Anda di halaman 1dari 9

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY.

What is the definition of anatomy? the make up of the human body (i.e organs, bones
and muscles).
What is the definition of physiology? the function of the body (i.e how it moves/works).


Terminology and Basic Anatomy.
ANTERIOR ante means before. An anteroom is a room before a more important one.
Antediluvian is before the food. Antebellum is before a war. To antedate a document is to
put an earlier date on it. The anterious view of the body is the view that comes before
the front view.
POSTERIOR post means after. A post graduate course is taken after a degree. A
postlude in music is the conclusion at the end of the peice. To post date a cheque is to
write the date later than the actual one. Posterior is the back view of the body.
MEDIAL/LATERAL the root of medial is med it means middle. A mediator stands in the
middle of a quarrel to solve an argument. She meditates the quarrel by trying to find a
mutual agreement. Something medieval is from the middle ages (5-15
th
century) the
middle ages are also the medieval period. Anything medial in anatomy is a structure in
relationship to the middle of the body, referring to a lengthwise line down the body (e.g
the spine is medial, the nose lies medially in the body).










BODY SYSTEMS.
There are 11 body systems. Each system consists of many organs which link together to
perform a common function. All systems are interrelated and function together to
maintain life.
The Skin includes nails, hair, sweat and oil glands protects, regulates
temperature, elimantes waste, makes vitamin D and receives stimuli.
Skeletal the bones, joints and cartilages supports, protects, aids movement.
Stores minerals and protects cells that produce blood cells.
Muscular usually referred to as skeletal muscle but includes cardiac, brain, spinal
cord, nerves and sense organs produce movement, maintains posture and
produces heat.
Nervous brain, spinal cord, nerves and sense organs communicates and co-
ordinates body functions.
Cardiovascular heart, blood vessels and blood transports substances around
the body, helps regulate body temperature and prevents blood loss by blood
clotting.
Lymphatic lymphatic vessels, nodes, lymph, spleen, tonsils and thymus glands
returns proteins and plasma to blood, carries fat from intestine to blood, filters
body fluid, forms white blood cells and protects against disease.
Respiratory pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs supplies oxygen and
removes carbon dioxide.
Digestive gastrointestinal tract, salivary glands, gall bladder, liver and pancreas
physical and chemical breakdown of food, absorption of nutrients and elimination
of waste.
Urinary kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra regulates chemical composition
of blood, helps to balance the acid/alkali content in the body and eliminates urine.
Reproductive ovaries, testes etc. involved in reproduction and production of
sex hormones.
Endocrine all hormone producing ductless glands hormones regulate a wide
variety of body activities e.g growth and maintain body balance.







SKELETAL DIAGRAM.










LOCATION AND DESCRIPTION OF FOLLOWING BONES.




BONE. LOCATION. DESCRIPTION.
Sternum. Breast bone. Flat, narrow, middle thoracic
wall.
Ribs. Anterior and posterior
thoracic region.
12 pairs of ribs, contains
heart & lungs, protected by
ribcage.
Humerous. Upper arm. Long arm of upper bone.
Ulna. Fore arm. Situated on the little finger
of fore arm.
Radius. Fore arm. Situated on the thumb side.
Carpals. Wrist. Consists of 8 small bones.
Metacarpels. Hands. Consists of 5 bones.
Phalanges. Fingers. 14 phalanges 3 in each
finger & 2 in the thumb.
Femur Upper leg. Thigh bone, longest bone in
the body.
Tibia. Lower leg. Bone situated on the
anterior of lower leg.
Fibula.

Patella.

Tarsels.

Metatarsels.

Phalanges.

Ilium.

Ischium.

Pubis.

FUNCTIONS OF CELLS.

CELL ORGANELLES. FUNCTION.
Plasma membrane. Protects the cell: allows substances to enter
and leave cells. Gives the cell its shape.
Nucleus. Contains genes for inheritance: controls the
cells activities.
Endoplasmic recticulum. Provides channels for moving substances
round the cell: provides a large surface area
for chemical reaction in the cell.
Ribosomes. Provides the sites for protein systhesis.
Golgi body. Region of synthesis of material which will be
secreted by the cell e.g mucus.
Mitochondria. Involved in energy production within the
cell: known as the power house of the cell.
Lysosomes. Destroys won out organelles and/or whole
cells and foreign material known as suicide
bags.
Cillia. Causes the movement of particles ad fluid
across a cell surface.
Flangellae. Enables cells to move about.













MUSCULAR SYSTEM.
Muscles cover the framework of the skeleton and are responsible for approximately 50%
of the body weight. Their function is to support the movement brought about by the
skeleton. Muscular tissue consists of many elastic fibres which are bound together by a
thick band known as a sheath. The sheath then extends from the muscle to form strong
fibrous bands known as tendons. The tendons attach muscle to bone to allow movement.
Other types of muscle include the heart and muscles that assist function of internal
organs. The human body contains over 65O individual muscles. Muscles usually occur in
pairs throughout the body, one on either side of the other. Muscle is the only body tissue
that has the power of contraction.
The muscular system is composed of specialised cells called muscle fibers. Their
predominant function is contractability. Muscles, where attached to bones or internal
organs and blood vessels, are responsible for movement. Nearly all the movement in the
body is the result of muscle contraction. There are three types of muscle: skeletal, smooth
and cardiac.
















MUSCULAR SYSTEM TERMS.

Muscle fatigue Muscles become weak from over working which causes a build up of
lactic acid, inadequate blood supply and lack of oxygen.

Muscle reflex sensory nerve receptors in muscle tissue send impulses via the spinal cord.
The motor nerve then sends impulses back to the muscle causing rapid contraction.

Tendons attach muscle to bone.

Origin the end of the muscle which is fixed to the bone and cannot move.

Insertion the end of the muscle attached to the bone which has moved.

Prime mover muscles producing movement.

Muscle tone slight involuntary tension of muscles to maintain posture.











SUMMARY SHEET ON POSITION AND ACTION OF SUPERFICIAL MUSCLES OF THE
BODY.
NAME. POSITION. ACTION.
ARMS.
Deltoid.
Covers the shoulder. 3 sets of fibres: anterior fibres
flex shoulder joint, middle
fibres abduct shoulder joint,
posterior fibres extend
shoulder joint.
Triceps. Posterior aspect of upper arm. Extends elbow joint.
Biceps. Anterior aspect of upper arm. Flexes elbow joint.
Brachialis. Deep to biceps. Flexes elbow joint.
CHEST.
Pectoralis major.
Covers the chest. Flexes the shoulder joint and
medially rotates it. Protracts
the shoulder girdle.
Pectoralis minor. Smaller and deep to pectoralis
major.
Holds the tip of the shoulder
down during arm movement.
ABDOMINAL WALL.
Rectus abdominis.
Column of muscle, one on
each side of the midline.
Flexes the trunk. One side
working, side flexes the trunk.
External obliques. Flat sheet of muscle passing
obliquely down and in from
ribs to pelvis and midline.
Rotates the trunk to the
opposite site, one side working
aids side flexion of the trunk.
Internal obliques. Flat sheet of muscle passing
obliquely upward and in from
pelvis, midline and ribs.
Rotates the trunk to the same
side, one side working aids
side flexion of the trunk.
THIGH.
Sartorius.
Diagonally across the front of
the thigh.
Flexes hip and knee joint.
QUADRICEPS (4).
Rectus femoris.
Vastus lateralis.
Vastus medialis.
Vastus intermedialis.
Front of thigh.
Front of thigh (superficial).
Lateral aspect of the thigh.
Medial aspect of the thigh.
Front of the thigh.
Large powerful group of
muscles which extend the knee
joint and keep it straight when
weight bearing.
HAMSTRINGS (3).
Bicep femoris.
Semimembranosus.
Semitendinosus.
Back of thigh. Work as a group to extend the
hip joint and flex the knee
joint.
Adductors (5). Medial aspect of the thigh. Group of muscles which
adduct the hip joint (pull
inwards) and rotate it laterally.
Abductors (3).
Gluteus medius.
Gluteus minimus.
Tensor fascia lata.

Outer buttock region.

Upper outer thigh.
Group of muscles which
abduct the hip joint (pull
outwards) and rotate it
medially.
Gluteus maximus. Large superficial buttock
muscle.
Extends the hip joint.

LOWER LEG. Dorsi flex the foot and invert it.
Tibialis anterior. Anterior, lateral aspect of
lower leg.
Gastrocenemius. Superficial calf muscle. Flexes the knee joint, plantar
flexes the foot.
Soleus. Deep to gastrocenemuis and
in the calf.
Plantar flexes the foot.
BACK.
Trapezius.

Covers the upper back.
Extends the head and elevates
the shoulders. When one side
is working it flexes the head to
the same side and elevates
one shoulder.
Latissimus dorsi. Covers the lower back. From
the lumbar region it passes
upwards and outwards and
insterts on the front of the
humerous.
Extends the shoulder jont and
medially rotates it. Raises the
trunk towards the arms as in
climbing.
Erector spinae. Lies deep to other muscles.
Forms 3 columns from lumbar
spine up to cervical spine.