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1

INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT


Yamuna Vihar - Mukundpur corridor (brown line) will be the longest line in third phase
of Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited and will connect the major stations (Rajori
Garden, Dhaula Kuan, Anand Vihar, & Lajpat Nagar ). It is the part of third phase of
DMRC for which work pakage (project) name CC 04 has been made for underground
station at Azadpur and ramp at Mukundpur. There will total 37 stations for which this
line will cover 55.7 kilometers.

NEED FOR THE PROJECT
Traffic of Delhi is increasing at the rate of more than 6.21% per annum and has resulted
in congestion in the traffic and pollution. After constructing the radial routes in Phase I
and phase II phase III is focusing on making radial connectivity for the city.
After constructing 65 kilometers in phase-I and 124.63 kilometers network in phase-II,
need arise for making radial connectivity by metro. Dividing into packages made the
work easy to execute & thus project was finalled.
Phase III stations are scheduled for completion in 2016 and phase -IV planned for Delhi
MRTS is scheduled to complete in 2021.

OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
The main objective of the project is to provide a quality transport system to encourage
people to shift from private to public. This will help in solving problems of
1.Rate of accidents
2.Less traveling time
3.save fuel and pollution level by 50%


2

GENERAL PROJECT INFORMATION
Name of the Contract: DMRC Project -CC-04
Detail of the Project : Design and Construction of Tunnels by shield TBMs by Cut and
Cover, underground station at Azadpur by Cut And Cover ethod, ramps at Mukundpur
and Shalimar Bagh for underground work on Yamuna Vihar-Mukund Pur corridor of
Phase-III of Delhi MTRS.
Location:- Azadpur Station Construction , DDA Park, Near Azadpur Metro Station,
Yellow Line On Kashmirigate-Jahangirpuri metro route,Newdelhi-110009
Type Of Project:- Infrastructural
Client :- DMRC[Delhi Metro Rail Corp. Ltd]
Consultant:- GEODATA [Italy]
Proof Consultant :- SYSTRA
Tender Cost Of Project :- 416.8 Crore
Type Of Contract:- Lump Sum Contract [Design Built]
Approx Area Of Construction;
Starting Date of the Project: 01/07/2012
Time Frame : 43 Months
Project Complition Date : 01/02/2016

PROJECT LOCATION DETAL
Located in the north part of the national capital territory of Delhi.
Proposed work falls on the Yamuna Vihar-Mukund Pur corridor of phase III of Delhi
Metro Project.
Area of work mostly lies in plain terrain
3

City of Delhi is located at 200m from MSL
Delhi falls in Seismic Zone IV

ACCESS TO THE SITE
Azadpur site is well connected to the all the possible mode of transportation.
1. Airport ; 16 km
2. Railway; 6 km
3. Road: located on NH 1
4. Metro; below the Azadpur metro station.

CLIMATE CONDITIONS
Summer April to June
Monsoon June to Mid September
Winter November to Mid March
Temperature Range : min 1
o
C and max 45.8
0
C
Rain fall: max 191mm and mean 135mm


4

ORGANAZATION BACKGROUD DETAILS
CEC ( CONTINENTAL ENGINEERING CORPORATION )TAIWAN
Continental Engineering Corporation (CEC) Taiwan is widely recognized as one of
Taiwans prominent contractor and developer, excelling in major public and private-
sector construction as well as long-term land and community development. CEC is one of
only a handful of companies licensed in Taiwan to engage in both construction and
development.
It was founded in 1945 in Chongqing, China by Mr. Glyn T. H. lng,. CEC has from its
beginning participated in projects for national reconstruction, helping to rebuild a country
ravaged by eight years of war and unrest. With relocation to Taiwan in 1948, CEC
engaged extensively in national infrastructure engineering projects. Over the course of
the last half century, CEC has built military installations, factories, power plants,
highways, tunnels, bridges and mass-transit systems. In this way, CEC has played an
important role in Taiwan's economic growth and development.
In addition to infrastructure construction, CEC has successfully completed many
important public and private-sector projects, such as hospitals, hotels, office buildings,
universities, and other educational and research facilities, and the development of CEC's
multi-story condominiums and new residential town communities. The work in each field
of endeavor complements and enriches the efforts of CEC in all areas. As an experienced
contractor and developer, CEC is able to provide its clients with the highest quality of
construction in the most economical way. Given the wide scope of its activities and the
technical difficulties often involved in its projects.CEC has established an enviable
reputation for technological expertise and innovation. CEC has been responsible for some
of the prestigious projects like Taiwan High speed Rail Corporation, MRT(Metro Rapid
Transit) for Taipei City besides many Tunnels, Expressways and Bridge Projects.



5

ABOUT JOINT VENTURE
CEC CICI JV AT A GLANCE
CEC International Corporation India Pvt. Ltd. (CICI) is 100% subsidiary of CEC &
Member of Continental Holdings. CEC is a Civil Engineering Construction Company
operating in the fields of MRTS, Highways, Bridges, High Speed Railway, Townships,
SEZs, Real Estate and Environment sectors. Being a socially responsible corporate, CICI
works in improving the quality of life of the communities it serves whether it be within
the organization, industry or society, we have a strong sense of social responsibility,
which is reflected in our values and actions.
We are involved with construction of high value projects across segments like MRTS,
National Highways, Bridges, Urban Roads, Railways and SEZ projects. The team
includes International experts from UK, Spain, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand and
Taiwan to deliver International quality standards of project execution in India. CICI
works including design stands out as the gateway for Technological and Engineering
excellence in Civil Engineering fields with project offices scattered across India with
head office based at Delhi, CICI is fully equipped to contribute their expertise and turn
vision into reality.Mr. Sunil B. Shindeis is the MD of CICI & CEO of CEC India.

MISSION AND VISION
Mission To Build Physical Infrastructure for better living. Vision CICI shall be a
professionally managed Indian International company, committed to Total Client
Satisfaction. CICI shall be innovative, entrepreneurial and empowered team constantly
creating value. CICI shall foster a culture of caring, trust and continuous learning while
meeting expectations of employees, stakeholders and society.



6

CEC CICI JV Completed The Projects In The Following Areas
MRTS
HIGHWAYS & BRIDGES
RAILWAYS
TOWNSHIPS / SEZS
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
ENVIRONMENT

1.MRTS
MRTS is one of our strongest business area coupled with in-house seasoned experts
having extensive knowledge base to construct any kind of complex metro system. CEC
CICI JV has built underground Metro tunnels sections using TBM.

2.HIGHWAYS AND BRIDGES
Over a period of time Cec cici has acquired skills to manage large number of Highway &
Bridge projects simultaneously with the help of large pool of in-house experts. Cec has
constructed high value highways & expressways with complex geological condition

3.RAILWAYS
Cec cici jv have a strong history of developing & executing high value Railway projects.
Company has been the biggest investor in Worlds largest Railway BOT project, Taiwan
High Speed Rail Corporation (THSRC is a SPV) which is currently valued at US$ 17
billion.


7

4.TOWNSHIPS / SEZS
CICI is keen to develop Township & SEZ segment in India through investments as well
as forging alliances with leading companies. Cec cici jv have recently constructed all the
building works for Apache SEZ in Andhra Pradesh and poised to do significantly

5.BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
CEC CICI JV have a long experience record of 50 years in Real Estate Development
including Office Buildings, Shopping Malls, Hotels, Restaurants, Retail Outlets, Luxury
Residential Buildings, High tech Factories, Industrial Buildings, Hospitals, etc.

6.ENVIRONMENT
Environment With the success story of Tamsui Sewage BOT Project, we are confident to
repeat our experience in Indian market. Over a period of time, we have developed
technical & managerial skills to handle complexities of Environment projects.

STANDARDS USED
We follow standard operation procedures which allow projects to be certified for ISO
9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 for its Quality, Environmental and Occupational
Health & Safety Management System.

POSITION OF CEC
CEC is one of the top three engineering and construction companies in Taiwan and a
leading participant in almost every major infrastructure project in the country.


8

CEC CICI IN INDIA
In India CEC CICI JV completed many projects with other construction companies. Few
of them are following.
To meet the ever increasing demand of resources, skill sets, plant & equipment, it
becomes necessary to rely on Business Associates.

JOINT VENTURE ASSOCIATES
HCC
SOMA
Patel Engineering Ltd.
JMC Projects Ltd.
Brahmaputra Infrastructure

DESIGN CONSULTANTS
CECI Engineering Consultant Inc.
Geodata S.P.A
WS Atkins & Partners Overseas
Mott MacDonald Group Limited
Omicron Kappa-Indus Consultrans JV
AECOM
L&T Ramboll
Tandon Consultants

9

CEC CICI JV P&M Department at Azadpur site
PLANT AND MACHINEARY (P&M)
Generally speaking, plant and machinery is an asset that is used by a business for the
purpose of carrying on the business and is not stock in trade, the business premises or
part of the business premises. The difference between plant and machinery is that
generally machinery will have moving working parts, and plant will not (though
computers and similar electronic devices are considered to be machinery, despite have no
moving parts). The working parts of a machine are also considered to be machinery.
Or the place where the maintenance of different devices or equipment are done for their
smooth n nonstop working so that it does not go breakdown and the different jobs which
are being performed on the site should run continuously.

TYPES OF WORKS IN P&M
1.PREVENTIVE 2.CONDITIONAL

PREVENTIVE:-
In this type of work the machine or device is serviced before its breakdown. In general
servicing of that device is done after a regular interval. These intervals may be in terms of
hours or a certain time. Generally we change or clean the necessary parts or materials
depending upon their condition. Like lubricants, filters, grease etc.
CONDITIONAL:-
In this type the equipment or devices are serviced after break down i.e. the machine goes
sudden failure due to failure of any its part or any other reason. Then problems due to
which the machine went breakdown are identified and taken the necessary action by the
P&M incharge or authorized person.

10


RESPONSIBILIES (DUTIES) OF ( P & M ) IN CHARGE
To Stop the breakdown at the site or try to minimize the chances of breakdown.
Preparation of PR & WR.
Procedure followed by a P&M in charge when the breakdown or any problem is
reported to the P&M.
Go through the problem of the equipment and check the condition of the part.
Stick the red label and write Breakdown on that.
If it can be modified then consult to the senior mechanic.
If it is use useless then refer the catalogue and look for the part number.
Ask the store in charge for the same.
If it is not available in the store the call the authorized dealer for the same
Then prepare the purchase requisition (PR).
Then receive the parts through the countersigned by the store incharge
Give it to the senior mechanic after confirming the genuine part.
After maintenance remove the red label and stick the Green label.
Maintain the daily register so that the person coming for the next shift have clear
knowledge about that is done in the previous shift and what is to be done ahead
and the works under process i.e. current status of any equipment.
EQUIPMENT UNDER P&M DEPARTMENT
S.No. EQUIPMENTS MODEL/MAKE CAPACITY TPI DATE
01. EXCAVATOR KOBELCO SK210LC 1m
3
02. TIPPER ASHOK LEYLAND 16 TONES 23 APRIL
03. TIPPER ASHOK LEYLAND 16 TONES 23 APRIL
04 CRANE JCB / 3DX 15 TONES 11-MAR
05. EXCAVATOR CAT
06. EXCAVATOR CAT
11

07. HYDRA CRANE ESCORTS/F-15 14 TONNES
08. HYDRA CRANE ESCORTS/TRX 1651 16 TONNES 11-AUG
09. BOOM PLACER PUTZMISTER 60-40 m
3
22-AUG

10. TATA ACE TATA
11. TATA 407 TATA 5550 kgs 5-AUG
12. CRANE(TMC) AL/CHOWGULEUNI 9 T/ 5 T(-50%)
13 TRAILER AL 40 T 14-APR
14. SWARAJ MAZDA SWARAJ 5840 kgs
15. ACE TATA
16. EXCAVATOR L&T KOMATSU 0.8m
3
/96Kw/19560
17. WATER TANKER AL 20000ltrs
18. FORKLIFT ACE 6 T
19. ROLLER GREAVES 10176 kgs
20. BABY ROLLER MODEL DX 500 E 590 kgs/3.7Kw
21. LOADER HM/CAT 5 T
22. CRANE DEMAG 80 T
23. CRANE ZOOMLION 108T(-10%) 28 FEB
24. EXCAVATOR VOLVO/ EC 210B 1m
3
07-JUL
25. EXCAVATOR CAT/320D 1m
3
23-APR
26. EXCAVATOR (EX 200 LC) 1.5 m
3
14-AUG
TATA HITACHI
27. BREAKER (EX 110) 09-MAY
TATA HITACHI
12

28. EXCAVATOR (EX 110) 05-MAY
TATA HITACHI
29. ITM (AF 130)/BUMI
30. DGs(11Nos) SUDHIR/CAT 500 kVA
KIRLOSKER
32. INNOVA(5 Nos) TOYOTA 2500 CC
33. SUMOGOLD(2Nos) TATA
34 SCORPIO MAHINDRA
35. EECO MARUTI
36. AMBASSADOR H.M.
37. OMNI(+) MARUTI
38. XYLO MAHINDRA

BRIEF DETAILS OF THE PROJECT
There will be two tunnel boring machines, namely, EPB TBMs(Earth Pressure Balance
Tunnel Boring Machines) both from Herrenknecht which are to be adapted to CC04
project.
The EPB machines are shield tunneling machines which is applicable to bore a tunnel
through very soft to hard slit layer with an appropriate pressure established in the
chamber to avoid the face collapse during the excavation. The EPB machine will be used
to construct two twin tunnels running almost parallel between Mukundpur and Azadpur
& Azadpur and Shalimar bagh.


13

DURATION OF WORK
STATION
Construction of station is being done by cut and cover method,
D-wall type- secant piling
Total length=252.415 meters
Duration=15
th
October 2013 to 05
th
October 2014
Flow Chart Station (Bottom to top technique):-
Installation of secant piles and capping beam

Excavation for first layer and installation of struts
(Repeat this for other layers)

PCC for undercroft

Construction of undercroft

Concourse slab

Box slab

TUNNELS AT SOUTH SHAFT
The TBM -01A - (TUNNEL 01)a). For the down line of the tunnel no.1 launched at
south shaft Azadpur at the 09
TH
January 2014 towards Shalimar Bagh station. The
14

machine will arrive at Shalimar Bagh station on 02 July 2014. Total length = 1448.39
m.Construction of the tunnel=09
th
January, 2014 to 17
th
July, 2014After that the machine
will be Demobilization into six pieces. MACHINE S-780
Demobilization duration-3
rd
July, 2014 to 17
th
July, 2014

The TBM 02A:- (TUNNEL 02)
b). For the up line of the tunnel no.2 TBM launched at the south shaft of Azadpur on
20February 2014 towards Shalimar Bagh station. The machine will arrive at Shalimar
Bagh station on 08 Aug 2014.
Machine= TBM S-781
Construction of the tunnel =20 Feb 2014 to 08 Aug 2014
Total length=1443.33m
After that machine will be Demobilization into six pieces
Demobilization duration-09 Aug 14 to 24 Aug 14

TUNNEL AT NORTH SHAFT:-
The TBM No 01b Machine-
a). For the down line of the at north shaft Azadpur at the 18 Aug 2014 towards
Mukundpur ramp area. The machine will arrive at Mukundpur ramp area on 18 Jan
2015.
Duration=18 Aug 2014 to 18 Jan 2015
Total length = 1151.31m
After that machine will be Demobilization into six pieces
Demobilization duration-18 jan 15 to 03 feb 15
15

The TBM No 02B Machine:-
a). For the up line of the north shaft Azadpur tbm will be launch at the 24 sep 2014
towards Mukundpur ramp area. The machine will arrive at Mukundpur ramp area on 11
March 2015.
Duration=24 September 2014 to 25 February 2015
Total length = 1138.11m
Demobilization duration-24 February 15 to 11 March 15
CUT AND COVER TUNNEL (Before Ramp)
Upline-79.90m
Down Line-94.96m
Duration of Construction-13 January 2014 to 23 October 2014
RAMP(UNDER GROUND RAMP)
Upline-209.24m
Down Line-194.07m
Duration of Construction- 02 April 2013 to 21 May 2015
AVERAGE LENGTH
DISCRIPTION DOWN LINE(meter) UPLINE(meter)
Total For Bored Tunnel One Way 2,599.694 2,581.1442
Total for station 252.408 252.4172
Total for cut and cover tunnel 79.9 94.958
Total for open ramp 209.240 194.067

TOTAL 3,141.242 3,122.884
Note :- There will be 5 cross passages between both the tunnels and out of five one will
be with drainage system.
16


OUR TUNNEL BORING MACHINE & SUPPORTING TEAM
GENERAL DETAILS OF TBM
A typical Tunnel Boring Machine is combination of mainly following parts-

TBM (TUNNEL BORING MACHINE)

SHIELD AND BACKUP GANTRIES ASSOCIATED PLANTS

1.CUTTERHEAD 1.COOLING TOWER
2.SHIELDS 2.GROUTING PLANT
3.BRIDGE 3.DIESEL GENERATORS
4.GANTRIES
17

TUNNEL BORING MACHINE (TBMs)
DEFINITION-
A tunnel boring machine (TBM) also known as a "mole", is a machine used to excavate
tunnels with a circular cross section through a variety of soil and rock strata. They can
bore through anything from hard rock to sand. Tunnel diameters can range from a meter
(done with micro-TBMs) to 19.25 m to date. Tunnels of less than a meter or so in
diameter are typically done using trenchless construction methods or horizontal
directional drilling rather than TBMs.

HISTORY
The first successful tunneling shield was developed by Sir Marc Isambard Brunel to
excavate the Thames Tunnel in 1825. However, this was only the invention of the shield
concept and did not involve the construction of a complete tunnel boring machine, the
digging still having to be accomplished by the then standard excavation methods.
The first boring machine reported to have been built was Henri-Joseph Maus' Mountain
Slicer. Commissioned by the King of Sardinia in 1845 to dig the Frjus Rail Tunnel
between France and Italy through the Alps, Maus had it built in 1846 in an arms factory
near Turin. It consisted of more than 100 percussion drills mounted in the front of a
locomotive-sized machine, mechanically power-driven from the entrance of the tunnel.
The Revolutions of 1848 affected the funding, and the tunnel was not completed until 10
years later, by using less innovative and less expensive methods such as pneumatic drills.
In the United States, the first boring machine to have been built was used in 1853 during
the construction of the Hoosac Tunnel. Made of cast iron, it was known as Wilson's
Patented Stone-Cutting Machine, after inventor Charles Wilson.It drilled 10 feet into the
rock before breaking down. The tunnel was eventually completed more than 20 years
later, and as with the Frjus Rail Tunnel, by using less ambitious methods. The first
successful use was on the Oahe Dam in 1952 by James S Robbins.

18

DISCRIPTION
Modern TBMs typically consist of the rotating cutting wheel, called a cutter head,
followed by a main bearing, a thrust system and trailing support mechanisms. The type of
machine used depends on the particular geology of the project, the amount of ground
water present and other factors.

USE-
Tunnel boring machines are used as an alternative to drilling and blasting (D&B)
methods in rock and conventional "hand mining" in soil. TBMs have the advantages of
limiting the disturbance to the surrounding ground and producing a smooth tunnel wall.
This significantly reduces the cost of lining the tunnel, and makes them suitable to use in
heavily urbanized areas. The major disadvantage is the upfront cost. TBMs are expensive
to construct, and can be difficult to transport. However, as modern tunnels become
longer, the cost of tunnel boring machines versus drill and blast is actually lessthis is
because tunneling with TBMs is much more efficient and results in a shorter project.
AREA OF APPILACATION OF TUNNELING

1.Tunneling 2.Mining 3.Exploration
1A). Tunneling for Traffic 1B). Tunneling for Utilities
a). Metros a). Sewage
b). Railways b). Water
c). Roads c). Hydropower
d). Persons d)Electricity
2). Application in Mining 3. Application in Exploration
a). Mining a).Geothermal Energy
b).Oil and Gas
19

TBM PARTS DISCRIPTION
CUTTER HEAD
Cutter head is the front part of any tunnel boring machine, it has specified number of
teeth calibrated on it and it has the capability to excavate any kind of soil condition or
any type of rock. The cutting wheel is designed &constructed for the specific geologic
conditions of site, the one used at Azadpur site has dual mode rim i.e. open & closed. It
has wear and tear protection on front face on rim. Main tool used for cutting, these are
made up of with inserts tungsten carbide tips and they have sharp edges to cut any type of
soil profiles.

FRONT SHIELD-
It is the front part of the shield (just behind the cutter head) supports the main drive and
screw conveyor and behind this we attach the middle shield. Its diameter is taken as the
diameter (average) of the TBMs. The one used at Azadpur site has =6540mm. the space
between the cutter head and front shield is called excavation chamber. Here the excavated
materials fills and develop the pressure to support the machine and tunnel face profile
from collapsing and settlement. Here four numbers of foam connections are provided for
soil conditioning.

MIDDLE SHIELD-
It is the main part of the TBMs which provides structural support to the TBMs. It consists
of almost all the hydraulic and electrical connections. In the middle portion eight
numbers of motors are provided to give feed to the main bearing, and this main bearing
rotates the cutter head. There are twenty sets of thrust cylinders are provided for the
advance the machine which helps the machine to move in the forward direction.


20

MAIN LOCK-
This part is located in the upper section of the middle shield, the cross passages are
provided to go inside the man lock the diameter of the main lock is 600mm. this chamber
is filled with the compressed air at the average pressure of 3 bar. The main purpose to
provide main lock is to change the cutting tools fitted in the cutter head.

ERECTOR-
It has circular ring type structure. Its position in the shield is between the middle shield
and tail skin. The main use of the erector is to place the rings in the tunnel to their
position. It has six degree of freedoms i.e. its movement can be forward, backward, up,
down, right and left(in circular direction).

SCREW CONVEYOR-
It fitted to the connecting flange in the pressure bulk head. Main purpose of the screw
conveyor is to remove the excavated soil from the excavated soil chamber and deliver it
to the conveyor belt. Maximum excavated grain size 300 mm. its capacity is 450m
3/
hour.

TAIL SKIN-
It is provided in the last of machine. The ring building takes place in this part of the
machine. There are twelve holes are provided in the tail skin four for grouting purpose
and eight for the tail skin grease. The triple sealing arrangement is provided in the tail
skin for greasing purpose so that outside soil and water does not inter in the shield and
tail skin can smoothly slide upon the rings.



21

SEGMENT FEEDER-
As the name suggests the segment feeders are used to feed the segments to the erector. At
the onetime segment feeders can carry three segments (2.85*3=8.55 tones). It can move
in four directions forward, backward, up and down. It is operated by hydraulic system by
operators, and pulled by the chain of the link diameter 14.25mm.

SCREW BELT-
Total length of the screw belt is 45m in length. The main purpose of the screw belt is to
deliver the excavated soil in the muck buckets.

LIST OF CONSTITUENT ELEMENTS IN BRIDGE AND GANTRIE
1.BRIDGE
Bridge is the first backup which is connected to the TBMs. Its front part is connected to
the erector support by means of a hydraulic cylinder.
DIMENSIONS WEIGHT
Total Length = 12635 ; Support Length=9970 07Tones
Total height = 4441 ; from support= 3452
Total Width =4700 ; wheel to wheel =2881






22

TABLE FOR :- TBM BRIDGE ACCESSORIES LIST

GANTRY NO.01 & GANTRY NO2
Gantries are connected to the each by means with of of the following
1.Travelling Beams
2.MS Plates
3.Nut bolts
S
N
Lines
(hoses of)
Side No. of
hoses
Colour Remarks
1 Water Left 2 Green 2" dia (used for mixing in foam
and bentonite)
2 Foam Left 4 Violet 2" dia(Softening the soil
condition)
3 Bentonite Left 4 Light yellow 2" dia(to maintain Uniform
Profile soil face )
4 Compress
ed Air
Left 4 Red 2"dia (Various uses viz )
5 Grout line Right 4 Brown 2" dia
6 Sodium
Silicate
Right 4 Black 1" dia

7
Tailseal
grease
Left 1 Yellow(lower
)
2" dia
8 EP2
grease
Left 1 Yellow(upper
)
2"dia
9 Samson
unit
Left 2 Blue 2"dia (not in use)(maintain the
air pressure in chamber)
10
.
Hydraulic Right 6 Brown Various dia(for segment feeder)
23

TABLES: LIST OF INSTALLATIONS ON GANTRIES 1 & 2 RESPECTIVELY
GANTRY01
S
No
EQUIPMENTS
INSTALLATIONS
LOCATION
(SIDE)
UNITS
NOS
CAPACITY REMARK
1 Operator cabin Left 1 4-5 person
2 Grout tank Right 1 6 m
3

3 Grout feed pumps Right 4
4 Segment lifter crane Above 1 4(5-1)
Tonnes

5 Sod.silicate tank Right 1 1m
3

6 Silicate feed pump Right 4
7 Display Panel Left 1 Grouting
S.N
O
EQUIPMENT
(INSTALLATION)
LOCATIN
(SIDE)
UNITS
(NOS)
CAPACITY REMARK
1. Bentonite tank Left 1 6m
3

2. Foam tank Left 1 1 m
3

3. Hydraulic oil tank Right 1(in 2
parts)
4 m
3

4. Hydraulic Pump no.1 Right 1 315hp(55 IP) Parallel to
hyd.oil tank
5. Hydraulic pumpno.2 Right 1 315hp(55 IP) Below
hyd.oil tank
6. Hydraulic pump no.3 Right 1 315hp(55 IP) By side of
sodium
silicate
tank
7. Hydraulic pump no.4 Right 1 315hp(55 IP) Below hyd.
motor no.1
8. Auxiliary pump Right 1 22hp(126 IP) Below the
24




TABLES: LIST OF INSTALLATIONS ON GANTRIE NO 3
GANTRY03
S.
N
o.
EQUIPMENT
NAME
LOCATION
(SIDE)
UNITS
(Nos)
CAPACITY RAMARKS
0
1.
Electrical panels Right 1set
0
2.
Lifter crane Left 1 Used to lift
grease
barrels
0
3.
Greasing machines Left 2
0
4.
Compressure unit Left 1
0
5
Compressure vessel Left 1 1150
0
6.
Ventilation duct above 1
heat
exchanger
9. Hydraulic oil cooling
system
Right 1 Consists of
heat
exchanger
10. Hyd. Oil Filter Right 1
11. Synchronous Panel Right 1
12. VCB
25


TABLES: LIST OF INSTALLATIONS ON GANTRIE NO 4
GANTRY NO 04:-
S.
N
o.
EQUIPMENT
NAME
LOCATION
(SIDE)
UNITS
(Nos)
CAPACITY RAMARKS
0
1.
Transformer Right 01 1600 kVA Stepup and
stepdown
0
2.
Water cooling sys. left 01
0
3
Space for cables right 01
0
4
Ventilation duct Above 01 1000 mm
0
5
Conveyor belt end above 01
0
6
Cable scrollers right 03
0
7
Travelling crane Above(end) 01 1.25 T
0
8.
Secondry grouting right 01 2700*1400*
230
Recently
joind to the
G4





26

SUMMURY OF THE TBM & ITS BACKUPS
S.
N
O
.
NAME
OF
EQUIP
MENT
S
DIA
(MM)
LENGTH
(MM)
MASS
(tones)

VOL
(m
3
)

1 CUTTE
R
HEAD
6560 1490/2160 41 52.39

2 FRONT
SHIEL
D
6540 2850 82 100.78
3 MIDDL
E
SHIEL
D
6530 2955 90 102.14
4 TAIL
SKIN
6520 2700 20
S.
N
O
TBM
PARTS
LENGTH
(mm)
WIDTH
(mm)
HEIGHT(
mm)
VOL
(m
3
)
MASS
(T)
5 SCRE
W
CONR.
11900 1220 1405 20.48 20
6 ERECT
OR
4250/5295 4000 4000 38.66 25
7 BRIDG
E
13320/1281
5
4700/2500 3452 109.38 07
8 GANT
RY
10985 4457 4394 109.44 18
27

NO.1
9 GANT
RY
NO.2
12591 4709 4394 145.92 31
1
0
GANT
RY
NO.3
10725 4707 4394 121.60 21
1
1
GANT
RY
NO.4
13837 5033 4808 170.24 25

PRELIMINARY CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY FOR TUNNEL
LAUNCHIMG SEQUENCE OF EPB TBMs
Assembly of a EBM TBMs
To assemble of the TBMs, a hydraulic truck mounted crane or a gantry crane with the
capacity of more than 400 tones will be used at the location nearby the working shaft
EPB TBMs Assembly Process
To assemble of the TBM machines, Two hydraulic truck crane are used with the capacity
of more than 500T and 150T at the location nearby the south shaft
Following are the various steps in which the TBM parts are assembled together to
formation of a complete EPB TBM machine
STEP-1-
In the first step two CRANES of capacities 500 T & 150 T are used to lift down
the TBM front shield onto the cradle at the bottom of the south shaft
The weight of the front-body is 82 T

28


STEP-2
In the second step cutter head of the TBM brought down onto the cradle and In
step two also same cranes are used
It is connected with the front shield
The weight of the cutter head is 41 T

Step 3
29

After that we moved the TBM machine forward
STEP-4
In the fourth step the middle-shield is Lower down onto the cradle in the south
shaft
Then Middle-shield and front-shield are connected together


STEP-5
In the fifth step the erector was lowered down on the cradle in the south shaft
Then Erector and middle-shield are connected together
STEP-6
In sixth step the screw conveyor lower down onto the cradle in the south shaft
Then Screw conveyor and front-shield are connected together

STEP-7
30

In the seventh step the tail skin lower down onto the south Shaft
Then Tail skin and middle-body were connected together
Note :-Tunnel TBM assembled follow-up of the gantry crane assembly and hydraulic and
electrical configuration, after TBM machine test
PREPARATION FOR THE INITIAL DRIVE OF TBM

Fig:-TBM just before entering in the tunnel
1.Test the water at TBM launching point i.e. in the south shaft
Test the water Qualified Standard it should be K10
-5
cm/sec
TBM launching point survey and in survey we generally look for the
Surveying and site mapping
Points drilling (L= TBM length 2/3) and Drilling =38mm
2.Then TBM launching eye construction The machine (PC120) knockout (piles) of the
thickness of 60cm to 65cm
It should be noted that whether there is water leakage and sand leakage of situation.
Then Launch eye knockout by machinery (PC120) Eye knockout Construction process
3.Launching eye frame Installation, engineer checks the launching Point
31

Coordinates (N, E) and elevation (E.L), Follow-up to flappers and rubber
After the completion of the Knockout process
We Install Launching box and then we use the iron plate (3mm), the inner patch, upon
completion of the launching box wall template
Then the assembly and concrete pouring is done
After that we installed the sealing Baffles and apron
BAFFLES (TUNNEL EYES) DETAILS







4. CRADLE AND REACTION FRAME INSTALLATION
After the completion of these work,we install the CRADLE and the REACTION
FRAME.
Before installation of the cradle and reaction frame we check the base slab elevation upon
which the cradle and reaction frame to be installed
Note -The cradle and reaction frame must be set to the correct position both line and their
elevation.

1).TBM CRADLE Dimensions
Space b/w supports(6nos) =1500mm
Total 108 (sets)
Angle 3.33 degree
Distance 3548 mm
Length 160mm
Thickness 6mm
Height 425mm(285+120)
Hole Dia 27mm
32

distance b/w rails =3290mm
Angle B/W Rails =60
o
Rail Mass =30 Kg Each
Cradle Base Dimensions =300*305*15*15(mm)
Base Length =5830mm
Total length =7873mm



Fig : CRADDLE


(2)TBM REACTION FRAME
33

I beam dimensions =621.8,326.5,15.4,24.4(mm)
Height =1953+6427(3226+3201)mm
Width =6402(3201+3201)mm
The distance of the reaction frame from the Secant Pile is 9986mm(3) Reaction frame
Workbench and the angle between the main frame and their support is 40
o

Fig:REACTION FRAME
Then we proceed for the following works-
(1)Breaking and drilling the portion of tunnel eye.
(2)Test the seepage in the portion of tunnel eye in 24 hours.
Launch eye artificial knockout completed
(3)Breaking from bottom to up.
34

(4)Set up temporary ring.
6. STARTING OF TBM INITIAL DRIVE
TBM start excavation initially with the help of reaction frame and cradle. All the feed
provide to the machine from the surface area and all the power supply via the hydraulic
pipes and wires extended, extension of the pipeline construction process is very important
work.
TBM Beginning excavate Construction
TBM is starting by hydraulic jack working against reaction frame.
After that when the tunnel length becomes 60 meters or the rings in the tunnel becomes
50 nos the we prepare for the the main drive .
7. Transfer Of Equipment
When the TBM excavation completed in the initial drive,
We performs the following works
* Temporary ring dismantle
* Work platforms and rail assembly
* Put gantry car system
1. Temporary ring dismantle
Temporary ring dismantle process:
35

Step1-
In the first step we fix the key segment and taper segment no 2(K & T2) i.e.
(1)K and T2 Grouting holes and bolts, fix it then
36

(2)K and T2 dismantling banana bolts
Step2-
In second step we fix the Taper segment no 2 and then
(1)T1 Grouting holes and bolts, using a fixed
(2) Dismantling T1 and O1 connection banana bolt
step 3-
(1)O3 Grouting holes and bolts, using a fixed
(2) Dismantling O2 and O3 connection banana bolt
Step 4-
(1)O1 Grouting holes and bolts, using a fixed
(2) Dismantling O2 and O1 connection banana bolt
Step 5-
(1) The mobile temporary work stand
(2)O2 Grouting holes and bolts, using a fixed
After dismantling the ring, we proceed for next ring segments
And in the last the pipes are installed
Pipeline classification
Loop drainage (cooling Water out 4)
Water in 4
Water out 4
Grouting pipe 3
Grouting pipe 2
8. TBM MAIN DRIVE
After completion of the initial drive we proceed for the main drive

37


FIG: Tunnel just before the main drive
EXCAVATION:
The TBM operator and automated system to keep the rate of soil removal equal to rate of
machine advance.
Additives such as Bentonite, Polymer and Foam are injected into the ground to further
stabilize it.
Spoil conditioning (polymer, foam and water) will be added to during excavation to
primarily aid lubrication and flow of the spoil and as such the quantity added will be
dictated by cutter head torque. It will be added to the cutting wheel to the face and within
the mixing chamber itself.
MUCKING
Excavated soil is removed out by the screws conveyor into muck skips which are hauled
to the shaft bottom. Soil condition will be added at the excavation chamber as when
required to reduce the torque and when in closed mode to aid formation of a plug.
Attention as to be paid to the mucking out to detect over-excavation and to the physical
appearance and liquidity consistency of the muck to monitor effects of spoil conditioning
and changes to the ground condition itself.
38

SEGMENT ERECTION (S,TR,TL)
As the TBM advances every 1.2m/ rings consisting of 5(T1,T2,O1 to O3) segments and
a key(K) will be built inside the tail skin of the TBM.
Table for Segment Lining
S.NO. TYPE OF RING LEFT - RIGHT
CONFIGURATION
1 Minimum plan metric radius (m) 300
2 Thickness of segmental lining (mm) 27,5
3 Internal diameter (m) 5.80
4 External diameter (m) 6.35
5 Centroid diameter (m) 3.0375
6 Minimum length (mm) 1185
7 Average length (mm) 1200
8 Maximum length (mm) 1215
9 Volume of the biggest segment (m
3
) 1.26
10 Weight of the biggest segment (kN) 31.5
11 Volume of the ring (m
3
) 6.3
12 Weight of the ring (kN) 157.5
13 Number of segments per ring 5+1 (key)
14 Number of longitudinal connectors 10
15 Number of bolts for ring 12

TBM OPRATIONAL
39

Once the main drives started it becomes easy to work and the construction for the
tunneling work becomes faster. Following sequences for the tunneling
1.Operator of TBM calls to the DG Operator to start four nos DGs
(500*4=2000kVA) and here is the list of all the essential switches

Cooling Tower Auxiliary Hyd. Drive Cutting Wheel Drive 1
Ventilation Filter Circuit Cutting Wheel Drive 2
Grease Pump Cutting Wheel 3 Gear Oil Pump
copy cutter Erector&Screw Conveyor Thrust Cylinder
2.Cutting wheel pumps 1, 2, & 3 are responsible for the hydraulic oil feed to the
hydraulic block situated above the erector.
3.Here 6 hoses from 3 hydraulic pumps delivers the hydraulic oil at an average pressureof
325 bar and this block feeds hyd. Oil to 16 hoses which are responsible to rotate the
rexroth motors known as rotary units. There are 8 motors which are responsible to drive
the reduction gear box known as main drive, the available power of main drive rotates the
cutter head and the cutter head excavate the soil in front of the cutter head. This process
is called mining,the soil comes inside the chamber through the cutter head .
4.Here in the chamber because of the soil accumulation pressure increases which is
maintains the soil profile in front of the cutter head.
5.When the pressure range lies between 1.5 to 2.5 the screw gate opens and the excavated
materials comes out and it falls on the conveyor belt.
6.Conveyor belt delivers material into the muck buckets
7.After filling all (4) muck buckets the locomotive brings these muck cars( muck bucket
carriers) outside the tunnel then the operator of gantry cranes pulls these muck buckets
from the shaft to the ground level and puts on the muck pits and vacates the muck
buckets. This procedure is repeated for next three buckets.
40

8.After appropriate excavation of the soil the ring building started rings are brought
inside the tunnel by locomotive,then segment lifter crane liftes these segments one by one
and puts on the segment feeder.
9. Erector operator retrieve the thrust cylinders and makes a space for the segment fitting.
10. Erector operator fits the segments according to their specified positions given by the
civil department.
11. Then thrust cylinders are expanded to press and again start the excavation process.
12.Simulteniously the grouting is also goes on to fill the vacant space out side the
tunnel.Grout(4 m
3
) comes from the grounting plant in the grout tank(6 m
3
).
41

TUNNELING PROCEDURE



42


13.Here grout operator regulates the grouting, and maintains the liquid A and liquid B
propotion. Normally (B=8% of A).
14. The tail seal grease is responsible to stop the scrapes to come inside the shield. There
are 8no of hoses inside the tail skin which delivers the TSG in the drain made in the tail
skin. Copper wire brush regulates the amount of tail skin grease to apply on the outer
surface of the segments(avg TSG per ring=30kg)
This procedure repeated for the a complete ring building.

PLANTS AT MUNDKA & MUKUNDPUR
1.MUKUNDPUR
Activities and flow charts of Mundpur
TUNNEL BY CUT AND COVER METHOD
1.Flow(Method) Chart For Cut And Cover
Construction of The D-Wall
Excavation
Struts and WB Installation
Top Slab
RAMP
2.Flow(Method) Chart For The Ramp
Installayion of the secent walls
Capping beab
Rewall
Filling and back fill as required
43

BATCHING PLANT AT MUKUNDPUR
Capacity = 0.5 m
3
/batch; 30 cum

capacity
Facilities Available At Mukundpur are Following:-
1.Chiller plant
2.Water softening plant
3.Testing lab
FACTORY AT MUNDKA
PRECAST SEGMENT YARD:-
Total Area = 23600 m
2
Area(segment production ) = 3200 m
2
Area(storage) = 6100 m
2
Production rate =14 rings / day
BATCHING PLANT
Capacity= 2*0.5 M
3
/ Batch

EQUIPMENTS
15 T Gantry Crane 03 T Over Head Crane
10 T Gantry Crane 10 T Vibration Platform

SEGMENT PRODUCTION & STORAGE AT MUNDKA
AND SEGMENT TRANSPORTATION TO AZADPUR SITE


44

SEGMENT PRODUCTION-
Segments are produced at the Mundka pre casting yard in the moulds.


SEGMENT STORAGE YARD
After Production Segments Are Stored In The Storage Yard.


45

TRANSPORTATION OF SEGMENTS (from Mundka to Azadpur job site)

As
per the requirements of the rings it is transported here at Azadpur site by trailers the total
weight of 3 sets is 48.18 tones.
500mm 500mm
3
0
0
m
m
3586
T2
T1
K
O1
O3
O1
O3
O1+O2+O3=?t
3.21+3.21+3.21=9.63t
T1+T2+K=?t
2.88+2.88+0.67=6.43t
T1+T2+K=?t
2.88+2.88+0.67=6.43t
O1+O2+O3=?t
3.21+3.21+3.21=9.63t
O1+O2+O3=?t
3.21+3.21+3.21=9.63t
T1+T2+K=?t
2.88+2.88+0.67=6.43t
Transport:40 ft
Segment total weight:48.18t
3255
1
2
0
0
m
m
17700mm
46

SUMMARY
Assembly of the EPB TBMs (The TBM parts lowered down and fixed together in the
following sequences)
Front shield
Cutter head(cutting wheel)
Middle shield (Main drive unit)
Erector
Screw conveyor
Tail skin

LAUNCHING OF EPM
Once the machine is set at correct location, reaction beams will be assembled in the place
and backup systems (bridge+gantries) are to be placed on the ground level.
S.No. EQUIPMENT NAME UNITS
01 EPB TBMs & THEIR BACKUPs
(HERRENKNETCH)
02
02 SEGMENT CARS 08
03 LOCOMOTIVES 04
04 MUCK CARS 16 (12m
3
)
05 DRAINAGE SYSTEM 02
06 VENTILATION SYSTEM 02
07 GANTRY CRANES 02(35t&10t)
08 MUCK DISPOSAL YARD 865m
3
09 GROUTING PLANT 01
10 GENERATORS 08(500KVA EACH)
11. CHILLING PLANT 01
47

With the above system the TBM will move forward with auxiliary concrete segments
between shields jacks and the reaction.When diaphragm will broken out then below
mentioned procedure will be followed :-
1. Installation of pump well and dewatering system
Pipeline classification
Loop drainage (cooling, Water out 4)
a. Water in 4
b. Water out 4
c. Grouting pipe 3
d. Grouting pipe 2
2. Fore polling around crown of the EPB machine at the portal
3. Breakout diaphragm wall unit as soon as each unit is completed, concrete on
The excavation surface and then place back with lean concrete.
This process is again repeated.
INITIAL DRIVE
After completing the above mentioned preliminary works the machine will make a initial
drive .The initial drive is the tunnel excavation for the first 50 to 60 rings of lining into
the ground to allow all the backup gantries to move into the tunnel from the working
shaft. This process takes about 3 weeks with an average process rate of 3 rings per day(24
hours). During this period, excavated soil in the muck bucket will be directly lifted to the
ground level with a gantry crane for dumping excavated soil into the muck pit.
Segments will be also feed to the tunnel face by the same gantry crane. gaskets and
hydrophilic sealers are to be attached to each segment at the ground level before feeding
them to the bottom of the shaft.
The back fill systems including grouting materials will be mixed at the ground level and
this mixture will be pumped into the void between outer face of the segments and the
surrounding grout with gel acceleration agent. Hardening of the mixture depends upon
the quantity of the gel to be added and it depends upon actual ground condition .Its range
48

may be 20 seconds to a few minutes. After this secondary grouting also takes place as per
the requirement here we done the secondary grouting once using MAI 400 PUMPS.
Foam injection system is applied when the conditioning require for the excavated
material in chamber to establish enough pressure to support soil face from collapsing
while the advancement of EPB machine. The foam container is kept between grouting
display panel and bentonite tank. From the tank it is sent by the pump through and it is
sent to the face to connect with the foam injection system directly to the various locations

MAIN DRIVE
After completion of the initial drive,The reaction rings removed.
The main drive will be commenced with an average process of 10 rings per 24 hours
operation. The expected monthly is 300 meters. Based on the working shaft space one
ring of excavation will used two sets of rolling stocks
Two sets of rolling stocks are adapted,namely the one consists of one locomotive,two
muck cars, one segment car and the other consists of one muck car, one locomotive and
one segment car.
The muck buckets lifted up one by one filled with excavated material and first dumped in
the muck pit and then it sent to out of the site in the night due to traffic reasons.

ARRIVAL OF MACHINE NEAR RETRIVAL SHAFT
When the EPB machine comes close to the diaphragm wall near the retrieval shaft. Then
after broken out of the diaphragm wall fore polling is done around the crown of the EPB
at the portal. The diaphragm wall braking takes place unit by unit.
Then brought the retrieval cradle assembly to retrieve the machine.


49

DISMANTLE OF AN EPB MACHINE
When the shield arrived the dismantle of the machine started
First of all the conveyor belt removed then screw conveyor, removal of cutter head, tail
skin and erector , main body, main drive unit respectively.

CROSS PASSAGES CONSTRUCTION
To construct a cross passage located between two stations the steel segmental lining used.
According to the new drawing there will be cross passages between both the stations and
out of five one will be along with drainage system.
After completion of all the processes required for the tunneling, the finishing work of the
tunnel started



50

RAIL PREPARATION FOR THE METRO RAILS
After completion of the tunneling work the civil team fills the tunnel by almost 25% for
the railways works to run the metro trains.

fig: how the tunnels looks just before rail preparation work.
TYPES OF TUNNEL BORING TYPES MACHINES (TBMs)
1. EPB TBMs (Fast tunneling technology with a broad application range)
For soft, cohesive soils tunnel boring machines with earth pressure support are a
preferred option. So called Earth Pressure Balance Shields (EPB) turn the excavated
material into a soil paste that is used as pliable, plastic support medium. This makes it
possible to balance the pressure conditions at the tunnel face, avoids uncontrolled inflow
of soil into the machine and creates the conditions for rapid tunneling with
minimum settlement.

51



STABILITY THROUGH FACE SUPPORT PRESSURE
The special feature of Earth Pressure Balance Shields is that they use the excavated soil
directly as support medium. This method is the first choice in cohesive soils with high
clay and silt contents and low water permeability. A rotating cutting wheel equipped with
tools is pressed onto the tunnel face and excavates the material. The soil enters
the excavation chamber through openings, where it mixes with the soil paste already
there. Mixing arms on the cutting wheel and bulkhead mix the paste until it has the
required texture. The bulkhead transfers the pressure of the thrust cylinders to the pliable
soil paste. When the pressure of the soil paste in the excavation chamber equals the
pressure of the surrounding soil and groundwater, the necessary balance has been
achieved.
CONDITIONS FOR APPLICATION & DIA RANGE OF EPB TBM

EPB TBMs
EARTH PREESURE BALANCE
TUNNEL BORING MACHINE
52

CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF EPB TBM










FIGURE- SCHEMATIC CROSS SECTIONAL DRAWING OF A TBM


MAIN BEARING
CUTTER HEAD

FRONT SHIELD
MIDDLE SHIELD

TAIL SKIN

FOAM LINE(4)

MOTORS (8)

SCREW CONVEYOR

SEGMENTFEEDER
ERECTOR

MAIN LOCK

THRUST
CYLINDERS(32)

CONVEYOR BELT &
ACCESSORIES

COPPER WIRE BRUSH(3)

53

ADVANTAGES OF EPB SHIELD TBM:
-- Very high and consistent advance rates possible in cohesive soils with high clay or silt
content
-- Geological range of application can be enhanced by soil conditioning
--No additional support medium required
--A range of special solutions available for heterogeneous soil conditions
SCREW CONVEYOR SPEED AND TBM ADVANCE RATE REGULATES THE
PRESSURE CONDITIONS IN THE TBMs
A screw conveyor transports the excavated material from the base of the excavation
chamber onto a belt conveyor. The interaction between the screw conveyors throughput
and the TBMs advance rate ensure that the support pressure of the soil paste can be
controlled precisely. The balance in the excavation chamber is continuously monitored
using earth pressure sensors. In this way, the TBM operator is able to fine-tune all
tunneling parameters to each other even under changing geological conditions, allowing
for high advance rat rates and minimizing the risk of heave or settlement at the surface.


FIG:-HOW THE PRESSURE BALANCED IN THE IN TBM CHAMBER
54

ADVANTAGES OF EPB TBM
-- Very high and consistent advance rates possible in cohesive soils with high clay or silt
content
-- Geological range of application can be enhanced by soil conditioning
-- No additional support medium required
-- A range of special solutions available for heterogeneous soil conditions
WIDER APPLICATION RANGE THROUGH PERFECT SOIL CONDITIONING
Not all ground conditions have ideal characteristics for EPB tunnelling in their natural
state. However, the application range of this method can be enhanced tremendously
by soil conditioning. This means changing the plasticity, texture and water permeability
of the soil by injecting various conditioning materials such as water, bentonite or foam.
This allows
EPB Shields to achieve good advance rates even in heterogeneous soils containing
gravel, sand or water, or in unstable geological conditions.

NEW DEVELOPMENTS FOR LARGE DIMENSIONS
55


New developments for large dimensions of TBMs and their different mode operation
2. MIXED SHIELD (Safe tunneling technology for heterogeneous ground)-
The Mixed shield technology developed by Herrenknecht is an advance on conventional
slurry technology. The support pressure in the Excavation chamber is precisely managed
using an automatically controlled air cushion. This means that heterogeneous geologies
and high water pressures of more than 15 bar can be controlled safely even with very
large excavation diameter


HIGH SAFETY DUE TO AIR PRESSURE
A characteristic feature of mixed shields is an excavation chamber that is divided by a so-
called submerged wall. The front section of the excavation chamber is completely filled
with suspension for full tunnel face support during tunneling. In the rear section between
submerged wall and bulkhead (working chamber) the suspension reaches up to only just
above the machine axis. The counter-pressure needed at the tunnel face is supplied using
a compressible air cushion in the upper section. Communication between the two
chambers takes place through a submerged wall opening in the invert section.
MIXED
SHIELD
TBM
56

Fully-automated control circuits permanently monitor pressure conditions and ensure
considerably more precise pressure control than in conventional one-chamber systems.
Decoupling the circulating suspension from support pressure control provides for higher
flexibility and safety during tunneling. Since it is possible to react directly through the air
cushion, even small pressure and volume fluctuations in heterogeneous geologies can be
controlled exactly. This allows for much better control in terms of heave and settlement,
which must be avoided, especially with small overburdens

SEALING AGAINST HIGH WATER PRESSURES
Mixed shields can be used safely even with high water pressures of more than 15 bar due
to their closed hydraulic slurry circuit. However, this requires a sealing layer between the
machine and the ground to be excavated. This is why Mixshields are equipped with a
multiple sealing system. The main drive seal is designed as a system with individual
sealing chambers containing pressurized sealant. At the rear of the machine, the annular
gap between the inside of the tail skin and the outside of the segment lining is sealed with
multiple wire brushes to keep out the soil and groundwater.










57

CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF MIXED SHIELD TBM

Figure- Cross Sectional View Of Mixed Shield TBMs
CONVEYING TO MEASURE
Jaw crushers (left) and drum crushers with agitators (right) crush boulders or stones
during tunneling.
In typical Mixed shield tunneling operations in cohesive, heterogeneous soils, larger
stones or blocks must be expected. Such boulders need to be crushed to a conveyable size
so that hydraulic removal can be carried out smoothly. Mixed shields often use a jaw
crusher for this purpose, which is positioned in front of the intake screen. The size of the
crushable stones varies according to the design of the crusher and the shield diameter. In
addition, an intake screen is installed in front of the suction port of the slurry line to
protect the machine against grain sizes that might cause problems. It holds up boulders
until the crusher has crushed them sufficiently. If there are fine-grained, cohesive soils
along the alignment, drum crushers are installed in front of the intake as an alternative.
58

They carry out the intake screen function during the crushing process. Two lateral
agitators support the flow of material in the invert section.

Figure:-INSIDE VIEW OF CRUSHING CHAMBER

CONDITIONS FOR APPLICATION & DIA RANGE OF MIXED SHIELD TBM



59

ADVANTAGES OF MIXED SHIELD TBM
-Maximum tunneling safety due to precise support of the tunnel face with an
automatically controlled air cushion
-Usable in high water pressures of more than 15 bar
-Even very large diameters of up to 19 m possible
-A range of special solutions available for special project requirements




SINGLE SHIELD TBM (Fast tunneling in changing rock conditions)
Single Shield TBMs are the ideal machine type for tunneling through rock and other
stable, non-groundwater-bearing soils. Due to the typical tunneling methods with
segmental lining or pipe jacking, high tunneling performances can also be achieved in
rock formations with low stand-up times.



SINGLE SHIELD
TUNNEL BORING
MACHINE
60

ADVANCING WITH POWER
When tunneling with a Single Shield TBMs, a rotating cutter head equipped with disc
cutters is pressed against the tunnel face with a pressure of up to tones per disc. Due to
the rolling movement of the discs, single pieces so-called chips are broken out of the
rock. Water jets can cool the cutting tools and reduce dust formation. Buckets installed at
the cutter head take up the excavated material. Thanks to gravity, it slides to the center of
the machine through integrated muck chutes while the cutter head rotates and then falls
through the funnel-shaped muck ring onto the machine belt. At the end of the machine
belt, the rock chips are passed on to belt conveyors or transport vehicles and removed
from the tunnel.
CONDITIONS FOR APPLICATION & DIA RANGE OF SINGLE SHIELD TBM

CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF SINGLE SHIELD TBM
61



ILLUSTRATION HOW THE EXCAVATED SOIL COMES OUT
62

DOUBLE SHIELD TBM(Continuous tunnelling at maximum speed)
Double Shield TBMs are among the most technically sophisticated tunnel boring
machines. They unify the functional principles of Gripper and Single Shield TBMs in one
machine. Under stable geological conditions, the combination of methods allows for the
installation of concrete segments parallel to tunnelling, achieving very high tunnelling
performances. This powerful technology is therefore perfectly suited for excavating long
tunnels in hard rock.Advancing with power.
When tunnelling with a Double Shield TBM, a rotating cutterhead equipped with disc
cutters is pressed against the tunnel face with a pressure of up to 32 tonnes per disc. Due
to the rolling movement of the discs, single pieces so-called chips are broken out of
the rock. Water jets can cool the cutting tools and reduce dust formation. Buckets
installed at the cutterhead take up the excavated material. Due to gravity, it slides to the
center of the machine through integrated muck chutes while the cutterhead rotates and
then falls through the funnel-shapedmuck ring onto the machine belt. At the end of the
machine belt, the rock chips are passed on to belt conveyors or transport vehicles and
removed from the tunnel.

CONDITIONS FOR APPLICATION & DIA RANGE OF DOUBLE SHIELD TBM

63

CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF DOUBLE SHIELD TBM


HIGH SPEED DUE TO A CONTINUOUS TUNNELLING MODE
Double Shield TBMs consist of two main components: a front shield with cutterhead,
main bearing and drive, and a gripper shield with gripping unit, auxiliary thrust cylinders
andtailskin. The main thrust cylinders connect the two parts of the shield. They are
protected by the telescopic shield where the shield skins of the front and gripper shield
overlap. Thus, Double Shield TBMs are also called telescopic shields. In stable rock, the
machine is braced radially against the tunnel with the gripper shoes. This means that the
front shield can be advanced independently of the gripper shield using the main thrust
cylinders.
The reaction forces during the excavation process are transferred into the rock by the
extended gripper shoes. Simultaneously to tunnelling, the segments are installed in the
tailskin section. The auxiliary thrust cylinders serve only to secure the position of the
concrete segments placed. When the stroke is completed, the gripper shoes are loosened
64

and the gripper shield is pushed behind the front shield using the auxiliary thrust
cylinders. Regripping lasts only a few minutes, which means that tunnelling is almost
continuous. In ideal rock formations, Double Shield TBMs can also operate without
segment lining.

A movable telescopic shield provides for access to the tunnel wall during cleaning work
in Double Shield TBMs.
GRIPPER TBM(Experts for tough hard rock)

Herrenknecht Gripper TBMs have proven to be efficient solutions for fast
mechanized tunnelling in hard rock on many occasions. Due to the process-typical rock
support method without segments, medium to high rock strengths ggare a requirement for
high advance rates. In more fractured geological formations, various systems for
immediate rock support behind thge cutterhead are installed at the TBM directly.



65

CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF THE GRIPPER TUNNEL BORING MACHINE

UNCOMPROMISING IN HARD ROCK
Tunnelling with a Gripper TBM, a rotating cutterhead equipped with disc cutgters is
pressed against the tunnel face with a pressure of up to 32 tonnes per discg. Due to the
rolling movement of the cutter, single pieces so- called chips are broken out of the
rock. Water jets can cool the cutting tools and reduce dust formation. Buckets installed at
the cutterhead take up the excavated material, which slides to the center of the machine
via integrated muck chutes while the cutterhead rotates, and then falls through the funnel-
shaped muck ring onto the machine belt. From there, the rock chips are passed on via
further belt conveyors or transport vehicles and removed from the tunnel.
The rock is secured by anchors, steel mats and steel arches as well as shotcrete.





66

CONDITIONS FOR APPLICATION & DIA RANGE OF DOUBLE SHIELD TBM


PARTIAL-FACE EXCAVATION MACHINE
(Economical tunneling technology with high flexibility)
Partial-face Excavation Machines made by Herrenknecht are an economically interesting
solution in homogeneous and almost stable grounds with little or no groundwater.
This tunneling technology can be easily adapted to changing geological conditions both
in loose soils and in hard rock due to its strikingly simple design.

67


Here both the machines are same but the tool being used for cuuting the material are
dfferent

Fig:-Cross sectional view of partial face excavation machine
68

ONE MACHINE, TWO EXCAVATION METHODS
Herrenknecht shields with partial-face excavation can excavate the soil with two different
cutting tools. In loose soils, the excavator has proved its great value hundreds of times.
The universal excavator boom is equipped with a shovel, a ripper tooth or a hydraulic
jackhammer depending on the soil conditions. Roadheader booms are used in harder
rock with uniaxial compressive strengths of up to 80 megapascal. Both boom
technologies allow quick and easy replacement of the worn tools. The excavated material
is transported by belt conveyors or chain conveyors to the conveying system in the back.
The application range of Partial-face Excavation Machines starts at around 1.5 meters, as
it is necessary to access the tunnel. Tunnelling operations with diameters of more than 10
meters can be carried out cost effectively using additional support measures or grout
injections to improve the ground.
Conditions For Application & Dia Range Of Double Shield TBM







69

OTHER TUNNELING MACHINES

AUGER BORING MACHINETOP FOR SHORT DRIVES

Auger Boring Machines are used for the successful installation of sewage ducts and
pipelines and for crossings beneath infrastructures. The boring machines offered by
Herrenknecht in cooperation with Bohrtec GmbH stand out in comparison to
conventional construction methods due to their technical, economic and ecological
advantages. Their main range of application is underground pipe jackingwith
comparatively small diameters, from 0.1 to 1.4 meters with drive lengths of up to 120
meters.


70


CONDITIONS FOR APPLICATION & DIA RANGE OF AUGER BORING


HDD RIG (Powerful horizontal directional drilling technology for trenchless pipeline
installation)
With horizontal directional drilling technology from Herrenknecht, pipelines can be
installed rapidly, economically and with little to no impact on the environment
underneath rivers and other obstructions. HDD Rigs are highly adaptable and used
mainly in stable, loose soils and rock.
71


The Three Basic Steps in HDD
Pilot drill Reaming Pipelineinstallation
CONDITIONS FOR APPLICATION & DIA RANGE OF HDD

72



DIRECT PIPE (Pipeline installation in one step)

With the unique Direct Pipe

technology, Herrenknecht has opened up new possibilities


for installing pipelines in every geology.This method combines the advantages of micro
tunneling and HDD technology. In one step only, a prefabricated pipeline can be installed
and the required borehole excavated at the same time. This allows speedy and highly
economic installation of pipelines with lengths of more than 1,500 meters.

73

Cross sectional view of the direct pipe machine




CONDITIONS FOR APPLICATION & DIA RANGE OF DIRECT PIE TBM
VERTICAL SHAFT SINKING MACHINE (VSM)
(Compact shaft sinking technology for all ground conditions)
For quick and reliable construction of vertical shafts, Herrenknecht developed its VSM
(Vertical Shaft Sinking Machine) technology, today an established product on the market.
This unique mechanized shaft sinking equipment shows its strengths particularly below
groundwater. In general, it can be used in soft and stable soils with compression strengths
of up to 80 mega pascal.
CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF THE VSMs
74




CONDITIONS FOR APPLICATION & DIA RANGE OF VSMs


2. THE DEPARTMENTS INVOLVE IN STRUCTURAL FABRICATION
(a)PLANNING
(b)EXECUTION
(c)QUALITY
(d)SAFETY

2(a) PLANNING:-
DEVELOPMENT OF CONSTRUCTION PLANS: -
Construction planning is a fundamental and challenging activity in the management and
execution of construction projects. It involves the choice of technology, the definition of
75

work tasks, the estimation of the required resources and durations for individual tasks,
and the identification of any interactions among the different work tasks. A good
construction plan is the basis for developing the budget and the schedule for work.
Developing the construction plan is a critical task in the management of construction,
even if the plan is not written or otherwise formally recorded. In addition to these
technical aspects of construction planning, it may also be necessary to make
organizational decisions about the relationships between project participants and even
which organizations to include in a project. For example, the extent to which sub-
contractors will be used on a project is often determined during construction planning. In
developing a construction plan, it is common to adopt a primary emphasis on either cost
control or on schedule control as illustrated in Fig. Some projects are primarily divided
into expense categories with associated costs. In these cases, construction planning is cost
or expense oriented. Within the categories of expenditure, a distinction is made between
costs incurred directly in the performance of an activity and indirectly for the
accomplishment of the project. For example, borrowing expenses for project financing
and overhead items are commonly treated as indirect costs. For other projects, scheduling
of work activities over time is critical and is emphasized in the planning process. In this
case, the planner insures that the proper precedence among activities is maintained and
that efficient scheduling of the available resources prevails. Traditional scheduling
procedures emphasize the maintenance of task precedence (resulting in critical path
scheduling procedures) or efficient use of resources over time (resulting in job shop
scheduling procedures). Finally, most complex projects require consideration of cost and
scheduling over time, so that planning, monitoring and record keeping must consider both
dimensions.
76


Fig.-Alternative emphases in construction planning


CHOICE OF TECHNOLOGY AND CONSTRUCTION METHODS: -
As in the development of appropriate alternatives for facility design, choices of
appropriate technology and methods for construction are often ill-structured yet critical
ingredients in the success of the project. For example, a decision whether to lift the
material by machine or manually will directly affect the cost and duration of tasks
involved in construction. A decision between these two alternatives should consider the
relative costs, reliabilities, and availability of equipment for the two transport methods.
Unfortunately, the exact implications of different methods depend upon numerous
considerations for which information may be sketchy during the planning phase, such as
the experience and expertise of workers or the particular underground condition at a site.

DEFINING WORK TASKS:-
At the same time that the choice of technology and general method are considered, a
parallel step in the planning process is to define the various work tasks that must be
77

accomplished. These work tasks represent the necessary framework to
permit scheduling of construction activities, along with estimating the resources required
by the individual work tasks and any necessary precedence or required sequence among
the tasks. The terms work "tasks" or "activities" are often used interchangeably in
construction plans to refer to specific, defined items of work. In job shop or
manufacturing terminology, a project would be called a "job" and an activity called an
"operation", but the sense of the terms is equivalent.

ESTIMATING ACTIVITY DURATION: -
In most scheduling procedures, each work activity has associated time duration. These
durations are used extensively in preparing a schedule. All formal scheduling procedures
rely upon estimates of the durations of the various project activities as well as the
definitions of the predecessor relationships among tasks. The variability of an activity's
duration may also be considered. Formally, the probability distribution of an activity's
duration as well as the expected or most likely duration may be used in scheduling. A
probability distribution indicates the chance that particular activity duration will occur. In
advance of actually doing a particular task, we cannot be certain exactly how long the
task will require. A straightforward approach to the estimation of activity durations is to
keep historical records of particular activities and rely on the average durations from this
experience in making new duration estimates. Since the scopes of activities are unlikely
to be identical between different projects, unit productivity rates are typically employed
for this purpose.

ESTIMATING RESOURCE REQUIRMENTS FOR WORK ACTIVITIES:-
In addition to precedence relationships and time durations, resource requirement are
usually estimated for each activity. Since the work activities defined for a project are
comprehensive, the total resources required for the project are the sum of the resources
required for the various activities. By making resource requirement estimates for each
activity, the requirements for particular resources during the course of the project can be
identified. Potential bottlenecks can thus be identified, and schedule, resource allocation
78

or technology changes made to avoid problems. Many formal scheduling procedures can
incorporate constraints imposed by the availability of particular resources. For example,
the unavailability of a specific piece of equipment or crew may prohibit activities from
being undertaken at a particular time. Another type of resource is space.

2 (b) EXECUTION:-
Execution is the most important part of the structural fabrication Structural engineers are
responsible for engineering design and analysis. Entry-level structural engineers may
design the individual structural elements of a structure, for example the beams, columns,
and floors of a building. More experienced engineers may be responsible for the
structural design and integrity of an entire system Structural steel fabrication can be
carried out in shop or at the construction site. Fabrication of steelwork carried out in
shops is precise and of assured quality, whereas field fabrication is comparatively of
inferior in quality. All the work of the structural fabrication is done as per drawing. The
fabrication drawing consist all the information regarding fabrication, material
connections etc.
DRAWING: -
Fabrication drawing is a type of technical drawing, is used to fully and clearly define
requirements for engineered items. Fabrication drawing (the activity) produces
engineering drawings (the documents). More than just the drawing of pictures, it is also
a language graphical language that communicates ideas and information from one mind
to another. Most especially, it communicates all needed information from the engineer
who designed a part to the workers who will make it.
MATERIAL: -
From reputed sources like SAIL, JSPL&TATA as per approved by engineer and shall
conform to the following. Contractor shall use material for fabrication as specified in the
approved drawings. All material supplied by the contractor shall be in sound condition of
recent manufacturers, free from defects such as loose mill scale, slag
inclusions,pitting,flaky rust etc. The length /size of steel section and plate shall be as
79

supplied by the steel mills and conforms to the latest issue of the relevant IS/ASME
specification.
All material required for the work shall be correlated with manufacturers test certificates.
In the absence of test certificate material shall be tested by contractor through an
approved laboratory for establishing specification requirements at contractors cost and as
directed by the engineers. All tests shall be witnessed by owners representative.
The engineer shall have the right to test random samples to prove authenticity of test
certificate All structural steel of thickness<20mm is of grade A, All structural steel of
thickness>20mm is grade B, for crane girder steel shall meet grade C.


IS: 2062-Steel for general structural purposes specification

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
Grade C % Mn % S % P % Si C. E. %
Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max.
A 0.23 1.5 0.05 0.05 - 0.42
B 0.22 1.5 0.045 0.045 0.04 0.41
C 0.2 1.5 0.04 0.04 0.4 0.39



80

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Grade UTS
(MPA)
Y.S.(MPA)
Min.
EI. % Min Bend
A Min. < 20 mm
20-40 mm
> 40 mm
5.65 So Test
B 410 250 240
230
23 3T
C 410 250 240
230
23 2T & 3T*
410 250 240
230
23 2T

IS: 808- Dimension for hot rolled steel beams, channels and angle sections

FOREWORD:-
This Indian Standard (Third Revision) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards on
6 April 1989, after the draft finalized by the Structural Sections Sectional Committee had
been Approved by the Structural and Metals Division Council. Under the steel economy
programmed, a rational, efficient and economical series of Indian Standards on beam
sections, channel sections and angle sections was evolved in 1957 and IS 808 : 1957 was
published covering junior, light weight, medium weight, wide flange and heavyweight
beam sections; junior, light weight and medium weight channel sections and equal and
unequal leg angle sections. This standard was revised in 1964.In the second revision of
this standard, parts relating to medium weight beam sections MB series, column sections
SC series, channel sections MC and MCP series and equal and unequal leg angles were
revised and published as Parts 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 of IS 808, respectively. Sections not
81

covered in these parts, however continued in IS 808: 1964.In the present revision, the
Sectional Committee felt it convenient to merge the entire five parts into one standard.
The sections which were retained in IS 808: 1964 subsequent to its second revision in
five parts are included in this standard with a view that these sections although not being
rolled in the country at present may in future be rolled owing to their efficiency and
resultant economy in the use of steel. However, the designers are advised to check from
JPC/producers regarding availability of such sections. Following additional modifications
have been affected in this revision:
MATERIAL CUTTING:-
Every successful manufacturing company must plan the efficient use of raw material.
This planning has many facets and implications. In a custom-product make-to-order
industry, material plans can impact customer service, the accuracy and speed of cost
estimation, and possibly the firm's ability to secure contracts. In every industry it has a
fundamental influence on cost and Processing needs. This dissertation focuses on a firm's
ability to purchase raw material in bulk and subsequently to divide and process it. The
problem shares general characteristics with well known problems such as cutting stock
problems, cluster problems and grouping problems. Many of the models and solution
techniques for these related problems are useful starting points for this research but none
of them provide an acceptable approach to the problem of interest. This chapter provides
an overview of the problem of interest, the cutting plan generation or CPG problem. It
describes the CPG problem in the context of other operations research models and
techniques. The scope of this research is also discussed.

OVERVIEW OF CUTTING PLAN GENERATION (CPG):-
In the steel construction industry, preparing and ordering raw material is crucial to the
efficiency and control of cost within the whole process operation. The cost of raw
material may constitute 45% to 60% of the total cost (Huang 1998). Raw material is
ordered in bulk to get volume discounts or to avoid extra costs applied to small orders. In
ordering raw material, a crucial design operation is generating the "cutting plan" that
82

specifies the details of the order and how the production operations will use the steel to
construct the building. The cutting plan is important because it links architectural design,
material preparation, manufacturing, and final assembly. The following sections explain
the background of cutting plan generation in the steel construction industry and the
motivation for this research.

CUTTING PLAN:-
As discussed above, cutting plan generation is the central process in the detailed design
phase. It provides information that impacts all aspects of operations such as marketing,
pricing, cost, production and material ordering. It is important to generate a cost saving
cutting plan in a timely fashion so that the whole system can be synchronous and
efficient. As the material costs make up most of the project cost, a small improvement in
the cutting plan generation process can lead to a significant cost savings and a
competitive advantage. However, cost is not minimized simply by minimizing material
waste. The unit cost of raw material varies with the width of the plate ordered, in addition
to other factors. Often, the material unit cost increases for both small and large sizes so a
construction company must attempt to group its material requirements to achieve plates
that have a width between the bounds defining the lowest unit cost. Since the steel plates
can be ordered in any desired size within a range, the need to address material waste is a
secondary factor.
Minimize material and design labor cost.
Reduce necessary lead-time in material ordering.
Improve project cost estimation that would enable timely analysis and evaluation
of different design alternatives so that project bidding can reflect more accurate
cost figures.
Speed the detail design process so that architects can generate more design
alternatives early in the design stage.
Estimate the impact of uncertainty in various parameters so that contingency
plans can be developed.
Monitor production and provide feedback for continuous improvement
83

MAJOR EQUIPMENT USED AT AZADPUR JOB SITE :-
Crane
Gas cutting apparatus
Grinding machine
H Beam assembler
Welding machine
Portable drilling machine
Miscellaneous tools

CRANES:-
A crane is a type of machine, generally equipped with a hoist, wire ropes or chains,
and sheaves, that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them
horizontally. It is mainly used for lifting heavy things and transporting them to other
places. It uses one or more simple machines to create mechanical advantage and thus
move loads beyond the normal capability of a human. Cranes are commonly employed in
the transport industry for the loading and unloading of freight, in
the construction industry for the movement of materials and in the manufacturing
industry for the assembling of heavy equipment.

TYPES:-
OVERHEAD CRANE:-
An overhead crane, commonly called a bridge crane, is a type of crane found in industrial
environments. An overhead crane consists of parallel runways with a traveling bridge
spanning the gap. A hoist, the lifting component of a crane, travels along the bridge. If
the bridge is rigidly supported on two or more legs running on a fixed rail at ground level,
the crane is called a gantry crane. Unlike mobile or construction cranes, overhead cranes
are typically used for either manufacturing or maintenance applications, where efficiency
or downtime is critical factors.
84

MOBILE CRANE:-
The most basic type of mobile crane consists of a truss (lattice boom) or telescopic boom
mounted on a mobile platform be it on road, rail or water. Common terminology is
conventional and hydraulic cranes respectively. A crane mounted on a truck carrier
provides the mobility for this type of crane. This crane has two parts: the carrier often
referred to as the Lower, and the lifting component which includes the boom, referred to
as the Upper.
TOWER CRANE:-
Tower cranes are a modern form of balance crane that consist of the same basic parts.
Fixed to the ground on a concrete slab (and sometimes attached to the sides of structures
as well), tower cranes often give the best combination of height and lifting capacity and
are used in the construction of tall buildings. The base is then attached to the mast which
gives the crane its height. Further the mast is attached to the slewing unit (gear and
motor) that allows the crane to rotate.

85


TALISCOPIC BOOM CRAWLER CRANE
(FIXED BOOM)
86

GRINDING MACHINE:-
A grinding machine, often shortened to grinder, is a machine tool used for grinding,
which is a type of machining using an abrasive wheel as the cutting tool. Each grain of
abrasive on the wheel's surface cuts a small chip from the work piece via shear
deformation. Grinding is used to finish work pieces that must show high surface quality
(e.g., low surface roughness) and high accuracy of shape and dimension. As the accuracy
in dimensions in grinding is on the order of 0.000025 mm, in most applications it tends to
be a finishing operation and removes comparatively little metal, about 0.25 to 0.50 mm
depth. However, there are some roughing applications in which grinding removes high
volumes of metal quite rapidly. Thus, grinding is a diverse field. The main type of
grinding machine is used for fabrication is angle grinder.

ANGLE GRINDER: -
An angle grinder, also known as a side grinder or disc grinder is a handheld power tool
used for cutting, grinding and polishing. Angle grinders can be powered by an electric
motor, petrol engine or compressed air. The motor drives a geared head at a right-angle
on which is mounted an abrasive disc or a thinner cut-off disc, either of which can be
replaced when worn. Angle grinders typically have an adjustable guard and a side-handle
for two-handed operation. Certain angle grinders, depending on their speed range, can be
used as sanders, employing a sanding disc with a backing pad or disc. The backing
system is typically made of hard plastic, phenol resin, or medium-hard rubber depending
on the amount of flexibility desired

USES: -
Angle grinders may be used both for removing excess material from a piece or simply
cutting into a piece. There are many different kinds of discs that are used for various
materials and tasks, such as cut-off discs (diamond blade), abrasive grinding discs,
grinding stones, sanding discs, wire brush wheels and polishing pads. The angle grinder
has large bearings to counter side forces generated during cutting, unlike a power drill,
87

where the force is axial. Angle grinders are widely used
in metalworking and construction, as well as in emergency rescues. They are commonly
found in workshops, service garages and auto body repair shops. There is a large variety
of angle grinders to choose from when trying to find the right one for the job.
.



H BEAM ASSEMBLER:-
H-beam Assembly-Welding-Straightening Integrating machine is advanced and high
efficiency equipment for welding H-beam production, integrating precision assembly,
and stable SAW welding, flange deformation straightening and welding of H-beam
88

together. It has merits of compact structure, small area occupying, high automatic and
high productivity. It mainly consists of assembly unit welding unit straightening unit
conveyor hydraulic system and electrical control system, etc.



FABRICATION: -
Structural steel fabrication can be carried out in shop or at the construction site.
Fabrication of steelwork carried out in shops is precise and of assured quality, whereas
field fabrication is comparatively of inferior in quality. In India construction site
fabrication is most common even in large projects due to inexpensive field labor, high
cost of transportation, difficulty in the transportation of large members, higher excise
duty on products from shop. Beneficial taxation for site work is a major financial
incentive for site fabrication. The methods followed in site fabrication are similar but the
level of sophistication of equipment at site and environmental control would be usually
less
SEQUENCE OF FABRICATION:-
Before issuing for fabrication, all materials is inspected & correlated with test
certificate.
After inspection, material is issued and shifted to fabrication shop.
All surfaces are cleaned prior to fabrication & mill scales is removed during
painting.
Before cutting heat number is transferred to corner of the plate.
Required straightening, bending is carried out by mechanical means of James
screw and Jigs &fixture.
Platform/assembly bed with sufficient coverage area is prepared of required size
for fabrication purpose.
Fabrication of plate for column is cut in a designated area of fabrication shop.
Plates are check for visual defects prior to cutting.
89

Cutting is done by manual gas cutting/pug cutting. During cutting care will be
taken to avoid distortion.
Ensure periodic calibration of welding machine/ovens and qualification of
welders.
Adequate protection from rain & wind will be provided during welding.
All parts to be welded is cleaned off rust and other foreign materials that may
affect welding process.
Preheating at 121
0
c is applied whenever material has maximum carbon content is
more than 0.3% and thickness is exceed 20mm.
All slag and spatters is removed from the welding area after completion of
welding, PWHT will be carried out as per procedure.
Dimension of all assembly and sub assemblies will be as per approved fabrication
drawing.
Elevation and part no. will be match marked at both ends of all fabricated
structural members for proper identification during erection.
After removing the temporary attachment, NDT test wherever applicable will be
performed on the attached components & the QC inspector will ensure each item
is properly punched with identification prior to release for blasting / painting.
Grit blasting & painting will be carried out as per approved drawing /
specification.
DFT will be checked after complete drying of paint & will be as per approved
drawing.
Fabricated structures will be stocked and stored under cover at fabricated material
area.





90

2(c) QUALITY:-
QA/QC is the combination of quality assurance, the process or set of processes used to
measure and assure the quality of a product, and quality control, the process of meeting
products and services to consumer expectations.
QUALITY ASSURANCE (Q/A): -
QA is a set of activities for ensuring quality in the processes by which products are
developed. It aims to prevent defects with a focus on the process used to make the
product. It is a proactive quality process. The goal of QA is to improve development and
test processes so that defects do not arise when the product is being developed. Establish
a good quality management system and the assessment of its adequacy. Periodic
conformance audits of the operations of the system. Prevention of quality problems
through planned and systematic activities including documentation. Everyone on the
team involved in developing the product is responsible for quality assurance.
QUALITY CONTROL (Q/C): -
QC is a set of activities for ensuring quality in products. The activities focus on
identifying defects in the actual products produced. QC aims to identify (and correct)
defects in the finished product. Quality control, therefore, is a reactive process. The goal
of QC is to identify defects after a product is developed and before it's released Finding
& eliminating sources of quality problems through tools & equipment so that customer's
requirements are continually met. The activities or techniques used to achieve and
maintain the product quality, process and service. Quality control is usually the
responsibility of a specific team that tests the product for defects.

INSPECTION:-
VISUAL INSPECTION:-
Visual inspection is a common method of quality control, data acquisition, and data
analysis. Visual Inspection, used in maintenance of facilities, mean inspection of
equipment and structures using either or all of raw human senses such as vision, hearing,
91

touch and smell and/or any non-specialized inspection equipment. In this the quality
person inspects the job without using any equipment. The visible defect can be easily
detected by this method. The experience of the person is very important in the visual
inspection.
INSPECTION STEPS:-
PRE-CLEANING:-
The test surface is cleaned to remove any dirt, paint, oil, grease or any loose scale that
could either keep penetrant out of a defect, or cause irrelevant or false indications.
Cleaning methods may include solvents, alkaline cleaning steps, vapor degreasing, or
media blasting. The end goal of this step is a clean surface where any defects present are
open to the surface, dry, and free of contamination. Note that if media blasting is used, it
may "work over" small discontinuities in the part, and an etching bath is recommended as
a post-blasting treatment


(d) SAFETY:-
An industrial safety system is a countermeasure crucial in any hazardous plants such
as oil and gas plants and nuclear plants. They are used to protect human, plant,
and environment in case the process goes beyond the control margins. As the name
suggests, these systems are not means of process control systems (PCS) and
is interlocked by the safety systems so that immediate actions are taken should the
process control systems fail. Process control and safety systems are usually merged under
one system
JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS:-
A Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) is one of the risk assessment tools used to identify and
control workplace hazards. A JHA is a second tier risk assessment with the aim of
preventing personal injury to a person, or their colleagues, and any other person passing
92

or working adjacent, above or below. JHAs are also known as Activity Hazard Analysis
(AHA), Job Safety Analysis (JSA) and Task Hazard Analysis (THA).

PURPOSE:-
The purpose of a JHA is to identify workplace hazards with a 'Likelihood' of possible or
greater. Controls are then selected and applied to reduce the risk associated with the
identified hazards to acceptable levels in accordance with the principles of 'ALARP' and
using the 'Hierarchy of Control'.

WORK PLACE HAZARD CRITERION:-
The criterion is a set of standards to assist in deciding to include, or exclude, certain
identified hazards related to our task. The workplace hazard criterion used to identify
genuine workplace hazards is:
It is clearly identifiable - Clearly identifiable means that we are specific about
the hazard to the point where the hazard type, group and family are instantly
linked to it.
A scenario is not required for its articulation - It can be clearly described in five,
or less, words. If you cannot, it probably is not a hazard.
It has an inherent likelihood of possible or greater - If the hazard you are
applying the criteria to does not have an inherent likelihood of Possible, or
greater, then drop it and move on.
It is without judgmental adjectives - Judgmental adjectives are negative and
sometimes overlap with descriptions of absence. Adjectives such as poor,
deficient, defective, scant, weak, unsound, faulty are not to be used in the hazard
column.
It contains no descriptions of absence - Descriptions of absence are usually
negative and sometimes overlap with Judgmental adjectives. They include:
Without, lack of, minimal, unsuitable, unavailable, inadequate, missing, and non-
93

existent.
CONSEQUENSES:-
Consequence is the outcome of an event expressed qualitatively or quantitatively, being
a loss, injury, disadvantage or gains. There may be a range of possible outcomes
associated with an event. Consequence consists of two factors. The first is the mechanism
of injury covered above. The second factor is the estimation of the severity of the injury
or harm that can be reasonably and realistically expected from exposure to the obvious
mechanism of injury of the hazard being rated. The consequence is quantified using a
severity of consequence scale. It is acknowledged that an implemented control may lower
the severity of the injury, it may also increase it, either way, it has no effect on the way
the injury occurred. Therefore, when rating risk, the consequence remains the same for
both the initial rating and the residual rating. People inherently lean toward a higher than
actual consequence when rating risk, so remember to apply the rule of being reasonable
and realistic.

REASONABLY PRACTICABLE:-
Reasonably practicable, in relation to a duty to ensure health and safety, means that
which is, or was at a particular time, reasonably able to be done to ensure health and
safety, taking into account and weighing up all relevant matters including:
the likelihood of the hazard or the risk concerned occurring; and
the degree of harm that might result from the hazard or the risk; and
what the person concerned knows, or ought reasonably to know, about the
hazard or risk, and about the ways of eliminating or minimizing the risk; and
the availability and suitability of ways to eliminate or minimize the risk; and
After assessing the extent of the risk and the available ways of eliminating or
0minimizing the risk, the cost associated with available ways of eliminating or
minimizing the risk, including whether the cost is grossly disproportionate to the
risk.
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CONCLUSION
In the field of TUNNELING the Continental Engineering Corporation. has diverse, world
class, design and engineering. In India most raw materials and inputs are brought from
SAIL, JINDAL and TATA. Transportation costs are a major concern for CEC CICI JV
in remaining competitive in the India and international markets. Efficient modes of
transportation, including road and rail, are very important for the timely movement of
goods, especially larger non-containerized types of products. The fabrication sector is
dependent on the continuing supply of skilled workers, preferably from local sources, in
order to maintain the level of productivity and quality of finished goods. Here in Delhi
Metro the industry is dependent upon DMRCs plan and their higher quality of
programs. The main execution of work is based on the planning and the tunneling. There
are two types of works Delhi Metro tunneling and station work. Tunneling is totally
based on the TBMs which bore the tunnel through the soil below the city surface and
station work is based on Fabrication drawing which shows the dimensions and holes
whereas detailed drawing shows the connections of the column and beams. The quality
assurance is totally depends on skill of manpower and QA/QC engineer.











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BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. https://www.google.co.in
2. https:// www.ceccici.in
3. https://www.wikipedia.org
4. https:// www.studymode.com
5. https:// www.cec.com
6. https:// www.crazyengineers.com
7. https:// www.scribd.com
8. https:// www.nitsri.ne