OFDM
channel
marized that as SNR is
l the modulation schemes.
R performance than others
efficient than BPSK and
d transmission.
t modulation schemes of FFT-
ading channel
hemes of DWT-OFDM
channel
ulation scheme of DWT-
el is illustrated in Fig. 17.
nt modulation scheme of DWT-
ading channel
eased when the SNR is
lation schemes. But the
n-conventional modulation
nel shown in Fig. 17.
20
BPSK
DBPSK
QPSK
DQPSK
QAM
20
BPSK
DBPSK
QPSK
DQPSK
QAM
2012 1st International Conference on Emerging Technology Trends in Electronics, Communication and Networking
978-1-4673-1627-9/12/$31.00 2012 IEEE
E. Comparison of Wavelet Families over AWGN
channel
The Haar and Daubechies are most widely used wavelet
family and they also give less bit error rate performance. But
according to the Fig.18, the bior5.5 wavelet family gives less
BER performance compare to other wavelet family.
Figure 18. Comparison of wavelet families over AWGN channel
F. Comparison of wavelet families over Rayleigh
Fading channel
From Fig.19, it is noticed that the BER performance of all the
wavelet family over Rayleigh fading channel is nearly equal.
Figure 19.Comparison of all wavelet families over Rayleigh fading
channel
As shown the wavelet families in the Fig.18 and Fig.19, it is
indicates that the Haar wavelet which is more flexible when
compared to other wavelet families. The Haar wavelet can be
categorised as an orthogonal wavelet. All Daubechies wavelet
families are also categorized as orthogonal wavelets. The
biorthogonal wavelet offers extra advantage in which that it
has symmetrical scaling and wavelet coefcients.
Biorthogonal wavelets can be constructed from orthogonal
wavelets by considering duality concept.
V. CONCLUSON
The OFDM system implemented with wavelet transform
gives better spectrum efficiency. The main disadvantage of
the conventional FFT based OFDM system is that addition of
cyclic prefix to remove ISI and ICI. In DWT based OFDM
system, IFFT and FFT have been replaced by IDWT and
DWT and Wavelet Transform maintain the orthogonality. So
no need to add cyclic prefix in DWT based OFDM system.
The BER performance of the FFT based OFDM systems
can be found over AWGN and Rayleigh fading channel using
different modulation schemes like BPSK, DBPSK, QPSK,
DQPSK and QAM. From the plots of the BER as a function
of the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), it can be concluded that
when the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) is very low and does
not have any impact on the BER but if Signal to Noise Ratio
(SNR) increased the BER is reduced accordingly.
Furthermore, OFDM is a spread spectrum technology. The
Rayleigh fading channel is most applicable in OFDM
technique. From the performed simulations in both channels,
it was found that BER performance of the FFT based OFDM
system with QAM is better than others because it is more
bandwidth efficient than BPSK and other modulation schemes
and is used to gain high speed transmission in both channels.
Different wavelet families like Haar, db1, Sym2, Coif1,
Bior4.4 and Bior5.5 have been used in DWT based OFDM
system. According to their BER performance over AWGN, it
can be concluded that Bior5.5 wavelet family is better than
others because its BER performance is less than others. At
SNR = 8 dB the Bior5.5 gives 0.0001 error which is less than
other wavelet families in DWT-OFDM system over AWGN
channel. The other wavelet families are give 0.0001 at SNR =
10 or SNR = 12. In Rayleigh Fading channel, all the wavelet
family gives good BER performances specially Haar and
Daubechies wavelet family give less BER performance
compare to others. Depending on the application, the different
types of wavelet families are used.
REFERENCES
[1] Haitham J. Taha and M. F. M. Salleh, Multi-carrier Transmission
Techniques for Wireless Communication Systems: A Survey, WSEAS
Transactions on Communications, Issue 5, Volume 8, May 2009.
[2] Swati Sharma1 and Sanjeev Kumar2, BER Performance Evaluation of
FFT-OFDM and DWT-OFDM, International Journal of Network and
Mobile Technologies ISSN 2229-9114 Electronic Version VOL 2/
ISSUE 2 / MAY 2011.
[3] Khaizuran Abdullah 1 and Zahir M. Hussain1, SMIEEE, Studies on
DWT-OFDM and FFT-OFDM Systems, SMIEEE, International
Conference on Communication, Computer and Power (ICCCP09)
Muscat, February, 2009.
[4] W. Saad, N. El-Fishawy, S. EL-Rabaie, and M. Shokair, An Ecient
Technique for OFDM System Using Discrete Wavelet Transform,
Dep. Of Electronic and Communication Eng., Faculty of Electronic
Engineering, El-Menuya University, Egypt, 2010.
[5] Oppenheim, Schafer with Buck, Discrete-Time Signal Processing,
PEARSON Education, 2
nd
edition, 2005.
[6] Upena Dalal, Wireless Communication, Oxford University press, july
2009, pp.365 408
[7] Manish J. Manglani and Amy E. Bell, Wavelet Modulation
Performance in Gaussian and Rayleigh Fading Channels, Electrical
and Computer Engineeribg Department, Virginia, 2001.
[8] B.G.Negash and H.Nikookar, Wavelet Based OFDM for Wireless
Channels, International Research Center for Telecommunication
Transmission and Radar, Faculty of Information Technology and
Systems, Delft University of Technology, 2001.
[9] M. K. LAKSHMANAN and H. NIKOOKAR, A Review of Wavelets
for Digital Wireless Communication, International Research Center for
Telecommunications Transmission and Radar (IRCTR), Department of
Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Springer
2006.
[10] Theodore S. Rappaport, Wireless Communication Principles and
Practice, Eastern Economy Edition, 2
nd
edition, 2002.
[11] Digital Signal Processing Using Matlab and Wavelets (M Weeks) book
pp.275- 336
0.0001
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
0 10 20
B
E
R
SNR(dB)
haar
dB1
bior4.4
bior5.5
sym2
0.0001
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
1 4 7 101316
B
E
R
SNR(dB)
haar
dB1
bior4.4
bior5.5
sym2
coif1
2012 1st International Conference on Emerging Technology Trends in Electronics, Communication and Networking
978-1-4673-1627-9/12/$31.00 2012 IEEE