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## Data:collection and analysis

Jackie.Zhou
Yantai Yew Wah International School
junzhou013@gmail.com
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 6 Bilingual Math Data:collection and analysis 1 / 9
Events
Event: outcome of an experiment
It will rain tomorrow.
I will be 1000kg in the next week.
You will get 0 when you dont even answer any questions.
Sure event: the outcome will denitely happen.
Impossible event: the outcome will denitely not happen.
Random event: the outcome may happen or may not.
When we toss a die(no cheating)
We will get 10
We will get a number not larger than 6,
We will get 3.
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 6 Bilingual Math Data:collection and analysis 2 / 9
1.Sure event, impossible event, random event?
(1) Toss a die, the number will be odd.
(2) You throw a basketball, it will fall.
(3) You turn on a TV, a cartoon is playing.
(4) Sun rises from west.
(5) You buy a ticket, the number is even.
(6) A drop of oil will oat on the surface of water.
2. There are 8 red balls and 2 white balls in a bag, all the balls are totally
the same expect their colour. You pick up a ball from the bag, which
colour more likely you will get?
3. Roll the hand, when it stops, which region more likely it will be in?
4. Rank the bags according to the likelihood of getting red ball.
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 6 Bilingual Math Data:collection and analysis 3 / 9
Probability: the measure of the likelihood or chance the event will
occur
the probability of event A is denoted as P(A)
A is a sure event, then P(A) = 1
A is an impossible event, then P(A) = 0
A is a random event, then 0 < P(A) < 1
The greater the probability of an event, the greater is the likelihood it
will occur.
Experimental probability: get the probability of an event from a
survey or an experiment.
Theoretical probability:get the probability of an event from
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 6 Bilingual Math Data:collection and analysis 4 / 9
Experimental probability
Toss a pin, to nd the probability of event: it will turn upward.
number of experiments 10 20 40
number of turning upward
number of turning downward
frequency of turning upward
frequency of turning downward
(1) For dierent experiments, will we get the same frequency?
(2) Which frequency should we more likely to believe?
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 6 Bilingual Math Data:collection and analysis 5 / 9
Toss a coin, to nd the probability of event: it will turn upward.
number of experiments 10 20 40
number of number on
number of tail on
frequency of number on
frequency of tail on
When the number of experiments is large enough, the frequency for an
event is stable
The accuracy of experimental probability is up to the amount of
experiments. The more experiments, the more accurate the experimental
probability we will get.
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 6 Bilingual Math Data:collection and analysis 6 / 9
1. Alex toss a coin ve times, he got heads on 4 times, tails on 1 time. So
he think the probability of heads on is
4
5
, the probability of tails on is
1
5
.
Do you agree with him? What should we do?
2. Toss a coin, the probability of getting head on is
1
2
, so Alex think if we
do 100 experiments, we will get exactly 50 times head on. Is that true?
3. Complete the table and estimate the probability of a seed sprouted.
number of seeds 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000
number of sprouted seeds 94 191 473 954 1906 4748
frequency of seed sprouted
4. Complete the table and estimate the probability of a satisfaction.
number of people surveyed 10 20 50 100 200 500
number of satised people 7 16 43 81 164 414
frequency of satisfaction
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 6 Bilingual Math Data:collection and analysis 7 / 9
Theoretical probability
Equally likely events: the likelihood of events occur are the same
sample space: the list of all possible outcomes.
favourable outcomes of A: the possible outcomes of event A
Eg1. A common dice is tossed. A is the event that the number is prime.
(1) What is the sample space in this experiment?
(2) List the favourable outcomes of event A.
(3) What is the probability P(A) of event A?
P(A) =
number of outcomes favourable to A
total number of possible outcomes
Eg2. All of the letters of the word PROBABLY are written on separate
cards. One card is chosen at random. What is the probability that it is not
a B?
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 6 Bilingual Math Data:collection and analysis 8 / 9
Eg3. Toss a common dice
(1) What is the probability to get a number bigger than 4?
(2) What is the probability to get an even number?
Sol: (1) Event A: get a number bigger than 4
All equally likely outcomes: 1,2,3,4,5,6
Favourable outcomes of event A: 5,6
Thus P(A) =
2
6
=
1
3
.
(2) Event B: get an even number
All equally likely outcomes: 1,2,3,4,5,6
Favourable outcomes of event A: 2,4,6
Thus P(A) =
3
6
=
1
2
.
Eg4. There are 3 red balls, 2 white balls, 4 yellow balls in a bag, they are
exactly the same except their colour. Pick a ball from the bag, calculate
(1) P(pick a red ball)=
(2) P(pick a white ball)=
(3) P(pick a yellow ball)=
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 6 Bilingual Math Data:collection and analysis 9 / 9