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23

Resistance
No pain, no palm; no thorns, no throne; no gall, no glory; no cross,
no crown.
William Penn
c h a p t e r
2
Historical Proles
Georg Simon Ohm (17871854), a German physicist, in 1826
experimentally determined the most basic law relating voltage and cur-
rent for a resistor. Ohms work was initially denied by critics.
Born of humble beginnings in Erlangen, Bavaria, Ohm threw him-
self into electrical research. Ohms major interest was current electric-
ity, which had recently been advanced by Alessandro Voltas invention
of the battery. Using the results of his experiments, Ohm was able to
dene the fundamental relationship among voltage, current, and resist-
ance. This resulted in his famous lawOhms lawwhich will be cov-
ered in this chapter. He was awarded the Copley Medal in 1841 by the
Royal Society of London. He was also given the Professor of Physics
chair in 1849 by the University of Munich. To honor him, the unit of
resistance is named the ohm.
Ernst Werner von Siemens (18161892) was a German electrical
engineer and industrialist who played an important role in the devel-
opment of the telegraph.
Siemens was born at Lenthe in Hanover, Germany, the oldest of
four brothersall of whom were distinguished engineers and industri-
alists. After attending grammar school at Lbeck, Siemens joined the
Prussian artillery at age 17 for the training in engineering that his father
could not afford. Looking at an early model of an electric telegraph,
invented by Charles Wheatstone in 1837, Siemens realized its possi-
bilities for making improvements and for international communication.
He invented a telegraph that used a needle to point to the right letter,
instead of using Morse code. He laid the rst telegraph line in Germany
with his brothers, William Siemens and Carl von Siemens. The unit of
conductance is named in his honor.
Georg Simon Ohm
SSPL via Getty Images
Ernst Werner von Siemens
Hulton Archive/Getty
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Introduction
In the last chapter, we introduced some basic concepts such as current,
voltage, and power in an electric circuit. To actually determine the val-
ues of these variables in a given circuit requires that we understand some
fundamental laws that govern electric circuits. These lawsknown as
Ohms law and Kirchhoffs lawsform the foundation upon which
electric circuit analysis is built. Ohms law will be covered in this chap-
ter, while Kirchhoffs laws will be covered in Chapters 4 and 5.
We begin the chapter by rst discussing resistanceits nature and
characteristics. We then cover Ohms law, conductance, and circular
wires. We present color coding for physically small resistors. We will
nally apply the concepts covered in this chapter to dc measurements.
Resistance
Materials in general have a characteristic behavior of opposing the ow
of electric charge. This opposition is due to the collisions between elec-
trons that make up the materials. This physical property, or ability to
resist current, is known as resistance and is represented by the symbol
R. Resistance is expressed in ohms (after Georg Simon Ohm), which
is symbolized by the capital Greek letter omega (). The schematic
symbol for resistance or resistor is shown in Fig. 2.1, where R stands
for the resistance of the resistor.
The resistance of any material is dictated by four factors:
1. Material propertyeach material will oppose the ow of current
differently.
2. Lengththe longer the length , the more is the probability of col-
lisions and, hence, the larger the resistance.
3. Cross-sectional areathe larger the area A, the easier it becomes
for electrons to ow and, hence, the lower the resistance.
4. Temperaturetypically, for metals, as temperature increases, the
resistance increases.
Thus, the resistance R of any material with a uniform cross-sectional area
A and length (as shown in Fig. 2.2) is directly proportional to the length
and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area. In mathematical form,
(2.1)
where the Greek letter rho r is known as the resistivity of the mate-
rial. Resistivity is a physical property of the material and is measured
in ohm-meters (-m).
The cross section of an element can be circular, square, rectangu-
lar, and so on. Because most conductors are circular in cross-section,
the cross-sectional area may be determined in terms of the radius r or
diameter d of the conductor as
(2.2) A pr
2
pa
d
2
b
2

pd
2
4
R r
/
A
The resistance R of an element denotes its ability to resist the ow
of electric current; it is measured in ohms ().
2.2
2.1
24 Chapter 2 Resistance
R
Figure 2.1
Circuit symbol for resistance.
l
Cross-sectional
area A
Material with
resistivity
Figure 2.2
Aconductor with uniform cross section.
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The resisitivity r varies with temperature and is often specied for
room temperature.
Table 2.1 presents the values of r for some common materials at
room temperature (20C). The table also shows that materials can be
classied into three groups according to their usage: conductors, insu-
lators, and semiconductors. Good conductors, such as copper and alu-
minum, have low resistivities. Of those materials shown in Table 2.1,
silver is the best conductor. However, a lot of wires are made of cop-
per because copper is almost as good and is much cheaper. In general,
the resistance of a conductor increases with a rise in temperature. Insu-
lators, such as mica and paper, have high resistivities. They are used
in forming the insulating coating of copper wires. Semiconductors,
such as germanium and silicon, have resistivities that are neither high
nor low. They are used in making transistors and integrated circuits.
There is even a considerable range within the conductor group.
Nichrome (an alloy of nickel, chrome, and iron) has resistivity roughly
58 times greater than that of copper. For this reason, Nichrome is used
in making resistors and heating elements.
The circuit element used to model the current-resisting behavior
of a material is the resistor. For the purpose of constructing circuits,
resistors shown in Fig. 2.3 are usually made from metallic alloys and
carbon compounds. The resistor is the simplest passive element.
2.2 Resistance 25
TABLE 2.1
Resistivities of common materials.
Material Resistivity (-m) Usage
Silver 1.64 10
8
Conductor
Copper 1.72 10
8
Conductor
Aluminum 2.8 10
8
Conductor
Gold 2.45 10
8
Conductor
Iron 1.23 10
7
Conductor
Lead 2.2 10
7
Conductor
Germanium 4.7 10
1
Semiconductor
Silicon 6.4 10
2
Semiconductor
Paper 10
10
Insulator
Mica 5 10
11
Insulator
Glass 10
12
Insulator
Teon 3 10
12
Insulator
Figure 2.3
From top to bottom -W, -W, and 1-Wresistors.
Sarhan M. Musa
1
2
1
4
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From Table 2.1, the resistivity of copper is obtained as r
. Thus,
/
0.5 6 10
6
1.72 10
8
174.4 m
R r
/
A
/
RA
r
1.72 10
8
-m
26 Chapter 2 Resistance
Calculate the resistance of an aluminum wire that is 2 m long and of
circular cross section with a diameter of 1.5 mm.
Solution:
We rst calculate the cross-sectional area:
From Table 2.1, we obtain the resistivity of aluminum as r
-m. Thus,
31.69 m
R
r/
A

2.8 10
8
2
1.767 10
6
2.8 10
8
A
pd
2
4

p(1.5 10
3
)
2
4
1.767 10
6
m
2
Example 2.1
Determine the resistance of an iron wire having a diameter of 2 mm
and a length of 30 m.
Answer: 1.174
Practice Problem 2.1
A copper bus bar is shown in Fig. 2.4. Calculate the length of the bar
that will produce a resistance of 0.5 .
Solution:
The bus bar has a uniform cross section so that Eq. (2.1) applies. But
the cross section is rectangular so that the cross-sectional area is
6 10
6
m
2
6 mm
2
A Width Breadth (2 10
3
) (3 10
3
)
Example 2.2
3 mm
2 mm
l
Figure 2.4
Acopper bus bar; for Example 2.2.
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2.3 Ohms Law 27
A conducting bar with triangular cross section is shown in Fig. 2.5. If
the bar is made of lead, determine the length of the bar that will pro-
duce a resistance of 1.25 m.
Practice Problem 2.2
6 mm
4 mm
Figure 2.5
For Practice Problem 2.2.
Answer: 6.82 cm
Ohms Law
Georg Simon Ohm (17871854), a German physicist, is credited with
nding the relationship between current and voltage for a resistor. This
relationship is known as Ohms law. That is,
(2.3)
Ohm dened the constant of proportionality for a resistor to be the
resistance R. (The resistance is a material property that could change
if the internal or external conditions of the element were altered, e.g.,
if there were changes in the temperature.) Thus, Eq. (2.3) becomes
(2.4)
which is the mathematical form of Ohms law. In Eq. (2.4), we recall
that the voltage V is measured in volts, the current I is measured in
amperes, and the resistance R is measured in ohms. We may deduce
from Eq. (2.4) that
(2.5)
so that
(2.6)
We may also deduce from Eq. (2.4) that
(2.7)
Thus, Ohms law can be stated in three different ways, as in Eqs. (2.4),
(2.5), and (2.7).
To apply Ohms law as stated in Eq. (2.4), for example, we must
pay careful attention to the current direction and voltage polarity. The
direction of current I and the polarity of voltage V must conform with
the convention shown in Fig. 2.6. This implies that current ows from
I
V
R
1 1 V1 A
R
V
I
V IR
Ohms law states that the voltage V across a resistor is directly pro-
portional to the current I owing through the resistor.
V r I
2.3
V R
I
+

Figure 2.6
Direction of current I and polarity of volt-
age V across a resistor R.
sad28078_ch02_023-046.qxd 12/5/11 4:54 PM Page 27
a higher potential to a lower potential in order for . If current
ows from a lower potential to a higher potential, then .
(When the polarity of the voltage across the resistor is not specied,
always place the plus sign at the terminal where the current enters.)
Because the value of R can range from zero to innity, it is impor-
tant that we consider the two extreme possible values of R. An element
with R 0 is called a short circuit, as shown in Fig. 2.7(a). For a short
circuit,
(2.8)
showing that the voltage is zero but the current could be anything. In
practice, a short circuit is usually a connecting wire assumed to be a
perfect conductor. Thus
Similarly, an element with is known as an open circuit, as
shown in Fig. 2.7(b). For an open circuit,
(2.9)
indicating that the current is zero though the voltage could be anything.
Thus,
An open circuit is a circuit element with resistance approaching innity.
I
V
R

V

0
R
A short circuit is a circuit element with resistance approaching zero.
V IR 0
V IR
V IR
28 Chapter 2 Resistance
(a)
(b)
R = 0
I
R =
I = 0
V = 0 Source
Source
+

V
+

Figure 2.7
(a) Short circuit (R 0); (b) open circuit
( ). R
An electric iron draws 2 A at 120 V. Find its resistance.
Solution:
From Ohms law,
R
V
I

120
2
60
Example 2.3
The essential component of a toaster is an electrical element (a resis-
tor) that converts electrical energy to heat energy. How much current
is drawn by a toaster with resistance of 12 at 110 V?
Answer: 9.17 A
Practice Problem 2.3
In the circuit shown in Fig. 2.8, calculate the current I.
Solution:
The voltage across the resistor is the same as the source voltage (30 V)
because the resistor and the voltage source are connected to the same
pair of terminals. Hence,
I
V
R

30
5 10
3
6 mA
Example 2.4
5 k V
+

30 V
I
Figure 2.8
For Example 2.4.
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2.4 Conductance 29
R 12 V
I
Figure 2.9
For Practice Problem 2.4.
Answer: 1.5 k
If I 8 mA in the circuit shown in Fig. 2.9, determine the value of
resistance R.
Practice Problem 2.4
Conductance
A useful quantity in circuit analysis is the reciprocal of resistance R,
known as conductance and denoted by G:
(2.10)
The conductance is a measure of how well an element will conduct
electric current. The old unit of conductance is the mho (ohm spelled
backward) with symbol , the inverted omega. Although engineers
still use mhos, in this book we will prefer to use the SI unit of con-
ductance, the siemens (S), in honor of Werner von Siemens:
1 S 1 1 A1 V (2.11)
Thus,
[We should not confuse S for siemens with s (seconds) for time.] The
same resistance can be expressed in ohms or siemens. For example,
10 is the same as 0.1 S. From Eqs. (2.1) and (2.10), we may write
(2.12)
where the Greek letter sigma conductivity of the material
(in S/m).
s 1r
G
A
r/

sA
/
Conductance is the ability of an element to conduct electric current;
it is measured in siemens (S).

G
1
R

I
V
2.4
Find the conductance of the following resistors: (a) 125 (b) 42 k
Solution:
(a)
(b) mS G 1R 1(42 10
3
) 23.8
G 1R 1(125 ) 8 mS
Example 2.5
Determine the conductance of the following resistors:
(a) 120
(b) 25 M
Answers: (a) 8.33 mS (b) 40 nS
Practice Problem 2.5
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Circular Wires
Circular wires are commonly used in several applications. We use wires
to connect elements, but those wires have resistance and a maximum
allowable current. So we need to choose the right size. Wires are
arranged in standard gauge numbers, known as AWG (American Wire
Gauge). This designation of cables and wires is in the English system.
In the English system,
1,000 mils 1 in (2.13a)
or
(2.13b)
A unit of cross-sectional area used for wires is the circular mil (CM),
which is the area of a circle having diameter of 1 mil. From Eq. (2.2),
(2.14)
Thus,
(2.15a)
or
(2.15b)
If the diameter of a circular wire is in mils, the area in circular mils is
(2.16)
A listing of data for standard bare copper wires is provided in
Table 2.2, where d is the diameter and R is the resistance for 1000 ft.
(Notice the wire diameter decreases as the gauge number increases.)
As you might guess, the maximum allowable currents are just a rule
of thumb. The steel industry uses a different numbering system for their
wire thickness gages (e.g., U.S. Steel Wire Gauge) so that the data in
Table 2.2 do not apply to steel wire. See Fig. 2.10 for different sizes
of wires. Typical household wiring is AWG number 12 or 14. Tele-
phone wire is usually 22, 24, or 26 gauge. The following examples will
illustrate how to use the table.
A
CM
d
2
mil
1 sq mil
4
p
CM
1 CM
p
4
sq mil
A
pd
2
4

p(1 mil)
2
4

p
4
sq mil
1 mil
1
1000
in 0.001 in
2.5
30 Chapter 2 Resistance
Figure 2.10
Insulated wires of different gauges.
Sarhan M. Musa
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2.5 Circular Wires 31
TABLE 2.2
American wire gauge (AWG) sizes at 20C.
Maximum
allowable
AWG # d(mil) Area (CM) R (/1000 ft) current (A)
0000 460 211,600 0.0490 230
000 409.6 167,810 0.0618 200
00 364.8 133,080 0.0780 175
0 324.9 105,530 0.0983 150
1 289.3 83,694 0.1240 130
2 257.8 66,373 0.1563 115
3 229.4 52,634 0.1970 100
4 204.3 41,740 0.2485 85
5 181.9 33,102 0.3133
6 162 26,250 0.3951 65
7 144 20,820 0.4982
8 128.5 16,510 0.6282 50
9 114.4 13,090 0.7921
10 101.9 10,381 0.9989 30
11 90.74 8,234 1.260
12 80.81 6,530 1.588 20
13 71.96 5,178 2.003
14 64.08 4,107 2.525 15
15 57.07 3,257 3.184
16 50.82 2,583 4.016
17 45.26 2,048 5.064
18 40.30 1,624 6.385
19 35.89 1,288 8.051
20 31.96 1,022 10.15
21 28.46 810.10 12.80
22 25.3 642.40 16.14
23 22.6 509.5 20.36
24 20.1 404.01 25.67
25 17.9 320.40 32.37
26 15.94 254.10 40.81
27 14.2 201.50 51.57
28 12.6 159.79 64.90
29 11.26 126.72 81.83
30 10.03 100.50 103.2
31 8.928 79.70 130.1
32 7.95 63.21 164.1
33 7.08 50.13 206.9
34 6.305 39.75 260.9
35 5.6 31.52 329.0
36 5 25 414.8
37 4.5 19.83 523.1
38 3.965 15.72 659.6
39 3.531 12.47 831.8
40 3.145 9.89 1049
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32 Chapter 2 Resistance
Find the resistance of 1200 ft of AWG #10 copper wire.
Answer: 199
Practice Problem 2.6
Find the cross-sectional area of a AWG #9 having a diameter of
114.4 mil.
A
CM
(114.4)
2
13,087 CM
Example 2.7
What is the cross-sectional area in CM of a wire with a diameter of
0.0036 in.?
Answer: 12.96 CM
Practice Problem 2.7
Types of Resistors
Different types of resistors have been created to meet different require-
ments. Some resistors are shown in Fig. 2.11. The primary functions
of resistors are to limit current, divide voltage, and dissipate heat.
A resistor is either xed or variable. Most resistors are of the xed
type; that is, their resistance remains constant. The two common types
2.6
Figure 2.11
Different types of resistors.
Sarhan M. Musa
Calculate the resistance of 840 ft of AWG #6 copper wire.
Solution:
From Table 2.2, the resistance of 1000 ft of AWG #6 is 0.3951 .
Hence, for a length of 840 ft,
R 840 ft a
0.3951
1000 ft
b 0.3319
Example 2.6
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of xed resistors (wirewound and composition) are shown in Fig. 2.12.
Wirewound resistors are used when there is a need to dissipate a large
amount of heat, while the composition resistors are used when large
resistance is needed. The circuit symbol in Fig. 2.1 is for a xed resis-
tor. Variable resistors have adjustable resistance. The symbol for a vari-
able resistor is shown in Fig. 2.13. There are two main types of variable
resistors: potentiometer and rheostat. The potentiometer or pot for
short, is a three-terminal element with a sliding contact or wiper. By
sliding the wiper, the resistances between the wiper terminal and the
xed terminals vary. The potentiometer is used to adjust the amount of
voltage provided to a circuit, as typically shown in Fig. 2.14. A poten-
tiometer with its adjuster is shown in Fig. 2.15. The rheostat is a two-
or three-terminal device that is used to control the amount of current
within a circuit, as typically shown in Fig. 2.16. As the rheostat is
adjusted for more resistance and less current ow, and the motor slows
down and vice versa. It is possible to use the same variable resistor as
a potentiometer or a rheostat, depending on how it is connected. Like
xed resistors, variable resistors can either be of wirewound or com-
position type, as shown in Fig. 2.17. Although xed resistors shown in
Fig. 2.12 are used in circuit designs, today, most circuit components
(including resistors) are either surface mounted or integrated, as typi-
cally shown in Fig. 2.18. Surface mount technology (SMT) is being
used to implement both digital and analog circuits. An SMT resistor is
shown in Fig. 2.19.
It should be pointed out that not all resistors obey Ohms law. A
resistor that obeys Ohms law is known as a linear resistor. It has a con-
stant resistance, and thus its voltage-current characteristic is as illus-
trated in Fig. 2.20(a); that is, its V-I graph is a straight line passing
through the origin. A nonlinear resistor does not obey Ohms law. Its
resistance varies with current and its V-I characteristic is typically shown
2.6 Types of Resistors 33
(a) (b)
Figure 2.13
Circuit symbols for a variable resistor.
R V
Figure 2.14
Variable resistor used as a potentiometer.
R
V Motor
Figure 2.16
Variable resistor used as a rheostat.
(a) (b)
Figure 2.17
Variable resistors: (a) composition type; (b) slider pot.
Courtesy of Tech America
Figure 2.15
Potentiometers with their adjusters.
Sarhan M. Musa
(a)
(b)
Figure 2.12
Fixed resistors: (a) wirewound type;
(b) carbon lm type.
Courtesy of Tech America
sad28078_ch02_023-046.qxd 12/5/11 4:54 PM Page 33
34 Chapter 2 Resistance
Figure 2.18
Resistors in an integrated circuit board.
Eric Tomey/Alamy RF
Figure 2.19
Surface mount resistor.
Greg Ordy
Slope = R
(a)
V
I
Slope = R
(b)
V
I
Figure 2.20
The V-I characteristics of a
(a) linear resistor;
(b) nonlinear resistor.
Figure 2.21
Diodes.
Sarhan M. Musa
in Fig. 2.20(b). Examples of devices with nonlinear resistance are the
lightbulb and the diode
1
(see Fig. 2.21). Although all practical resistors
may exhibit nonlinear behavior under certain conditions, we will assume
in this book that all objects actually designated as resistors are linear.
1
A diode is a semiconductor device that acts like a switch; it allows charge/current to
ow in only one direction.
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Resistor Color Code
Some resistors are physically large enough to have their values printed
on them. Other resistors are too small to have their values printed on
them. For such small resistors, color coding provides a way of deter-
mining the value of resistance. As shown in Fig. 2.22, the color cod-
ing consists of three, four, or ve bands of color around the resistor.
The bands are illustrated in Table 2.3 and explained as follows:
A First signicant gure of resistance value
B Second signicant gure of resistance value
C Multiplier of resistance for resistance value
D Tolerance rating (in %)
E Reliability factor (in %)
*We read the bands from left to right.
The rst three bands (A, B, and C) specify the value of the resistance.
Bands A and B represent the rst and second digits of the resistance
value. Band C is usually given as a power of 10 as in Table 2.3. If
present, the fourth band (D) indicates the tolerance percentage. For
example, a 5 percent tolerance indicates that the actual value of the
resistance is within 5 of the color-coded value. When the fourth band
is absent, the tolerance is taken by default to be 20 percent. The fth
band (E), if present, is used to indicate a reliability factor, which is a
statistical indication of the expected number of components that will
fail to have the indicated resistance after working for 1,000 hours. As
shown in Fig. 2.23, the statement Big Boys Race Our Young Girls,
But Violet Generally Wins can serve as a memory aid in remember-
ing the color code.
2.7
2.7 Resistor Color Code 35
A B C D E
Figure 2.22
Resistor color codes.
0 Black Big
1 Brown Boys
2 Red Race
3 Orange Our
4 Yellow Young
5 Green Girls
6 Blue But
7 Violet Violet
8 Gray Generally
9 White Wins
Figure 2.23
Memory aid for color codes.
TABLE 2.3
Resistor color code.
Band A Band B
signicant signicant Band C Band D Band E
Color gure gure multiplier tolerance reliability
Black N/A 0 10
0
Brown 1 1 10
1
1%
Red 2 2 10
2
0.1%
Orange 3 3 10
3
0.01%
Yellow 4 4 10
4
0.001%
Green 5 5 10
5
Blue 6 6 10
6
Violet 7 7 10
7
Gray 8 8 10
8
White 9 9 10
9
Gold 0.1 5%
Silver 0.01 10%
No color 20%
sad28078_ch02_023-046.qxd 12/5/11 4:56 PM Page 35
Solution:
Band A is blue (6); band B is red (2); band C is orange (3); band D is
gold (5%); and band E is red (0.1%). Hence,
R 62 10
3
5% tolerance with a reliability of 0.1%
62 k 3.1 k with a reliability of 0.1%
This means that the actual resistance of the color-coded resistor will
fall between 58.9 k (62 3.1) k and 65.1 k (62 3.1) k. The
reliability of 0.1% indicates that 1 out of 1,000 will fail to fall within
the tolerance range after 1,000 hours of service.
36 Chapter 2 Resistance
Figure 2.24
For Example 2.8.
Determine the resistance value of the color-coded resistor shown in
Fig. 2.24.
Example 2.8
What is the resistance value, tolerance, and reliability of the color-
coded resistor shown in Fig. 2.25?
Practice Problem 2.8
Figure 2.25
For Practice Problem 2.8.
Answer: 3.3 M 10% with a reliability of 1%
A resistor has three bands onlyin order green, black, and silver. Find
the resistance value and tolerance of the resistor.
Solution:
Band A is green (5); band B is black (0); and band C is silver (0.01).
Hence
R 50 0.01 0.5
Because the fourth band is absent, the tolerance is, by default, 20 percent.
Example 2.9
What is the resistance value and tolerance of a resistor having bands
colored in the order yellow, violet, white, and gold?
Answer: 47 G 5%
Practice Problem 2.9
A company manufactures resistors of 5.4 k with a tolerance of
10 percent. Determine the color code of the resistor.
Solution:
R 5.4 10
3
54 10
2
From Table 2.3, green represents 5; yellow stands for 4; while red
stands for10
2
. The tolerance of 10 percent corresponds to silver. Hence,
the color code of the resistor is:
Green, yellow, red, silver
Example 2.10
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2.8 Standard Resistor Values 37
Standard Resistor Values
One would expect resistor values are commercially available in all val-
ues. For practical reasons, this would not make sense. Only a limited
number of resistor values are commercially available at reasonable cost.
The list of standard values of commercially available resistors is pre-
sented in Table 2.4. These are the standard values that have been agreed
to for carbon composition resistors. Notice that the values range from
0.1 to 22 M. While 10 percent tolerance resistors are available only
for those values in bold type at reasonable cost, 5 percent tolerance
resistors are available in all values. For example, a 330- resistor could
be available either as a 5 or 10 percent tolerance component, while a
110-k resistor is available only as 5 percent tolerance component.
When designing a circuit, the calculated values are seldom stan-
dard. One may select the nearest standard values or combine the stan-
dard values. In most cases, selecting the nearest standard value may
2.8
If the company in Example 2.10 also produces resistors of 7.2 M
with a tolerance of 5 percent and reliability of 1 percent, what will be
the color codes on the resistor?
Answer: Violet, red, green, gold, brown
Practice Problem 2.10
TABLE 2.4
Standard values of commercially available resistors.
Ohms Kilohms Megohms
() (k) (M)
0.10 1.0 10 100 1000 10 100 1.0 10.0
0.11 1.1 11 110 1100 11 110 1.1 11.0
0.12 1.2 12 120 1200 12 120 1.2 12.0
0.13 1.3 13 130 1300 13 130 1.3 13.0
0.15 1.5 15 150 1500 15 150 1.5 15.0
0.16 1.6 16 160 1600 16 160 1.6 16.0
0.18 1.8 18 180 1800 18 180 1.8 18.0
0.20 2.0 20 200 2000 20 200 2.0 20.0
0.22 2.2 22 220 2200 22 220 2.2 22.0
0.24 2.4 24 240 2400 24 240 2.4
0.27 2.7 27 270 2700 27 270 2.7
0.30 3.0 30 300 3000 30 300 3.0
0.33 3.3 33 330 3300 33 330 3.3
0.36 3.6 36 360 3600 36 360 3.6
0.39 3.9 39 390 3900 39 390 3.9
0.43 4.3 43 430 4300 43 430 4.3
0.47 4.7 47 470 4700 47 470 4.7
0.51 5.1 51 510 5100 51 510 5.1
0.56 5.6 56 560 5600 56 560 5.6
0.62 6.2 62 620 6200 62 620 6.2
0.68 6.8 68 680 6800 68 680 6.8
0.75 7.5 75 750 7500 75 750 7.5
0.82 8.2 82 820 8200 82 820 8.2
0.91 9.1 92 910 9100 91 910 9.1
sad28078_ch02_023-046.qxd 12/5/11 4:56 PM Page 37
provide adequate performance. To ease calculations, most of the resis-
tor values used in this book are nonstandard.
Applications: Measurements
Resistors are often used to model devices that convert electrical energy
into heat or other forms of energy. Such devices include conducting
wires, lightbulbs, electric heaters, stoves, ovens, and loudspeakers.
Also, by their nature, resistors are used to control the ow of current.
We take advantage of this property in several applications such as in
potentiometers and meters. In this section, we will consider meters
the ammeter, voltmeter, and ohmmeter, which measure current, volt-
age, and resistance, respectively. Being able to measure current I,
voltage V, and resistance R is very important.
It is common these days to have the three instruments combined into
one instrument known as a multimeter, which may be analog or digital.
An analog meter is one that uses a needle and calibrated meter to display
the measured value; that is, the measured value is indicated by the pointer
of the meter. Adigital meter is one in which the measured valued is shown
in form of a digital display. The digital meters are more commonly used
today. Because both analog and digital meters are used in the industry,
one should be familiar with both. Figure 2.26 illustrates a typical analog
multimeter (combining voltmeter, ammeter, and ohmmeter) and a typical
digital multimeter. The digital multimeter (DMM) is the most widely used
instrument. Its analog counterpart is the volt-ohm-milliammeter (VOM).
To measure voltage, we connect the voltmeter/multimeter across
the element for which the voltage is desired, as shown in Fig. 2.27.
The voltmeter measures the voltage across the load and is therefore
connected in parallel
2
with the element.
The voltmeter is the instrument used to measure voltage; the ammeter
is the instrument used to measure current; and the ohmmeter is the
instrument used to measure resistance.
2.9
38 Chapter 2 Resistance
2
Two elements are in parallel if they are connected to the same two points.
Figure 2.26
(a) Analog multimeter; (b) digital multimeter.
(a) iStock; (b) Oleksy Maksymenko/Alamy RF
(a) (b)
sad28078_ch02_023-046.qxd 12/5/11 4:56 PM Page 38
2.9 Applications: Measurements 39
Voltmeter R V
+

+
V
+
+

Figure 2.27
Measuring voltage.
+
+
mA
+
+

Ammeter
R V
I
Figure 2.28
Measuring current.
To measure current, we connect the ammeter/multimeter in series
3
with the element under test, as shown in Fig. 2.28. The meter must be
connected such that the current enters through the positive terminal to
get a positive reading. The circuit must be broken; that is, the cur-
rent path must be interrupted so that the current must ow through the
ammeter. (The ampclamp is another device for measuring ac current.)
+
R Ohmmeter
+

Figure 2.29
Measuring resistance.
3
Two elements are in series if they are cascaded or connected sequentially.
To measure resistance of an element, connect the ohmmeter/
multimeter across it, as shown in Fig. 2.29. If the element is connected
to a circuit, one end of the element must rst be disconnected from the
circuit before we measure its resistance. Because the resistance of a
wire with no breaks is zero, the ohmmeter can be used to test for con-
tinuity. If the wire has a break, the ohmmeter connected across it will
read innity. Thus, the ohmmeter can be used to detect a short circuit
(low resistance) and an open circuit (high resistance).
When working with any of the meters mentioned in this section,
it is good practice to observe the following:
1. If possible, turn the circuit power off before connecting the meter.
2. To avoid damaging the instrument, it is best to always set the meter
on the highest range and then move down to the appropriate range.
(Most DMMs are auto-ranging.)
3. When measuring dc current or voltage, observe proper polarity.
4. When using a multimeter, make sure you set the meter in the cor-
rect mode (ac, dc, V, A, ), including moving the test idea to the
appropriate jacks.
5. When the measurement is completed, turn off the meter to avoid
draining the internal battery of the meter.
This leads to the issue of safety in electrical measurement.
sad28078_ch02_023-046.qxd 12/5/11 4:57 PM Page 39
Electrical Safety Precautions
Now that we have learned how to measure current, voltage, and resist-
ance, we need to be careful how we handle the instruments so as to
avoid electric shock or harm. Because electricity can kill, being able
to make safe and accurate measurements is an integral part of the
knowledge that you must acquire.
2.10.1 Electric Shock
When working on electric circuits, there is the possibility of receiving
an electric shock. The shock is due to the passage of current through
your body. An electric shock can startle you and cause you to fall down
or be thrown down. It may cause severe, rigid contractions of the mus-
cles, which in turn may result in fractures, dislocations, and loss of
consciousness. The respiratory system may be paralyzed and the
heart may beat irregularly or even stop beating altogether. Electrical
burns may be present on the skin and extend into deeper tissue. High
current may cause death of tissues between the entry and exit point of
the current. Massive swelling of the tissues may follow as the blood in
the veins coagulates and the muscles swell. Thus, electric shock can
cause muscle spasms, weakness, shallow breathing, rapid pulse, severe
burns, unconsciousness, or death.
The human body has resistance that depends on several factors
such as body mass, skin moisture, and points of contact of the body
with the electric appliance. The effects of various amounts of current
in milliamperes (mA) is shown in Table 2.5.
2.10.2 Precautions
Working with electricity can be dangerous unless you adhere strictly
to certain rules. The following safety rules should be followed when-
ever you are working with electricity:
Always make sure that the circuit is actually dead before you begin
working on it.
Always unplug any appliance or lamp before repairing it.
Always tape over the main switch, empty fuse socket, or circuit
breaker when youre working. Leave a note there so no one will
accidentally turn on the electricity. Keep any fuses youve removed
in your pocket.
Electric shock is an injury caused by an electrical current passing
through the body.
2.10
40 Chapter 2 Resistance
TABLE 2.5
Electric shock
Electric Current Physiological effect
Less than 1mA No sensation or feeling
1 mA Tingling sensation
520 mA Involuntary muscle contraction
20100 mA Loss of breathing, fatal if continued
sad28078_ch02_023-046.qxd 12/5/11 4:57 PM Page 40
2.11 Summary 41
Handle tools properly and make sure that the insulation on metal
tools is in good condition.
If measuring V or I, turn on the power and record reading. If meas-
uring R, do not turn on power.
Refrain from wearing loose clothing. Loose clothes can get caught
in an operating appliance.
Always wear long-legged and long-sleeved clothes and shoes and
keep them dry.
Do not stand on a metal or wet oor. (Electricity and water do not
mix.)
Make sure there is adequate illumination around the work area.
Do not work while wearing rings, watches, bracelets, or other
jewelry.
Do not work by yourself.
Discharge any capacitor that may retain high voltage.
Work with only one hand a time in areas where voltage may be high.
Protecting yourself from injury and harm is absolutely imperative. If
we follow these safety rules, we can avoid shock and related accidents.
Thus, our rule should always be safety rst.
Summary
1. Aresistor is an element in which the voltage, V, across it is directly
proportional to the current, I, through it. That is, a resistor is an
element that obeys Ohms law.
V IR
where R is the resistance of the resistor.
2. The resistance R of an object with uniform cross-sectional area A
is evaluated as resistivity r times length divided by the cross-
section area A, that is,
3. A short circuit is a resistor (a perfectly conducting wire) with zero
resistance (R 0). An open circuit is a resistor with innite resist-
ance .
4. The conductance G of a resistor is the reciprocal of its resistance R:
5. For a circular wire, the cross-sectional area is measured in circu-
lar mils (CM). The diameter in mils is related to the area in CM as
6. American Wire Gauge is a standard system for designating the
diameter of wires.
7. There are different types of resistors: xed or variable, linear or
nonlinear. Potentiometer and rheostat are variable resistors that are
used to adjust voltage and current, respectively. Common types of
A
CM
d
2
mil
G
1
R
(R )
R
r/
A
2.11
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42 Chapter 2 Resistance
resistors include carbon or composition resistors, wirewound resis-
tors, chip resistors, lm resistors, and power resistors.
8. A resistor is usually color coded when it is not physically large
enough to print the numerical value of the resistor on it. The state-
ment Big Boys Race Our Young Girls, But Violet Generally
Wins is a memory aid for the color code: black, brown, red,
orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, gray, and white.
9. For carbon composition resistors, standard values are commer-
cially available in the range of 0.1 to 22 M.
10. Voltage, current, and resistance are measured using a voltmeter,
ammeter, and ohmmeter, respectively. The three are measured
using a multimeter such as a digital multimeter (DMM) or a
volt-ohm-milliammeter (VOM).
11. Safety is all about preventing accidents. If we follow some safety
precautions, we should have no problems working on electric
circuits.
2.6 The conductance of a 10-m resistor is:
(a) 0.1 mS (b) 0.1 S
(c ) 10 S (d) 100 S
2.7 Potentiometers are types of:
(a) xed resistors (b) variable resistors
(c) meters (d) voltage regulators
2.8 What is the area in circular mils of a wire that has a
diameter of 0.03 in.?
(a) 0.0009 (b) 9
(c ) 90 (d) 900
2.9 All resistors are color coded.
(a) True (b) False
2.10 Digital multimeters (DMM) are the most widely
used type of electronic measuring instrument.
(a) True (b) False
Answers: 2.1c, 2.2d, 2.3c, 2.4c, 2.5a, 2.6d, 2.7b, 2.8d,
2.9b, 2.10a
Review Questions
2.1 Which of the following materials is not a conductor?
(a) Copper (b) Silver (c) Mica
(d) Gold (e) Lead
2.2 The main purpose of a resistor in a circuit is to:
(a) resist change in current
(b) produce heat
(c) increase current
(d) limit current
2.3 An element draws 10 Afrom a 120-V line. The
resistance of the element is:
(a) 1200 (b) 120
(c) 12 (d) 1.2
2.4 The reciprocal of resistance is:
(a) voltage (b) current
(c) conductance (d) power
2.5 Which of these is not the unit of conductance?
(a) ohm (b) Siemen
(c) mho (d)

Problems
2.2 Find the length of a copper wire that has a resistance
of 0.5 and a diameter of 2 mm.
2.3 A2-in. 2-in. square bar of copper is 4 ft long. Find
its resistance.
Section 2.2 Resistance
2.1 A250-m-long copper wire has a diameter of 2.2 mm.
Calculate the resistance of wire.
sad28078_ch02_023-046.qxd 12/5/11 4:57 PM Page 42
Problems 43
2.4 If an electrical hotplate has a power rating of 1200 W
and draws a current of 6 A, determine the resistance
of the hotplate.
2.5 ANichrome (r 100 10
8
m) wire is used
to construct heating elements. What length of a
2-mm-diameter wire will produce a resistance
of 1.2 ?
2.6 An aluminum wire of radius 3 mm has a resistance
of 6 . How long is the wire?
2.7 Agraphite cylinder with a diameter of 0.4 mm and a
length of 4 cm has resistance of 2.1 . Determine
the resistivity of the cylinder.
2.8 Acertain circular wire of length 50 m and diameter
0.5 m has a resistance of 410 at room temperature.
Determine the material the wire is made of.
2.9 If we shorten the length of a conductor, why does the
conductor decrease in resistance?
2.10 Two wires are made of the same material. The rst
wire has a resistance of 0.2 . The second wire is
twice as long as the rst wire and has a radius that is
half of the rst wire. Determine the resistance of the
second wire.
2.11 Two wires have the same resistance and length. The
rst wire is made of copper, while the second wire is
made of aluminum. Find the ratio of the cross-
sectional area of the copper wire to that of the
aluminum wire.
2.12 High-voltage power lines are used in transmitting
large amounts of power over long distances.
Aluminum cable is preferred over copper cable due
to low cost. Assume that the aluminum wire used for
high-voltage power lines has a cross-sectional area
of 4.7 10
4
m
2
. Find the resistance of 20 km of
this wire.
Section 2.3 Ohms Law
2.13 Which of the graphs in Fig. 2.30 represent Ohms law?
2.14 When the voltage across a resistor is 60 V, the
current through it is 50 mA. Determine its
resistance.
2.15 The voltage across a 5-k resistor is 16 V. Find the
current through the resistor.
2.16 Aresistor is connected to a 12-V battery. Calculate
the current if the resistor is:
(a) 2 k (b) 6.2 k
2.17 An air-conditioning compressor has resistance 6 .
When the compressor is connected to a 240-V
source, determine the current through the circuit.
2.18 Asource of 12 V is connected to a purely resistive
lamp and draws 3 A. What is the resistance of the
lamp?
2.19 If a current of 30 mAows through a 5.4-M
resistor, what is the voltage?
2.20 Acurrent of 2 mAows through a 25- resistor.
Find the voltage drop across it.
2.21 An element allows 28 mAof current to ow through
it when a 12-V battery is connected to its terminals.
Calculate the resistance of the element.
2.22 Find the voltage of a source which produces a
current of 10 mAin a 50- resistor.
2.23 Anonlinear resistor has I 4 10
2
V
2
. Find I for
V 10, 20, and 50 V.
2.24 Determine the magnitude and direction of the current
associated with the resistor in each of the circuits in
Fig. 2.31.
2.25 Determine the magnitude and polarity of the voltage
across the resistor in each of the circuits in Fig. 2.32.
2.26 Aashlight uses two 3-V batteries in series to
provide a current of 0.7 Ain the lament. (a) Find
the potential difference across the ashlight bulb.
(b) Calculate the resistance of the lament.
Figure 2.30
For Problem 2.13.
(a)
V
I
(b)
V
I
(c)
V
I
sad28078_ch02_023-046.qxd 12/5/11 4:57 PM Page 43
44 Chapter 2 Resistance
Figure 2.31
For Problem 2.24.
Figure 2.32
For Problem 2.25.
10
(a) (b) (c)
4 A 10 20 mA 2 6 mA
10
(a) (b) (c)
15 V 10 9 V 6 30 V
+

Section 2.4 Conductance


2.27 Determine the conductance of each of the following
resistances:
(a) 2.5 (b) 40 k (c) 12 M
2.28 Find the resistance for each of the following
conductances:
(a) 10 mS (b) 0.25 S (c) 50 S
2.29 When the voltage across a resistor is 120 V, the
current through it is 2.5 mA. Calculate its
conductance.
2.30 Acopper rod has a length of 4 cm and a conductance
of 500 mS. Find its diameter.
2.31 Determine the battery voltage V in the circuit shown
in Fig. 2.33.
Figure 2.33
For Problem 2.31.
Section 2.5 Circular Wires
2.32 Using Table 2.2, determine the resistance of 600 ft of
#10 and #16 AWG copper.
2.33 The resistance of a copper transmission line cannot
exceed 0.001 , and the maximum current drawn by
the load is 120 A. What gauge wire is appropriate?
Assume a length of 10 ft.
I = 4 mA
5 mS V
+

2.34 Find the diameter in inches for wires having the


following cross-sectional areas:
(a) 420 CM (b) 980 CM
2.35 Calculate the area in circular mils of the following
conductors:
(a) circular wire with diameter 0.012 in.
(b) rectangular bus bar with dimensions
0.2 in. 0.5 in.
2.36 How much current will ow in a #16 copper wire
1 mi long connected to a 1.5-V battery?
Section 2.7 Resistor Color Code
2.37 Find the resistance value having the following color
codes:
(a) blue, red, violet, silver
(b) green, black, orange, gold
2.38 Determine the range (in ohms) in which a resistor
having the following bands must exist.
Band A Band B Band C Band D
(a) Brown Violet Green Silver
(b) Red Black Orange Gold
(c) White Red Gray
2.39 Determine the color codes of the following resistors
with 5 percent tolerance.
(a) 52 (b) 320
(c) 6.8 k (d) 3.2 M
2.40 Find the color codes of the following resistors:
(a) 240 (b) 45 k (c) 5.6 M
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Problems 45
Section 2.10 Electrical Safety Precautions
2.51 What causes electric shock?
2.52 Mention at least four safety precautions you would
take when taking measurements.
2.41 For each of the resistors in Problem 2.37, nd the
minimum and maximum resistance within the
tolerance limits.
2.42 Give the color coding for the following resistors:
(a) 10 , 10 percent tolerance
(b) 7.4 k, 5 percent tolerance
(c) 12 M, 20 percent tolerance
Section 2.9 Applications: Measurements
2.43 How much voltage is the multimeter in Fig. 2.34
reading?
Figure 2.34
For Problem 2.43.
2.44 Determine the voltage reading for the multimeter in
Fig. 2.35.
2.45 You are supposed to check a lightbulb to see whether
is burned out or not. Using an ohmmeter, how would
you do this?
2.46 What is wrong with the measuring scheme in
Fig. 2.36?
2.47 Show how you would place a voltmeter to measure
the voltage across resistor R
1
in Fig. 2.37.
2.48 Show how you would place an ammeter to measure
the current through resistor R
2
in Fig. 2.37.
2.49 Explain how you would connect an ohmmeter to
measure the resistance R
2
in Fig. 2.37.
2.50 How would you use an ohmmeter to determine the
on and off states of a switch?
0.3
0.06
1.2
12
120
x1
x10
x100
x1K
x100K
Ohms
Adj
+
3
3
12
12
60
60
300
300
600 600
OFF
Analog Multimeter

A
C



V
o
l
t
s







O
h
m
s

D
C

V
o
l
t
s


D
C

m
A
O
H
M
S O
H
M
S
D
C
A
C
A
C d
B
m
d
B
m
A
C
A
C
D
C
A
M
P
S A
M
P
S
1
2
3
4 5
10
100
20
4
150
30
6
200
40
8 2
5
0
5
0
1
0
3
0
0 6
0
1
2
2
0
5
0
0
0
0
1
0
2
5
0
2
0
0
1
k
0
4
10
2
15
6
3
20
2
0
1
0
4
2
2
4
6
8
1
0
1
1
0
8
4 2
5
1
0
5
3
0 1
2
6
5
0
0
0
2
1
Figure 2.35
For Problem 2.44.
Figure 2.36
For Problem 2.46.
Figure 2.37
For Problems 2.47, 2.48, and 2.49.
V
1
+

R
1
R
2
Lamp V
s
+

A
V
0.3
0.06
1.2
12
120
x1
x10
x100
x1K
x100K
Ohms
Adj
+
3
3
12
12
60
60
300
300
600 600
OFF
Analog Multimeter

A
C



V
o
l
t
s







O
h
m
s

D
C

V
o
l
t
s

D
C

m
A
O
H
M
S O
H
M
S
D
C
A
C
A
C d
B
m
d
B
m
A
C
A
C
D
C
A
M
P
S A
M
P
S
1
2
3
4 5
10
100
20
4
150
30
6
200
40
8 2
5
0
5
0
1
0
3
0
0 6
0
1
2
2
0
5
0
0
0
0
1
0
2
5
0
2
0
0
1
k
0
4
10
2
15
6
3
20
2
0
1
0
4
2
2
4
6
8
1
0
1
1
0
8
4 2
5
1
0
5
3
0 1
2
6
5
0
0
0
2
1
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