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D.C. Transmission and Distribution


or % efficiency = 100 x

1
1
V
IR
= 100

100
1
x
V
IR
Now
100
1
x
V
IR
represents the voltage drop in both conductors expressed as a
percentage of the voltage at the sending end. It is known as percentage drop.
%

= 100 % drop
In the present case! total drop is 10 volt which expressed as percentage beco"es
#10$%&0' x 100 = ( %. )ence 100

= 100 ( = *+ % ,.as before.



It is seen fro" e-uation #i' above! that for a given drop! trans"ission efficiency
can be considerably increased by increasing the voltage at the trans"itting end i.e.,
1
V
.
.oreover! the crosssection of copper in the cables is decreased in proportion to the
increase in voltage which result in a proportionate reduction of the cost of copper in the
cables.
/he calculation of drop in a feeder is! as seen fro" above! -uite casy because of
the fact that current is constant throughout its length. 0ut it is not so in the case of
distributors which are tapped off at various places along their entire lengths. )ence! their
different section carry different currents over different lengths. 1or calculating the total
voltage drop along the entire length of the distributor! following infor"ation is necessary.
(i) value of current tapped at each load point
(ii) the resistance of each section of the distributor between tapped points.
35-4. Methods of Feddin a Distributor
2ifferent "ethods of fedding a distributor are given below 3
(i) fedding at one end
(ii) fedding at both ands with a-uel voltages
(iii) fedding at both ands with una-uel voltages
(iv) fedding at so"e inter"ediate point
In addition! the nature of loading also varies such as
(a) concentrated loading
(b) unifor" loading
(c) co"bination of #a' and #b'
Now! we will discuss so"e of the i"portant cases separately.
35-5. D.C. Distributor Fed at !ne "nd
In 1ig.4&5 is shown one conductor AB of a distributor with concentrated loads
and fed at one end.
6et !
1
i !
%
i
4
i
etc. be the current tapped off at points C, D, E and F and !
1
I !
%
I
4
I
etc. the current in the various sections of the distributor. 6et !
1
r !
%
r
4
r
etc. be the
oh"ic resistances of these various section and !
1
R !
%
R
4
R
etc. the total resistance fro"
the fedding eng A to the successive tapping points.
/he total drop in the distributor is
v =
+
1 1
I r +
% %
I r +
4 4
I r
......
Now
1
I =
.......7
( 4 % 1
+ + + + i i i i
%
I =
.......7
( 4 %
+ + + i i i
4
I
=
.......
( 4
+ +i i
v =
.......' #
( 4 % 1 1
+ + + + i i i i r .......' #
( 4 % %
+ + + + i i i r
.......' #
( 4 4
+ + + i i r
=
...... ...... ' # ' #
4 4 % % 1 1 4 % 1 4 % 1 % 1 1
+ + + = + + + + + + R i R i R i r r r i r r i r i
= Sum of the moment of each !oa" current about fe""in# $oint A
(i) )ence! the drop at the far end of a distributor fed at one end is given by
the su" of the "o"ents of various tapped current about the fedding
point i.e.! v = iR
(ii) It follows for" this that the total voltage drop is the sa"e as that
produced by a single load e-ual to the su" of the various concentrated
loads! acting at the centre of gravity of the load syste".
(iii) 6et us find the drop at any enter"ediate point like E. /he value of this
drop is
= 8 .....' #
+ & ( 4 4 4 % % 1 1
+ + + + + + i i i R R i R i R i
=

E u$to
moment of um
9

E at actin# aume" E
be%on" !oa" &ho!e of moment
!
Is general the drop at any inter"ediate point is e-ual to the su" of various tapped
current up to that point plus the "o"ent of all the load current beyond that point assu"ed
to be acring at that point.
/he total drop over both conductors would! obviously! be twice the value
calculated above.
3#-#. $niform%& Loaded Distributor
In 1ig. 4&: is shown one conductor AB of a distributor fed at one A and
unifor"ly loaded with I a"peres per unit length. ;ny conventent unit of length "ay be
chosen i.e!% "etre or 10 "etres but us every such unit length! the load tapped is the sa"e.
)ence! let
I = current tapped off per unit length
I = total length of the distributor
r = resistance per unit length of the distributor
Now! let us find the voltage drop at appoint C #1ig.4&*' which is as a distance of
x units fro" fedding end A. /he current at point C is (rI ' rx) = r (I ' x).
<ossider x s"all section of length dx near point <. Its resistance is #r"x'. )ence!
drop over length dx is "r = i (I ' x)(r"x) = (iIr ' ixr)"x
/he total drop up to point x is given by intergrating the above -uantity between
propes li"its.
ambar
1ig.4&: 1ig.4&*

( )

=
r x
"x ixr iIr "r
0 0
v = iIrx
%
1
Ir x
%
ir

%
%
x
ix
/he drop at point B can be abtained by polting x = I in the above expression.
2rop at point B = ir
R x I IR
I x r x I x i irI I
I
%
1
%
1
%
' # ' #
% %
% %
%
= = = =

=here i x I = I,. total current entering at point A ( r x I = R,the total resistance of


distributor AB.
/otal drop in distributor AB =
IR
%
1
(i) It follows that in a unifor"ly loaded distributor total drop is e-ual to that
produced by the whole of the load assu"ed concentrated at the "iddle
point.
(ii) >uppose that such a distributor is fed at both ends A and B with e-ual
voltage. In that case! the point of "ini"u" potential is abviosly the
"iddle point. =e can the us i"agine as if the distributor were cut into two
at the "iddle point! giving us two unifor"lyloaded distributors each fed
at one end with e-ual voltage. /he resistsnce of each is
%
A
and total
current fed into each distributor is
%
I
. )ence! drop at the "iddles point is.
=
IR
R
)
I
)
:
1
% % %
1
=

It is of that of a distributor fed at one end only. /he advantage of fedding a


distribution at both ends! instead of at one end! is obvious.
/he e-uation of drop at point C distant x units fro" fedding point A = irIx
=
%
%
1
Irx
shows that diagra" of drop of a unifor"ly loaded distributor fed at one end is a
parabola.