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High-grade Granite-related Molybdenum Systems:

Classification and Origin


States t::;eological Survey, School of Mines, Reno, Nevada 89557-0047 U.S,A,
United States Geological Survey, 1200 University Drive, Anchorage, Alaska 99508-4667 U.S,A,
and
H.J.
United States Geological SurveYi MS 90S, Denver Federal Center, Denver. Colorado 50225 U.S,,,-;\.
WI{, and Stein, HJ, 1993, granite-reL'lted mOi'VD>CLenL,m
in Kirkham, R. V, Sinciair, TrdJrpe, RJ and Du,ke,
Carten, RR, White,
and
Deposit Modeling: ;",OhWlrYi{ Assoctation of Canada, Special Paper 40, p, 521-554,
Abstract
extractable molybdenulfi- is contained or
deposits. Based on hydrotrJ.rmal, the
divided two associations: (1) rift-related deposits
rhyolitic stocks; and (2) low-grade, arc-rela.ted dePOS1tS
or plutons. rllrI;nVTV two
rhyolite-aikalic suite or a monzogranLie respec-
the compositional. structural and thermal differences betu'een interplate
rift environments, Th,..ese differences affect that
upper crustal
generation of mafic tnagma. and tite associated
potassium. sodiurn, niobium, tantalum and uraniurn in
COTL'., ide red to the Jtlrrn..ation nf high-grade O()TlOrtVT'V flH)LVI"Lf";;IL,n
The high-sdica rhyolite-alkalic suite contains
- that are
centres
(1 protracted period of regional silicic magmatism, The
or with brittle failure (imbricate norrnal
exrel1aea upper crust. Differences an!.ong subclasses
the GS'1f1Pr'O"OI1,r,
States Geological Survey, 913 Cente::, Reston, Virginia 22092 C.S.A.
521
CARTEN E1'
reflectIng thr; addition
fluorine, chlorine, sulphur
introduction of volatiles
scavenge
cornponents L'olumes
f'nrichissement concomitant en fluori
intraplaque
TlC'rTrn'Vr"fJllPa teneUT.
magmas (par ex., injection
Pine Grove) et Ia formation
UfUlnnrUPllLl-'flJ dans
peuuent etre subdiuises en deux regroupernenrs:
de lnagnLatisrrlJ! de de stochs
a faibles teneUTS dan.s un contexte de
fluor" Les f5--risements
d rhyolites
pniCL4nt irarnediatenlent au accornpagnent Ia rn;'m'JLW;m
tion COUTante. ces evenements seraient ie re{let d 'un apport de
felsique. et plus solubles tels Ips
au degazage du
the associated
Granite-related mineral
denum,
522
of a common sequence
tectonic events that
centrations of metals.
an upper crustal chamber
differentiation of intermediate to felsic magma
~
or
volatiles into the root zone of
of vol-
residual magma into a near-surface
environment of 1-5
0. of volatiles and are , > n ~ ~ ~ ~ . , dur-
solidification of magma;
In VCln-
filled fractures or in skarn.
interrelated variables affect final pro-
derived from this sequence of events: the
Western United States
GRANITE-RELATED MOLYBDENUM SYSTEi\IS
523
Dep(lBiI (Ma) MethoJ
1. Clunax
Urad
-I Il,.
Middle IIltn.
Mt. Emmo"s
I\edweli BaBin
Mt. Hope
Mt Plellllllt1t.
HI. Pine, Grove
I. Questa
Cabin
14. Bordvika

16.
MalmbJerg
18. Flattll11eljeld
USCO
LJSMT
USCO
USCO
USNV
CNNB
USUT
USNM
USNM
NllWY
USTX
N!(WY
WILD
Cl(LIJ
Nordli NllWY
Throe IIi vcr" USN1\!
Poak USNM
Adanac
Aniluramba
HalJ Huttt.,
!:lell Moly
llJol'nttarn

CanlcBnian
CNHC
AUQL
SW[)N
CNIlC
Pl.!'!'!
KAl'
FT
:J9 KAr
1718 I( At
36<18 FT l(At
l(A!',lloSr
j(Ar, ArAr
1(Ar,
{(Ar
Estimate
34<17 At
71
HbS!'
FT l(Ar
,tH Esttmate
24(J
HoSr
I(i\r
El:ltilOulc
KAr
h.
UFb
JlJ7 K Ar
HI!
tedou i c and
and
Table
Production t
grade
References (Wt.'fu) Metal (%1 (%)
Gmnite-reIUl()d. lVIo: highsiliell He-alkalic
Bookstrom 76 Me
lUi. and L.W
(utl[lltbl.)
and (unpub!.)
e( (IY7:Jb)
Ranta (1974)
and Ga ley (1982)
Galey
II. Amini (writ.ten comm.,
Siloerman and
l(ooiman of OfJ86)
Keith a/.(19Sill
,jobnson 01. (1990)
,Joitnsotl al. (1990)
Naeser et al. (I B80),
01. (1986)
Frice Hnd (1986)
Sundvull (1978)
al. (1910),
uI (19'19),
Cleadow Hnd Brooke (HI79)
Cleaciow LWei (19791,
Stens!.top
Schonwandt anJ (lD83)
'I'[,omp0(./11 (lV7'2)
1',13, ThoHl{HHJn (puru ('U!l\riL,
lllJO)
n
77
76
76
76
77
Mo
Me
Mo
Mo
Mo
Mo
Mo\\'Sn
Mo
Mo
Mu
Mo
'I'll 1110
'l7r MoWNb
Mo
Mo
771 Mo
Mo
Mo
771 Mo
Gl'anite-relt!ted lVIo:
HlftC
HiftC
T
T
T
T
A
A
A
A
0.240
71
0.090
0.098
0098
lI.
100
Ol'l(J
0.144
o.m)O
O:lJ 0
o 0010
0.1
UOSI
CI,ricllopher and Pinson!. (19b2) Mo M 0.U9"
al (J
Witcher (1975), Hocum (1978) Mo M 0.1J70
1\",tud (1971)) Mo Iv! 0.100
Caeter M" M 0
Wilson and Fullicli (l8K2) Mo M 0
Wh,le cl "I. WIGS) Mo \\ 0.074
[Itlltlel and But'LOn (985) 71 Mo M 0.051
Mn
clltoH
(%1
0.12U Mineable
907
0.180
() 120
0.060
1 Of) 0.036
376 0.060
141 0.1 Mineable
0.060 Geologic
0.120
0.120 Mineaulc
O.O(i(j
40 0.200 Geologic
0.100 Mlflenble
O.lOO
IH] 0.0:10 ecologic
O.O(ill Ceolog ic
0.030
14 C(;o)ov,ic
Mineable
GtJuiuglC
1990)
S.H
UnpuLtI.
Unpubl. datil
01 (19880)
Wllilaco el a/. (IU'18j
W.H. ,Vltile (pet's. romm., 1990)
Wll.Wbite ltJHO)
Hantn (974)
cl (l981)
Thomas and Galey (1,182)
WHo White (writt," comm.,
cornm, 1::100)
Kooiman (l:Jt\il)
Silliloe IlK Hantn

Climm.,
Oltlwre (wr:tI.ctl comm.,
1979)
Call1crun (l986)
Schotlwandt(1979)
(l979), W.H.
COlum., 1990)
Ihlen at. (198:1.)
ond 'j'howaR'"n (1984)
and (198t)
(1986)
("dUB Hnd Tbompson (
Thooq)I:lUI,1
'I' H, ThUluptiu!\ (pOrt:L romm"

W lI. White 1990)
l\\l'khllill al
cOtnm.,I!)90)
(Ul7il)
Oblander (lDH5)
Kirkham
Knittel and Burton (198;',)
Cannivaf1
KOlllll'ad
HU8kin

4(). Pidgeon Ma
Quart'. Hill
I(ed Bird
Hed Mountuin
4G. Roundy
.1'/. Sturie Moly
Trout Lake
[,0. 'l'yrnYllu1.
York,] I fardy
Buckingham
Hall
Jill
Mocoa
60 Ml. Tolmall
Hilllt"
CNHC
PE[{u
CNIlC
CNBC
CNqU
CNlJC
YUGU
CNBC
SWIJN
CNON
c:,,({U
USN V
US!\K
CNLlC
CNYT
LIS 1Il
Lilms
CNBC
USNV
MXCO
lISNV
(j l:if'.
USWA
lJSNM
30
57
Tertiury
6670
iO
]Gli
fiO6U
:31
KAt
!( AI"
K
Estimate
KM,HbSr
I(M
U PO
E;jtlmale
1\
KAr
K Ar
I\ Ar
I<
KAr
K Ar
KAr
EHttrnullJ
KAt, Ul:'L
'1
KAr
1<
1197d)'
ai.
Sinclair
Wilaan alld Fallick (l8b2)
d 01 (l979)
(1981)
Sinclai,' (19i)6},
und l(uhlcrL (l91lG)
(1981)
Pant.eleyev (1980)
(107:1&),
Schmidt ai (1982)
Boyle Hnd Leit.eh (1
PaKlllav (1977)
( 1981
McKee (1 fJ:!2)
Holliater (1078u)
(1978)
W.lf Wb'tc (perti
Schcrkcnbac:h d (lUS:,)
Loon anJ Slillor (lDSl)
(19841
WaHm comm.,
Sdlll"o ct "I. (1980
W.C. Utlahack (I/C"8
Thompson (1982)
67
70
mg
mg?
!fig
68
?:l
7:3
Mo
Mo
Mo
MoW
Mo
Mo
MoBi

Mo
hlo
Mu
1\10
Mulli
Hi
Mo
Mo
Mo
Mo
Mo
Mo

MoW
[e-related
70
mg
mg

M(ICu

Moen
Moen
MoCu
Mo ell
:\IuCu
Arc
liiftC
M
:VI
Iv!
Iv!
Iv!
M
Iv!
hi
M
M
M
M
1\1
M
M
M
M
M
o O:JG
O.()Vl
O.ISO
0.087
Ill!
00:31
() OBO
O.ODO
o
OOBO
0060
O.Ob4
(Jon
O.OBI
0.108
0.100
O.20S
0.078
0.110
0.138
() 065
lJ
(J.O:')"
0010
0069
O.OiIG
OOJ(J
0.074
(I
0.091
0.100
0.056
(i.OS!
0.070
0.034
0040
(UIIO
0074
o
0.060
0071
(103C1
0100
O.ODO
o O,lQ
0.100
Geolugic
10()
30
o
108 iJ.u60 Ueologic
l\1ilH!able
162 Ce,ilogic
14
C(:ulogic
Guulo"ie
Gvol()/iiie
Geologic
181 O.O:lO Gculogic
G.OOO
1,216 0.027 G cologie
793 0.060 Milleable
O.OGO
IWi O.IJGIJ
Geulogic
101 OOH)
181 O.ObO Geologic
0.060
50
0.120 Geologie
1l.()6(J Gcologic
Gt1ulogic
O.U60 (J,,(,logic
00
060 Geologic
0.060
IllJ
126 0.060 hlinoablo
Minl'able
907 Ccolugic
G00jOgie
0.036 Miru]llblc
0.027 Geologic
Worl.hington (l9'l7)
Ki,.kl,,"1\ el ,,/. (1982)
(J lfollistcr(197SlJ)
Sut\l:OV (
Kirkham cl oi.
NuLlo 01 a/. rt9iJ1, 19iJ61
I'lid,c,. and (I WIG)
H.T (wnttell
comm., (961)
I{lrkhurn ('l (ri. (1982)
Ohltmder 11885)
Kirkham cl nl. (l Dil21
K,rlrhaltl (ID8:1,)
K. I(oxlo and E. Ilanl.a (writl.en
191>2)
K. floxla Hanta
comm, 19\JO)
(omlll.,lfJ90)
Kirkham Wid;!')
and Kalrlerc (I fI8!i)
Kirkham (1982)
Bloomer (If)81)
Schmidt "I. (1982)
Boyle and (l9S:l)
Sutuloy (19'78)
W.H. Wbite (pors. comm., 19(0)
Whito 10:1())
W.H. cumm.,I!)90)
WH. CtHllm,I!I!II.!)
W H comm.,IUHO)
IV II, Whit" comm.,I!i!)OI
IV.!!. COll\ l1\. , 1!1!)(t)
WIt. ,'ottltll.,I!IDOI
W.l COinm, lU90)
S.H comm., t!190)
Sill,loe cl al
W.C.
cumm.,19di,)
119GB, and
comm., 1990;, [1"lilSter (1978b)
Table X
cut-of!'
CmJ11try" (Mo) Method HefereneeN (wt.%) Metal (%) (%)
GraniLtl-:related
Andina CILl': b nl. (1983), :3,000 Geolot,ic
(1085)
Damon and Mauger (l9GGI 0030 0480
(lGBI) 0.031 0.348 308
While al. (l8G8)
Warnaars o/. (UJ78) Ndtionul
CNYT l( Ar Godwin gel O:l7O
l\CUR 11 MullerKahle and Damon Illg euMo 00:10 0700
(lD7(J), Snelling ([970)
CILE I{Ar Ambnl8 (19'17) mg CuMo () SululoY (1978)
70. Copper Mtn. CNQU KAr Alkuck (l982) gd'lIIg CuMo
() Allcoek (1982),
Kirkham e/ ,,/ (1982)
L'EIW 01. (1990) Cll1vh) O.02fi 0.700 SUlnloy (1\)711), 8alchwdl (1983)
C!LE Custufson Hnd Hunt (1976) Cu*Mo LIllO 5:l5 An;brnB (1978)
73 ill ']'eniente (1983 ) Cll-illo 0030 0.68U 8,350 SUIliloy (1978), Gilmour (1982)
74 Gnawed Mln. (I ()45 ,14 Kirkham et
Hlghmont CNBC Nortb role mg CoMo 0045 0.258 l\irl,ham
Cht'lsmns III (I9tlfll
'16 Lawici<u (1976) Cu-Mu 0.050 0:300 100 SUlulov (1978),
Sillitue et 01 (1984)
KiyulykhUzen' UlmS Co-illo 0.050 1000 Sutuloy (l9'18)
La AlumLrura ACTN 0010 0400 100 Slltuluy (
Los l'elambres CILE 10 I llild Sou v iron
0.029 0.280 IS] Miller (1976)
PErm 0.022 o.no Gilmoor (lfJb2)
Purk USAZ n KAr 72 CllMo 0.530 Lowell
H3 M'Jl:hu CILE gd 0030 l.OOO 107
Needle Min. O.O:l5 lIirkham et ai (19821
Ox Lake 86 l{-Ar f{ichards (1976)
}\lramount CNllC 186 (1972) Kirilham (1982)
IJuHhpup PEHU 15 ell-Mil 0.('50 O.bOO Geologlc Gilmour
(1984 )
Quellaveco PEf{lJ CuMo O.1J30 O.U50 200 liu!l,sler
CILl:: CuMo () 010
WAN Mo 00:10 Hamill'"1 (1975)
Hnd
Schar, Crook CNIJC 18(, KAr Pailluloyoy unJ DuduH (19'72) 0020 03ilil HIl7 l\lrkboltl vi 01. (I
USAZ I( AI' unJ KiHlloc (1962), CuMo (J O:IO! 7 I(rlli, llD7b)
CuMo () 024 0.130 113 Guologlc
Cooner (19731 I{elly ml(7) CuMo 0 0.ti33 41:1
libted for whicll reii"lrle grMI" and lonnage uvailable. IlcpOSll" without and tonnage informaLion mentIOned tho lI1.c:iud"d in for add,tlonui or
wldcomed.
Bulletin 16(1:J
recalculated
Hno:wd on [tr!hyJn.Jll::l com.pol:liLtvll., normalized Lo 100
0
(0; !lod
[(ift designatiun mantle or deep mantle upwelling;
IVlle; '1', transitional type; A, ulkul,r M,
01' IJrll'l IIf
of an individual IS
minerai economics. As an eXlli'I1-
have a
reserves underestimate or do not include
copper. these most de-
that contain economic or subeconomic con-
centrations of either of these metals are either copper
0.3
J<

0.1
"
6


-
6
?fl
0.03
6
-
0

0.01
0.003
0.001
O. i 0.3 3
literature.
SYSTEMS
. }
loS are
This restricted distribution of ages cannot ex-
the erosion of older
erOSion no
with the onset of basin
blocks are buried beneath detritus and should have
of survival similar to that of other basin-
such as sediment-hosted sul-
the mantle and crust, as a result of
processes in the lower mantie related to subduction
As will alkali basalt is a critical
in the formation of
rocks in arc
formed in association with more felsic
rocks continental-rift
527
CARTEN ET :\L
in the
m nCWT, nFT">'
mafic to intermediate
528
140
r H

i 20 L- N

o
break .A.s V/ill be
100
and associated ore bodies are
into tectonic environments. The
of
related to intracontinen-
Cu-Mo, and Me-Cu Deposits
'.MO 16,0 million tonnes; -
OJ
5i6 million iormes
200 300 400 500 500
the literature.
IS to
events and processes re-
for their occurrence. fea-
tures common and distinctive
we can evaluate the effects of extensive
intensive variables on the outcome
The the number and
cause economic
recent additions to
sive variables.
C-lJlCH 'lo;C" in extensive and inten-
classification schemes and
3
models are less
less reliable,
based and conse-
, Kll,yoirtE'-ilJKal;1C suite
, IT'diIion tOfmes
...--2
r
+-'

0

-
o
o 100 200 300 400 500 600
calc-alkaline magma. Less successful classifications
of t\VO fundamen-
environments:
rift. The rift environment
related
, Bookstrom.
tholeiitic to
the presence of normative
This also includes
normative transitional basalts that
eline-normative alkali basalts. In
with concentrations of
in tholeiitic and alkaiine magmas
and enriched in alkalic rocks.
Differences trace-element and volatile contents
of crustal magma in part reflect the of
mantle from which basalts were
derived. DePaolo
crust in island-arc and continental-arc
duct ion
tin ental and
mantle
has em-
GRANITEREL\TED yl0LYBDENUM SYSTEMS
mantle sources
associated with magma
million years that form in the middle to later
of an extended of
tism. As IS
fractionation col-
an upper crustal magma chamber
strontlrnn-
support a
silica associated with
Henderson and Mount Emmons
Stein and Crock. 19901.
mafic lower crust or subcontinental mantle may have
roles in the of evolved
magma critical volatiles, Involvement
of upper crust in the
level chambers is minimal
the heat
transfer of mass,
essential to the formation of economic
tems, The
4'
IS tone
common occurrence of mixed mafic and felsic mag
gases are consistent with a
529
CARTEN ET liL.
tion et aI., 1978: Irwin and
concentrations of fluorine are
environments associated mafic volcanism
al
the abundance major elements
-o
530
0,4
0.2
based classifications are
, ,1'
m magma Laan are vana-
the abundance of trace elements, Unfor-
and rare
The common oCC'Jrrence of
the loss of elements to
effect subsolidus
:0.099
A ..
0.209':: A
. A
o k-__ __ __ ____
0.02 0.03 0,05 0.1 0,15 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
thermal alteration hinder any
sification, Because of
the combined
of both classes
similar processes of ore
formation,
8
N = 47
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
., .... --i
:3 30 100 300 1000
Differentiated
100 tonnes (or 200 and
t" mean
0.09% Mo and 50 lUt
features. This
elements of the tectonic 0V"V'Uh
as subclasses for discussion purposes,
of this suite are considered as of
contL'1Uum. All of these de-
05
0.3
s!-"
0.05
0.03
0.02
0,01
1000 10000
Climax-Henderson Mo Me-Cu CLl-Me
II A
o
:2:
GRt\NITERELATED MOLYBDENUM SYSTEMS
Climax
as intermediate
as used in pa-
The Climax and Henderson
the mag-
and tectonic characteristics of
Climax and Henderson
0.35
0.3
0.25
!II Climax
0.2
iii Henderson
O. 5
0.1
0.05
o L ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ __ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ __ ~ ~ ~
o 200 1400
Climax-Henderson Transitional Alkalic
531
ETAL.
Structural and
wae of a'.lSW Colondo mmernl belt

Composition of initial
in !he region
532
Calc-Iilkaline
(rntermediate )
Table II
characteristics of selected ,,,,rn!lV,'V nlOlyr,ae:nttm
28 18 22
Cootinelltl!.! Continenti!.! Cootillif'llllIl
ex!cnsion extel!2ion exten.rion
Yt:3 Ye3 Yes
50 50 25
-280 -300 -210
Vent Vent? Vent
Colorndo minad CoIorndo ll'Iinad Pioche minetll.! belt
belt beit
Rio
GWlderift Great &sin Rift
Post-ore Conternpcnnrous
to post-ore (to 1 TIl. y_
younger)
Calc-allWine Calc-allWine Calc-allWine
(gWlodiorite; (andesi te-4ci!e-
mo!1ZOO.ite myoii!c }
rhyolite (JT) myolite ()6)
Yes Yes
No Yes Yes
No No No
37
Conrinellllll
ene!!.$ioll
Yes
30
-190
Veil!., slIYill

Post-oce
Calc-allWille
?
?
No
GRANITE-RELATED .:'vlOLYBDENUM SYSTEMS
I High-silica Hl
J
suite
Differentiated
I
Transitional Alkalic
I
I
I BigBen uvePeak mbja:g Nocdli
I
Boo:!vib Compolli!ed
I
23-25 51
I
36 30 247-200
I
290 30-186 d
I
I
i
I
!
i Con!:inenu.!
I Con!:inenu.!
Continenu.! Continenu.! Coo.tinenu.! Col1Unenu.!
I

I
I extension eJttelYioo exteruion exteMioo
!

I
Yes
I
Yell
I Yes
Yes Yes Yes Corr,mon
I I
I
40-50
1
40 40
I
35 30 I <40, typiWJy 30-40 !
!
!
I
I
I I
-270
!
-160 I -ISO 7
'[
? >-2"'1
j
I

I
None Ver!J.1 I Caldera mugin; Caldera
I
GelW:illy 00 I
I
vent? margin edifice pre:rerved
I
I
! !
I lemezwne'7
I I
i
None Bmble li_ bell:
I
Yes
I
Lewis IDd QlllK None &mille
I
!
I line
I
I
linear belt
I L
I

I Trn.ruverne
I
'"'ProtoRRio Initial magmatic Oslo Rift 0310 Rift
i
?
Grnnde rift Gomde rift lineament
I i
j
I
I

I
Contemporaneous '7
'[
I
Pre-ore to
I
I
contemponme<:lW
I I to (3-5 I
I
I
I
I m.y. yoonga)
I
,
I
I
Calc-allailine Alkaline Tholeiitic basalt; AlWine Calc-alb! in"
(mdesite-dacitt>- (mten:nediate) ; (traclI ybasalt- traclIybasalt- (syenite- ttu:hyl:;asa!t- (quartz diorite -
myolite alkaline (syerutt>- traclIyte-myolite ) monzonite) traclIyte-rl:iyolite quartz monzodiorite -
,UHVU" HC,
,
I a'1gv",,,n
High-silic High-silica High-silica High-silica I-lig,."'-silica
Hioh_.ili""

myoiite (TT) myolite (7T) myolitt>- myolite (TT) myolite (TT)
No
? No No ? No
Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Trace Yes
Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes
533
CARTE]'.; ET
ClilllJiX Mt.Emmons MlHope
composition at
productive in;rusiOrul
RbISI' 25 135 6.5 10 4.2
t<olZr 1.7 1.6 OA2 OAl 7 (No = 24 ppm)
u (x cl!oOOrite) 80 95 80 40 ?
N+Kji (wt.%) 93 8.6 Ill; 117 ?
co-genetic rock;
rocks No No No No No
Yes Yes
I
?
Albli No No No Yes ?
Dilcite O mollIDgrWte No No No Yes
Evidence foe lll.lWc-felllic Yes Yes No Yes
?

time for unmixed >2 lILy. >L5lILY ? :>;1 m.y. ?
high-level InIilgIDa in ciwnber
In;rusion or extrusion of topaz ClJ.ill;; Mountain 0-4 nLY. Woods Mountain Boston PeU:: Wah Wah NOll
myolite (age relalive to yooager) (4 m.y. younger) (8 m.y. younger) m.y.
younger)
Composition of younger None BlI.Salt-i"hyolite TrachylUldesite- BlI.Salh-ilyoiite
regional ma.gmali3m myolite (2 IlL y. (19-23 MI.)
younger)
HYDROTHERMAL
Fluorite Yes Yes
Garnet Yes Yes
Topaz Yes Yes Yes Yes ?
Cassiterite Yes Trace Yes ? ?
Wolframite Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Scheelite No No No No Yes (hornfels)
2.8 4.6 9.7
039 '[
0.43
35 '1 1
ll5 8.9 8.9
Yet!l Ye$ Yes
Ye;; Ye3 No
No No Ye3
Yes 'I No
Yes Ye$ Yes
I
I
I !
I <1 rIJ..y.'I I '1
I
<1 m.y.
I
I
I
f N
"logo Pm; Gnniie I No I ,Olle
I
Moon!ain
I
!
!
(1 m.y. younge!)
I
I
~ y o i i i (6 m.)'.
I
Tro:hyb.-.lt
!
yoonga}
,
I
I
. Minoc No
!
Yes
I
M.inoc
!
No
I
No
Yes Yes Yes
No No No
Trace No Yes
'1 No Yes
'I No Yes
No No No
n.
r
Mnrl,.,...,,"
8.9
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
I
i
11
I
I No
I
I
I None
!
!
I
I Yes
I
No!
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
NQ
C-"tnmfh.,
GRANITE-RELATED MOLYBDENUM SYSTEMS
'1
1
1
1
Yes Yes
Yes '1
No Yes
No
1
I
'I
I
No No
I
Syenite '{
7 !
! !
'1
Yes Yes
! ?
'1 1
!
'1 ?
!
I
I No
I Uncommon
,
I No
I ~
I !
I Unknown.
I
I
No
I
I
I
None
I
I
I
No
Uncommon
U
Uncommon
No
No
No
Yes
I
I
,
I
I
I
I
I
535
CARTEN ET
200
150
100
.0
70
Z
50
536
Pine Grove and
the term "Cli-
Climax and Henderson.
and
localities at which tectonic
conditions 'Nere
of
A

"A
A A 41.
A A
-1
Urad-Henderson
100 120 150170 200
--
r"
t:
a..
a..
-
.0
a::
intnlsions arc characterized
that
500
000

A


-,
t=':
500
A
x
A
A
200
100
Urad-Henderson
Sr
Pre-Henderson Main Late
A
to th,.;Jse that
associated with
late intrcLSions that were
evolved
mation.
RR Carten and L.iN.
with the for-
The absence of such common accessory miner-
als as and titanite from Climax and Hender-
fractionated
intrusions at Climax and
>
elements among stocks of
show both a continuous
variation with age of intrusion and an
discontinuous variation at the of forma-
tion of the Henderson Elements that
over time include zirconium
The behaviour
of these elements can be accounted for
fractionation of monaz ite and zircon
Other trace elements
Rb increases from 460 ppm to ppm,
from 1 20.5 PpmJ Ta increases
to and Nb increases from 94
ppm. These increases followed the forma-
into which the
of was em-
stocks and a se-
cond brecciation event was followed intrusion of
Seriate
stock
al variations cannot
fractionation. The occurrence
brecciation and con-
with mineralization that dif-
ferentiation and ore concentration may involved
rocks of
Crock,
Frazier
of trace metals volatile
rocks at Climax and Henderson
Both
tuff may have
et from local vents of
magma chamber as underlies the Urad-
Henderson system.
Additional features of
nent to this paper are recorded In Table II. Par-
et al.,
most
GRANITE-REL4.TED MOLYBDENUM SYSTEMS
relative to transitional u",,,,,,,,,,,,,,
thick
the absence
are similar in
and tectonic char-
aderistics to the Henderson and Climax
This
are associated with met-
contain fluorine-rich
and
association with
Cave
older Urad
closer in character to transitional
from
contains similar con-
ZIrCOnIUm
may represent a Paleozoic transitional
The correlation of niobium and zirconiurn
concentrations as de-
is characteristic of alkaline and re-
of zircon in the magma. The
rather than of zircon
units of the Latir volcanic field
and in-
relative concentrations of niobium and zir-
conium in transitional may reflect the de-
537
CARTEN ETAL
gree and of interaction of mafic alkali -rich
magma or
chamber. Mahood (
ment
1
alumHI0US
200
100
.0
Z
50
50 100
chlorine and
a similar pro-
and
o
ME
RS
200 300 500
magmas enrichment trends similar to those
of mineralized metaluminous
aluminous intrusions
of mafic and felsic magmas
has been observed at most The presence of
B
1500
1000
A. !Ill
!Ill
t
A.
!Ill !ill I
;}!l
!ill
A. A ~
!ill
CP
t
~
JA.A.:A..
-.
500
--
A.
:"J'"
E
A.
a. A.
a.
---
.0
a: ~ M H
200
100
Questa Mt Pleasant Transit!onal Alkalic
G. Pouliet (written comm.,
Mount Emmons Stein
Keith and Shanks Redwell Basin (RB
D.E. Cameron
magma
538
may have been coincident with the arrival
the base of the
fractionation
at Pine Grove was less extensive
than at Henderson and CILmax
matic fractionation and for
fertile intrusions characteristic of
transitional
shov!s no evidence for caldera or vent formation and
are similar to those of the Climax-
Grades in ore zones exceed
and the Most
mineralization. Concentrations of Cu
GHANITE-HEL"'-TED MOLYBDENU:Y'[ SYSTEMS
above and within
range from 50 to 500 ppm. not
Cu content is ~ 5 0 1 0 0 ppm in the ore zone of
Lower copper concentrations
may resuit from
fractionation.
noted that fluids evolved late in the
events arc
0.24% are
intrusive breccia that lies above a stock in
the intrusive at Goat Hill. Intrusive
is not common at Mount and Pine but
magma
of and
may reflect
Alkalic.
volcanic
intrusions
events. In this
that one of the two more
resurgence is vesiculation of
caldera formation. The resurgence
the formation of intrusive breccias
intrusions
enriched In niobium
of the
their strong alkaline these
539
CARTEN
way. In cases, mineralizatioL is related
to brecciation and follows this event. At
Marble
surface south\vest
and are unbrecciated and unmineralized.
eralization succeeded
"'''FDr,"V surrounds the tectonic affiliations
in the United States.
the Great
540
correlated with shallow subduction oceanic crust
American at
1981). As
that middle
volcanic centres southwestern
New Mexico and the Great Basin were formed
Basin is related
subduction.
dude from
rather than a
Ma'
calc-alkal inc
a bimodal basalt-
used to date the
concluded t h ~
basaltic rocks ofTrarIs-Pecos Texas
of the tectonic that Cenozoic subduction did
affect volcanism in this area.
character of the 38-32
to inheritance of com-
Proterozoic.
noted that mafic lavas
to ca. 20
as 1.vithin a true
subduction.
simiiar sequence of diachronous
events in many of the stnlc-
of the Great Basin and
COITtmon middle
younger
or basaltic volcanism is
related to extension. Based on evidence of a flat
beneath both extended and non-extended ter-
the Great Gans that
upper crust overlies a
lower crust-mantle. De-
ductile may
in structural do-
faults but that may have been
Such a domain is found in and
central Colorado. It is within these less-extended
upper crustal domains that most
dcnUlll form.
the axis of the Rio
Grande alkalic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks in
the Trans-Pecos of west Texas vol-
canism and caldera 32-38 Ma: and
central Colorado: for
Obradovich Mount Aetna
Between
areas, the 35-26 ;VIa Sierra Blanca
of
of Hialtoo Three Rivers and Cone
The alkalic character of the volcanic-subvolcanic
that are associated with
observed,
ore-related magma-
tism thickness of
continental crclst intersected the
Rio Grande rift
tudes Other factors such as
zones of crustal weakness and rate of magma flow
account for local variations in ofmag-
rna observedo To the south, thin crust
alkaline volcanism dominated, Farther north
thicker Precambrian
and Sierra alkaline and calc-aLkaline magma-
tism are mixedo Still farther Precambrian crust
and alkalic with
GRANITE-RELATED p.l0LYBDENUlVI
necessary to maintain
above its soliduso Alkaline
magma chamber
Creek
as in the
, Cruistiansen alo, IS an un-
source for these differentiated magmaso In
CA!JtJ';,C;U to similar stress and thermal
near-surface ascent of mafic magma is more
Smaller volumes of felsic melt are
because of more heat ioss and shorter residence
the crusto values are corre-
Other
off
Rift and reflect the continuation of young felsic mag-
from the axis to the of the Rio
basinHo In a similar manner, younger
in the Great Basin has
of the
nature of extensional
accounts for the differences in age of the
The transitional at
located on the Transverse
, (" ,
ana ,-,OaK
Ma:
belt of
characterized at its
sys- northeastern end volcanic and subvolcanic rocks
This
viewed as
occurred beneath the
Climax and Hendersono The
crust behaved more
column than thinner crusL
at
thicker continental
and acted as
ascent of mafic mag-
Because these silicic volcanic
centres appear to have lifetimes (::c 1
a ificant volume of mafic rn.agma must be
added the to thermal energy
of the Montana alkalic
with an intermediate calc-alkalic
541
CARTENETAL
alkalic rocks uncommon and calc-
alkalic and younger bimodal basalt
be a of the younger
matism. The distribution
northeast to southwest is
north distribution of 'te'Ln:;UU,;::'
Rio Grande rift:
and calc-alkalic.
In
tions of alkali
desite and in East Greenland Gleadow
of voluminous tholeiitic
the formation of volcanic
and subvolcanic alkalic centres that host
dentL"1l this transition corre-
in Trans-Pecos
in the volcanic centres
felsic with
mineralization is
sociated with a younger suite
volcanism is not observed.
The alkalic-related
influx of alkaline magma,
The
formed in
occurred at levels below the
transitional and Climax-
542
in those
and
denum a more direct vievv of pro-
5.2 ppm; and in .5 ppm.
Price et al. observed that all of the studied
rocks in the Trans-Pecos are char-
the mafic rocks.
Interaction of lower crust basalt is
in mafic rocks associated with silicic lavas
the 38-32 Ma and
The small volume of
in these otherwise alkalic systems
were volatile flux of
thermal
may account for the
concentrations of niobium and
in rocks such as those at Marble - Cave
P ,
LeaK.
The alkalic of East Greenland are simi-
1ar to those of the Trans-Pecos Nielsen
concluded that the small
rocks intruded into the
crust and contamination with undersaturated mag-
ma. The less well-described
are similar in tee-
character to the East Greenland
with
Pine Grove. Similar
rocks may appear in the root zones of
magma chambers Henderson and Cli-
max. Their the local
m the
in and
from the differentiation of
and mineralized intrusions
processes of
of
in magma associated with ore-
Mount Ernmons. Henderson
the of
the ultimate source for the
derivation magma in mineralized com-
and involves both mantle and crustal compo-
Based on detailed and
of the et al.
were
Stress
com-
MOLYBDENUM
extension-related per-
in the lower middle crust and preven-
tion of brittle failure of the upper crust. ex-
tended upper crust is u.'1iavourable for the formation
stable magma chambers essential to the
of
strain in the crust increases
rate of ascent of mafic magma.
Volatile flux may dramat-
of
upper crustal magma chfullber.
basalt may not mix
and in the formation of
Mahood
35-f01d increase between intrusions with
and
these elements are also enriched in ore-associated
metaluminous magma. The common occurrence of
intrusive breccia may reflect the additional involve-
ment of a volatile that has low m
This volatile enrich-
of metasomatism be-
of alkali
elements
LIL
and
543
CARTEN ETAL
0,711
0,710
0.708
0,707
0.714
0,712
0,710
0.708
=- 08 '_"- 71
~ ~ ~ --- 0,8 1::6
72 - - _ ~ v
~
56
0,706
0.704 Basalt ,;.
o 500 000
544
Redwell
05122 ~ $
Mt
Redwell
::yClimax
0.5128 r--------------------,
1500
A'
0,5126
l:J
Z 0.5122
Mt
2000 o 20 30 40 50 60
!
I
-'
", I
A' ~
70
The
ore
of introduction of and
in the magma chamber is not
tend-
et al.
the introduction of dacitic magma
of the chamber into the upper
eVl-
GRANITE RELATED MOLYBDENUM SYSTEM
a1.
were in the chamber and
of mafic magma. Their data are the
for the direct of
with
and other
are intro-
are involved in of concentration. For exam-
V ~ U U A volatiles may the structure of
the melt and increase the
ueULlHl in transitional and
that most of the mag-
and in the or8-
dur-
de-
of sources. Keith
nrrm'rlD" a summary of evidence for the deri-
from the mamle. Additional
includes the presence of
In non-
in the litho-
of mantle-derived alka-
line magma and volatiles. ocean-island
an uncontaminated of
546
continental
In
active additions will both contribute the formation
of a
of such events. More critical are the formation
volumes and the
tion and time of mafic-derived volatiles In-
troduced into the magma chamber.
tantalum and
magma chamber. The interaction of
rocks with this enhances the
of formation of a transitional Cli-
of this tec-
tonic association can be difficult. Alkalic rocks
behind an arc
the cessation
7
(ii
U
0
E
c
::J
,
Rhyodacite
(monzogranite)
Dacite
(granodiorite)
Andesite
Tholeiitic
basalt
(J
<;:
!\!
E
0
ill
iii
cr:.
Adal1l!.C
Yorke-Hardy
Buckingham
Porphyry Cu
Bingham
Nogal Peak
GR?NITE-RELATED MOLYBDENU1\1 SYSTEM
Mrumbjerg
Nordi!
Rhyolite
(ij
u
o
E
CD
,
basalt
Calc-Alkaline
CI, F, C ~ Nb, Zr, Y, Zn, Ta, Rb, Na, K (volatiie flux)
Alkaline
Rate of Percolation
moderate. The volatiles derived magma may
centres. At extensional strain or the onset
volcanic centres are 110
tlw cn..LSt an.4 minor volumes
Hildreth
547
CARTEN ET
ible-element-enriched
volatile
of the alkalic
between the two
of
and concentration
magma chamber. Low con-
may contain lesser volumes
ate magma because of their formation thicker
extended
10\ver and middle crust.
solved in meta luminous
derived magma is essential
felsic magma of
or all of these ,-,V",U1JVU<C LH,,;'
the matu-
processes that effi-
dis-
4. continental crust is critical to the forma-
because
of mafic magma, serves as
an extended fractionation contributes
volumes of felsic from its lower levels to a
a stable upper level suitable for
magma chambers.
5. Extensive fractionation of magTIla
essential to the forma-
tion of an alkalic or
of introduction of mafic-derived volatiles into
magma chamber. The the volume of
548
for
stable chambers increase the
that mafic-derived volatile will be
interact with a
to
of
small-volume melts.
R
are
magma from
extended lower crust
and
in a volcanic centre,
formation of the maximum
and to brittle failure of upper
Cr'..lst. Under conditions of low moderate rates
total extensional strain
of mafic magma and volatiles
of volatiles
with evolved magma. Continued e;,.i:ension ultimate-
leads to failure of the upper crust and of
mafic less felsic
cr'..lstal chambers that reser-
de-
systems can
Slve processes
magma chamber remain to be defined.
One of
EaSL Greenland: Nieddelelse:r om
the elu-
ore In
and
- Cannivan
In
p.
GRANITERELATED Ivl0LYBDENUM SYSTEMS
aCld Rex. D,C.. 1970, KAr
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Arizona Geological
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S,
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549
550
ET
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CARTEN
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1986,
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Ie
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p.698-699.
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CARTEN ET
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