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This Thesis is submitted in Partial Fulfillment for the

Requirement of the Degree of Bachelor of Science in


Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Course Code: EEE-!!
"nstant Po#er Su$$l% & "PS' S%stem #ith (oad Priorit%
Prepared By:
)* Full +ame : Susanta ,umar Paul "D - )./-.!0-1))
0* Full +ame : 2*S*3* Fo4rul 5asan "D - )./-./0-1))
/* Full +ame : 3d* 2bdus Salam "D - )./-.1.-1))
* Full +ame : 3ohammad +a6ir 5asan "D - .!/-..1-1))
1* Full +ame : Sunirmol Bis#as "D - )./-))1-1))

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"nstant Po#er Su$$l% & "PS' S%stem #ith (oad Priorit%
A thesis report submitted to the department of EEE, Atish Dipankar Biggayan O Projokti
Bishawbiddaloy for partial fulfillment of the Degree of B.S in Eletrial and Eletroni
Engineering.
Submitted By:
)* Full +ame : Susanta ,umar Paul "D - )./-.!0-1))
0* Full +ame : 2*S*3* Fo4rul 5asan "D - )./-./0-1))
/* Full +ame : 3d* 2bdus Salam "D - )./-.1.-1))
* Full +ame : 3ohammad +a6ir 5asan "D - .!/-..1-1))
1* Full +ame : Sunirmol Bis#as "D - )./-))1-1))
Super!ised By" Signature"
3ar6ia 5oque Date"
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Declaration
#t is here by delared that no part of this thesis bearers the opyright !iolation and no
plagiarism opted during the ourse of material preparation. $he entire works has been
planned and arried out under the thesis super!isor of the honorable faulty member
3ar6ia 5oque department of Eletrial and Eletroni Engineering, Atish Dipankar
Biggayan O Projokti Bishawbiddaloy, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
The content of this thesis is submitted b% the grou$
)* Full +ame : Susanta ,umar Paul "D - )./-.!0-1))
0* Full +ame : 2*S*3* Fo4rul 5asan "D - )./-./0-1))
/* Full +ame : 3d* 2bdus Salam "D - )./-.1.-1))
* Full +ame : 3ohammad +a6ir 5asan "D - .!/-..1-1))
1* Full +ame : Sunirmol Bis#as "D - )./-))1-1))
Only for the fulfillment of the ourse of %"nstant Po#er Su$$l% &"PS' S%stem 7ith
(oad Priorit% 8 * And no part of this is used anywhere for the ahie!ement of any
aademi
Degree or Certificate *
Full +ame : Susanta ,umar Paul Full +ame: 2*S*3* Fo4rul 5asan
#D &O ' )./-.!0-1)) #D &O ' )./-./0-1))
Department of EEE Department of EEE
Full +ame :3d* 2bdus Salam Full +ame : 3ohammad +a6ir 5asan
#D &O ' )./-.1.-1)) #D &O ' .!/-..1-1))
Department of EEE Department of EEE
Full +ame " Sunirmol Bis#as
#D &O ' )./-))1-1))
Department of EEE
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Certificate
$his is to ertify that the B.S. thesis entitled "nstant Po#er Su$$l% &"PS' S%stem 7ith
(oad Priorit%* submitted by this group
)* Full +ame : Susanta ,umar Paul "D - )./-.!0-1))
0* Full +ame : 2*S*3* Fo4rul 5asan "D - )./-./0-1))
/* Full +ame : 3d* 2bdus Salam "D - )./-.1.-1))
* Full +ame : 3ohammad +a6ir 5asan "D - .!/-..1-1))
1* Full +ame : Sunirmol Bis#as "D - )./-))1-1))
$he thesis represents an independent and original work on the part of the andidates.
$he researh work has not been pre!iously formed the basis for the award of any Degree,
Diploma, (ellowship or any other disipline.
$he whole work of this thesis has been planned and arried out by this group under
the super!ision and guidane of the faulty members of Atish Dipankar Biggayan O
Projokti Bishawbiddaloy, Bangladesh.
&ame of the Super!isor
3ar6ia 5oque
Department of Eletrial and Eletroni Engineering
Atish Dipankar Biggayan O Projokti Bishawbiddaloy
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)0*))*0.)/
(aulty of Engineering
Department of EEE
Atish Dipankar Biggayan O Projokti Bishawbiddaloy
Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Sub9ect: (etter of transmittal .
Dear Sir,
)ith due respet, we should like to inform you that is a great pleasure for us to submit the final
projet on :"nstant Po#er Su$$l% &"PS' S%stem 7ith (oad Priorit%8 for Department of
Eletrial and Eletroni Engineering as re*uirement bahelor degree+ program. $his projet
pro!ided us with a pratial e,posure to the o!erall working en!ironment and !ery good
e,periene whih is pre!ailing in to professional life. )e ame to know about many things
regarding the urrent world on the onept of Eletroni De!elopment. )e ha!e tried to our best
to put through effort for the preparation of this report. Any short oming or fault may arise as our
unintentional mistake we will whole heartily welome for any larifiation and suggestion about
any !iew and oneption disseminated through this projet.
)e hope and strongly belie!e that this projet will meet the re*uirement as well as satisfying your
purpose. )e will a!ailable for any further lassifiation in this regard.
Sinerely -ours,
)* Full +ame : Susanta ,umar Paul "D - )./-.!0-1))
0* Full +ame : 2*S*3* Fo4rul 5asan "D - )./-./0-1))
/* Full +ame : 3d* 2bdus Salam "D - )./-.1.-1))
* Full +ame : 3ohammad +a6ir 5asan "D - .!/-..1-1))
1* Full +ame : Sunirmol Bis#as "D - )./-))1-1))
2tish Di$an4ar Bigga%an ; Pro9o4ti Bisha#biddalo%
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De$artment of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
2PP;R2<2( S5EET
$his projet $itle is :"nstant Po#er Su$$l% S%stem #ith (oad Priorit%8 has been
submitted to the following respeted members of the Board of E,aminers of the
Department of Eletrial and Eletroni Engineering in partial fulfillment of the
re*uirements of the degree of Bahelor of Department of Eletrial and Eletroni
Engineering by the following students.
)* Full +ame : Susanta ,umar Paul "D - )./-.!0-1))
0* Full +ame : 2*S*3* Fo4rul 5asan "D - )./-./0-1))
/* Full +ame : 3d* 2bdus Salam "D - )./-.1.-1))
* Full +ame : 3ohammad +a6ir 5asan "D - .!/-..1-1))
1* Full +ame : Sunirmol Bis#as "D - )./-))1-1))
2s the su$er=isor " ha=e a$$ro=ed this $a$er for submission*
3a6ia 5oque 3d* "mam 5ossain
Projet Super!isor . /eturer Senior /eturer . 0oordinator
Department of EEE Department Of EEE
Atish Dipankar Biggayan O Atish Dipankar Biggayan O
Projokti Bishawbiddaloy Projokti Bishawbiddaloy


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2C,+;7(ED>E3E+T
At first we would like to thank our Super!isor 3ar6ia 5oque 1/eturer, ADBOPB2
for gi!ing us the opportunity to work to under his super!ision, the endless hours of help,
Suggestions, Ad!ie and Support to keep us on trak during the de!elopment of this thesis.
)e also want to e,press gratitude to 3r* 3d* "mam 5ossain for his support during our
work on this thesis.
/ast, but not the least, we would like to thank our parents and family for making it possible
for us to study and for their onstant help and support.

)0 +o=ember 0.)/ The 2uthors
Dha4a
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2BSTR2CT
#nstant power supply system with load priority 1#PS2 an be used in the period of the load
shedding. #n this work suh de!ie is de!eloped while onneting the load of the #PS right
after the load shedding system after fae load funtion. 3oreo!er few loads might be
important than others. $hat4s why priority based power supply is implemented in this
thesis work using eletromehanial swithes or relays or eletroni omponents suh as
$ransistor, 5etifier, 3OS(E$, 5esistor et. )e also used a power transformer and a
ontrol transformer.
#n eah hapter deals with a speifi aspet and e,plaining the logi priniples of its
subjet and the goes on to present the reader with a wide range of pratial appliation
iruit.
Although e!ery are has been taken in preparing thesis.
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T2B(E ;F C;+TE+TS
Contents Page +o
0o!er Page 67
#nitial Page 68
Delaration 69
0ertifiate 6:
$ransmittal 6;
Appro!al Sheet 6<
Aknowledgement 6=
Abstrat 6>
$able of 0ontents 6?
/ist of $able 77
/ist of (igure 77
C52PTER .): "ntroduction Page +o
7.7 #ntrodution 79
7.8 #nstalled 0apaity and 3a,imum @eneration 79
7.9 0urrent Situation and (uture Projetion of Eletriity
Demand, @eneration and /oad Shedding 7:
7.: 0onsumption of Eletriity by 0ategory 7<
7.; 0auses of Eletriity 7<
7.;.7 Aigh @as Dependeny 7=
7.;.8 /ak of timely #mplementation of Alloated 3oney 7=
7.;.9 Politial 5eason 7=
7.;.: O!er population 7=
7.< Solution 7>
C52PTER .0: "nstant Po#er Su$$l%
8.7 #ntrodution 86
8.8 Speifiation 86
8.9 Priniple of Operation 87
8.: Blok Diagram of operation 88
8.; /ist of the 0omponent 89
8.< 0iruit Diagram of Osillation 8;
8.= /oad Priority 8;
8.> 5esult 8<

C52PTER ./ Com$onents
9.7 $ransformer 8=
9.8 Basi priniples 8=
9.9 #ndution law 8>
9.: $he real transformer 96
9.; /eakage flu, 96
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9.< E*ui!alent iruit 97
9.= Basi transformer parameters
and onstrution 98
9.> Energy losses 9:
9.? $ransformer losses arise from 9:
9.76 0ore form and shell form transformers 9;
9.77 0onstrution 9<
9.78 0onstrution 9>
9.79 )indings 9?
9.7: 0ooling :6
9.7; #nsulation drying :8
9.7< Bushings :8
9.7= 0lassifiation parameters :8
9.7> $ypes :9
9.7? Osillator 0iruit ::
9.86 $he Power 0iruit :;
9.87 5etifier :<
9.88 $ypes of 5etifiers :<
9.89 $he Aalf B )a!e 5etifier :<
9.8: $he (ull )a!e 5etifiers :=
9.8; $he full wa!e bridge retifier :>
9.8< D0 Power Supply :>
9.8= Battery :?
9.8> Batteries work ;6
9.8? Eletron (low ;6
9.96 Batteries ;7
9.97 $itanium Batteries ;7
9.98 Disposable /ithium Batteries ;7
9.99 5ehargeable Batteries ;8
9.9: #ntegrated 0iruit ;8
9.9; $ransistor ;9
9.9< Bipolar Cuntion $ransistors ;9
9.9= $ransistors )ork ;:
9.9> $ransistor @ain ;;
9.9? $ransistor work as an amplifier ;<
9.:6 $he $ransistor as an Amplifier ;<
9.:7 D0 and A0 *uantities ;<
9.:8 $ransistor amplifiation ;=
C52PTER .: Discussions and Conclusions

:.7 Ad!antage ;?
:.8 Disad!antage ;?
:.9 (uture #mpro!ement ;?
5eferenes <6
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("ST ;F T2B(E
$able" 67 #nstalled 0apaity and 3a,imum @eneration 79
$able" 68 System Speifiation 86
$able" 69 /ist of omponents 89 to 8:
$able" 6: 5esult 8<
("ST ;F F">?RE
(ig"7.7 @rowth rate of #nstalled 0apaity and 3a,imum
@eneration between 8666D67 and 8676D8677 7:
(ig" 7.8 0urrent Situation and (uture Projetion of Eletriity Demand,
@eneration and /oad Shedding 7;
(ig" 7.9 @rowth rate of Demand, @eneration and /oad Shedding 7;
(ig" 7.: 0onsumption of Eletriity by 0ategory 13E)A2 and their
0orresponding @rowth 5ate from 8666D67 to 866=D6> 7<
(ig"8.7 Blok Diagram of #PS 88
(ig" 8.8 P)3 in!erter iruit 8;
(ig" 9.7 #deal transformer iruit diagram 8=
(ig" 9.8 #deal transformer and indution law 8?
(ig" 9.9 /eakage flu, of a transformer 96
(ig" 9.: 5eal transformer e*ui!alent iruit 97
(ig" 9.; Power transformer o!erDe,itation ondition aused by
dereased fre*uenyF flu, 1green2, iron ore4s magneti
harateristis 1red2 and magnetiGing urrent 1blue2 99
(ig" 9.< 0ore form H ore typeF shell form H shell type 9;
(ig" 9.= /aminated ore transformer showing edge of
laminations at top of photo 9<
(ig" 9.> Power transformer inrush urrent aused by residual flu, at
swithing instantF flu, 1green2, iron ore4s magneti
harateristis 1red2 and magnetiGing urrent 1blue2 9=
(ig" 9.? /aminating the ore greatly redues eddyDurrent losses 9>
(ig" 9.76 )indings are usually arranged onentrially to minimiGe
flu, leakage. 3ain artile" )indings 9?
(ig" 9.77 0ooling System :6
(ig" 9.78 $ransformer :9
(ig" 9.79 P0B /ayout of Osillator 0iruit ::
(ig" 9.7: P0B layout of Power 0iruit :;
(ig" 9.7; Diode :<
(ig" 9.7<a Aalf wa!e retifier 0iruit :<
(ig" 9.7<b Aalf wa!e retifier :=
(ig" 9.7=a 0enter B tapped full wa!e retifier :=
(ig" 9.7=b. Output of full wa!e retifier :>
(ig"9.7> $he full wa!e bridge retifier. :>
(ig" 9.7?a D0 Power Supply :?
(ig" 9.7?b Output !oltage ;6
(ig" 9.86 Battery onstrution ;6
(ig" 9.87 integrated iruit 1#02 ;8
(ig. 9.88 0onstrution of $ransistor ;9
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(ig. 9.89a 0likon $ransistor ;:
(ig. 9.89b $erminals of a $ransistor ;:
(ig. 9.8: 0urrent (low of a $ransistor ;;
(ig. 9.8; Simple $ransistor 0iruit ;;
(ig. 9.8< $ransistor Appliation ;=
(ig. 9.8= )a!e diagram ;>
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C52PTER .)
"ntroduction
)*) "ntroduction
#PS stands for %#nstant Power SupplyI. #t is an eletrial de!ie that an pro!ide eletriity when
the main supply is not a!ailable. #PS is the ideal solution for ontinuous power supply failities during
load shedding. A general #PS onsists of a harger iruit, a battery, an osillator iruit and an output
iruit. $he harger iruit harges the battery properly by using the main supply when it is O&. )hen the
main supply is not a!ailable then the battery supplies the power. #n Bangladesh we obser!ed that there are
far differene of installed apaity and ma,imum generation of eletriity that we reite here. )e also
disus the onsumption of eletriity by ategory and how an we o!erame this situation.
)*0 "nstalled ca$acit% and the ma@imum generation
#n (isal -ear 1(-2 8666D67, the total installed apaity was :66; 3) and the ma,imum generation
was 9699 3). Both the installed apaity and ma,imum generation ha!e slightly inreased o!er the time. $he
installed apaity as well as the ma,imum generation has inreased with a dereasing rate as ompared to the
(- 8668D69 . $he growth rate of the installed apaity was higher in the (- 8676D77 177.9> perent2 whereas,
the growth rate of ma,imum generation was higher in the (- 866=D6> 177.6> perent2.
Table ): "nstalled Ca$acit% and 3a@imum >eneration J7K
$he total installed apaity was :66; 3) in the (- 8666D67 whih has inreased to <<>; 3) in the
(- 8676D77 179 Cune, 86772
J7K
with an annual inreasing rate of <.<8 perent. Aowe!er, the ma,imum
generation was 9699 3) in (- 8666D67 whih has inreased to :<?? 3) in the (- 8676D77 179 Cune, 86772
with an annual inreasing rate of ;.:? perent 1(igure 72. $he annual inreasing rate of ma,imum generation
1;.:? perent2 is lower than that of the installed apaity 1<.<8 perent2 between the (- 8666D67 and 8676D
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Fiscal Aear
Bangladesh
"nstalled
Ca$acit%
&37'
>ro#th
Rate &B'
3a@imum
>eneratio
n &37'
>ro#th Rate
&B'
0...-.) ..1 - /.// -
0..)-.0 0/. 1*C0 /0)D C*).
0..0-./ E). ))*/1 /1D E*C
0../-. E). . /C00 *E
0..-.1 1.01 C*C! /E1) /*1C
0..1-.C 10E1 *!D /D)0 )*C/
0..C-.E 10C0 -.*01 /E)D -0*E
0..E-.D 10C0 . )/. ))*.D
0..D-.! 1D./ ).*0D )C0 .*EE
0..!-). 1!ED /*.0 C.C ).*CE
0.).-)) &)/
FuneG 0.))'
CC1D ))*/D C!! 0*.0

8677. $his is resulted from the poorer produti!ities of older power plants. Beside this, due to the shortage of
gas supply, some power plants are unable to utiliGe their generation apaity
Fig:)*) >ro#th rate of "nstalled Ca$acit% and 3a@imum >eneration bet#een
0...-.) and 0.).-0.))
)*/ Current Situation and Future Pro9ection of Electricit% DemandG >eneration and
(oad Shedding
$he real demand for eletriity ould not be met due to the shortage of a!ailable generation
apaity. A good number of generation units ha!e beome !ery old and ha!e been operating at a muhD
redued apaity. As a result, their reliability and produti!ity are also poor. Beside this, due to the
shortage of gas supply, some power plants are unable to utiliGe their usual generation apaity. $herefore,
there is an inrease in the loadDshedding o!er the years. $he a!erage ma,imum demand for eletriity was
9?=6 3) in 866= whih has inreased to :>99 3) in 8677 13ay, 86772 with an a!erage inreasing rate
of 87< 3) per annum. Lnder the business as usual senario, the a!erage demand might stand at ;<?<
3) by 867;. On the other hand, the a!erage generation was 99=> 3) in 866= whih has inreased to
:769 3) in 8677 13ay, 86772 with an annual a!erage inreasing rate of 7>7 3). 0ontinuation of this
rate indiates that the a!erage generation would be :>8> 3) by 867;, whih is far away from the !ision
of 77;66 3) generations by 867;. $his inreased demand o!er generation has resulted in inreased load
shedding 1(igure 82. Additionally, the a!erage load shedding has inreased to <;< 3) in 8677 13ay,
86772 with an a!erage inreasing rate of 9; 3) per year starting from 866=. #f this inreasing rate
remains the same, the a!erage load shedding might be stood at =?; 3) by 867;
J7K.
14 | P a g e

Fig: )*0 Current Situation and Future Pro9ection of Electricit% DemandG >eneration and (oad
Shedding*

#t is also obser!ed that the demand for eletriity has been inreased with a rate of ;.:9 perent per
year whereas, the generation of eletriity has been inreased with a rate of ;.9= perent per year between
866= and 8677. $he lower inreasing rate of generation 1;.9= perent2 than that of the demand 1;.:9
perent2 has aelerated the rate of load shedding whih has been inreased at a rate of <.=8 perent per
annum during the same period.
J7K
Fig: )*/ >ro#th rate of DemandG >eneration and (oad Shedding
15 | P a g e

)* Consum$tion of Electricit% b% Categor%
$he onsumption pattern of eletriity !aries aording to different ategories. $he onsumption
of eletriity at all ategories has inreased e!ery year . E,ept in the year 866;D6<, almost all the times
after 8667D68, the onsumption pattern of eletriity at the domesti le!el inreased with a dereasing rate.
$he same result is also found in the ase of ommerial ser!ies. Aowe!er, e,ept in the year 866;D6<, in
industrial ser!ies and other ser!ies, the onsumption pattern has also been inreasing with a dereasing
rate from the year 8669D6:. $he onsumption rate of eletriity of all the ser!ie ategories was highest in
the year 866;D6< . $he main reason for whih the onsumption pattern inreased with a dereasing rate is
the lower generation of eletriity o!er the demand. Although, the onsumption pattern of different setors
has inreased o!er the years but it was lower than that the e,peted . $he annual rate of inrease between
8666D67 and 866=D6> was the highest at the ommerial ser!ies whih was 7;.< perent, followed by
domesti ser!ies 179.> perent2, industrial ser!ies 179.9 perent2 and other ser!ies 1<.: perent2.
Fig: )* Consum$tion of Electricit% b% Categor% &3,75' and their Corres$onding >ro#th
Rate from 0...-.) to 0..E-.D
)*1 Causes of Electricit% Crisis

Although the go!ernment has taken se!eral initiati!es for reduing the risis of eletriity, yet the
risis persists. $his is mainly due to the problems assoiated with high gas dependeny, improper
pri!atiGation poliy, lak of satisfatory and timely implementation of alloated money, politial reasons
and o!er population.
16 | P a g e

)*1*) 5igh >as De$endenc%

$he most important reason at the moment is that the go!ernment is unable to ensure the supply of
natural gas, the main primary fuel whih is used to produe eletriity. $he Shortage of a!ailable gas
supply reates a struggling situation of eletriity generation. Still, >9 perent of the total eletriity used
to be generated by natural gas. 3any power plants are idle due to the shortage of gas supply. $his has
resulted in the lower generation of eletriity. On the other hand, unpreedented delay in finaliGing a oal
poliy makes it diffiult to generate the e,peted le!el of eletriity. @o!ernment remains silent about the
e,ploration and e,ploitation of oal, whih is heaper and safer in generating eletriity.
)*1*0 (ac4 of timel% "m$lementation of 2llocated 3one%
$he go!ernment has gi!en highest priority to the de!elopment in the power setor whih has been
refleted in the alloation of the annual de!elopment program 1ADP2. $he total alloation in the power
setor was $k. =7:;.8> rore for the fisal year 8677D78. O!er the last few years there was a signifiant
gap between the alloation and the implementation of ADP in the power setor. 0onsidering the last fisal
year, it has been obser!ed that only 8? perent of the alloated ADP had been implemented during the
first eight months of that fisal year. #t means that another =7 perent ha!e to be implemented within the
ne,t four months of that fisal year. )hen a huge amount of alloated money is re*uired to implement,
there e,ist orruptions. $hat is why the lak of timely implementation has redued the proper de!elopment
in the setor of eletriity, in fat, in the generation of eletriity.
)*1*/ Political Reason

#n Bangladesh, the go!ernments ome and go and the issue of eletriity remains a struggling one.
$he politiians are !ery muh interested in o!ering a lot of areas without thinking the e,isting generation
in order to win the mind of the !oters. $his may bear information about the huge o!erage of the
eletriity but in reality, it reates risis. $his type of politis makes the risis more aute.
)*1* ;=er Po$ulation

$here has been an inrease in the demand for eletriity in the reent years as a result of industrial
de!elopment and population growth. One of the ommon matters in the ountry is o!er population, whih
reates a lot of problem in the !arious de!elopment setors. 3ore population means more onsumption of
eletriity. Population is inreasing but the generation of eletriity is not inreasing as re*uired. After all,
there is an impro!ement in the life style of the itiGen in the ountry. )ith the impro!ement of the
people4s life standard, the demand for eletriity has also inreased. As the generation has inreased with
a slower rate than that of the demand for eletriity, the risis of eletriity is on the rise.
17 | P a g e

)*C Solution
"nstant Po#er Su$$l% &"PS'

#PS stands for %#nstant Power SupplyI. #t is an eletrial de!ie that an pro!ide eletriity when
the main supply is not a!ailable. #PS is the ideal solution for ontinuous power supply failities during
mains failure. A general #PS onsists of a harger iruit, a battery, an osillator iruit, O!erload
protetion iruit and an output step by step /ode sharing iruit. $he harger iruit harges the battery
properly by using the main supply when it is O&. )hen the main supply is not a!ailable then the battery
supplies the power.
Solar Energ%
Solar Energy an be a great soure for sol!ing power risis in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is situated
between 86.96 and 8<.9> degrees north latitude and >>.6: and ?8.:: degrees east whih is an ideal
loation for solar energy utiliGation. At this position the amount of hours of sunlight eah day throughout a
year .$he highest and the lowest intensity of diret radiation in )+mM. #n a reent study onduted by
5enewable Energy 5esearh 0entre, it is found that a!erage solar radiation !aries between : to <.;
k)hmD8 dayD7 and ma,imum amounts of radiation are a!ailable in the month of 3arhDApril and
minimum in DeemberDCanuary. So from the abo!e figure and disussion we an say that there is a good
prospet of harnessing solar power in Bangladesh. 3oreo!er, in the rural areas where there is no
eletriity onnetion, photo!oltai tehnology an be a blessing. Although, the installment ost of solar
systems in the house is !ery muh ostly, but one installed it an gi!e ser!ie up to 86D8; years with
proper maintenane. 3oreo!er, in the northern territories of Bangladesh where the solar intensity is !ery
high, solar thermal power plant an be installed. (or both photo!oltai tehnology and solar thermal
tehnology, Bangladesh is at a perfet loation. #n fat, Bangladesh go!ernment has reently taken many
steps to enourage people to use photo!oltai energy. Almost e!ery newly built apartment buildings are
now using solar panels along with the grid onnetion to get support during the load shedding period.
E!en in the rural areas, some &@O4s ha!e been working to pro!ide solar panels to the !illagers in a heap
prie.
Biogas
&atural resoures in the form of fossil fuels are the raw materials from whih eletrial energy is
generated and the day to day life of the people of today4s world is solely dependent on the eletrial
energy in this present world. Sientists around the world ha!e already indiated that our natural reser!e of
gas is dereasing day by day and the time is not too far when we will ha!e no natural gas resoure.
Although pre!iously it was belie!ed that Bangladesh has plenty amount of gas, but reent study has
shown that natural gas reser!e of Bangladesh is not suffiient to meet the daily ooking purpose of the
people for ne,t few deades, let alone generation of eletriity. Aowe!er, waste materials produed from
natural day to day life usage and also from animal wastes, an be good soures of energy in this purpose
and an help to meet the eletriity demand by generating eletriity through biogas. 3any ountries
around the world are now paying their attention to biogas beause of its en!ironment friendly tehnology
and as a supplement for the gradually dereasing fossil fuel reser!es. 3any ountries nowDaDdays are
produing eletriity from biogas. Some of them are using biogas tehnology in mass prodution of
eletriity rather than using it in a distributed ways around the ountry. #n Bangladesh biogas is still a
relati!ely new tehnology. #n most of the plaes it is used to generate eletriity to meet the household
demands. But an agroDbased ountry like Bangladesh produes huge amount of waste materials.
18 | P a g e

0on!erting these waste materials into energy is eonomially ad!antageous as well as helpful to sol!e the
issue of power risis. #n Bangladesh, reyling industry wastes raises a total of :9< t+d of material
reo!ery. 3oreo!er, 9,6;: t+d of wastes is e,peted to be olleted in 867; and umulati!e disposal
!olume is estimated at about ? million tones by the end of 867; . $his huge amount of waste, most of
whih are omputable and ha!e !ery good fermentation property an be easily used to produe eletriity
as well as the generated gas an be used for the ooking purpose. )aste to energy tehnology an be a
huge asset for a de!eloping ountry like Bangladesh. Although some small farms and houses in the rural
areas are using wastes produed from their li!estok to produe eletriity for daily purposes, it should be
used ommerially to produe eletriity in the areas where there is still no eletriity from the national
grid. #t will help the people of these areas to meet their demand of eletriity and the go!ernment and the
ompanies related to this tehnology an earn money whih is also benefiial.
>enerator
#n eletriity generation, an eletri generator is a de!ie that on!erts mehanial energy to
eletrial energy. A generator fores eletri urrent to flow through an e,ternal iruit. $he soure of
mehanial energy may be a reiproating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine or
waterwheel, an internal ombustion engine, a wind turbine.,
J7K
a hand rank, ompressed air, or any other
soure of mehanial energy. @enerators pro!ide nearly all of the power for eletri power grids.
$he re!erse on!ersion of eletrial energy into mehanial energy is done by an eletri motor,
and motors and generators ha!e many similarities. 3any motors an be mehanially dri!en to generate
eletriity and fre*uently make aeptable generators.
19 | P a g e

C52PTER-.0
"nstant Po#er Su$$l% &"PS'
0*) "ntroduction
#nstant Power Supply 1 #PS 2 stands for %#t is an eletrial de!ie that an pro!ide eletriity when
the main supply is not a!ailable. #PS is the ideal solution for ontinuous power supply failities during
mains failure. A general #PS onsists of a harger iruit, a battery, an osillator iruit and an output
iruit. $he harger iruit harges the battery properly by using the main supply when it is O&. )hen the
main supply is not a!ailable then the battery supplies the power. $he system has many distint features
o!er the on!entional generators. #t is fully automati. #t does not re*uire any fuel as like a generator
needs. #t also does not produe any sound pollution like a generator does. #t is the preession #PS designed
aording to our power line 0ondition. $he #PS those are a!ailable in the market has some limitations
suh as. J8K
N Lnstable or unregulated output !oltage
N Battery longibility is small
N Aigh ost
$o o!erome abo!e shortomings an initiati!e was taken to design suh an #PS that will gi!e a stable
output and its battery will ser!e for a long time ompared to the on!entional #PS. #t will also be a!ailable
at omparati!ely low ost .
0*0 S%stem S$ecification
Table: .0 S%stem S$ecification
Serial number Features S$ecifications
7 3ain !oltage 886 O, ;6 AG
8 /ow !oltage Battery power supply 78O D0
9 $emperature range 6D>6 Deg. (.
: Output range 886O B 8:6O
; Power 866 watt
< Bak up time Battery dependent
= Lse $ube light . fan
0*/ Princi$le of ;$eration
20 | P a g e

$he simplified blok diagram of designed #PS is shown in (ig. 7.$his $ransformer is Step down is
!oltage range. Primary 886 O A0 . seondary 78D6D78 O. $he 886O A0 supply is applied to the input
1step up2 transformer 78D6D78 O A0 from input transformer is then enters in to the retifier bridge whih
this power on!ert that D0 to A0. #nstant Power supply D0 battery 78 !oltage on!erting to the A0
amplifiation high !oltage 896 O ;6AG. output. $ransformer 78 to 7;O A0 used to harge a 78O battery
through the harger ontrol iruit 78O A0 supply to the Power iruit this on!erts 78O D0. $his 78O
A0 is then amplified and transmitted to the output 1step up2 transformer. 886O A0 supply is ahie!ed
from the output transformer.
21 | P a g e

0* Bloc4 Diagram of "PS
Fig:0*) Bloc4 Diagram of "PS
22 | P a g e

0*1 (ist of com$onents
Table : ./ (ist of Com$onents
5esistors Diode
57 9E?,7+:) 5:? 9E9,7+:) D7 ;.<O,Pener D87 7&:66=
58 76E,7+:) 5;6 76E,7+:) D8 7&:66= D88 7&:66=
59 766E, 7+:) 5;7 <E>,7+:) D9 7&:66= D89 7&:66=
5: 9k9, 7+:) 5;8 8E8,7+:) D: 7&:66= D8: 7&:66=
5; 766k, 7+:) 5;9 7E, 7+:) D; 7&:7:> D8; 7&:66=
5< 76k, 7+:) 5;: :=ohm,7) D< 7&:7:> D8< 7&:66=
5= 76k, 7+:) 5;; 7E, 7+:) D= 7&:7:> D8= 7&:66=
5> 996k, 7+:) 5;< 76E, 7+:) D> 7&:66= D8> 7&:66=
5? 76k, 7+:) 5;= 9E9, 7+:) D? 7&:66= D8? 7&:66=
576 8k8, 7+:) 5;> 886E,7+:) D76 7&:7:> D96 7&:66=
577 76k, 7+:) 5;? 886E,7+:) D77 7&:66= D97 7&:66=
578 76k, 7+:) 5<6 9E9, 7+:) D78 7&:66= D98 7&:66=
579 76k, 7+:) 5<7 9E9, 7+:) D79 7&:66= D99 7&:66=
57: 9k9, 7+:) 5<8 7E, 7+:) D7: 7&:66= D9: 7&:66=
57; 76k, 7+:) 5<9 <>6ohm D7; 7&:66= D9; 7&:66=
57< 76k, 7+:) 5<: 76E, 7+:) D7< 7&:66= D9< 7&:66=
57= 766k, 7+:) 5<; 7E, 7+:) D7= 7&:66= D9= 7&:66=
57> :k=, 7+:) 5<< 99E, 7+:) D7> 7&:66= D9> 7&:66=
57? :k=, 7+:) 5<= D7? 7&:7:> D9? 7&:66=
586 7k, 7+:) 5<> 7E, 7+:) D86 7&:66=
587 766k, 7+:) 5<? :=6, 7+:)
588 76ohm,7+:) 5=6 :=E, 7+:) )ire wound 5esistor
589 ;<k, 7+:) 5=7 88E, 7+:) 86ohm+86) )ire would 5esistor
58: :k=, 7+:) 5=8 88E, 7+:) 7ohm+86) )ire would 5esistor
58; 76k, 7+:) 5=9 :=E, 7+:) Preset
58< 76k, 7+:) 5=: 996E,7+:) O57 :E= 0harging 0ut
58= 76k, 7+:) 5=; :E=, 7+:) O58 :E= 0harging Ampere Adj.
5 8> :=k, 7+:) 5=< 76E, 7+:) O59 :E= (re*. (ine tune
58? :=k, 7+:) 5== 76E, 7+:) O5: :E= P)3
596 76k, 7+:) 5=> 7E, 7+:) O5; 86E (re*. Adj.
597 76ohm,7+:) 5=? 766E,7+:) O5< 86E O!erload
598 8k8, 7+:) 5>6 ;<E, 7+:) O5= :E= /ow Battery
599 <k>, 7+:) 5>7 88E, 7+:) /EDS
59: <>6, 7+:) 5>8 :E=, 7+:) /ED 5ED
59; :k=, 7+:) 5>9 88E, 7+:) /ED 5ED
59< :=k, 7+:) 5>: 7E, 7+:) /ED @5EE&
59= 76k, 7+:) 5>; 7E, 7+:) /ED @5EE&
59> 76k, 7+:) 5>< 7E, 7+:) /ED -E//O)
59? <k>, 7+:) 5>= :=E, 7+:) 0apaitor
5:6 76k, 7+:) 5>> 88E, 7+:) 0A7 6.7 Qf,766O
5:7 88k, 7+:) 5>? 7E, 7+:) 0A8 7666 Qf,9;O
5:8 886k, 7+:) 5?6 76E, 7+:) 0A9 7666 Qf,9;O
23 | P a g e

5:9 76E, 7+:) 5?7 76E, 7+:) 0A: 6.7 Qf,766O
5esistors 5esistors
5:: 9E9, 7+:) 5:= 766E, 7+:) 5A7 7E 5A78 886 Ohm
5:; :=6E, 7+:) 5:> 8E8, 7+:) 5A8 7E 5A79 766E
5:< 8E8, 7+:) 5A9 76E 5A7: 88 Ohm
5A: 8E8 5A7; 88 Ohm
0apaitor 5A; 76E 5A7< 88Ohm
07 :.=3(d,<9O 089 6.6883(d,7EO 5A< 88 Ohm 5A7= 76E
08 :.=3(d,<9O 08: 6.73(d,766Ep( 5A= 88 Ohm 5A7> 76E
09 :.=3(d,<9O 08; 8.83(d,<9O 5A> 88 Ohm 5A7? 8E8
0: :.=3(d,<9O 08< 8863(d,:6O 5A? 76E 5A86 7E
0; 6.:=3(d,<9O 08= 6.73(d,766Ep( 5A76 76E 5A87 7E
0< 6.73(d,766Ep( 08> 6.73(d,766Ep( 5A77 766E 5A88 76E
0= 73(d,<9O 08? 6.73(d,766Ep(
0> 6.73(d,766Ep( 096 6.73(d,766Ep( #0
0? :=3d,<9O 097 :=3d,<9O #0D7 /398:& 1OPDA3P2
076 73(d,<9O 098 :=3d,<9O #0D8 S@9;8:& + S@9;8;A 1P)32
077 6.73(d,766Ep( 099 763(d<9O #0D9 3O09687 1OP$OD0OLP/E52
078 6.73(d,766Ep( 09: :=3d,<9O #0D: /398: & 1OPDA3P2
079 :=3d,<9O 09; 763(d<9O #0D; :&9; 1OP$OD0OLP/E52
07: :.=3d,<9O 09< 6.73(d,766Ep( #0D< :&9; 1OP$OD0OLP/E52
07; 6.73(d,766Ep( 09= 763(d<9O #0D= /399? 1OPDA3P2
07< 763(d,<9O 09> 763(d<9O #0D> /3=>78 178O 5E@L/A$O52
07= 8.83(d,<9O 09? :=3d,<9O #0D? /3=>78 178O 5E@L/A$O52
07> 8.83(d,<9O 0:6 6.73(d,766Ep(
07? 6.73(d,766Ep( 0:7 763(d<9O S05
086 :=3d,<9O 0:8 6.73(d,766Ep( S05D7 $-&<6:+<78
087 6.73(d,766Ep( 0:9 7663(d,;6O S05D8 $-&<6:+<78
088 6.73(d,766Ep( 0:: 7663(d,;6O
$ransistor
$7 B0;;= 1P&P2
$8 B0;;= 1P&P2
$: B0;:= 1&P&2
$; B0;:= 1&P&2
$> B0;;= 1P&P2
$76 R/6>+>$7<? 1S052
$77 BD7:6+8&<76= 1P&P2
$78 B0;:= 1&P&2
$79 B0;:= 1&P&2
$7: B0;;7 1P&P2
$7; B0;;= 1P&P2
$7< B0;;= 1P&P2
$7= B0;;= 1P&P2
24 | P a g e

0*C Circuit Diagram of "PS ;scillation
Fig: 0*0 Circuit Diagram of "PS
0*E (oad $riorit%
/oad priority means the load where is neessary to apply the power immediately .#n this thesis we
an try to de!elop one thing that in the period of the power failing or load shading the #PS bakup the
power supply but not at a time e!ery room. By the seletion of us 7
st
time bakup drawing room or kithen
room and then other room. $o apply this proess the #PS longe!ity would be higher than the normal #PS,
whih has not this load priority system. After all we think this system is effeti!e and aeptable to us.
25 | P a g e

0*D Result
$he designed #PS iruit worked properly.
Detail result is as follows
Table: . Result
#nput $ransformer
Primary #nput 886O, ;6 AG
Seondary Output 78D6D78 O, ;6 AG.
$he 0harger 0iruit
#nput 78O, ;6 AG.
Output 79.;O D0. 1Appro,imately2 $he Battery.
#nput 79.;O D0
Output 78O D0
Osillator 0iruit
#nput 78O D0.
Output ; O, ;6 AG.
Output $ransformer
StepDup $ransformer
Primary #nput 78D6D78 O, ;6 AG.
Seondary Output 886O, ;6 AG
$his thesis work was planed in a systemati way. $he total ati!ities were performed step by step.
At first the whole system was outlined in a blok diagram and then iruits of different setions of the
blok were designed and tested. (inally all the iruits were arranged and onneted properly and then
tested. (irstly, the harger iruit was designed. A 78D6D78 O A0 supply was gi!en to the iruit by a step
down transformer and an output of appro,imately 79.;O D0 was obtained at the output of !oltage
regulator /3=>78. $here was a little !oltage drop of about 7.;O aross the iruit. $hen a 78O D0
battery was onneted to the harge iruit.
After that, the osillator iruit has been designed. $o test it a 78O D0 supply was applied and proper
osillation was obser!ed by the help of an osillosope. An output of appro,imately 78 O, ;6 AG was
obtained. #t was always diffiult to obtain a pure A0 output. $he output of the osillator iruit was then
applied to the output step up transformer through output transistors and an output of 886O, ;6 AG was
a*uired. By inreasing the number of the output transistors power of the designed iruit an be
enhaned.
26 | P a g e

C52PTER-./
Com$onents
/*) Transformer
A transformer is a stati eletrial de!ie that transfers energy by induti!e oupling between
its winding iruits. A !arying urrent in the primary winding reates a !arying magneti flu, in the
transformerSs ore and thus a !arying magneti flu, through the secondary winding. $his !arying
magneti flu, indues a !arying eletromoti!e fore 1emf2 or !oltage in the seondary winding.
$ransformers an be used to !ary the relati!e !oltage of iruits or isolate them, or both.
$ransformers range in siGe from thumbnailDsiGed used in mirophones to units weighing
hundreds of tons interonneting the power grid. A wide range of transformer designs are used in
eletroni and eletri power appliations. $ransformers are essential for the transmission, distribution,
and utiliGation of eletrial energy.J:K
/*0 Basic $rinci$les
The ideal transformer
Fig: /*) "deal transformer circuit diagram
0onsider the ideal, lossless, perfetlyDoupled transformer shown in the iruit diagram at right
ha!ing primary and seondary windings with &
P
and &
S
turns, respeti!ely.
$he ideal transformer indues seondary !oltage E
S
HV
S
as a proportion of the primary !oltage
V
P
H E
P
and respeti!e winding turns as gi!en by the e*uation
27 | P a g e

,
#hereG
D V
P
+V
S
H E
P
+E
S
H a is the voltage ratio and N
P
+N
S
H a is the winding turns ratio, the !alue of these
ratios being respeti!ely higher and lower than unity for stepDdown and stepDup transformers,
D V
P
designates soure impressed !oltage,
D V
S
designates output !oltage, and,
D E
P
. E
S
designate respeti!e emf indued !oltages.
Any load impedane onneted to the ideal transformer4s seondary winding auses urrent
to flow without losses from primary to seondary iruits, the resulting input and output apparent
power therefore being e*ual as gi!en by the e*uation
.
0ombining the two e*uations yields the following ideal transformer identity
.
$his formula is a reasonable appro,imation for the typial ommerial transformer, with
!oltage ratio and winding turns ratio both being in!ersely proportional to the orresponding urrent
ratio. $he load impedane is defined in terms of seondary iruit !oltage and urrent as follows
.
$he apparent impedane of this seondary iruit load referred to the primary winding
iruit is go!erned by a s*uared turns ratio multipliation fator relationship deri!ed as follows
.
/*/ "nduction la#
$he transformer is based on two priniples" first, that an eletri urrent an produe a
magneti field and seond that a hanging magneti field within a oil of wire indues a !oltage aross
the ends of the oil 1eletromagneti indution2. 0hanging the urrent in the primary oil hanges the
magneti flu, that is de!eloped. $he hanging magneti flu, indues a !oltage in the seondary oil.
5eferring to the two figures here, urrent passing through the primary oil reates a magneti field.
$he primary and seondary oils are wrapped around a ore of !ery high magneti permeability,
usually iron,
JdK
so that most of the magneti flu, passes through both the primary and seondary oils.
Any seondary winding onneted load auses urrent and !oltage indution from primary to
seondary iruits in indiated diretions.
28 | P a g e

Fig: /*0 "deal transformer and induction la#
$he !oltage indued aross the seondary oil may be alulated from (araday4s law of
indution, whih states that"
where V
s
H E
s
is the instantaneous !oltage, N
s
is the number of turns in the seondary oil, and
dT+dt is the deri!ati!e of the magneti flu, T through one turn of the oil. #f the turns of the oil are
oriented perpendiularly to the magneti field lines, the flu, is the produt of the magneti flu, density
B and the area A through whih it uts. $he area is onstant, being e*ual to the rossDsetional area of
the transformer ore, whereas the magneti field !aries with time aording to the e,itation of the
primary. Sine the same magneti flu, passes through both the primary and seondary oils in an ideal
transformer, the instantaneous !oltage aross the primary winding e*uals
$aking the ratio of the abo!e two e*uations gi!es the same !oltage ratio and turns ratio
relationship shown abo!e, that is,
.
$he hanging magneti field indues an emf aross eah winding.
J>K
$he primary emf, ating as
it does in opposition to the primary !oltage, is sometimes termed the ounter emf. $his is in
aordane with /enG4s law, whih states that indution of emf always opposes de!elopment of any
suh hange in magneti field. As still lossless and perfetlyDoupled, the transformer still beha!es as
desribed abo!e in the ideal transformer.
29 | P a g e

/* The real transformer
Real transformer de=iations from ideal
$he ideal model neglets the following basi linear aspets in real transformers"
0ore losses olleti!ely alled magnetiGing urrent losses onsisting of"
Aysteresis losses due to nonlinear appliation of the !oltage applied in the transformer
ore
Eddy urrent losses due to joule heating in ore proportional to the s*uare of the
transformer4s applied !oltage.
)hereas the ideal windings ha!e no impedane, the windings in a real transformer ha!e finite
nonDGero impedanes in the form of"
Coule losses due to resistane in the primary and seondary windings.
/eakage flu, that esapes from the ore and passes through one winding only resulting
in primary and seondary reati!e impedane.
/*1 (ea4age flu@
3ain artile" /eakage indutane
Fig: /*/ (ea4age flu@ of a transformer
$he ideal transformer model assumes that all flu, generated by the primary winding links all
the turns of e!ery winding, inluding itself. #n pratie, some flu, tra!erses paths that take it outside
the windings. Suh flu, is termed leakage flux, and results in leakage indutane in series with the
mutually oupled transformer windings.
J?K
/eakage flu, results in energy being alternately stored in
and disharged from the magneti fields with eah yle of the power supply. #t is not diretly a power
loss 1see Stray losses below2, but results in inferior !oltage regulation, ausing the seondary !oltage
to not be diretly proportional to the primary !oltage, partiularly under hea!y load. $ransformers are
therefore normally designed to ha!e !ery low leakage indutane. &e!ertheless, it is impossible to
30 | P a g e

eliminate all leakage flu, beause it plays an essential part in the operation of the transformer. $he
ombined effet of the leakage flu, and the eletri field around the windings is what transfers energy
from the primary to the seondary. #n some appliations inreased leakage is desired, and long
magneti paths, air gaps, or magneti bypass shunts may deliberately be introdued in a transformer
design to limit the shortDiruit urrent it will supply. /eaky transformers may be used to supply loads
that e,hibit negati!e resistane, suh as eletri ars, merury !apor lamps, and neon signs or for
safely handling loads that beome periodially shortDiruited suh as eletri ar welders.
Air gaps are also used to keep a transformer from saturating, espeially audioDfre*ueny
transformers in iruits that ha!e a D0 omponent flowing through the windings. Enowledge of
leakage indutane is for e,ample useful when transformers are operated in parallel. #t an be shown
that if the perent impedane 1P2 and assoiated winding leakage reataneDtoDresistane 1R+52 ratio of
two transformers were hypothetially e,atly the same, the transformers would share power in
proportion to their respeti!e !oltDampere ratings 1e.g. ;66 EOA unit in parallel with 7,666 EOA unit,
the larger unit would arry twie the urrent2. Aowe!er, the impedane toleranes of ommerial
transformers are signifiant. Also, the P impedane and R+5 ratio of different apaity transformers
tends to !ary, orresponding 7,666 EOA and ;66 EOA units4 !alues being, to illustrate, respeti!ely,
P U ;.=;V, R+5 U 9.=; and P U ;V, R+5 U :.=;
/*C Equi=alent circuit E@$lain
5eferring to the diagram, a pratial transformer4s physial beha!ior may be represented by an
e*ui!alent iruit model, whih an inorporate an ideal transformer.
J88K
)inding joule losses and leakage reatane4s are represented by the following series loop impedanes
of the model"
Primary winding" R
P
, X
P
Seondary winding" R
S
, X
S
.
#n normal ourse of iruit e*ui!alene transformation, R
S
and X
S
are in pratie usually referred to
the primary side by multiplying these impedanes by the turns ratio s*uared, 1N
P
+N
S
2
8
H a
8
.
Fig: /* Real transformer equi=alent circuit
0ore loss and reatane is represented by the following shunt leg impedanes of the model.
0ore or iron losses" R
0
3agnetiGing reatane" X
3
.
R
0
and X
3
are olleti!ely termed the magnetizing branch of the model.
31 | P a g e

0ore losses are aused mostly by hysteresis and eddy urrent effets in the ore and are
proportional to the s*uare of the ore flu, for operation at a gi!en fre*ueny. $he finite permeability
ore re*uires a magnetiGing urrent
3
to maintain mutual flu, in the ore. 3agnetiGing urrent is in
phase with the flu,, the relationship between the two being nonDlinear due to saturation effets.
Aowe!er, all impedanes of the e*ui!alent iruit shown are by definition linear and suh nonD
linearity effets are not typially refleted in transformer e*ui!alent iruits.
J89K
)ith sinusoidal supply,
ore flu, lags the indued emf by ?6W. )ith openDiruited seondary winding, magnetiGing branh
urrent
6
e*uals transformer noDload urrent.
$he resulting model, though sometimes termed Xe,at4 e*ui!alent iruit based on linearity
assumptions, retains a number of appro,imations.
J88K
Analysis may be simplified by assuming that
magnetiGing branh impedane is relati!ely high and reloating the branh to the left of the primary
impedanes. $his introdues error but allows ombination of primary and referred seondary
resistanes and reatane4s by simple summation as two series impedanes.
$ransformer e*ui!alent iruit impedane and transformer ratio parameters an be deri!ed from the
following tests" OpenDiruit test, shortDiruit test, winding resistane test, and transformer ratio test.
/*E Basic transformer $arameters and construction
Effect of frequenc%
Transformer uni=ersal emf equation
#f the flu, in the ore is purely sinusoidal, the relationship for either winding between its rms
=oltage E
rms
of the winding, and the supply fre*ueny f, number of turns N, ore rossDsetional area a
in m
8
and peak magneti flu, density B
peak
in )b+m
8
or $ 1tesla2 is gi!en by the uni!ersal emf
e*uation"
#f the flu, does not ontain e!en harmonis the following e*uation an be used for half-c%cle
a=erage =oltage E
a!g
of any wa!e shape.
$he timeDderi!ati!e term in (araday4s /aw shows that the flu, in the ore is the integral with
respet to time of the applied !oltage. Aypothetially an ideal transformer would work with diretD
urrent e,itation, with the ore flu, inreasing linearly with time. #n pratie, the flu, rises to the
point where magneti saturation of the ore ours, ausing a large inrease in the magnetiGing urrent
and o!erheating the transformer. All pratial transformers must therefore operate with alternating 1or
pulsed diret2 urrent.
32 | P a g e

$he emf of a transformer at a gi!en flu, density inreases with fre*ueny. By operating at
higher fre*uenies, transformers an be physially more ompat beause a gi!en ore is able to
transfer more power without reahing saturation and fewer turns are needed to ahie!e the same
impedane. Aowe!er, properties suh as ore loss and ondutor skin effet also inrease with
fre*ueny. Airraft and military e*uipment employ :66 AG power supplies whih redue ore and
winding weight. 0on!ersely, fre*uenies used for some railway eletrifiation systems were muh
lower 1e.g. 7<.= AG and 8; AG2 than normal utility fre*uenies 1;6 B <6 AG2 for historial reasons
onerned mainly with the limitations of early eletri tration motors. As suh, the transformers used
to stepDdown the high o!erDhead line !oltages 1e.g. 7; kO2 were muh hea!ier for the same power
rating than those designed only for the higher fre*uenies.
Fig: /*1 Po#er transformer o=er-e@citation condition caused b% decreased frequenc%H flu@
&green'G iron coreIs magnetic characteristics &red' and magneti6ing current &blue'*
Operation of a transformer at its designed !oltage but at a higher fre*ueny than intended will
lead to redued magnetiGing urrent. At a lower fre*ueny, the magnetiGing urrent will inrease.
Operation of a transformer at other than its design fre*ueny may re*uire assessment of !oltages,
losses, and ooling to establish if safe operation is pratial. (or e,ample, transformers may need to be
e*uipped with X!olts per hertG4 o!erDe,itation relays to protet the transformer from o!er!oltage at
higher than rated fre*ueny.
One e,ample of stateDofDtheDart design is tration transformers used for eletri multiple unit
and high speed train ser!ie operating aross the, ountry border and using different eletrial
standards, suh transformers4 being restrited to be positioned below the passenger ompartment. $he
power supply to, and on!erter e*uipment being supply by, suh tration transformers ha!e to
aommodate different input fre*uenies and !oltage 1ranging from as high as ;6 AG down to 7<.= AG
33 | P a g e

and rated up to 8; kO2 while being suitable for multiple A0 asynhronous motor and D0 on!erters .
motors with !arying harmonis mitigation filtering re*uirements.
/arge power transformers are !ulnerable to insulation failure due to transient !oltages with
highDfre*ueny omponents, suh as aused in swithing or by lightning.
/*D Energ% (osses
An ideal transformer would ha!e no energy losses, and would be 766V effiient. #n pratial
transformers, energy is dissipated in the windings, ore, and surrounding strutures. /arger
transformers are generally more effiient, and those rated for eletriity distribution usually perform
better than ?>V.
E,perimental transformers using superonduting windings ahie!e effiienies of ??.>;V.
$he inrease in effiieny an sa!e onsiderable energy, and hene money, in a large hea!ily loaded
transformerF the tradeDoff is in the additional initial and running ost of the superonduting design.
As transformer losses !ary with load, it is often useful to e,press these losses in terms of noD
load loss, fullDload loss, halfDload loss, and so on. Aysteresis and eddy urrent losses are onstant at all
loads and dominate o!erwhelmingly at noDload, !ariable winding joule losses dominating inreasingly
as load inreases. $he noDload loss an be signifiant, so that e!en an idle transformer onstitutes a
drain on the eletrial supply and a running ost. Designing transformers for lower loss re*uires a
larger ore, goodD*uality silion steel, or e!en amorphous steel for the ore and thiker wire,
inreasing initial ost so that there is a tradeDoff between initial ost and running ost 1also see energy
effiient transformer2.
/*! Transformer losses arise from:
i'7inding 9oule losses
0urrent flowing through winding ondutors auses joule heating. As fre*ueny inreases, skin
effet and pro,imity effet auses winding resistane and, hene, losses to inrease.
ii' 5%steresis losses
Eah time the magneti field is re!ersed, a small amount of energy is lost due to hysteresis within the
ore. Aording to SteinmetG4s formula, the heat energy due to hysteresis is gi!en by
,
hysteresis loss is thus gi!en by
where, f is the fre*ueny, Y is the hysteresis oeffiient and Z
ma,
is the ma,imum flu, density,
the empirial e,ponent of whih !aries from about 7.: to 7 .> but is often gi!en as 7.< for iron.
34 | P a g e

iii' Edd% current losses
(erromagneti materials are also good ondutors and a ore made from suh a material also
onstitutes a single shortDiruited turn throughout its entire length. Eddy urrents therefore irulate
within the ore in a plane normal to the flu,, and are responsible for resisti!e heating of the ore
material. $he eddy urrent loss is a omple, funtion of the s*uare of supply fre*ueny and in!erse
s*uare of the material thikness Eddy urrent losses an be redued by making the ore of a stak of
plates eletrially insulated from eah other, rather than a solid blokF all transformers operating at low
fre*uenies use laminated or similar ores.
i=' Stra% losses
/eakage indutane is by itself largely lossless, sine energy supplied to its magneti fields is
returned to the supply with the ne,t halfDyle. Aowe!er, any leakage flu, that interepts nearby
onduti!e materials suh as the transformer4s support struture will gi!e rise to eddy urrents and be
on!erted to heat. $here are also radiati!e losses due to the osillating magneti field but these are
usually small.
/*). Core form and shell form transformers
Fig: /*C Core form J core t%$eH shell form J shell t%$e
0losedDore transformers are onstruted in Xore form4 or Xshell form4. )hen windings
surround the ore, the transformer is ore formF when windings are surrounded by the ore, the
transformer is shell form. Shell form design may be more pre!alent than ore form design for
distribution transformer appliations due to the relati!e ease in staking the ore around winding oils.
0ore form design tends to, as a general rule, be more eonomial, and therefore more pre!alent, than
shell form design for high !oltage power transformer appliations at the lower end of their !oltage and
power rating ranges 1less than or e*ual to, nominally, 896 kO or =; 3OA2. At higher !oltage and
power ratings, shell form transformers tend to be more pre!alent. Shell form design tends to be
preferred for e,tra high !oltage and higher 3OA appliations beause, though more labor intensi!e to
35 | P a g e

manufature, shell form transformers are harateriGed as ha!ing inherently better kOADtoDweight
ratio, better shortDiruit strength harateristis and higher immunity to transit damage.
/*)) Construction
(aminated steel cores
Fig: /*E (aminated core transformer sho#ing edge of laminations at to$ of $hoto
36 | P a g e

Fig: /*D Po#er transformer inrush current caused b% residual flu@ at s#itching instantH
flu@ &green'G iron coreIs magnetic characteristics &red' and magneti6ing current &blue'*
$ransformers for use at power or audio fre*uenies typially ha!e ores made of high
permeability silion steel. $he steel has a permeability many times that of free spae and the ore thus
ser!es to greatly redue the magnetiGing urrent and onfine the flu, to a path whih losely ouples
the windings. Early transformer de!elopers soon realiGed that ores onstruted from solid iron
resulted in prohibiti!e eddy urrent losses, and their designs mitigated this effet with ores onsisting
of bundles of insulated iron wires. /ater designs onstruted the ore by staking layers of thin steel
laminations, a priniple that has remained in use. Eah lamination is insulated from its neighbors by a
thin nonDonduting layer of insulation. $he uni!ersal transformer e*uation indiates a minimum
rossDsetional area for the ore to a!oid saturation.
$he effet of laminations is to onfine eddy urrents to highly elliptial paths that enlose little
flu,, and so redue their magnitude. $hinner laminations redue losses,
J:;K
but are more laborious and
e,pensi!e to onstrut. $hin laminations are generally used on highDfre*ueny transformers, with some
of !ery thin steel laminations able to operate up to 76 kAG.
37 | P a g e

Fig: /*! (aminating core greatl% reduces edd%-current losses
One ommon design of laminated ore is made from interlea!ed staks of EDshaped steel sheets
apped with #Dshaped piees, leading to its name of SED# transformerS. Suh a design tends to e,hibit
more losses, but is !ery eonomial to manufature. $he utDore or 0Dore type is made by winding a
steel strip around a retangular form and then bonding the layers together. #t is then ut in two, forming
two 0 shapes, and the ore assembled by binding the two 0 hal!es together with a steel strap. $hey
ha!e the ad!antage that the flu, is always oriented parallel to the metal grains, reduing relutane.
A steel oreSs remanene means that it retains a stati magneti field when power is remo!ed.
)hen power is then reapplied, the residual field will ause a high inrush urrent until the effet of the
remaining magnetism is redued, usually after a few yles of the applied A0 wa!eform. O!erurrent
protetion de!ies suh as fuses must be seleted to allow this harmless inrush to pass. On
transformers onneted to long, o!erhead power transmission lines, indued urrents due to
geomagneti disturbanes during solar storms an ause saturation of the ore and operation of
transformer protetion de!ies.
Distribution transformers an ahie!e low noDload losses by using ores made with lowDloss
highDpermeability silion steel or amorphous 1nonDrystalline2 metal alloy. $he higher initial ost of
the ore material is offset o!er the life of the transformer by its lower losses at light load.
/*)0 Solid cores
Powdered iron ores are used in iruits suh as swithDmode power supplies that operate
abo!e mains fre*uenies and up to a few tens of kilohertG. $hese materials ombine high magneti
permeability with high bulk eletrial resisti!ity. (or fre*uenies e,tending beyond the OA( band,
ores made from nonDonduti!e magneti erami materials alled ferrites are ommon. Some radioD
38 | P a g e

fre*ueny transformers also ha!e mo!able ores 1sometimes alled SslugsS2 whih allow adjustment of
the oupling oeffiient 1and bandwidth2 of tuned radioDfre*ueny iruits.
/*)/ 7indings
Fig: /*). 7indings are usuall% arranged concentricall% to minimi6e flu@ lea4age*
3ain article: 7indings
$he onduting material used for the windings depends upon the appliation, but in all ases
the indi!idual turns must be eletrially insulated from eah other to ensure that the urrent tra!els
throughout e!ery turn.
J;8K
(or small power and signal transformers, in whih urrents are low and the
potential differene between adjaent turns is small, the oils are often wound from enamelled magnet
wire, suh as (orm!ar wire. /arger power transformers operating at high !oltages may be wound with
opper retangular strip ondutors insulated by oilDimpregnated paper and bloks of pressboard.
0ut !iew through transformer windings. )hite" insulator. @reen spiral" @rain oriented silion
steel. Blak" Primary winding made of o,ygenDfree opper. 5ed" Seondary winding. $op left"
$oroidal transformer. 5ight" 0Dore, but EDore would be similar. $he blak windings are made of
film. $op" E*ually low apaitane between all ends of both windings. Sine most ores are at least
moderately onduti!e they also need insulation. Bottom" /owest apaitane for one end of the
seondary winding needed for lowDpower highD!oltage transformers. Bottom left" 5edution of
leakage indutane would lead to inrease of apaitane.
AighDfre*ueny transformers operating in the tens to hundreds of kilohertG often ha!e windings
made of braided /itG wire to minimiGe the skinDeffet and pro,imity effet losses. /arge power
transformers use multipleDstranded ondutors as well, sine e!en at low power fre*uenies nonD
uniform distribution of urrent would otherwise e,ist in highDurrent windings. Eah strand is
indi!idually insulated, and the strands are arranged so that at ertain points in the winding, or
throughout the whole winding, eah portion oupies different relati!e positions in the omplete
ondutor. $he transposition e*ualiGes the urrent flowing in eah strand of the ondutor, and redues
39 | P a g e

eddy urrent losses in the winding itself. $he stranded ondutor is also more fle,ible than a solid
ondutor of similar siGe, aiding manufature.
$he windings of signal transformers minimiGe leakage indutane and stray apaitane to
impro!e highDfre*ueny response. 0oils are split into setions, and those setions interlea!ed between
the setions of the other winding.
PowerDfre*ueny transformers may ha!e taps at intermediate points on the winding, usually on
the higher !oltage winding side, for !oltage adjustment. $aps may be manually reonneted, or a
manual or automati swith may be pro!ided for hanging taps. Automati onDload tap hangers are
used in eletri power transmission or distribution, on e*uipment suh as ar furnae transformers, or
for automati !oltage regulators for sensiti!e loads. AudioDfre*ueny transformers, used for the
distribution of audio to publi address loudspeakers, ha!e taps to allow adjustment of impedane to
eah speaker. A enterDtapped transformer is often used in the output stage of an audio power amplifier
in a pushDpull iruit. 3odulation transformers in A3 transmitters are !ery similar.
DryDtype transformer winding insulation systems an be either of standard openDwound SdipD
andDbakeS onstrution or of higher *uality designs that inlude !auum pressure impregnation 1OP#2,
!auum pressure enapsulation 1OPE2, and ast oil enapsulation proesses.
J;:K
#n the OP# proess, a
ombination of heat, !auum and pressure is used to thoroughly seal, bind, and eliminate entrained air
!oids in the winding polyester resin insulation oat layer, thus inreasing resistane to orona. OPE
windings are similar to OP# windings but pro!ide more protetion against en!ironmental effets, suh
as from water, dirt or orrosi!e ambients, by multiple dips inluding typially in terms of final epo,y
oat.
/*) Cooling
Fig: /*)) Cooling S%stem
40 | P a g e

0utaway !iew of li*uidDimmersed onstrution transformer. $he onser!ator 1reser!oir2 at top
pro!ides li*uidDtoDatmosphere isolation as oolant le!el and temperature hanges. $he walls and fins
pro!ide re*uired heat dissipation balane.
See also" Arrhenius e*uation
$o plae the ooling problem in perspeti!e, the aepted rule of thumb is that the life
e,petany of insulation in all eletri mahines inluding all transformers is hal!ed for about e!ery
=W0 to 76W0 inrease in operating temperature, this life e,petany hal!ing rule holding more narrowly
when the inrease is between about =W0 to >W0 in the ase of transformer winding ellulose insulation.
Small dryDtype and li*uidDimmersed transformers are often selfDooled by natural on!etion and
radiation heat dissipation. As power ratings inrease, transformers are often ooled by foredDair
ooling, foredDoil ooling, waterDooling, or ombinations of these. /arge transformers are filled with
transformer oil that both ools and insulates the windings. $ransformer oil is a highly refined mineral
oil that ools the windings and insulation by irulating within the transformer tank. $he mineral oil
and paper insulation system has been e,tensi!ely studied and used for more than 766 years. #t is
estimated that ;6V of power transformers will sur!i!e ;6 years of use, that the a!erage age of failure
of power transformers is about 76 to 7; years, and that about 96V of power transformer failures are
due to insulation and o!erloading failures. Prolonged operation at ele!ated temperature degrades
insulating properties of winding insulation and dieletri oolant, whih not only shortens transformer
life but an ultimately lead to atastrophi transformer failure )ith a great body of empirial study as
a guide, transformer oil testing inluding dissol!ed gas analysis pro!ides !aluable maintenane
information. $his an translate in a need to monitor, model, foreast and manage oil and winding
ondutor insulation temperature onditions under !arying, possibly diffiult, power loading
onditions. Building regulations in many jurisditions re*uire indoor li*uidDfilled transformers to
either use dieletri fluids that are less flammable than oil, or be installed in fireDresistant rooms. AirD
ooled dry transformers an be more eonomial where they eliminate the ost of a fireDresistant
transformer room.
$he tank of li*uid filled transformers often has radiators through whih the li*uid oolant
irulates by natural on!etion or fins. Some large transformers employ eletri fans for foredDair
ooling, pumps for foredDli*uid ooling, or ha!e heat e,hangers for waterDooling. An oilDimmersed
transformer may be e*uipped with a BuhholG relay, whih, depending on se!erity of gas
aumulation due to internal aring, is used to either alarm or deDenergiGe the transformer. OilD
immersed transformer installations usually inlude fire protetion measures suh as walls, oil
ontainment, and fireDsuppression sprinkler systems. Another protetion means onsists in fast
depressuriGation systems whih are ati!ated by the first dynami pressure peak of the shok wa!e,
a!oiding transformer e,plosion before stati pressure inreases. 3any e,plosions are reported to ha!e
been a!oided thanks to this tehnology.
Polyhlorinated biphenyls ha!e properties that one fa!ored their use as a dieletri oolant,
though onerns o!er their en!ironmental persistene led to a widespread ban on their use $oday, nonD
to,i, stable silioneDbased oils, or fluorinated hydroarbons may be used where the e,pense of a fireD
resistant li*uid offsets additional building ost for a transformer !ault. P0Bs for new e*uipment was
banned in 7?>7 and in 8666 for use in e,isting e*uipment in Lnited Eingdom. /egislation enated in
0anada between 7?== and 7?>; essentially bans P0B use in transformers manufatured in or imported
into the ountry after 7?>6, the ma,imum allowable le!el of P0B ontamination in e,isting mineral oil
transformers being ;6 ppm.
Some transformers, instead of being li*uidDfilled, ha!e their windings enlosed in sealed,
pressuriGed tanks and ooled by nitrogen or sulfur he,afluoride gas. E,perimental power transformers
41 | P a g e

in the ;66DtoD7,666 kOA range ha!e been built with li*uid nitrogen or helium ooled superonduting
windings, whih, ompared to usual transformer losses, eliminates winding losses without affeting
ore losses.
/*)1 "nsulation dr%ing
0onstrution of oilDfilled transformers re*uires that the insulation o!ering the windings be
thoroughly dried of residual moisture before the oil is introdued. Drying is arried out at the fatory,
and may also be re*uired as a field ser!ie. Drying may be done by irulating hot air around the ore,
or by !aporDphase drying 1OPD2 where an e!aporated sol!ent transfers heat by ondensation on the
oil and ore.
(or small transformers, resistane heating by injetion of urrent into the windings is used. $he
heating an be ontrolled !ery well, and it is energy effiient. $he method is alled lowDfre*ueny
heating 1/(A2 sine the urrent is injeted at a muh lower fre*ueny than the nominal of the power
grid, whih is normally ;6 or <6 AG. A lower fre*ueny redues the effet of the indutane in the
transformer, so the !oltage needed to indue the urrent an be redued. $he /(A drying method is
also used for ser!ie of older transformers
/*)C Bushings
/arger transformers are pro!ided with highD!oltage insulated bushings made of polymers or
porelain. A large bushing an be a omple, struture sine it must pro!ide areful ontrol of the
eletri field gradient without letting the transformer leak oil.
/*)E Classification $arameters
$ransformers an be lassified in many ways, suh as the following"
Power apaity" (rom a fration of a !oltDampere 1OA2 to o!er a thousand 3OA.
Duty of a transformer" 0ontinuous, shortDtime, intermittent, periodi, !arying.
(re*ueny range" PowerDfre*ueny, audioDfre*ueny, or radioDfre*ueny.
Ooltage lass" (rom a few !olts to hundreds of kilo!olts.
0ooling type" Dry and li*uidDimmersed D selfDooled, fored airDooledF li*uidDimmersed D
fored oilDooled, waterDooled.
0iruit appliation" Suh as power supply, impedane mathing, output !oltage and urrent
stabiliGer or iruit isolation.
LtiliGation" Pulse, power, distribution, retifier, ar furnae, amplifier output, et..
Basi magneti form" 0ore form, shell form.
0onstantDpotential transformer desriptor" StepDup, stepDdown, isolation.
@eneral winding onfiguration" By E#0 !etor group D !arious possible twoDwinding
ombinations of the phase designations delta, wye or star, and GigGag or interonneted starF
JjK

other D autotransformer, SottD$, GigGag grounding transformer winding
5etifier phaseDshift winding onfiguration" 8Dwinding, <DpulseF 9Dwinding, 78DpulseF . . . nD
winding, J:K[<DpulseF polygonF et..
/*)D T%$es
42 | P a g e

2' Construction of Core
#2 0ore type
## 2 Shell $ype
###2 Spiral $ype
B' 2$$lication
#2 Power transformer
##2 Distribution $ransformer
###2Auto $ransformer
#O2 #nstrument $ransformer "
ia2 0urrent transformer
ib2 Potential $ransformer
C' Structure T%$e
#2 #ndoor $ype $ransformer
##2 Outdoor $ype $ransformer
###2 Pole mounted $ransformer
D' Frequenc% T%$e
#2 Audio fre*ueny $ransformer
##2 5adio fre*ueny $ransformer
Fig: /*)0 Transformer
/*)! ;scillator Circuit & P73 '
43 | P a g e

@enerally, an eletroni iruit that produes a repetiti!e eletroni signal is known as an
eletroni osillator . 3ore preisely, an osillator is a iruit that generates a repetiti!e wa!e form of
fi,ed amplitude and fre*ueny without any e,ternal input signal. Basially the funtion of an osillator
is to generate alternating urrent or !oltage wa!e form . @enerally Osillators are harateriGed by the
fre*ueny of their output signal. An audio osillator produes fre*uenies in the audio range, about 7<
AG to 86 kAG. An 5( osillator produes signals in the radio fre*ueny 15(2 range of about 766 kAG to
766 @AG. A lowDfre*ueny osillator 1/(O2 is an eletroni osillator that generates a fre*ueny
below \86 AG. Osillators that produe a highDpower A0 output from a D0 supply are usually termed
as in!erters.J9K

Fig: /*)/ PCB (a%out of ;scillator Circuit
/*0. The Po#er Circuit
44 | P a g e

A type of iruit that arries power to eletrial loads is alled the power iruit. #n other words
the part of an eletroni iruit that ontrols the output of the iruit is known as the power iruit. A
power iruit is generally a proper ombination of inoming main power, few transistors and output
transformer. #t often arries high !oltages to the load. #n the designed iruit a power pushDpull
amplifier is used onsists of transistors ]7 and ]8.
Fig: /*) PCB la%out of Po#er Circuit
/*0) Rectifier
45 | P a g e

One of the !ery important appliations of diode is in D0 power supply as a retifier to on!ert
A0 into D0. D0 Power supply is the important element of any eletroni e*uipment. $his is beause it
pro!ides power to energiGe all eletroni iruits like osillators, amplifiers and so on. #n eletroni
e*uipments, D.0. Power supply is must. (or e,ample, we an4t think of tele!ision, omputer, radio,
telephone, mobile as well as measuring instruments like multiDmeter et. )ithout D0 power supply.
$he reliability and performane of the eletroni system proper design of power supply is neessary.
$he first blok of D0 power supply is retifier. 5etifier may be defined as an eletroni de!ie used
to on!ert a !oltage or urrent into unidiretional !oltage or urrent. Essentially retifier needs
unidiretional de!ie. Diode has unidiretional property hene suitable for retifier. 5etifier broadly
di!ided into two ategories" Aalf wa!e retifier and full wa!e retifier. Diodes are unilateral de!ies,
that is, they ondut urrent in one diretion but blok it in the opposite diretion. $hey will ha!e a
!oltage drop of 6.8 B 6.9 O or 6.< B 6.= O when they are onduting depending on the materials they
are made of, @ermanium or Silion, respeti!ely. $he diretion of the urrent is from anode to
athode. 0athodes are usually indiated with a painted band. J<K
Fig: /*)1 Diode*
/*00 T%$es of Rectifiers
$here are two basi types of retifiers" half wa!e retifiers and full wa!e retifiers. Aalf wa!e
retifiers, as the name suggests on!ert half of the A0 wa!e to D0 power using as few as a single
diode. (ull wa!e retifiers on!ert the full A0 wa!e and an use as few as two diodes. $here are
!ariations on both of these types of retifiers suh as the full wa!e bridge retifier, whih uses four
diodes
/*0/ The 5alf K 7a=e Rectifier:
Fig: /*)Ca 5alf #a=e rectifier Circuit
46 | P a g e

Fig: /*)Cb 5alf #a=e rectifier J<K
)hen the input signal is positi!e 1between t7 and t8, t9 and t:, et.2, the diode is forward
biased and onduts urrent. )hen the input signal is negati!e 1between t8 and t9, t: and t;, et.2, the
diode is re!erse biased and does not ondut urrent. Aene the output wa!eform Oout is obtained.
$his is alled %half retified sine wa!eI.
/*0 The Full 7a=e Rectifiers
)'$he enter B tapped full wa!e retifier.
Fig: /*)Ea Center K ta$$ed full #a=e rectifier
During the positi!e half yle of the input signal, the diode D7 is forward biased and the diode
D8 is re!erse biased. Aene the urrent flows through D7 and 5. During the negati!e half yle of the
input signal, the diode D7 is re!erse biased and the diode D8 is forward biased. Aene the urrent
flows through D8 and 5. $hus, the !oltage obtained aross 5 is full wa!e retified as seen is (igure
9.>a
Fig: /*)Eb* ;ut$ut of full #a=e rectifier*
47 | P a g e

/*01 The full #a=e bridge rectifier*

Fig:/*)D The full #a=e bridge rectifier*
During the positi!e half yle of the input signal, the diodes D7 and D8 are forward biased, and
D9 and D: are re!erse biased. So, the urrent flows from A to B o!er diode D7, to 0 o!er 5, to D o!er
diode D8, and bak to A o!er the seondary windings of transformer. During the negati!e half yle,
the diodes D9 and D: are forward biased, and D7 and D8 are re!erse biased. So, the urrent flows
from ( to D and B o!er D:, to 0 o!er 5, to A o!er D9, and bak to ( o!er the seondary winding.
$hus, the wa!eform shown in (igure =.< is again obtained. Sine in eah ase, the urrent has to go
through two diodes, there is a !oltage drop in the bridge e*ual to two diodes drops.
/*0C DC Po#er Su$$l%
Fig: /*)!a DC Po#er Su$$l%
#f a apaitor is added to the output of the retifier iruit, the half retified or the full retified
!oltage will harge the apaitor. Aene, depending on the load resistor, a !oltage whih is almost d
will be obtained. (rom a to b, the apaitor is harged, from b to , the apaitor is disharged, beause
the load resistor 5 draws urrent.
48 | P a g e

Fig: /*)!b ;ut$ut =oltage
/*0E Batter%
$he ommon battery is a de!ie that hanges hemial energy to eletrial energy. Dry ells
are widely used in toys, flashlights, portable radios, ameras, hearing aids, and other de!ies in
ommon use. A battery onsists of an outer ase made of Gin 1the negati!e eletrode2, a arbon rod in
the enter of the ell 1the positi!e eletrode2, and the spae between them is filled with an eletrolyte
paste. #n operation the eletrolyte, onsisting of ground arbon, manganese dio,ide, sal ammonia, and
Gin hloride, auses the eletrons to flow and produe eletriity.
49 | P a g e

Fig: /*0. Batter% constructionJ<K
/*0D Batteries #or4
Eletriity is the flow of eletrons through a iruit or onduti!e path like a wire. Batteries
ha!e three parts, an anode 1D2! a athode "#$! and the eletrolyte% $he athode and anode 1the positi!e
and negati!e sides at either end of a smaller battery2 are hooked up to an eletrial iruit.
/*0! Electron Flo#
$he hemial reations in the battery auses a build up of eletrons at the anode. $his results in
an eletrial differene between the anode and the athode. -ou an think of this differene as an
unstable buildDup of the eletrons. $he eletrons wants to rearrange themsel!es to get rid of this
differene. But they do this in a ertain way. Eletrons repel eah other and try to go to a plae with
fewer eletrons. #n a battery, the only plae to go is to the athode. But, the eletrolyte keeps the
eletrons from going straight from the anode to the athode within the battery. )hen the iruit is
losed 1a wire onnets the athode and the anode2 the eletrons will be able to get to the athode. #n
this e,ample, the eletrons go through the wire, lighting the light bulb along the way. $his is one way
of desribing how eletrial potential auses eletrons to flow through the iruit. Aowe!er, these
eletrohemial proesses hange the hemials in anode and athode to make them stop supplying
eletrons. So there is a limited amount of power a!ailable in a battery. )hen a battery is reharged, the
50 | P a g e

diretion of the flow of eletrons is hanged, $he eletrohemial proesses happen in re!erse, and the
anode and athode are restored to their original state and an again pro!ide full power. Batteries are
used in many plaes suh as in flashlights, ars, P0s, laptops, portable 3P9 players and ell phones. A
battery is essentially a an full of hemials that ause hemial reations that produe eletrons.
/ooking at any battery, there are generally two terminals. One terminal is marked 1^2, or positi!e,
while the other is marked 1D2, or negati!e. #n an AA, 0 or D ell 1normal flashlight batteries2, the ends
of the battery are the terminals. #n a large ar battery, there are two hea!y lead posts that at as the
terminals. Eletrons ollet on the negati!e terminal of the battery. #f a wire is onneted between the
negati!e and positi!e terminals, the eletrons will flow from the negati!e to the positi!e terminal as
fast as it an wear out the battery *uikly and possibly ause an e,plosion.
#nside the battery, a hemial reation produes the eletrons. $he speed of eletron prodution
by this hemial reation 1the batterySs internal resistane2 ontrols how many eletrons an flow
between the terminals. Eletrons flow from the battery into a wire, and must tra!el from the negati!e to
the positi!e terminal for the hemial reation to take plae. $hat is why a battery an sit on a shelf for
a year and still ha!e plenty of power D unless eletrons are flowing from the negati!e to the positi!e
terminal, the hemial reation does not take plae. One the wire is onneted, the hemial reation
begins.
/*/. Batteries
$he first battery reorded was reated by Alessandro Oolta in 7>66. $o reate the battery, he
made a stak by alternating layers of Gin, blotting paper soaked in salt water, and sil!er.
/*/) Titanium Batteries
Batteries ontaining titanium tehnology should pro!ide better power in most de!ies using a
lot of power. #t is laimed that they work well in highDteh de!ies suh as3P9 . portable 0D players,
and smoke detetors and flashlights
/*/0 Dis$osable (ithium Batteries
/ithium batteries are primary ell batteries that ha!e lithium metal or lithium ompounds as an
anode. Depending on the design and hemial ompounds used, lithium ells an produe !oltages
from 7.;O to about 9O, twie the !oltage of an ordinary GinDarbon battery or alkaline ell. /ithium
batteries are used in many portable onsumer eletroni de!ies, and are widely used in industry. $hey
are reommended as a best buy by onsumer groups.
51 | P a g e

/*// Rechargeable Batteries
$he nikelDadmium battery gi!es the longest yle life of any urrently a!ailable battery 1o!er
7,;66 yles2, but has low energy density ompared with some of the other hemistries. Batteries using
older tehnology suffer from memory effet, but this has been redued drastially in modern batteries.
0admium is to,i to most life forms, so it poses en!ironmental onerns. #ts hemial omposition is
nikel for the athode and admium for the anode. #t is used in many domesti appliations, but is
being superseded by /iDion and &iD3A types.
/*/ "ntegrated Circuit
An integrated iruit or monolithi integrated iruit 1also referred to as an #0, a hip, or a
mirohip2 is a set of eletroni iruits on one small plate 1_hip_2 of semiondutor material,
normally silion. $his an be made muh smaller than a disrete iruit made from independent
omponents.
#ntegrated iruits are used in !irtually all eletroni e*uipment today and ha!e re!olutioniGed
the world of eletronis. 0omputers, mobile phones, and other digital home applianes are now
ine,triable parts of the struture of modern soieties, made possible by the low ost of produing
integrated iruits.
#0s an be made !ery ompat, ha!ing up to se!eral billion transistors and other eletroni
omponents in an area the siGe of a fingernail. $he width of eah onduting line in a iruit 1the line
width2 an be made smaller and smaller as the tehnology ad!anesF in 866> it dropped below 766
nanometers and in 8679 it is e,peted to be in the tens of nanometers
Fig: /*0) integrated circuit &"C' J;K
52 | P a g e

/*/1 Transistor
A $ransistor is an semiondutor whih is a fundamental omponent in almost all eletroni
de!ies. $ransistors are often said to be the most signifiant in!ention of the 86th 0entury. $ransistors
ha!e many uses inluding swithing, !oltage+urrent regulation, and amplifiation D all of whih are
useful in renewable energy appliations. A transistor ontrols a large eletrial output signal with
hanges to a small input signal. $his is analogous to the small amount of effort re*uired to open a tap
1fauet2 to release a large flow of water. Sine a large amount of urrent an be ontrolled by a small
amount of urrent, a transistor ats as an amplifier A transistor ats as a s#itch whih an open and
lose many times per seond.
/*/C Bi$olar Function Transistors
$he most ommon type of transistor is a bipolar juntion transistor. $his is made up of three
layers of a semiDondutor material in a sandwih. #n one onfiguration the outer two layers ha!e e,tra
eletrons, and the middle layer has eletrons missing 1holes2. #n the other onfiguration the two outer
layers ha!e the holes and the middle layer has the e,tra eletrons. /ayers with e,tra eletrons are
alled &D$ype, those with eletrons missing alled PD$ype. $herefore the bipolar juntion transistors
are more ommonly known as P&P transistors and &P& transistors respeti!ely. Bipolar juntion
transistors are typially made of silicon and so they are !ery heap to produe and purhase.
Fig* /*00 Construction of TransistorJ;K
53 | P a g e

/*/E Transistors 7or4
A bipolar juntion transistor has three terminals D Base, 0olletor, and Emitter orresponding to
the three semiDondutor layers of the transistor. $he weak input urrent is applied to the inner 1base2
layer. )hen there is a small hange in the urrent or !oltage at the inner semiondutor layer 1base2, a
rapid and far larger hange in urrent takes plae throughout the whole transistor.
Fig* /*0/a Clic4on Transistor
Fig* /*0/b Terminals of a Transistor
Pitured abo!e is a shemati diagram of the more ommon +P+ transistor. Below is an illustration
of the same transistor using water rather than eletriity to illustrate the way it funtions"
54 | P a g e

Fig* /*0 Current Flo# of a Transistor
$he illustration 1from satureDfous.om2 shows pipework with three openings B 1Base2, 0
10olletor2, and E 1Emitter2. $he reser!oir of water at 0 is the supply !oltage whih is pre!ented from
getting though to E by a plunger. #f water is poured into B, it pushes up the plunger letting lots of
water flow from 0 to E. #f e!en more water is poured into B, the plunger mo!es higher, and the flow of
water from 0 to E inreases. $herefore, a small input urrent of eletriity to the Base leads to a large
flow of eletriity from the 0olletor to the Emitter.
/*/D Transistor >ain
/ooking at the water analogy again, if it takes 7 litre of water per minute poured into B to
ontrol 766 litres of water per minute flowing from 0 to E, then the >ain 1or am$lification factor2 is
766. A real transistor with a gain of 766 an ontrol 766mA of urrent from 0 to E with an input
urrent of just 7mA tothe base 1B2.#f the output power 1urrent , !oltage2 are more than 7 )att a
Po#er Transistor must be used. $hese let muh more power flow through, and re*uire a larger
ontrolling input urrent.
Fig* /*01 Sim$le Transistor Circuit
55 | P a g e

Pitured abo!e is a !ery simple iruit whih demonstrates the use of transistors. )hen a finger
is plaed in the iruit where shown, a tiny urrent of around 6.7mA flows 1assuming a finger
resistane of ;6,666 Ohms2. $his is nowhere near enough to light the /ED whih needs at least 76mA.
Aowe!er the tiny urrent is applied to the Base of the transistor where it is boosted by a fator 1gain2
of around 766 times and the /ED light $he most ommon type of transistor is a bipolar juntion
transistor. $his is made up of three layers of a semiDondutor material in a sandwih. #n one
onfiguration the outer two layers ha!e e,tra eletrons, and the middle layer has eletrons missing
1holes2. #n the other onfiguration the two outer layers ha!e the holes and the middle layer has the
e,tra eletrons.
/*/! 5o# does a transistor #or4 as an am$lifierL
)e know that in a transistor we ha!e three types of regions" E3#$$E5, 0O//E0$O5,
BASE, and we know that emitter is highly doped, so harge arriers are !ery high, so resistane is !ery
less, and on the other side olletor is moderately doped so harge arriers are less, so resistane is
!ery high. So from the abo!e onept we onlude that in a transistor urrent is flowing from low
resistane to high resistane. for e,ample the 766 eletrons are mo!ing from emitter to base, in base
only some 1: eletrons2 of the eletrons are neutraliGed, and remaining ?< eletrons are mo!ed to
olletor terminal through high resistane path. so now same urrent flowing through high resistane
so !oltage amplified.
/*. The Transistor as an 2m$lifier
B Amplifiation is the proess of linearly inreasing the amplitude of an eletrial signal.
B A transistor an at as an amplifier diretly using the gain,
B Eeep in mind that when a transistor is biased in the ati!e 1linear2 region, the BE juntion has
a low resistane due to forward bias and the B0 juntion has a high resistane due to re!erse
bias.
/*) DC and 2C quantities
B Amplifier iruits ha!e both a and d *uantities.
B 0apital letters are used will be used for both a and d urrents.
B Subsript will be apital for d *uantities.
B Subsript will be lowerase for a *uantities.
56 | P a g e

/*0 Transistor am$lification
B A transistor amplifies urrent beause the olletor urrent is e*ual to the base urrent
multiplied by the urrent gain,
B Base urrent 1#
B
2 is small ompared to #
0
and #
E
.
B $hus, #
0
is almost e*ual to #
E
.
B 0onsider the following iruit.
Fig* /*0C Transistor 2$$lication
B An a !oltage, O
in
, is superimposed on the d bias !oltage O
BB.
B D0 bias !oltage O
00
is onneted to the olletor through the olletor resistane, 5
0
.
B $he a input !oltage produes an a base urrent, whih results in a muh larger a olletor
urrent.
B $he a olletor urrent produes an a !oltage aross 5
0
, thus produing an amplified, but
in!erted, reprodution of the a input !oltage in the ati!e region.
57 | P a g e

Fig* /*0E 7a=e
B $he forward biased baseDemitter juntion present low resistane to the a wa!e.
B $his internal a emitter resistane is designated r&
e
.
#
e
` #

H O
b
+ r&
e
B $he a olletor !oltage, O

H #

5
0
.
B Sine #
e
` #

, the a olletor !oltage is O

` #
e
5
0
.
B O
b
an be onsidered the transistor a input !oltage where O
b
H O
in
B #
b
5
B
.
B O

an be onsidered the transistor a output !oltage.
B $he ratio of O

to O
b
is the a !oltage gain, A
!
, of the transistor iruit.
A
!
H O

+O
b
B Substituting #
e
5
0
for O

and #
e
r&
e
for O
b
yields
A
!
H O

+O
b
` 1#
e
5
0
2+1#
e
r&
e
2 H 5
0
+ r&
e
B $hus, amplifiation depends on the ratio of 5
0
and r&
e
%
B 5
0
is always onsiderably larger in !alue than r&
e
, thus the output !oltage is larger than the
input !oltage.
C52PTER .
58 | P a g e

*) 2d=antage :
7. $he time of load shading automatially get power bak.
8. Easy #nstallation.
9. /ow maintenane ost.
:. Possible to get proper !oltage on the basis of apaity.
;. &oiseless operation.
*0 Disad=antage
7. Due to harging power loss.
8. 3aking ost high.
9. Power bakup time limited.
:. )ithout harging it is work less.
*/ Future "m$ro=ement
)e are ommitted to inrease the batter performane of this projet. #n our ountry the most of
the people use this #PS. #n harging period it onsume muh power. As a result it is burden to the
power supply authority. So not only in this item we may use the solar panel. #f we an use this solar
panel we must sa!e our !aluable natural @as, Petrol, Diesel et.
* Conclusions
#n this $hesis program, we an understand the ontration of #PS and know how an it works.
)e also understand it4s !arious omponents. )e should take are in the period of making and using of
this projet.
59 | P a g e

References
J7K eletriityasenario.pdf Page 79
J8K http"++www.powerombd.om+produts+=8DinstantDpowerDsupplyDips Page 86
J9K http"++en.wikipedia.org+wiki+Eletroniaosillator Page ::
J:K http"++en.wikipedia.org+wiki+$ransformer Page 8=
J;K Ste!e Erar Page ;9
J<K )ikipedia, the free enylopedia. Page ;6
60 | P a g e