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PD 8010 Slide 1 of 40

PD 8010 : 2004
Code of practice for pipelines
by Bob Inglis (JP Kenny Leader of PSE/17/2 WG2 Pipelines Offshore)
Offshore Pipelines and how PD 8010 differs
from the superseded BS 8010 and how it works
in association with BS EN 14161 : 2003
PD 8010 Slide 2 of 40
PSE/17/2 WG2 Pipelines Offshore Committee
Bob Inglis, JP Kenny
John Lawson, Chevron Texaco
Mike Little, Binnie Black & Veatch
Tony Barber, Kellogg Brown & Root
Martin East, Trevor Jee Associates
Graham Stewart, Lloyds Register
PD 8010-2 Subsea Pipelines
PD 8010 Slide 3 of 40
PD 8010-2 Subsea Pipelines
How does PD 8010-2 work in association with BS EN-14161?
It has provided a more comprehensive guideline
for design, construction and operation of offshore
pipelines utilising familiar and recognised
methodologies
How does PD 8010-2 differ from BS 8010 Part 3?
General design methodology is unchanged
PD 8010 Slide 4 of 40
1. SCOPE
2. NORMATIVE REFERENCES
3. TERMS & DEFINITIONS
4. GENERAL
5. PIPELINE SYSTEM DESIGN
6. PIPELINE DESIGN
7. DESIGN OF STATIONS & TERMINALS
8. MATERIALS & COATINGS
9. CORROSION MANAGEMENT
10. CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT
11. TESTING
12. PRE-COMMISSIONING &
COMMISSIONING
13. OPERATION,MAINTENANCE &
ABANDONMENT
PD 8010-2 Structure (cont.)
Layout of PD 8010 is consistent with that of EN 14161
1. SCOPE
2. NORMATIVE REFERENCES
3. TERMS & DEFINITIONS
4. HEALTH, SAFETY & ASSURANCE
5. DESIGN - SYSTEM & SAFETY
6. DESIGN MECHANICAL INTEGRITY
7. DESIGN LANDFALLS, RISERS & TIE-INS
8. DESIGN MATERIALS & COATINGS
9. DESIGN CORROSION MANAGEMENT
10. CONSTRUCTION FABRICATION &
INSTALLATION
11. CONSTRUCTION TESTING
12. PRE-COMMISSIONING &
COMMISSIONING
13. OPERATIONS, MAINTENANCE &
INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT
14. ABANDONMENT
PD 8010 Slide 5 of 40
PD 8010-2 Structure
1. SCOPE
2. NORMATIVE REFERENCES
3. TERMS & DEFINITIONS
4. HEALTH, SAFETY & ASSURANCE
5. DESIGN - SYSTEM & SAFETY
6. DESIGN MECHANICAL INTEGRITY
7. DESIGN LANDFALLS, RISERS & TIE-INS
8. DESIGN MATERIALS & COATINGS
9. DESIGN CORROSION MANAGEMENT
10. CONSTRUCTION FABRICATION & INSTALLATION
11. CONSTRUCTION TESTING
12. PRE-COMMISSIONING & COMMISSIONING
13. OPERATIONS, MAINTENANCE & INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT
14. ABANDONMENT
STATIONS & TERMINALS
Consistent with Part 1
PD 8010 Slide 6 of 40
ANNEXES
A (normative) QUALITY ASSURANCE
B (normative) RECORDS & DOCUMENT CONTROL
C (informative) HAZARDS IN PIPELINE DESIGN
D (normative) SAFETY EVALUATION OF PIPELINES
E (normative) PIPELINE ROUTE SELECTION
F (normative) LOADS
G (informative) BUCKLING
H (normative) ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
PD 8010-2 Structure (cont.)
PLANNING & LEGAL
A - EXTENT OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS
FOR CONVEYING OIL & GAS THAT ARE
COVERED BY THIS PART OF PD 8010
B /
C /
D /
E /
F /
G /
H /
I /
PD 8010 Slide 7 of 40
Section 1-3 :Scope, References and Definitions
Section 1 defines the extent
of pipeline systems covered
by PD 8010 Part 2, which is
little different from BS 8010
Part 3. Note the code does
not cover sea outfalls or
fluid umbilicals
Sections 2 and 3 cover
references and definitions
PD 8010 Slide 8 of 40
Section 4 : Health, Safety & Assurance
Section 4 gives recommendations for goal setting in terms of
Health, Safety & Environment
Competence Assurance
Quality Assurance
Design, Construction and Commissioning Assurance
Operation and Abandonment Assurance
It defines need for competent personnel (C.Eng or equivalent),
need for QA/QC systems, document/records control, a design
procedure and a design change procedure during operation.
PD 8010 Slide 9 of 40
Section 4 : Design Flowchart (example)
Design Criteria
Basic Design
Mech. Design Checks
Corrosion Design
Design of Components
Design for Operation
PD 8010 Slide 10 of 40
Section 5 : System & Safety
Section 5 defines
system limits, (unchanged from BS 8010),
fluid categorisation,
process design requirements,
pressure control (overpressure limited to 110% MAOP),
need for a safety evaluation
PD 8010 Slide 11 of 40
Section 5 : Fluid Categorisation
Consistent with
Part 1 (obviously!)
and effectively so
with EN 14161
PD 8010 Slide 12 of 40
Section 6 : Design - Mechanical Integrity
Section 6 provides guidance on:
Pressure definition and pressure design of pipe and components
Stress based design criteria;
Strain based design criteria;
Buckling and collapse;
Fracture and Fatigue;
Bundles and Pipe-in-pipe;
Stability (hydrodynamic and geotechnic)
Spanning & crossings
PD 8010 Slide 13 of 40
Section 6 : Design and Test Pressure Definition
1. Pressure
2. Test Pressure
3. 1.1 x Internal Design Pressure
4. Net Internal Design Pressure
5. Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure
6. Static Head Pressure
7. Hydraulic Gradient
8. Ground Profile
9. Surge Pressure
10. Pressure to overcome friction losses
11. Recommended back pressure
12. Distance along pipeline
PD 8010 Slide 14 of 40
Design Stress Criteria are effectively unchanged from
BS 8010 Part 3, as follows:
Section 6 : Stress Based Design Criteria
PD 8010 Slide 15 of 40
BS EN 14161 allows a design factor up to 0.83 to be used. The design
factors recommended for UK use are given. Higher design factors may
be used for all or part of a pipeline system, provided that an equivalent
level of safety is achieved throughout the system under consideration
and across all relevant limit states. A full risk assessment is
recommended if higher design factors are used and might be subject to
regulatory review
Lower design factors are now extended to include landfalls
While BS 8010 stated consideration should be given to reduction in
SMYS for temperatures in excess of 120
0
C, PD 8010 states that account
should be taken of the variation of strength with temperature on the basis
of verifiable test data appropriate to the material under consideration.
Seabed design factors now specifically include tie-ins
Section 6 : Stress Based Design Criteria (cont.)
PD 8010 Slide 16 of 40
Section 6 : Strain Based Design Criteria
Design Strain Criteria are consistent with BS 8010 Part 3. For
application of strain based approach the following are required:
Hoop Stress criterion must be met
Plastic component of equivalent strain <0.1%, (ref. state for zero
strain is as-built state - post pressure test)
Plastic strain only occurs on first operation, not during subsequent
cycles
D
o
/t
nom
<60
Welds possess adequate fracture resistance, demonstrated by direct
testing or fracture toughness testing and analysis in accordance with
B 7448 and 7910
Weld alignment is controlled
Fatigue and fracture analysis is performed
Buckling limit states are checked
PD 8010 Slide 17 of 40
Section 6 : Buckling and Collapse
Buckling and Collapse Criteria are unchanged from BS 8010,
(although errors in original formulae corrected!)
PD 8010 Slide 18 of 40
Section 6 : Fracture and Fatigue
Fracture Prime means of fracture resistance is by specification
of sufficient toughness to ensure running fracture arrest.
Fatigue A consistent approach with Part 1 has been adopted.
Guidance is given for developing methodology with reference to
BS 7608 and BS 7910.
PD 8010 Slide 19 of 40
Section 6 : Pipe-in-pipe, Bundles
Descriptive guidance is given on
aspects to be considered in design
(Note aspects of flexible pipe
design, previously included in BS
8010 Part 3, have now been
deleted, reference is made to API
RP 17B and ISO 13628, (API 17J
for flexible risers))
PD 8010 Slide 20 of 40
Section 6 : Stability, Spanning & Crossings
The basic 2D stability check from BS 8010 Part 3 is retained,
with reference made to DNV and AGA for alternative
approaches.
Need for spans assessment is recognised, no prescriptive
methodology laid down
Crossings specification of minimum crossing angle of 30
0
from BS 8010 Part 3 has been omitted
PD 8010 Slide 21 of 40
Section 7 : Design - Landfalls, risers and tie-ins
Most of the narrative from BS
8010 has been retained,
Additional reference is made to
branch connections (tees, Ys)
connectors and to valve selection
including actuators
Considerations for pigging are
included
Pipeline protection methods are
outlined
Reference to the Safety Case
Regulations (1996) is included for
emergency shut down systems
PD 8010 Slide 22 of 40
Section 8 : Design - Materials and Coatings
Reference standards for linepipe
have been updated including high
alloy steels (duplex, superduplex)
Requirements for fracture
toughness, crack arrest highlighted
Need to avoid detrimental
intermetallic phases (I.e sigma
phase) in ferritic/austenitic steels is
highlighted.
Recommendations for pipeline
components (flanges, bends, valves
and fittings) included.
Coatings, including concrete and
insulation materials, addressed
PD 8010 Slide 23 of 40
Section 9 : Design Corrosion Management
Section 9 gives guidelines for
establishing a corrosion management
programme including the need for in
service assessments and maintenance of
corrosion mitigation equipment.
Both internal and external corrosion
issues are described.
Reference standards for internal
coatings have been updated.
Reference is given to DNV-RP-F103 for
cathodic protection design, but with a
note that ISO/DIS 155892-01 is in
preparation
PD 8010 Slide 24 of 40
Section 10 : Construction Fabrication & Installation
The need for establishing safety and
construction plans is highlighted and the
appointment of competent persons to
run construction operations. Reference
is made to consideration of EIAs
(Environmental Impact Assessment) in
advance of construction work.
BS 4515-1 and 4515-2 are retained as
reference standards for welding
Guidance on installation by S-lay,
towing, reeling and J-lay is provided
the emphasis is on control, planning
and management of activities rather
than prescriptive criteria
PD 8010 Slide 25 of 40
Section 11 : Construction Testing
The basic requirement for a 24-hour pressure test to 90%
SMYS or 1.5 x Design Pressure is unchanged from BS-8010
Part 3, i.e., different from the BS EN 14161 proposed 8-hour
hold period. (Note this section is identical in the two parts of PD
8010, hence some of the criteria stated are not relevant to
practicalities of offshore lines.)
Valves should not be used as end closures unless fully rated to
the hydro-test pressure
No specific duration is stated for the hold period prior to
commencement of the 24 hour hold period, this will require
judgement to allow for residual air to go into solution,
temperature stabilisation and time dependent pipe straining
PD 8010 Slide 26 of 40
Section 11 : Construction Testing (cont.)
It is recognised that 0.2% allowable air content may be
impractical in short sections
The 24-hour hold duration may be reduced for sections of less
than 20m
3
volume
Leak testing to 110% MAOP is called for, but use of non-tested
golden welds is accepted subject to specific criteria. The
number of these should be minimised.
The duration of leak testing is not specified, (previously advised
as 3 hours typically). It should be sufficient to ensure that all
potential leak paths can be verified.
PD 8010 Slide 27 of 40
Section 12 : Pre-commissioning and Commissioning
Environmental considerations for disposal of hydro test water
are addressed
Options for drying pipelines, as necessary are included, namely
Air drying
Glycol/methanol swabbing
Vacuum drying
Requirements for product introduction and start-up are
highlighted, in particular the need to ensure operating
procedures and safety systems are in place and that formal
handover of operational responsibility is made
PD 8010 Slide 28 of 40
Section 13 : Operation, Maint. and Integrity Assurance Man.
This section has been introduced as little guidance was previously
given in BS 8010 Part 3. This was more aimed at design and
construction.
It draws on and expands on the guidance given in BS EN 14161.
It states the need for the following plans and gives recommendations
for items that should be included, namely:
Integrity Management System
Operating and Maintenance Plan
Incident and Emergency Response Plan
PD 8010 Slide 29 of 40
Section 13 : Operation, Maint. and Integrity Assurance Man.
Emphasis is placed on implementation of the following:
Permit-to-work Systems
Training
Authority and 3
rd
party liaison programmes
Active maintenance of records
The importance is noted of a control plan for any in-service
changes in operating conditions. A full update of appropriate
design documentation is recommended.
Above all, the criticality of an active Integrity Assurance
Programme is highlighted, especially with regard to changes
in the design condition.
PD 8010 Slide 30 of 40
Section 14 : Abandonment
Reference is made to the Pipelines Act (1962) and Pipeline
Safety Regulations (1996) in respect of general duties to
preserve safety throughout the lifetime of the pipeline (including
abandonment)
The onus remains with the Operator to ensure an an abandoned
line remains safe and that accurate records are maintained.
PD 8010 Slide 31 of 40
Appendix A : Quality Assurance
Appendix A gives recommendations on content of Quality plans
for Design, Material Procurement and Construction Phases
PD 8010 Slide 32 of 40
Appendix B : Records and Document Control
Appendix B outlines typical deliverables documentation for the
following areas of a pipeline system:
Design
Procurement
Construction
Pressure Testing And Pre-commissioning
Survey
Inspection and Maintenance
PD 8010 Slide 33 of 40
Appendix C : Hazards in Pipeline Design
Appendix C provides information on potential Hazards of which
Pipeline System Design should take account, both in terms of
internal fluid (gas or liquid phase).
It lists a number of external hazards for consideration but is not
meant to be an exhaustive list!.
PD 8010 Slide 34 of 40
Appendix D : Safety Evaluation of Pipelines
Appendix D provides guidance on risk
assessment of pipeline systems
It recommends systematic hazard
identification, consequence analysis.
Acceptance criteria need to be
established and mitigation measures
implemented for unacceptable levels of
risk.
Systematic risk assessments are
required which should be maintained
and updated through the pipeline
lifetime.
3
2
1
1
A
Frequent
3 3 3 3 3
Negligible 4
3 3 3 3 2
Marginal 3
3 3 3 2 1
Critical 2
3 3 2 1 1
Catastrophic 1
F
Impossible
E
Extremely
Improbable
D
Remote
C
Occasionally
B
Reasonabl
y Possible
Descriptive
Word
Hazard
Severity
Category
PROBABILITY RATING
3
2
1
1
A
Frequent
3 3 3 3 3
Negligible 4
3 3 3 3 2
Marginal 3
3 3 3 2 1
Critical 2
3 3 2 1 1
Catastrophic 1
F
Impossible
E
Extremely
Improbable
D
Remote
C
Occasionally
B
Reasonabl
y Possible
Descriptive
Word
Hazard
Severity
Category
PROBABILITY RATING
WBS -06: PIPELAY
PRE-MITIGATION POST-MITIGATION
RESIDUAL RISK
SP8 Construction SP1-8 Infrastructure SP8 Construction SP1-8 Infrastructure
ID
/
W
B
S

EVENT CAUSE CONSEQUENCE/
P
r
o
b
.
S
e
v
.
R
P
C

P
r
o
b
.
S
e
v
.
R
P
C

MITIGATION
P
r
o
b
.
S
e
v
.
R
P
C

P
r
o
b
.
S
e
v
.
R
P
C

15 Loss of Stinger Critical Fabrication
defect
Fatigue
Severe weather
Collision
Major vessel damage
Loss of Pipe
Damage to 3
rd
party lines
D 1 2 D 1 2
Regular diver
inspections
Marine control
procedures
E 1 3 E 1 3
16 Vessel Collision Pipe Cargo Barge
AHT
Survey Vessel
Supply Boats
3
rd
party vessel
Major vessel damage
Personal Injury
Loss of Pipe

C 2 2 - - -
Exclusion zones
Marine Control
procedures
Emergency
Response
procedures/
Bridging Docs.
E 2 3 - - -
17 Helicopter
crash
Bad weather
Poor
communications
Mechanical failure
Major vessel damage
Personal injury
Loss of Helicopter
E 1 3 E 1 3
Training
Emergency
Response
procedures/
Bridging Docs.
E 1 3 E 1 3
18 Pipe impact on
stinger rollers
Bad weather

Damage to concrete
coating
A 3 3 - - -
Stinger monitoring
Impose weather
criteria
B 3 3 - - -

PD 8010 Slide 35 of 40
Appendix D : Safety Evaluation of Pipelines (cont.)
HSE levels of individual risk are defined as follows:
Criterion Risk (frequency of
occurrence per annum)
Broadly acceptable <10
-6
Tolerable 10
-6
- 10
-4
Unacceptable <10
-4
For risks identified in the tolerable range, mitigation measures
should be implemented to reduce the risk as low as reasonably
practical (ALARP)
PD 8010 Slide 36 of 40
Appendices E - F
Appendix E gives guidance on factors to be considered in routing pipelines and
and also for collection of survey data, both geophysical and environmental.
Appendix F (effectively reproduced from BS 8010 Part 3) defines different types
of load
Appendix G reproduces the buckling checks from BS 8010, but with a couple of
arithmetical corrections noted which had lain dormant since publication!
The need to address upheaval buckling is also included, but only in a qualitative
manner, recognising the complexity of the analysis.
Appendix H retains the basic approach to derivation of appropriate wave/current
conditions and for determining environmental loads, I.e. based on well used
methodologies.
The use of alternative approaches, (such as DNV), is also recognised.
PD 8010 Slide 37 of 40
PD 8010-2 : One Year On.
To date, from PSE/17/2 committee viewpoint,
there has been little feedback from the
industry!
This either implies acceptance and approval
of the code requirements, or apathy!
PD 8010 Slide 38 of 40
PD 8010-2 : One Year On.
Issues raised to date :
Strain based design criteria (unchanged from
BS8010 Part 3) are dated and perhaps dont reflect
current state of the art.
Guidance and applicability to HP/HT pipelines is
limited, since a strict ASD approach is limited.
Applicability for deep water applications is limited
Hydrotesting criteria are constraining, (especially in
regard to HP/HT applications)
There is a never ending battle in keeping cross
references up to date!
PD 8010 Slide 39 of 40
PD 8010-2 : Future Plans
There are no immediate plans for issue of updates, but the
committee remains committed to responding to industry
feedback
This involves dealing with specific issues raised and, if
necessary, issue of amendments and clarifications (none
identified to date)
Long term, the committee may review the structure of the
code and expand specific topics, including pipeline
operational issues, adoption of limit state design techniques
and continued harmonisation with other international
standards
PD 8010 Slide 40 of 40
Close
BS 8010 Part 3 was never significantly broke, so didnt require
significantly fixing!
The introduction of BS EN 14161 has nevertheless necessitated a
revision of the widely accepted and respected British Standard.
This permits engineers to continue to design, construct and
operate pipelines in a safe manner.
The industry has accepted the implementation of PD 8010-2 as it
has allowed business as usual to continue!
Nevertheless the committee recognises the need to reflect industry
needs and will continue to review and update the code as required.