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14:125:208: Introduction to Biomechanics Spring 2010

Homework Assignment #4
Due 2/22/10
Problem 1: (Anatomical Terms)

1) The ______ plane divides the body
into right and left halves.
A) transverse
B) sagittal
C) coronal
D) oblique
E) para-sagittal
2) The armpit or axilla is __________ to
the hip.
A) superficial
B) deep
C) superior
D) inferior

3) The "6-pack of abs" is due to the rectus
abdominis muscle that lies within the _______
abdominal wall.
A) anterior
B) posterior
C) superior
D) inferior
4) The big toe or hallux (otherwise known as the
piggie that went to market) is _______ to the
piggie that went wee-wee-wee all the way home
(the little toe).
A) medial
B) intermediate
C) lateral
D) median
5) The arm is _________ to the hand.
A) medial
B) lateral
C) proximal
D) distal



6) The scapula (shoulder blade) is
_________ to the vertebral column.
A) anteromedial
B) posterolateral
C) proximal
D) distal
7) The leg is _________ to the knee.
A) medial
B) lateral
C) proximal
D) distal
8) Supination of the arm requires the
use of the following muscles:
A) pronator teres
B) biceps brachii
C) brachioradialis
D) brachialis
E) triceps brachii
F) Supinator
9) Arm curls work out all of the following
muscles except:
A) coracobrachialis
B) biceps brachii
C) brachioradialis
D) brachialis
10) In the anatomical position, wrist
flexion moves the hand _________.
A) posteriorly
B) laterally
C) medially
D) superiorly
E) anteriorly
14:125:208: Introduction to Biomechanics Spring 2011
Homework Assignment #4
Due 2/21/10


Problem 2. (More Anatomical Terms)

i) Label the bones and muscles in the following picture (which you have seen in class)








1 Humerus
2 Supinator
3 Pronator
Teres
4 Ulna
6
5 Pronator Quadratus
14:125:208: Introduction to Biomechanics Spring 2011
Homework Assignment #4
Due 2/21/10


ii) Explain why the supraspinatus is required to initiate arm abduction

When the arm is in the adducted position The deltoid acts primarily in a vertical direction (and
can even have an x-directed force towards the body) and cannot produce a sufficient CW
moment about the shoulder joint to oppose the CCW moment from the arm weight. The deltoid
moment is either very small in the CW direction, zero or even small in the CCW direction. The
supraspinatus on the other hand acts in a horizontal direction and can produce a CW moment
on the shoulder joint. As abduction proceeds the deltoid acts in a more horizontal position to
produce a CW moment and can take over arm abduction after ~15 shoulder rotation

































14:125:208: Introduction to Biomechanics Spring 2011
Homework Assignment #4
Due 2/21/10


iii)

Together the Vastus lateralis, Rectus femoris, Vastus medialis and Vastus intermedius make up
the __Quadriceps______ __Femoris______.muscle. (Two words)

The _Meniscus, menisci_____________ act as shock absorbers within the knee

The femoral head articulates within the __Acetabulum_____ which is a landmark on the Ilium of
the pelvis

The biceps brachii originates on the _Scapula_______ and inserts on the __Radius_______.

The major hip abductor is the ___gluteus________ __medius____________ (Two words)

ii) In soccer (football) if you wish to complete a push pass you need to contact the ball with the
medial side of your foot by swinging your kicking leg forward and medially as you complete the
forward motion phase to kick the ball.

This motion requires __Flexion________ and _adduction_______ of the hip and
__extension_____ of the knee during the forward phase of the kick

(Describe the kick using the anatomical definitions of motion)



14:125:208: Introduction to Biomechanics Spring 2011
Homework Assignment #4
Due 2/21/10


In the sarcomere, the thin filament is composed primarily of __Actin____________,
___Troponin_______________ and ___Tropomyosin______ (3 proteins).

In the picture on the right you can see the Latissimus dorsi muscle. This muscle
is responsible for __Extension______ and __Adduction_______ of the arm
(two distinct motions)

If an athlete steps down with their knee hyperextended while twisting their leg,
they are likely to tear their _Anterior______ __Cruciate______
__Ligament_________ (3 words)

The Infraspinatus originates on the __Posterior_____ side of the scapula while
the Subscapularis originates on the __Anterior______ side

Taken together the biceps femoris, semimembranosus and semitendinosus
make up the __Hamstring_____ muscles

The bone of upper arm is called the __Humerus_____

Dr. Zahn goes into the doctor for a chest x-ray. One of the images is shown below. This image shows the
___Coronal___________ plane of his chest









You are watching a little league baseball game and the pitcher throws the baseball. In order to throw a
speedball, the proper completion of the acceleration phase of the throw is critical. The acceleration phase
requires the pitcher to bring their upper arm to the front of their body with the shoulder joint acting as a
junction point, supporting the rotational acceleration motion of the arm, and throw the ball with their elbow
straight and their palms facing downward as they move into the deceleration phase of the throw

This motion requires ___Flexion__________ of the arm at the shoulder, ___Extension__ at the elbow
and ___Pronation_________ of the forearm in order to throw the ball.

(Describe how the pitcher moves his arm to the position shown below during the acceleration phase of
the pitch using the anatomical definitions of motion by filling in the three blanks above)



Superior

Inferior
14:125:208: Introduction to Biomechanics Spring 2011
Homework Assignment #4
Due 2/21/10



Problem 3. (Static Analysis of a Pushup)

A paraplegic patient weighing 70 kg is performing a pushup in the prone position
(below). The lower legs and hands are supported by the floor. A force plate, placed
under the right hand, shows a vertical force of 200 N. The moment arm of this force
relative to the center of motion of the elbow joint is 0.08 m.



















The red line represents the triceps muscle. It is at a 5 deg angle below the horizontal,
attaches 1.5 cm from the humeroulnar joint on the olecranon process, and 2.5 cm from
the glenohumeral (Shoulder) joint on the humerus.

The blue line represents the pectoralis muscle. It makes a 30 deg angle with the
horizontal and attaches 5 cm from the glenohumeral joint.

The length of the humerus from the radioulnar joint to the glenohumeral joint is 0.2 m.
The humerus makes an 8 deg angle with the horizontal.

Based on this information, the triceps has a moment arm 1.4489 cm from the elbow joint
and 0.1308 cm from the shoulder joint.. The elbow joint reaction force in the x direction
R
ex
has a moment arm 2.7835 cm from the shoulder joint, the elbow joint reaction force
70deg
14:125:208: Introduction to Biomechanics Spring 2011
Homework Assignment #4
Due 2/21/10


in the y direction R
ey
has a moment arm 19.8054 cm from the shoulder joint and the
pectoralis muscle has a moment arm 3.0783 cm from the shoulder joint.
If we assume that the triceps and pecs are the only muscles supporting the elbow and
shoulder, we can draw FBDs of the lower arm/hand and the upper arm, and apply the
equations of static equilibrium.

Lower arm















Upper arm



















We can see that we have 6 equations and six unknowns. If we write these equations as
a system of linear equations we can simultaneously solve for all unknowns.

Ncm 1600 200 * 8 F 1.4489
0 R l F l
0 M
N 200 R F 0.087156
0 200 R 5 sin F
0 F
0 R F 0.996
0 R 5 cos F
0 F
tri
ground elbow tri tri elbow
zelbow
ex tri
ey tri
y
ex tri
ex tri
x
= =
= +
=
=
= +
=
=
=
=


R=200 N
F
tri
R
ex
R
ey
0 0783 . 3 8054 . 19 7835 . 2 1308 . 0
0
0
0 5 . 0 087156 . 0
0 30 sin 5 sin
0
0 866 . 0 996 . 0
0 30 cos 5 cos
0
= + +
= + +
=
= + +
= + +
=
= + +
= + +
=

pec ey ex tri
pec pec shoulder ey elbowx shoulder ex elbowy shoulder tri tri shoulder
zshoulder
sy pec ex tri
sy pec ey tri
y
sx pec ex tri
sx pec ex tri
x
F R R F
F l R l R l F l
M
R F R F
R F R F
F
R F R F
R F R F
F

R
sx
R
sy
F
tri
F
pec
R
ey
R
ex
14:125:208: Introduction to Biomechanics Spring 2011
Homework Assignment #4
Due 2/21/10


Write the 6 equations of static equilibrium in linear form Ax=b, where

=
sy
sx
pec
ey
ex
tri
R
R
F
R
R
F
x

Using a program such as Matlab find the inverse matrix A
-1
and solve the system of
equations to simultaneously determine the magnitude of the triceps force, the
magnitude of the pecs force, and the magnitude and direction of reactions at the elbow
and shoulder.

Print out your computer results clearly showing the definition of matrix A, A
-1
and the
solution matrix solving for all the values of x.

In Matlab a matrix can be defined by the following command

A=[a
11
a
12
a
13

a
21
a
22
a
23
a
31
a
32
a
33
]

where this would define a 3X3 matrix with a space after each element in a row defines
the next column and a carriage return defines each new row.

To find the inverse of matrix A in matlab you would type inv(A)

Notice that this segmented system (upper and lower arm) can be solved simultaneously
quite quickly

0
0
0
1600
200
0
0 0 0783 . 3 8054 . 19 7835 . 2 1308 . 0
1 0 5 . 0 1 0 087156 . 0
0 1 866 . 0 0 1 996 . 0
0 0 0 0 0 4489 . 1
0 0 0 1 0 087156 . 0
0 0 0 0 1 996 . 0
sy
sx
pec
ey
ex
tri
R
R
F
R
R
F

2/ 21/ 11 2: 41 PM MATLAB Command Wi ndow 1 of 2

Thi s i s a Cl assr oomLi cense f or i nst r uct i onal use onl y.
Resear ch and commer ci al use i s pr ohi bi t ed.

To get st ar t ed, sel ect MATLAB Hel p or Demos f r omt he Hel p menu.

>> A=[ 0. 996 - 1 0 0 0 0
0. 087156 0 - 1 0 0 0
- 1. 4489 0 0 0 0 0
- 0. 996 1 0 0. 866 - 1 0
- 0. 087156 0 1 - 0. 5 0 1
- 0. 1308 2. 7835 - 19. 8054 3. 0783 0 0]

A =

0. 9960 - 1. 0000 0 0 0 0
0. 0872 0 - 1. 0000 0 0 0
- 1. 4489 0 0 0 0 0
- 0. 9960 1. 0000 0 0. 8660 - 1. 0000 0
- 0. 0872 0 1. 0000 - 0. 5000 0 1. 0000
- 0. 1308 2. 7835 - 19. 8054 3. 0783 0 0

>> i nv( A)

ans =

0 0 - 0. 6902 0 0 0
- 1. 0000 - 0. 0000 - 0. 6874 0. 0000 - 0. 0000 0
- 0. 0000 - 1. 0000 - 0. 0602 - 0. 0000 - 0. 0000 - 0. 0000
0. 9042 - 6. 4339 0. 2052 0. 0000 - 0. 0000 0. 3249
- 0. 2169 - 5. 5717 0. 1777 - 1. 0000 - 0. 0000 0. 2813
0. 4521 - 2. 2169 0. 1026 0. 0000 1. 0000 0. 1624

>> B=[ 0
- 200
- 1600
0
0
0]

B =

0
- 200
- 1600
0
0
0

>> x=i nv( A) *B

x =
2/ 21/ 11 2: 41 PM MATLAB Command Wi ndow 2 of 2

1. 0e+003 *

1. 1043
1. 0999
0. 2962
0. 9584
0. 8300
0. 2792

>>
14:125:208: Introduction to Biomechanics Spring 2011
Homework Assignment #4
Due 2/21/10


Problem 4: (Hip Forces while carrying loads)

A) Find the joint reaction force, R, and the abductor muscle force, M, in the right hip when a woman
stands on her right leg while carrying a 25kg suitcase in the left hand (Fig 7.7A). You can use the
following data:

Body weight =600N
Weight of standing leg =100N
Moment arm of the weight of the suitcase =0.31m
Moment arm of the abductor muscle force =0.05m lateral to the femoral head
Moment arm of the body weight =0.05m medial to the femoral head
Moment arm of the body weight excluding the standing leg =0.06m
Moment arm of the standing leg =0.01m medial to the femoral head
Moment arm of the ground reaction force =0.06m medial to the femoral head
Abductor muscle force (M) acts at a 70 degree angle to the transverse plane.

(Please Note: the given moment arms are the distance from the hip joint shown by the x in the
picture to the force and are always perpendicular to the direction of the force)

B) Find R and M for the right hip joint when the woman stands on the right leg while carrying a 25kg
suitcase in each hand (Fig 7.7b). The moment arm for the weight of the suitcase in her right hand is
0.14m. All other weights and dimensions are as above.

Which produces a larger hip joint reaction force: carrying 25kg in one hand or 50kg evenly distributed
between two hands?


600 N
600 N
14:125:208: Introduction to Biomechanics Spring 2011
Homework Assignment #4
Due 2/21/10


For this problem there are several ways to solve it. I will first solve it the book way.


A) We can first draw a free body diagram of the body excluding the leg

We can also solve this problem considering the whole body and the ground reaction force/moment
















Now we consider the leg
Now we can write the equations of Static Equilibrium
N R R R
N R
N F R
N F
F
F l W l F l
M
W W R F
F
R F
F
y x
jy
m jx
m
m
load load body m m
zO
load jy m
y
jx m
x
2625
2770 70 sin 2150 250 500
735 70 cos
2150
05 . 0
5 . 77 30
0 250 31 . 0 500 06 . 0 05 . 0
0
0
0 sin
0
0 cos
0
2 2
2
2
= + =
= + + =
= =
=
+
=
=
=
=
= +
=
= +
=

r
r


F
load
Nm M
F l W l R l M
M
N R W W R
F
x in forces No
F
g
load load body gy reaction g
zhip
gy load gy
y
x
5 . 56 850 06 . 0 250 31 . 0 600 05 . 0
0
0
850 250 600 0
0
0
= + =
= +
=
= + = =
=
=


W
F
load
R
g
, M
g
N F
N F
N F
F l W l R l M
M
F F W R
F
F F
F
jy
jx
m
m m leg leg gy reaction g
zhip
jy my leg gy
y
jx m
x
2752 70 sin 2130 100 850
5 . 728 70 cos 2130
2130
05 . 0
100 01 . 0 850 06 . 0 5 . 56
0
0
0
0
0 cos
0
= + =
= =
=
+
=
= +
=
= +
=
=
=


The slight difference in numbers is due to the inexactness of
the given moment arms to the body weights
R
g
, M
g
14:125:208: Introduction to Biomechanics Spring 2011
Homework Assignment #4
Due 2/21/10


To solve Part B) I will use the rest of body Method






Comparing case A to Case B we find the joint reaction force from carrying 1 case is greater than that for
carrying the 2 cases. This is because in the second case by carrying the second case the bodyweight is
more balanced which shifts the COM closer to the femoral head thus decreasing the moment arm to the
COM so the abductor muscles dont have to work as hard (less force) to overcome the moment due to the
weights leading to a lower reaction force.
We can write the equations of Static Equilibrium

N R R R
N R
N F R
N F
F
F l F l W l F l
M
W W R F
F
R F
F
y x
jy
m jx
m
m
load load load load body m m
zO
load jy m
y
jx m
x
2414
2363 70 sin 1450 500 500
496 70 cos
1450
05 . 0
35 5 . 77 30
0 250 14 . 0 250 31 . 0 500 06 . 0 05 . 0
0
0
0 2 sin
0
0 cos
0
2 2
2 2 1 1 2
2
= + =
= + + =
= =
=
+
=
= +
= +
=
= +
=
= +
=

r
r


F
load
F
load
14:125:208: Introduction to Biomechanics Spring 2011
Homework Assignment #4
Due 2/21/10


Problem 5. (Static Analysis of the Sun Salutation)

You have just begun taking a Yoga class and your instructor is teaching you the Surya Namaskara or the
Sun Salutation. The Hasta Uttanasana or Raised Hands Posture is one of the poses taken during the Sun
Salutation in which you raise the arms upward and slowly bend backwards stretching the arms above the
head. As the instructor takes the Hasta Uttanasana pose you are suddenly enlightened and you realize
that you can analyze this posture biomechanically.




Your Yoga Instructor Whole Body Lower Legs
You are enlightened with the following information:
Your Yoga Instructor weighs 700 N in total
The instructors COM is 10 cm posterior to his feet (in the z direction).
His legs makes contact with the floor an angle of 75 with respect to the horizontal and he keeps
his knees extended.
The lower legs are 45 cm long to the knee joint. This results in a distance from the feet to the
Tibiofemoral joint of 11.65 cm in the z-direction and 43.47 cm in the y-direction
The weight of the lower legs is 80 N and the COM of the legs is 20 cm distal to the knee along
the tibia, placing the COM 5.18 cm posterior and 19.32 cm inferior to the knee joint in the z and
y directions respectively.
The dashed line represents the patella tendon. It is at a 15 degrees angle with respect to the
tibia, and attaches 5 cm distal to the tibiofemoral joint along the tibia bone.
The instructors two legs are idealized as a single member, noting that since the feet are placed
together any forces calculated would be distributed equally between the two legs.
a) Draw a free body diagram of the entire body in this pose. Determine any reactions at the
instructors feet.
b) If we assume that the quadriceps are the only muscles supporting the legs then draw FBDs
of the lower legs/feet and determine the magnitude of the quadriceps force, and the
magnitude and direction of any reactions at the knee. This problem may be solved by
either analyzing the lower leg or by rest of body analysis. If we remove the weight of
the legs the COM of the rest of the body shifts to 12.125 cm posterior where the feet
would be.
75
10 cm
z
y
W=700 N
W
l
=80 N
11.65 cm
Tibiofemoral
J oint 5.18 cm
15