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UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA METHANOL
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA METHANOL

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA METHANOL
METHANOL
METHANOL
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Methanol Introduction Production Uses The Market Capital Investment and Production
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Methanol Introduction Production Uses The Market Capital Investment and Production

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Methanol Introduction Production Uses The Market Capital Investment and Production
Methanol
Methanol

Introduction Production Uses The Market Capital Investment and Production Cost Technology Advantages

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction The first member of the homologous series of aliphatic alcohols, with
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction The first member of the homologous series of aliphatic alcohols, with

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction The first member of the homologous series of aliphatic alcohols, with the
Introduction
Introduction

The first member of the homologous series of aliphatic alcohols, with the formula CH 3 OH. It is produced commercially from a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H 2 ).

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Methanol is a highly flammable liquid, boiling point 64.7°C (149°F), is
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Methanol is a highly flammable liquid, boiling point 64.7°C (149°F), is

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Methanol is a highly flammable liquid, boiling point 64.7°C (149°F), is
Introduction
Introduction

Methanol is a

highly flammable liquid, boiling point 64.7°C (149°F), is miscible with water and most organic liquids, highly poisonous substance, and sublethal amounts can cause permanent blindness.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction BASF pada tahun 1923 mengenalkan proses sintesis methanol dari CO dan
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction BASF pada tahun 1923 mengenalkan proses sintesis methanol dari CO dan

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction BASF pada tahun 1923 mengenalkan proses sintesis methanol dari CO dan H
Introduction
Introduction

BASF pada tahun 1923 mengenalkan proses sintesis methanol dari CO dan H 2 yang merupakan aplikasi kedua terbesar mengenai katalis dan teknologi tekanan tinggi dalam industri kimia.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Proses tersebut merupakan penelitian lanjut dari hidrogenasi CO, CO dan H
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Proses tersebut merupakan penelitian lanjut dari hidrogenasi CO, CO dan H

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Proses tersebut merupakan penelitian lanjut dari hidrogenasi CO, CO dan H dapat
Introduction
Introduction

Proses tersebut merupakan penelitian lanjut dari hidrogenasi CO,

CO dan H dapat bereaksi pada tekanan 100 – 300 bar untuk menghasilkan produk yang beragam dari methanol sampai alkohol yang lebih tinggi, tergantung pada katalis yang digunakan dan kondisi operasi

terhidrogenasi

juga

komponen-komponen

yang

dan hidrokarbon.

Penelitian ini dilakukan oleh Fischer-Tropsch pada sekitar awal 1930 an.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Seperti proses amonia, sintesis methanol juga pengembangan katalis yang digunakan.
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Seperti proses amonia, sintesis methanol juga pengembangan katalis yang digunakan.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Seperti proses amonia, sintesis methanol juga pengembangan katalis yang digunakan.
Introduction
Introduction

Seperti

proses

amonia,

sintesis

methanol juga

pengembangan katalis yang digunakan.

tergantung

pada

Katalis methanol harus selektif dan aktif.

Salah

satunya,

mengandung

yang

zinc

oxide dan chromia, tahan sampai sekitar

40 tahun.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Tahun 1996 ICI memperkenalkan katalis cooper/zinc oxide/alumina dengan aktivitas
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Tahun 1996 ICI memperkenalkan katalis cooper/zinc oxide/alumina dengan aktivitas

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Tahun 1996 ICI memperkenalkan katalis cooper/zinc oxide/alumina dengan aktivitas
Introduction
Introduction

Tahun 1996 ICI memperkenalkan katalis cooper/zinc oxide/alumina dengan aktivitas yang lebih besar. Dengan katalis ini methanol dapat bereaksi pada temperatur yang lebih rendah (kurang dari 300 o C) dan tekanan yang lebih rendah (50-100 bar).

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Hasilnya, jika dibandingkan dengan proses sebelumnya yang memerlukan tekanan
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Hasilnya, jika dibandingkan dengan proses sebelumnya yang memerlukan tekanan

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Hasilnya, jika dibandingkan dengan proses sebelumnya yang memerlukan tekanan
Introduction
Introduction

Hasilnya, jika dibandingkan dengan proses sebelumnya yang memerlukan tekanan tinggi.

proses menjadi lebih efisien, lebih murah dan

lebih

rendah

biaya

modal

diinvestasikan.

yang

akan

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Methanol is one of the major industrial organic chemicals. Its major
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Methanol is one of the major industrial organic chemicals. Its major

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Methanol is one of the major industrial organic chemicals. Its major derivatives
Introduction
Introduction

Methanol is one of the major industrial organic chemicals. Its major derivatives are

methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), formaldehyde, and acetic acid.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Other derivatives and uses include chloromethanes, methyl methacrylate,
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Other derivatives and uses include chloromethanes, methyl methacrylate,

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Other derivatives and uses include chloromethanes, methyl methacrylate,
Introduction
Introduction

Other derivatives and uses include

chloromethanes, methyl methacrylate, methylamines, dimethyl terephthalate, solvents (such as glycol methyl ethers), antifreeze, and fuels.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Methanol is produced naturally in the anaerobic metabolism of many varieties
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Methanol is produced naturally in the anaerobic metabolism of many varieties

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Methanol is produced naturally in the anaerobic metabolism of many varieties of
Introduction
Introduction

Methanol is produced naturally in the anaerobic metabolism of many varieties of bacteria.

As

a result,

there is a small fraction

of

methanol vapor in the atmosphere.

Over

the

course

of

several

days,

atmospheric methanol is oxidized by oxygen with the help of sunlight to carbon dioxide and water.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Methanol burns in air forming carbon dioxide and water : 2
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Methanol burns in air forming carbon dioxide and water : 2

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Methanol burns in air forming carbon dioxide and water : 2 CH
Introduction
Introduction

Methanol burns in air forming carbon dioxide and water:

2 CH 3 OH + 3 O 2 2 CO 2 + 4 H 2 O

A methanol flame is almost colorless.

Care should be exercised around burning methanol to avoid burning oneself on the almost invisible fire.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Methanol is often called wood alcohol because it was once produced
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Methanol is often called wood alcohol because it was once produced

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction Methanol is often called wood alcohol because it was once produced chiefly
Introduction
Introduction

Methanol is often called wood alcohol because it was once produced chiefly as a byproduct of the destructive distillation of wood. It is now produced synthetically by a multi-step process.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction In short, natural gas and steam are reformed in a furnace
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction In short, natural gas and steam are reformed in a furnace

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Introduction In short, natural gas and steam are reformed in a furnace to
Introduction
Introduction

In short,

natural gas and steam are reformed in a furnace to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide; then,

hydrogen

react under pressure in the presence of a catalyst. The reforming step is endothermic and the synthesis step is exothermic.

gases

and

carbon

monoxide

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Today, synthesis gas is most commonly produced from the methane component
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Today, synthesis gas is most commonly produced from the methane component

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Today, synthesis gas is most commonly produced from the methane component in
Production
Production

Today, synthesis gas is most commonly produced from the methane component in natural gas rather than from coal.

commercially

Three practiced.

processes

are

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production At moderate pressures of 1 to 2 MPa (10–20 atm) and
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production At moderate pressures of 1 to 2 MPa (10–20 atm) and

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production At moderate pressures of 1 to 2 MPa (10–20 atm) and high
Production
Production

At

moderate pressures of 1 to 2 MPa

(10–20 atm) and high temperatures (around 850 °C), methane reacts with steam on a nickel catalyst to produce syngas according to the chemical equation:

CH 4 + H 2 O CO + 3 H 2

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production This reaction, commonly called steam- methane reforming or SMR, is endothermic
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production This reaction, commonly called steam- methane reforming or SMR, is endothermic

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production This reaction, commonly called steam- methane reforming or SMR, is endothermic and
Production
Production

This reaction, commonly called steam- methane reforming or SMR, is endothermic and the heat transfer limitations place limits on the size of the catalytic reactors used.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Methane can also undergo partial oxidation with molecular oxygen to produce
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Methane can also undergo partial oxidation with molecular oxygen to produce

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Methane can also undergo partial oxidation with molecular oxygen to produce syngas,
Production
Production

Methane can also undergo partial oxidation with molecular oxygen to produce syngas, as the following equation shows:

2 CH 4 + O 2 2 CO + 4 H 2

this reaction is exothermic and the heat given off can be used in-situ to drive the steam-methane reforming reaction.

When

the

two processes are combined, it is

referred to as autothermal reforming.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production The ratio of CO and H 2 can be adjusted by
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production The ratio of CO and H 2 can be adjusted by

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production The ratio of CO and H 2 can be adjusted by using
Production
Production

The ratio of CO and H 2 can be adjusted by using the water-gas shift reaction, CO + H 2 O CO 2 + H 2 ,

to provide the appropriate stoichiometry for methanol synthesis.

The carbon monoxide and hydrogen

second catalyst to

then

react

on

a

produce methanol.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Today, the most widely used catalyst is a mixture of copper
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Today, the most widely used catalyst is a mixture of copper

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Today, the most widely used catalyst is a mixture of copper ,
Production
Production

Today, the most widely used catalyst is a mixture of copper, zinc oxide, and alumina first used by ICI in 1966. At 5–10 MPa (50–100 atm) and 250 °C, it can catalyze the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen with high selectivity CO + 2 H 2 CH 3 OH

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production It is worth noting that the methane produces 3 moles of
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production It is worth noting that the methane produces 3 moles of

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production It is worth noting that the methane produces 3 moles of hydrogen
Production
Production

It is worth noting that

the

methane produces 3 moles of hydrogen for every mole of carbon monoxide, while the methanol synthesis consumes only 2 moles of hydrogen for every mole of carbon monoxide.

production

of

synthesis

from

gas

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production One way of dealing with the excess hydrogen is to inject
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production One way of dealing with the excess hydrogen is to inject

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production One way of dealing with the excess hydrogen is to inject carbon
Production
Production

One way of dealing with the excess hydrogen is to inject carbon dioxide into the methanol synthesis reactor, where it, too, reacts to form methanol according to the chemical equation CO 2 + 3 H 2 CH 3 OH + H 2 O

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Although natural gas is the most economical and widely used feedstock
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Although natural gas is the most economical and widely used feedstock

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Although natural gas is the most economical and widely used feedstock for
Production
Production

Although natural gas is the most economical and widely used feedstock for methanol production, other feedstocks can be used.

Where

natural

unavailable,

light

gas

is

petroleum products can be used in its place.

The

South

African

firm

Sasol

produces

methanol using synthesis gas from coal.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Methanol dapat dihasilkan dalam skala industri secara besar besaran, melalui konversi
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Methanol dapat dihasilkan dalam skala industri secara besar besaran, melalui konversi

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Methanol dapat dihasilkan dalam skala industri secara besar besaran, melalui konversi
Production
Production

Methanol dapat dihasilkan dalam skala industri secara besar besaran, melalui konversi katalitik dari gas sintesis. proses tersebut digolongkan menurut tekanan yang digunakan :

1. Proses tekanan tinggi

:

25-30 Mpa (250

300

atm)

2. Proses tekanan sedang

:

10-25 Mpa (100

250

atm)

3. Proses tekanan rendah

:

5-10 Mpa

(50

100

atm)

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Pada sat methanol ini pada proses tekanan pembuatan dan sedang tekanan
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Pada sat methanol ini pada proses tekanan pembuatan dan sedang tekanan

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Pada sat methanol ini pada proses tekanan pembuatan dan sedang tekanan rendah
Production
Production

Pada

sat

methanol

ini

pada

proses

tekanan

pembuatan

dan

sedang

tekanan rendah saja yang digunakan.

Tetapi

sejalan dengan adanya

konservasi energi maka proses pada tekanan rendah memberikan alternatif yang paling baik dibandingkan dengan tekanan sedang.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Keuntungan paling utama dari proses tekanan rendah adalah : Biaya produksi
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Keuntungan paling utama dari proses tekanan rendah adalah : Biaya produksi

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Keuntungan paling utama dari proses tekanan rendah adalah : Biaya produksi dan
Production
Production

Keuntungan paling utama dari proses tekanan rendah adalah :

Biaya produksi dan investasi rendah Peningkatan operasional dapat diandalkan Fleksibilitas lebih besar dalam pemilihan ukuran pabrik

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Proses pruduksi methanol industri terdiri atas : dalam Produksi gas sintesis
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Proses pruduksi methanol industri terdiri atas : dalam Produksi gas sintesis

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Proses pruduksi methanol industri terdiri atas : dalam Produksi gas sintesis
Production
Production

Proses

pruduksi

methanol

industri terdiri atas :

dalam

Produksi gas sintesis Sintesis Methanol

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Produksi methanol dimulai dengan produksi gas sintesis yang terdiri dari hidrogen
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Produksi methanol dimulai dengan produksi gas sintesis yang terdiri dari hidrogen

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Produksi methanol dimulai dengan produksi gas sintesis yang terdiri dari hidrogen dan
Production
Production

Produksi methanol dimulai dengan produksi gas sintesis yang terdiri dari hidrogen dan karbonmonoksida. Teknologi yang sering digunakan dalam proses gas sintesi antara lain :

Steam Reforming Oksidasi Parsial Gasifikasi Batubara

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Selanjutnya hasil dari syn-gas menjadi feedstock pada methanol plant, dimana reaksi
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Selanjutnya hasil dari syn-gas menjadi feedstock pada methanol plant, dimana reaksi

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Selanjutnya hasil dari syn-gas menjadi feedstock pada methanol plant, dimana reaksi
Production
Production

Selanjutnya hasil dari syn-gas menjadi feedstock pada methanol plant, dimana reaksi sintesis methanol dalah

CO + 2H 2 CH 3 OH kkal/mol

H 298 = -21.684

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Reaksi memiliki konversi yang rendah. Hal ini diakibatkan karena reaksi mudah
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Reaksi memiliki konversi yang rendah. Hal ini diakibatkan karena reaksi mudah

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Reaksi memiliki konversi yang rendah. Hal ini diakibatkan karena reaksi mudah untuk
Production
Production

Reaksi

memiliki konversi yang rendah. Hal ini diakibatkan karena reaksi mudah untuk mencapai kesetimbangan.

ini

pembentukan

methanol

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Untuk mendapatkan konversi yang lebih tinggi biasanya reaksi dilakukan pada tekanan
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Untuk mendapatkan konversi yang lebih tinggi biasanya reaksi dilakukan pada tekanan

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Untuk mendapatkan konversi yang lebih tinggi biasanya reaksi dilakukan pada tekanan
Production
Production

Untuk mendapatkan konversi yang lebih tinggi biasanya reaksi dilakukan pada tekanan yang cukup tinggi dan temperatur yang rendah. Perkembangan teknologi reaksi sintesis

tinggi mulai

ditinggalkan dengan ditemukannya katalis yang lebih reaktif dan jenis reaktor yang sesuai.

methanol

pada

tekanan

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Recycle P-5 Flash colom Heat Exchanger Crude Methanol Gas Sintesis Reactor
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Recycle P-5 Flash colom Heat Exchanger Crude Methanol Gas Sintesis Reactor

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Recycle P-5 Flash colom Heat Exchanger Crude Methanol Gas Sintesis Reactor
Production
Production
Recycle P-5 Flash colom Heat Exchanger Crude Methanol Gas Sintesis Reactor Sintesi Methanol
Recycle
P-5
Flash colom
Heat Exchanger
Crude Methanol
Gas Sintesis
Reactor Sintesi Methanol
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Jenis katalis yang digunakan: Katalis pada tekanan tinggi Katalis pada tekanan
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Jenis katalis yang digunakan: Katalis pada tekanan tinggi Katalis pada tekanan

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Jenis katalis yang digunakan: Katalis pada tekanan tinggi Katalis pada tekanan rendah
Production
Production

Jenis katalis yang digunakan:

Katalis pada tekanan tinggi Katalis pada tekanan rendah

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Katalis pada tekanan tinggi Digunakan beroperasi pada teka nan 120-300 bar
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Katalis pada tekanan tinggi Digunakan beroperasi pada teka nan 120-300 bar

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Katalis pada tekanan tinggi Digunakan beroperasi pada teka nan 120-300 bar dan
Production
Production

Katalis pada tekanan tinggi

Digunakan

beroperasi pada tekanan 120-300 bar dan temperatur 300-425 o C. Katalis ini tahan terhadap sulfur dan klorin yang terdapat dalam syn-gas.

alkali/ZnO-CuO/Cr 2 O 3

dapat

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Katalis pada tekanan tinggi Produksi metanol dengan zinc-oksida-krom oksida pada
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Katalis pada tekanan tinggi Produksi metanol dengan zinc-oksida-krom oksida pada

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Katalis pada tekanan tinggi Produksi metanol dengan zinc-oksida-krom oksida pada
Production
Production

Katalis pada tekanan tinggi

Produksi metanol dengan zinc-oksida-krom oksida pada proses bertekanan tinggi tidak lagi bersifat ekonomis. Generasi baru katalis mengandung copper

dengan

keaktifan

lebih tinggi.

dan

selektifitas

yang

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Katalis pada tekanan rendah Digunakan beroperasi pada tekanan 50-100 bar dan
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Katalis pada tekanan rendah Digunakan beroperasi pada tekanan 50-100 bar dan

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Katalis pada tekanan rendah Digunakan beroperasi pada tekanan 50-100 bar dan
Production
Production

Katalis pada tekanan rendah

Digunakan

beroperasi pada tekanan 50-100 bar dan temperatur 275-310 o C (120-300 bar dan suhu 300-425 o C, utk tek.tinggi). Penggunaan katalis ini membutuhkan kondisi syn-gas yang murni dari sulfur dan klorin (H 2 S < 0.1 ppm).

alkali/CuO-ZnO/Al 2 O 3

dapat

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Katalis pada tekanan rendah Karena keaktifan katalis, sintesis metanol dapat
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Katalis pada tekanan rendah Karena keaktifan katalis, sintesis metanol dapat

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Katalis pada tekanan rendah Karena keaktifan katalis, sintesis metanol dapat
Production
Production

Katalis pada tekanan rendah

Karena keaktifan katalis, sintesis metanol dapat berlangsung pada suhu 220-230 o C dan 5 Mpa.

Selektifitas

tinggi

memberikan

yang

kemurnian metanol lebih besar dari 99.5%.

Pembentukan produk sampingan seperti DME, alkohol tinggi, senyawa karbonil dan metana dapat dihilangkan.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Produksi methanol secara komersial dapat dilakukan melalui berbagai macam proses.
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Produksi methanol secara komersial dapat dilakukan melalui berbagai macam proses.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Produksi methanol secara komersial dapat dilakukan melalui berbagai macam proses.
Production
Production

Produksi methanol secara komersial dapat dilakukan melalui berbagai macam proses. Proses yang paling banyak digunakan di industri methanol adalah ICI.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Proses adalah : proses yang lain diantaranya Proses Lurgi, Proses Kellog,
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Proses adalah : proses yang lain diantaranya Proses Lurgi, Proses Kellog,

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Proses adalah : proses yang lain diantaranya Proses Lurgi, Proses Kellog, Proses
Production
Production

Proses adalah :

proses

yang

lain

diantaranya

Proses Lurgi, Proses Kellog, Proses Nissui Topsoe dan proses Mitsubishi Gas Company (MGC).

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Jalur proses sintesis methanol dari tersebut sama, membedakan hanya proses yang
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Jalur proses sintesis methanol dari tersebut sama, membedakan hanya proses yang

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Jalur proses sintesis methanol dari tersebut sama, membedakan hanya proses yang jenis
Production
Production

Jalur proses

sintesis

methanol

dari

tersebut

sama,

membedakan hanya

proses

yang

jenis katalis, reaktor yang dipergunakan dan kondisi operasi reaksi.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Perbandingan penggunaan proses sintesis methanol didunia Kellogs 3% MGC 8% ICI
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Perbandingan penggunaan proses sintesis methanol didunia Kellogs 3% MGC 8% ICI

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Perbandingan penggunaan proses sintesis methanol didunia Kellogs 3% MGC 8% ICI 61%
Production
Production
Perbandingan penggunaan proses sintesis methanol didunia Kellogs 3% MGC 8% ICI 61% Lurgi 27%
Perbandingan penggunaan proses sintesis methanol didunia
Kellogs
3% MGC
8%
ICI
61%
Lurgi
27%

Other

1%

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Dari diagram sebagian besar (61%) proses menggunakan teknologi ICI pada tekanan
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Dari diagram sebagian besar (61%) proses menggunakan teknologi ICI pada tekanan

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Dari diagram sebagian besar (61%) proses menggunakan teknologi ICI pada tekanan rendah,
Production
Production

Dari diagram

sebagian

besar

(61%)

proses

menggunakan teknologi ICI pada tekanan

rendah, diikuti dengan proses tekanan rendah

yaitu teknologi Lurgi (27%) dan Kellog (3%).

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Proses tekanan sedang sudah jarang digunakan hanya sebagian kecil sebesar 8%
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Proses tekanan sedang sudah jarang digunakan hanya sebagian kecil sebesar 8%

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Production Proses tekanan sedang sudah jarang digunakan hanya sebagian kecil sebesar 8%
Production
Production

Proses tekanan sedang sudah jarang digunakan hanya sebagian kecil sebesar 8% menggunakan teknologi MGC.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI Campuran gas sintesis umpan segar ditekan dari 50-
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI Campuran gas sintesis umpan segar ditekan dari 50-

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI Campuran gas sintesis umpan segar ditekan dari 50- 100
Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI
Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI

Campuran gas sintesis umpan segar ditekan dari 50- 100 atm melalui sebuah kompresssor dan diumpan kedalam reaktor berpendingin (quench type converter) yang beroperasi pada 270 o C.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI Quench converter berupa sin gle bed yang men
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI Quench converter berupa sin gle bed yang men

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI Quench converter berupa sin gle bed yang men gandung
Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI
Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI

Quench converter berupa single bed yang mengandung katalis pendukung yang bersifat inert.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI A liran produk kemudian didin g inkan dan
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI A liran produk kemudian didin g inkan dan

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI A liran produk kemudian didin g inkan dan methanol
Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI
Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI

Aliran produk kemudian didinginkan dan methanol akan terkondensasi.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI A liran g as pur g e direcycle
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI A liran g as pur g e direcycle

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI A liran g as pur g e direcycle ke
Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI
Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI

Aliran gas purge direcycle ke reformer untuk mengubah methanol yang terakumulasi dalam gas sintesis.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI Crude methanol akan dipurifikasi dengan cara distilasi.
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI Crude methanol akan dipurifikasi dengan cara distilasi.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI Crude methanol akan dipurifikasi dengan cara distilasi.
Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI
Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI

Crude methanol akan dipurifikasi dengan cara distilasi.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI Karena dian ggap kurang meng untun gkan ICI
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI Karena dian ggap kurang meng untun gkan ICI

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI Karena dian ggap kurang meng untun gkan ICI mengganti
Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI
Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI

Karena dianggap kurang menguntungkan ICI

mengganti jenis reaktor yang digunakan dari

menjadi tube berpendingin yang pada prinsipnya

sama dengan yang digunakan oleh Lurgi.

reactor

quench

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI Proses ICI bertekanan rendah ada yang menggunakan reaktor
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI Proses ICI bertekanan rendah ada yang menggunakan reaktor

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI Proses ICI bertekanan rendah ada yang menggunakan reaktor p
Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI
Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI

Proses ICI bertekanan rendah ada yang

menggunakan

reaktor

packed

bed

adiabatic tersusun seri.

Suhu masukan ke bed ditentukan oleh

syn-gas yang

suhu

dingin

dari

diinjeksikan.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI Tidak ada penukar panas diantara bed dan hal
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI Tidak ada penukar panas diantara bed dan hal

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI Tidak ada penukar panas diantara bed dan hal ini
Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI
Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI

Tidak ada penukar panas diantara bed dan hal ini membuat reaktor menjadi lebih sederhana daripada desain proses lainnya.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI
Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI
Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah ICI
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Dalam proses yang ditawarkan oleh Lurgi untuk sintesis
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Dalam proses yang ditawarkan oleh Lurgi untuk sintesis

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Dalam proses yang ditawarkan oleh Lurgi untuk sintesis methanol,
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Dalam proses yang ditawarkan oleh Lurgi untuk sintesis methanol,

Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi

Dalam

proses

yang

ditawarkan

oleh

Lurgi untuk sintesis methanol,

reaktor sintesis dioperasikan pada rentang suhu dari 230 – 270 o C dan dengan tekanan operasi 50-100 bar.

Perancangan reactor berbeda dengan ICI.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Dalam ditumpuk menjadi sebuah unggun serta dimasukan pada
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Dalam ditumpuk menjadi sebuah unggun serta dimasukan pada

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Dalam ditumpuk menjadi sebuah unggun serta dimasukan pada berbagai
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Dalam ditumpuk menjadi sebuah unggun serta dimasukan pada berbagai

Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi

Dalam

ditumpuk menjadi sebuah unggun serta dimasukan pada berbagai lokasi sepanjang unggun dengan tujuan agar diperoleh distribusi suhu yang merata. Sedangkan Lurgi menggunakan reaktor shell and tube , tube diisi dengan katalis dan panas reaksi diserap oleh air yang bersirkulasi secara alami pada bagian shell.

teknologi

pertama

ICI,

katalis

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Pada dasarnya reaktor juga memainkan peranan kedua yaitu
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Pada dasarnya reaktor juga memainkan peranan kedua yaitu

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Pada dasarnya reaktor juga memainkan peranan kedua yaitu sebagai
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Pada dasarnya reaktor juga memainkan peranan kedua yaitu sebagai

Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi

Pada dasarnya reaktor juga memainkan peranan kedua yaitu sebagai

pembangkit

bertekanan 40-50 bar.

(steam regenarator)

uap

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi

Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Lurgi menggunakan reaktor quasi-isothermal dengan katalis di dalam
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Lurgi menggunakan reaktor quasi-isothermal dengan katalis di dalam

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Lurgi menggunakan reaktor quasi-isothermal dengan katalis di dalam
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Lurgi menggunakan reaktor quasi-isothermal dengan katalis di dalam

Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Lurgi menggunakan reaktor quasi-isothermal dengan katalis di dalam

Lurgi menggunakan reaktor quasi-isothermal dengan katalis di dalam tube yang didinginkan dengan sirkulasi

boiling water.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Proses Lurgi akan menghasilkan methanol yang murni dengan
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Proses Lurgi akan menghasilkan methanol yang murni dengan

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Proses Lurgi akan menghasilkan methanol yang murni dengan proses
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Proses Lurgi akan menghasilkan methanol yang murni dengan proses

Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Lurgi Proses Lurgi akan menghasilkan methanol yang murni dengan proses

Proses Lurgi akan menghasilkan methanol yang murni dengan proses sintesis methanol dan proses pemurniannya

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Kellog M.W. Kellog Co. memperkenalkan reaksi sintesis yang sangat
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Kellog M.W. Kellog Co. memperkenalkan reaksi sintesis yang sangat

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Kellog M.W. Kellog Co. memperkenalkan reaksi sintesis yang sangat berbeda,
Proses Tekanan Rendah Kellog
Proses Tekanan Rendah Kellog

M.W. Kellog Co. memperkenalkan reaksi sintesis yang sangat berbeda, tetapi pada dasarnya merupakan reaktor tipe adiabatik.

didalamnya

berisi unggun katalis tunggal. Sintesis gas mengalir melalui beberapa bed reaktor yang tersusun aksial berseri. Kebalikan dari proses ICI, panas reaksi yang dihasilkan dikontrol dengan pendingin

Reaktor

berbentuk

bulat

dan

intermediat (intermediate coolers).

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Kellog Proses ini menggunakan katalis tembaga dan beroperasi pada
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Kellog Proses ini menggunakan katalis tembaga dan beroperasi pada

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Rendah Kellog Proses ini menggunakan katalis tembaga dan beroperasi pada rentang
Proses Tekanan Rendah Kellog
Proses Tekanan Rendah Kellog

Proses ini menggunakan katalis tembaga dan beroperasi pada rentang suhu 200-280 o C serta tekanan 100-150 atm. Suhu didalam unggun katalis dikendalikan melalui penggunaan sebuah reaktor berpendingin (quench type converter) dengan menyerap panas reaksi dalam intermediate

stage boiler.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Sedang Nissui-Topsoe Skema reaktor dari proses Halder Topsoe dari Denmark
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Sedang Nissui-Topsoe Skema reaktor dari proses Halder Topsoe dari Denmark

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Sedang Nissui-Topsoe Skema reaktor dari proses Halder Topsoe dari Denmark didesain
Proses Tekanan Sedang Nissui-Topsoe
Proses Tekanan Sedang Nissui-Topsoe

Skema reaktor dari proses Halder Topsoe dari Denmark didesain oleh Nihin Suiso Kogyo of Japan. Reaktor bertipe adiabatis dengan aliran radial berjumlah tiga masing-masing memiliki satu unggun radial dan penukar panas internal. Tiap reaktor mengandung satu satu unggun katalis. Tekanan operasi dari proses ini diatas 150 bar dan suhu 200-310 o C.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Sedang Nissui-Topsoe Produk pertama perlu didinginkan sebelum reaktor kedua, hasil
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Sedang Nissui-Topsoe Produk pertama perlu didinginkan sebelum reaktor kedua, hasil

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Sedang Nissui-Topsoe Produk pertama perlu didinginkan sebelum reaktor kedua, hasil
Proses Tekanan Sedang Nissui-Topsoe
Proses Tekanan Sedang Nissui-Topsoe

Produk pertama perlu didinginkan sebelum reaktor kedua, hasil pendinginan berupa uap (steam) bertekanan rendah. Katalis yang digunakan berupa Cu-Zn-Cr yang aktif pada 230-280 o C dan 100-200 atm. Sintesis gas mengalir secara radial melalui katalis bed.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Sedang Mitsubishi Gas Company Perusahaan Jepang MGC pada awalnya menggunakan
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Sedang Mitsubishi Gas Company Perusahaan Jepang MGC pada awalnya menggunakan

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Sedang Mitsubishi Gas Company Perusahaan Jepang MGC pada awalnya menggunakan

Proses Tekanan Sedang Mitsubishi Gas Company

OF INDONESIA Proses Tekanan Sedang Mitsubishi Gas Company Perusahaan Jepang MGC pada awalnya menggunakan proses

Perusahaan Jepang MGC pada awalnya menggunakan proses dengan tekanan sedang yang beroperasi pada 150 atm kemudian dikembangkan untuk tekanan kurang dari 100 atm. Saat ini MGC menggunakan rentang tekanan 50-200 atm dan suhu 235-270 o C. Hingga saat ini telah dioperasikan tiga buah, dua diantaranya berlokasi di Jepang dan sisanya di Arab.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Dalam proses sintesis metanol, pemilihan teknologi pertama dilakukan pada
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Dalam proses sintesis metanol, pemilihan teknologi pertama dilakukan pada

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Dalam proses sintesis metanol, pemilihan teknologi pertama dilakukan pada
Pemlihan Teknologi
Pemlihan Teknologi

Dalam proses sintesis metanol, pemilihan

teknologi

pertama

dilakukan

pada

proses

produksi gas sintesis menghasilkam hidrogen dan karbon-monoksida. Untuk menghasilkan gas sintesis, bahan baku berasal dari gas alam. Steam reforming akan menghasilkan hidrogen lebih banyak daripada oksidasi parsial yang menghasilkan lebih banyak karbonmonoksida.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Hidrogen dalam jumlah banyak dibutuhkan dalam sintesis metanol sebab
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Hidrogen dalam jumlah banyak dibutuhkan dalam sintesis metanol sebab

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Hidrogen dalam jumlah banyak dibutuhkan dalam sintesis metanol sebab
Pemlihan Teknologi
Pemlihan Teknologi

Hidrogen

dalam

jumlah

banyak

dibutuhkan dalam sintesis metanol sebab diperlukan rasio H 2 : CO 2 sebesar

3:1 dan rasio H 2 : CO sebesar 2:1.

Oleh

karena

itu,

proses

steam

reforming dipergunakan untuk memproduksi gas sintesis.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Dalam metanol, adalah: pemilihan parameter teknologi sintesis yang digunakan
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Dalam metanol, adalah: pemilihan parameter teknologi sintesis yang digunakan

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Dalam metanol, adalah: pemilihan parameter teknologi sintesis yang digunakan
Pemlihan Teknologi
Pemlihan Teknologi

Dalam metanol, adalah:

pemilihan

parameter

teknologi

sintesis

yang

digunakan

keaktifan katalis, jenis reaktor, dan tekanan operasi yang dipergunakan.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Untuk sintesis metanol, keaktifan dan selektifitas katalis memegang
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Untuk sintesis metanol, keaktifan dan selektifitas katalis memegang

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Untuk sintesis metanol, keaktifan dan selektifitas katalis memegang
Pemlihan Teknologi
Pemlihan Teknologi

Untuk sintesis metanol,

keaktifan

dan

selektifitas

katalis

memegang

peranan

penting

dalam

efisiensi proses, sehingga proses tidak berlangsung pada tekanan tinggi atau sedang.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Katalis yang digunakan pada tekanan rendah CuO-ZnO/Al 2 O 3
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Katalis yang digunakan pada tekanan rendah CuO-ZnO/Al 2 O 3

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Katalis yang digunakan pada tekanan rendah CuO-ZnO/Al 2 O 3 selektivitas
Pemlihan Teknologi
Pemlihan Teknologi

Katalis yang digunakan pada tekanan rendah

CuO-ZnO/Al 2 O 3

selektivitas yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan katalis pada tekanan tinggi ZnO-CuO/Cr 2 O 3 .

dan

memiliki

keaktifan

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Selektifitas yang tinggi menghasilkan kemurnian yang metanol tinggi dan akan
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Selektifitas yang tinggi menghasilkan kemurnian yang metanol tinggi dan akan

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Selektifitas yang tinggi menghasilkan kemurnian yang metanol tinggi dan akan
Pemlihan Teknologi
Pemlihan Teknologi

Selektifitas

yang

tinggi

menghasilkan kemurnian yang

metanol

tinggi

dan

akan

dengan

produk

samping yang terjadi dapat dikurangi.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Katalis CuO-ZnO yang digunakan pada tekanan rendah mempunyai kelebihan
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Katalis CuO-ZnO yang digunakan pada tekanan rendah mempunyai kelebihan

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Katalis CuO-ZnO yang digunakan pada tekanan rendah mempunyai kelebihan
Pemlihan Teknologi
Pemlihan Teknologi

Katalis CuO-ZnO yang digunakan pada tekanan rendah mempunyai kelebihan dibadingkan katalis lain, yaitu:

Mempunyai struktur yang sangat baik

(well-definedstructural)

yaitu

susunan

elektron yang menunjang keaktifan katalis dan selektifitas yang tinggi pada metanol.

Mempunyai bentuk (morfologis) yang baik.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Dari parameter katalis, pemilihan teknologi sintesis metanol dilakukan pada
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Dari parameter katalis, pemilihan teknologi sintesis metanol dilakukan pada

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Dari parameter katalis, pemilihan teknologi sintesis metanol dilakukan pada
Pemlihan Teknologi
Pemlihan Teknologi

Dari parameter katalis, pemilihan teknologi sintesis metanol dilakukan pada tekanan rendah, yaitu antara

teknologi ICI, Lurgi dan Kellog.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Pemilihan jenis reaktor akan mempengaruhi biaya investasi untuk mendesain
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Pemilihan jenis reaktor akan mempengaruhi biaya investasi untuk mendesain

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi Pemilihan jenis reaktor akan mempengaruhi biaya investasi untuk mendesain
Pemlihan Teknologi
Pemlihan Teknologi

Pemilihan jenis reaktor akan mempengaruhi

biaya

investasi

untuk

mendesain

reaktor

tersebut. Pertimbangan jenis reaktor:

Desain reaktor yang sederhana sehingga tidak membutuhkan kontrol suhu yang rumit. Jenis pendingin yang digunakan akan menentukan sistem pengontrolan suhu dalam sistem ketika terjadi kenaikan suhu yang besar.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi • Pada reaktor quench converter (reaktor berpendingin) pada ICI, •
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi • Pada reaktor quench converter (reaktor berpendingin) pada ICI, •

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi • Pada reaktor quench converter (reaktor berpendingin) pada ICI, •
Pemlihan Teknologi
Pemlihan Teknologi

Pada reaktor quench converter (reaktor berpendingin) pada ICI,

umpan

yang

masuk

langsung

dengan unggun katalis

bertemu

sehingga

katalis dan menyebabkan reaksi terhenti.

menyebabkan

kerusakan

pada

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi • Pada reaktor shell and tube pada Lurgi , •
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi • Pada reaktor shell and tube pada Lurgi , •

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi • Pada reaktor shell and tube pada Lurgi , • pendingin
Pemlihan Teknologi
Pemlihan Teknologi

Pada reaktor shell and tube pada Lurgi,

pendingin

menggunakan

boiling

water

yang mengalir di dalam shell

dapat

menyerap

panas

yang

dihasilkan

reaksi di dalam tube yang berisi katalis

sehingga reakor dapat mempertahankan suhunya.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi • Pada teknologi Kellog digunakan yang investasi desain pendingin akan
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi • Pada teknologi Kellog digunakan yang investasi desain pendingin akan

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi • Pada teknologi Kellog digunakan yang investasi desain pendingin akan
Pemlihan Teknologi
Pemlihan Teknologi

Pada

teknologi

Kellog

digunakan

yang

investasi desain

pendingin

akan

intermediate

coolers

memperbesar

reaktor.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi • Dari pertimbangan diatas, dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa • teknologi
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi • Dari pertimbangan diatas, dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa • teknologi

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi • Dari pertimbangan diatas, dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa • teknologi
Pemlihan Teknologi
Pemlihan Teknologi

Dari pertimbangan diatas, dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa

teknologi Lurgi tidak membutuhkan desain reaktor yang rumit dimana kontrol suhu dapat dilakukan dengan mengalirkan boiling water pada shell.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi • Keunggulan teknologi Lurgi lainnya yaitu • dihasilkannya steam
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi • Keunggulan teknologi Lurgi lainnya yaitu • dihasilkannya steam

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Pemlihan Teknologi • Keunggulan teknologi Lurgi lainnya yaitu • dihasilkannya steam
Pemlihan Teknologi
Pemlihan Teknologi

Keunggulan teknologi Lurgi lainnya yaitu

dihasilkannya

steam

bertekanan

sedang

yang

memberikan solusi bagi penghematan energi.

Steam

pemanasan umpan reaktor dan sebagai reboiler dalam proses distilasi metanol. Perolehan steam ini memperkecil beban pendidih (boiler) untuk memproduksi steam.

digunakan untuk

yang

dihasilkan

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Methanol is used on a limited basis to fuel internal combustion
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Methanol is used on a limited basis to fuel internal combustion

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Methanol is used on a limited basis to fuel internal combustion engines
Uses
Uses

Methanol is used on a limited basis to fuel internal combustion engines, mainly by virtue of the fact that it is not nearly as flammable as gasoline. Methanol blends are the fuel of choice in open wheel racing circuits like Champcars, as well as in radio controlled model airplanes (required in the "glow-plug" engines that primarily power them), cars and trucks.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Dirt circle track racecars such as Sprint cars, Late Models, and
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Dirt circle track racecars such as Sprint cars, Late Models, and

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Dirt circle track racecars such as Sprint cars, Late Models, and Modifieds
Uses
Uses

Dirt circle track racecars such as Sprint cars, Late Models, and Modifieds use methanol to fuel their engines. Drag racers and mud racers also use methanol as their primary fuel source.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Methanol is required with a supercharged engine in a Top Alcohol
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Methanol is required with a supercharged engine in a Top Alcohol

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Methanol is required with a supercharged engine in a Top Alcohol Dragster
Uses
Uses

Methanol is required with a supercharged engine in a Top Alcohol Dragster and, until the end of the 2005 season, all vehicles in the Indianapolis 500 had to run methanol. Mud racers have mixed methanol with gasoline and nitrous oxide to produce more power than gasoline and nitrous oxide alone.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Methanol is a traditional ingredient in methylated spirit or denatured alcohol
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Methanol is a traditional ingredient in methylated spirit or denatured alcohol

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Methanol is a traditional ingredient in methylated spirit or denatured alcohol .
Uses
Uses

Methanol is a traditional ingredient in methylated spirit or denatured alcohol. During World War II, methanol was used as a fuel in several Nazi Germany military rocket designs, under name M- Stoff, and in a mixture as C-Stoff.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses One of the drawbacks of methanol as a fuel is its
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses One of the drawbacks of methanol as a fuel is its

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses One of the drawbacks of methanol as a fuel is its corrosivity
Uses
Uses

One of the drawbacks of methanol as a fuel is its corrosivity to some metals, including aluminium. Methanol, although a weak acid, attacks the oxide coating that normally protects the aluminium from corrosion:

6 CH 3 OH + Al 2 O 3 2 Al(OCH 3 ) 3 + 3 H 2 O

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses The resulting methoxide salts are soluble in methanol, resulting in clean
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses The resulting methoxide salts are soluble in methanol, resulting in clean

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses The resulting methoxide salts are soluble in methanol, resulting in clean aluminium
Uses
Uses

The resulting methoxide salts are soluble in methanol, resulting in clean aluminium surface, which is readily oxidised by some dissolved oxygen. Also the methanol can act as a oxidiser:

6 CH 3 OH + 4 Al 2 Al 2 (OCH 3 ) 3 + 3 H 2 So the corrosion continues until the metal is eaten away.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses When produced from wood or other organic materials, the suggested as
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses When produced from wood or other organic materials, the suggested as

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses When produced from wood or other organic materials, the suggested as renewable
Uses
Uses

When produced from wood or other organic

materials, the

suggested as

renewable alternative to petroleum-based hydrocarbons.

(100%

(bioalcohol) has been

resulting

organic

methanol

However,

cannot

BA100

one

use

bioalcohol) in modern petroleum cars without modification.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Methanol is also used as a solvent and as an antifreeze
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Methanol is also used as a solvent and as an antifreeze

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Methanol is also used as a solvent and as an antifreeze in
Uses
Uses

Methanol is also used as a solvent and as an antifreeze in pipelines. The largest use of methanol by far, however, is in making other chemicals. About 40% of methanol is converted to formaldehyde, and from there into products as diverse as plastics, plywood, paints, explosives, and permanent press textiles.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses In some wastewater treatment plants , a small amount of methanol
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses In some wastewater treatment plants , a small amount of methanol

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses In some wastewater treatment plants , a small amount of methanol is
Uses
Uses

In some wastewater treatment plants,

a small amount of methanol is added to wastewater to provide a food source of carbon for the denitrification bacteria, which convert nitrates to nitrogen.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses In the 1990s , large amounts of methanol States to produce
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses In the 1990s , large amounts of methanol States to produce

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses In the 1990s , large amounts of methanol States to produce the
Uses
Uses

In

the

1990s,

large

amounts

of

methanol

States to produce the gasoline additive

methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE).

used

in

the

United

were

The 1990 Clean Air Act required certain

major

cities

to

use

MTBE

in

their

gasoline to reduce photochemical smog.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses However, by the late 1990s, it was found that MTBE had
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses However, by the late 1990s, it was found that MTBE had

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses However, by the late 1990s, it was found that MTBE had leaked
Uses
Uses

However, by the late 1990s, it was found that MTBE had leaked out of gasoline storage tanks and into the groundwater in sufficient amounts to affect the taste of municipal drinking water in many areas.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Moreover, MTBE was found to be carcinogen in animal studies. a
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Moreover, MTBE was found to be carcinogen in animal studies. a

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Moreover, MTBE was found to be carcinogen in animal studies. a In
Uses
Uses

Moreover,

MTBE

was

found

to

be

carcinogen in animal studies.

a

In

the

resulting the use

backlash, of MTBE,

banned

production remains uncertain.

states

and its future

several

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Direct-methanol fuel cells are unique in their low temperature, atmospheric pressure
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Direct-methanol fuel cells are unique in their low temperature, atmospheric pressure

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Direct-methanol fuel cells are unique in their low temperature, atmospheric pressure
Uses
Uses

Direct-methanol fuel cells are unique in their low temperature, atmospheric pressure operation, allowing them to be miniaturized to an unprecedented degree. This, combined with the relatively easy and safe storage and handling of methanol may open the possibility of fuel cell-powered consumer electronics.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Other chemical derivatives of methanol include dimethyl ether , which has
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Other chemical derivatives of methanol include dimethyl ether , which has

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Uses Other chemical derivatives of methanol include dimethyl ether , which has replaced
Uses
Uses

Other chemical derivatives of methanol include dimethyl ether, which has replaced chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol spray propellant, and acetic acid. There are now plans to use the chemical in eco-friendly fuel cells for laptop computers, the cells will break down methanol via an electrochemical process.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Methanol is an important multipurpose base chemical, a simple molecule
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Methanol is an important multipurpose base chemical, a simple molecule

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Methanol is an important multipurpose base chemical, a simple molecule which
The Market
The Market

Methanol is

an important multipurpose base chemical,

a simple molecule which can be recovered

from

many

natural gas.

resources,

predominantly

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market By tradition, methanol used to produce is principally formaldehyde, methyl
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market By tradition, methanol used to produce is principally formaldehyde, methyl

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market By tradition, methanol used to produce is principally formaldehyde, methyl tertiary
The Market
The Market

By

tradition,

methanol

used to produce

is

principally

formaldehyde, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and acetic acid

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market To a lesser extend, methanol is used as a general
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market To a lesser extend, methanol is used as a general

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market To a lesser extend, methanol is used as a general solvent
The Market
The Market

To a lesser extend, methanol is used as a general solvent and as fuel and for producing other chemicals.

to

Global

demand

for

methanol

amounts

about 32 million tons per year, with growth rates at or near GDP.

The demand corresponds to the capacity of

about

worldwide.

35

million

tons

which

is

available

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Asia is becoming the main growth driver for the demand
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Asia is becoming the main growth driver for the demand

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Asia is becoming the main growth driver for the demand for
The Market
The Market

Asia is becoming the main growth driver for the demand for methanol and its derivatives. Average growth rates are expected to be for:

Methanol:

million tons in 2003, Acetic acid: 4.8 %/a, Formaldehyde: 4.4 %/a.

3.8

%/a based on

about 10

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Reducing the cost of production by installing “Mega” production facilities
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Reducing the cost of production by installing “Mega” production facilities

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Reducing the cost of production by installing “Mega” production facilities fed
The Market
The Market

Reducing the cost of production by installing “Mega” production facilities fed with low- cost natural gas is opening up new promising methanol outlets. such as for the production of:

Ethylene

propylene,

and/or

e.

g.

propylene,

by

applying

methanol

Lurgi

to

MTP ®

technology. Dimethyl ether as a substitute for diesel fuel Liquid fuels

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Reducing the cost of production by installing “Mega” production facilities
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Reducing the cost of production by installing “Mega” production facilities

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Reducing the cost of production by installing “Mega” production facilities fed
The Market
The Market

Reducing the cost of production by installing “Mega” production facilities fed with low- cost natural gas is opening up new promising methanol outlets. such as for the production of:

Hydrogen or Feed material for power generating systems or Use in integrated schemes combined with an ammonia/urea complex, for example.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Methanol consumption for fuel cells to be used in automobiles,
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Methanol consumption for fuel cells to be used in automobiles,

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Methanol consumption for fuel cells to be used in automobiles, for
The Market
The Market

Methanol consumption for fuel cells to be used in automobiles, for power generation and portable equipment is bound to increase in the near future. Proved reserves of natural gas in the Middle East exceed 71 trillion cubic meters equivalent to a 41 % share of the total world gas reserves with Iran and Qatar having the largest potential reserves i. e. about 30 %.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Middle East and some regions of South America and Africa
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Middle East and some regions of South America and Africa

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Middle East and some regions of South America and Africa will
The Market
The Market

Middle East and some regions of South America and Africa will raise their methanol production significantly because of:

low feedstock cost and low capital cost thanks to the economies of scale provided by “Mega” plants.

low feedstock cost and low capital cost thanks to the economies of scale provided by “Mega”

According to CMAI some 15 million tons of capacity, nearly 50 % of world demand, will be added within a period of five years.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Considering the plentiful natural gas reserves and the evermore stringent
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Considering the plentiful natural gas reserves and the evermore stringent

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Considering the plentiful natural gas reserves and the evermore stringent
The Market
The Market

Considering the plentiful natural gas reserves and the evermore stringent environmental regulations to curb the wide-spread flaring-off, for example,

methanol production is a real alternative for converting natural gas or associated gas to a commodity with high value added.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Monetizing the abundant natural gas in stranded gas regions, where
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Monetizing the abundant natural gas in stranded gas regions, where

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The Market Monetizing the abundant natural gas in stranded gas regions, where the
The Market
The Market

Monetizing the abundant natural gas in stranded gas regions, where the main end-user markets are geographically remote from the source, is highly attractive.

Methanol is a versatile natural gas product with value added.

Methanol

has

excellent

characteristics

being

easily

transportable in comparison with gas, for example. Methanol production cost in the range of US$ 50 per ton opens up a completely new field for further down-stream derivatives like propylene or other new applications.

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Starting from the same feedstock price for

Capital Investment and Production Cost

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Starting from the same feedstock price for natural

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Starting from the same feedstock price for natural gas,
Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Starting from the same feedstock price for natural gas,

Starting from the same feedstock price for natural gas,

the production cost of methanol based on Lurgi MegaMethanol ® technology is by far lower, typically in the range of 25 %,

compared

to

the

cost

based

on

combined

reforming

and

conventional

steam

reforming,

respectively, at half the capacity of the MegaMethanol ® plant.

The differences clearly show the economy of scale effect for the single train plant.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The the MegaMethanol® plant only requires additional

Capital Investment and Production Cost

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The the MegaMethanol® plant only requires additional

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The the MegaMethanol® plant only requires additional
Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The the MegaMethanol® plant only requires additional

The

the

MegaMethanol® plant only requires additional capital expenditure of about 50 % of the plant investment cost based on the reforming technologies

double

capacity

of

mentioned above.

These figures demonstrate the

Lurgi MegaMethanol ®

superiority

of

technology.

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Since 1995 the capacities of methanol plants

Capital Investment and Production Cost

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Since 1995 the capacities of methanol plants have

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Since 1995 the capacities of methanol plants have been
Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Since 1995 the capacities of methanol plants have been

Since 1995

the capacities of methanol plants have been increased from 2,000 t/d to 5,000 t/d in 2003

will rise further to 10,000 t/d in the

and

near future.

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The companies operating “Mega” plants a tremendous

Capital Investment and Production Cost

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The companies operating “Mega” plants a tremendous

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The companies operating “Mega” plants a tremendous
Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The companies operating “Mega” plants a tremendous

The companies operating “Mega” plants

a tremendous

reduction in production cost ex gate

experiencing

are

from

50/t and

ultimately less than 40/t, as shown in

about

US$

110/t

to

the diagram.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The conversion of natural gas to methanol

Capital Investment and Production Cost

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The conversion of natural gas to methanol and

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The conversion of natural gas to methanol and downstream
Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The conversion of natural gas to methanol and downstream

The conversion of natural gas to methanol and downstream petrochemicals is highly economic on a natural gas price level below US$ 1/million BTU.

Some

locations in South America or Africa allow for

regions

such

the

Middle

as

East,

natural gas prices of between US$ 0.2 and 0.7/million BTU, compared to an oil price of between US$ 12 and 14/barrel.

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA This price scenario of gas-based methanol production

Capital Investment and Production Cost

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA This price scenario of gas-based methanol production cost

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA This price scenario of gas-based methanol production cost
Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA This price scenario of gas-based methanol production cost

This

price scenario of gas-based

methanol production cost and equivalent oil cost will certainly have an

impact on the downstream products and process routes based on oil.

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Lurgi offers all technologies for methanol production

Capital Investment and Production Cost

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Lurgi offers all technologies for methanol production

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Lurgi offers all technologies for methanol production
Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Lurgi offers all technologies for methanol production

Lurgi offers all technologies for methanol production including synthesis gas production based on:

conventional steam reforming, combined reforming, autothermal reforming.

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Accordingly, Lurgi accepts single line

Capital Investment and Production Cost

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Accordingly, Lurgi accepts single line

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Accordingly, Lurgi accepts single line
Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Accordingly, Lurgi accepts single line

Accordingly,

Lurgi

accepts

single

line

responsibility

for

small

plants

or

for

MegaMethanol ® facilities on a LSTK basis if specified. In view of this know how and the experience gained with the design, supply and commissioning of numerous plants, Lurgi is able to offer the optimum concept combined with project development and financing for any feedstock, capacity and other conditions specified by the client.

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Aiming at reducing the synthesis gas and

Capital Investment and Production Cost

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Aiming at reducing the synthesis gas and methanol

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Aiming at reducing the synthesis gas and methanol
Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Aiming at reducing the synthesis gas and methanol

Aiming at reducing the synthesis gas and methanol production cost further, even below an oil equivalent of US$

high pressure

demonstration plant is being operated. The test results supplement the design basis for extremely large synthesis gas capacities.

10/barrel,

a

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The development of a two-stage reactor system

Capital Investment and Production Cost

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The development of a two-stage reactor system for

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The development of a two-stage reactor system for methanol
Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The development of a two-stage reactor system for methanol

The development of a two-stage reactor system for methanol synthesis is another example and proof that Lurgi research and development activities continuously focus on lowering capital and operating cost for large scale production facilities.

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Lurgi is in the unique position to

Capital Investment and Production Cost

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Lurgi is in the unique position to license

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Lurgi is in the unique position to license the
Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Lurgi is in the unique position to license the

Lurgi is in the unique position to license the MegaSyn ® and MegaMethanol ® technologies in order to increase the benefit for the client.

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Lurgi also offers complete routes or integrated

Capital Investment and Production Cost

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Lurgi also offers complete routes or integrated schemes

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Lurgi also offers complete routes or integrated schemes of
Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Lurgi also offers complete routes or integrated schemes of

Lurgi also offers complete routes or integrated schemes of proprietary technologies such as

the conversion of natural gas to propylene via methanol or integrated schemes combining various products like ammonia and methanol, for example.

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The advantages are quite obvious: All process

Capital Investment and Production Cost

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The advantages are quite obvious: All process streams

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The advantages are quite obvious: All process streams and
Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The advantages are quite obvious: All process streams and

The advantages are quite obvious:

All process streams and compounds are useful, i. e. no generation of by-products and therefore no environmental impact.

Feed

and

utility

consumption

can

be

optimized

due

to

plant

and

heat

integration. “Mega” systems will reduce the production cost additionally.

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Contracts for 16 methanol plants including 3

Capital Investment and Production Cost

Capital Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Contracts for 16 methanol plants including 3

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Contracts for 16 methanol plants including 3 Mega-Methanol
Investment and Production Cost UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Contracts for 16 methanol plants including 3 Mega-Methanol

Contracts for 16 methanol plants including 3 Mega-Methanol ® facilities have been awarded to Lurgi since 1994.

is the only company which boasts 3

MegaMethanol ® reference plants. Lurgi has a 60 to 70 % market share of the methanol capacities globally installed and leads the market as number 1.

Lurgi

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The compressed, desulfurized - optionally prereformed -feedstock, predominantly natural gas, is
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The compressed, desulfurized - optionally prereformed -feedstock, predominantly natural gas, is

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The compressed, desulfurized - optionally prereformed -feedstock, predominantly natural gas, is
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The compressed, desulfurized - optionally prereformed -feedstock, predominantly natural gas, is

The compressed, desulfurized - optionally prereformed -feedstock, predominantly natural gas, is reformed to synthesis gas using oxygen as the reforming agent.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The optimum synthesis gas composition is achieved by recycling hydrogen that can
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The optimum synthesis gas composition is achieved by recycling hydrogen that can

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The optimum synthesis gas composition is achieved by recycling hydrogen that can be
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The optimum synthesis gas composition is achieved by recycling hydrogen that can be
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The optimum synthesis gas composition is achieved by recycling hydrogen that can be

The optimum synthesis gas composition is achieved by recycling hydrogen that can be separated from the purge gas stream of the methanol synthesis loop.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The synthesis gas is compressed and enters the methanol synthesis loop.
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The synthesis gas is compressed and enters the methanol synthesis loop.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The synthesis gas is compressed and enters the methanol synthesis loop.
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The synthesis gas is compressed and enters the methanol synthesis loop.
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The synthesis gas is compressed and enters the methanol synthesis loop.

The synthesis gas is compressed and enters the methanol synthesis loop.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The innovative Lurgi MegaMethanol ® technology is mainly based on the two-stage
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The innovative Lurgi MegaMethanol ® technology is mainly based on the two-stage

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The innovative Lurgi MegaMethanol ® technology is mainly based on the two-stage reactor
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The innovative Lurgi MegaMethanol ® technology is mainly based on the two-stage reactor
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA The innovative Lurgi MegaMethanol ® technology is mainly based on the two-stage reactor

The innovative Lurgi MegaMethanol ® technology is mainly based on the two-stage reactor system consisting of a gas-cooled and a water-cooled reactor.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA This system results in outstanding technical and economic features due to the
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA This system results in outstanding technical and economic features due to the

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA This system results in outstanding technical and economic features due to the extremely
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA This system results in outstanding technical and economic features due to the extremely
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA This system results in outstanding technical and economic features due to the extremely

This system results in outstanding technical and economic features due to the extremely favorable temperature profiles over the catalyst beds.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Methanol distillation provides the specified product quality which may range from fuel
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Methanol distillation provides the specified product quality which may range from fuel

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Methanol distillation provides the specified product quality which may range from fuel grade
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Methanol distillation provides the specified product quality which may range from fuel grade
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Methanol distillation provides the specified product quality which may range from fuel grade

Methanol distillation provides the specified product quality which may range from fuel grade methanol to highly pure methanol.

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Advantages
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Advantages

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Advantages
Advantages
Advantages
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Advantages
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Tugas Jelaskan mengapa pada reaksi pembuatan metanol yang eksotermis lebih disukai pada
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Tugas Jelaskan mengapa pada reaksi pembuatan metanol yang eksotermis lebih disukai pada

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA Tugas Jelaskan mengapa pada reaksi pembuatan metanol yang eksotermis lebih disukai pada tekanan
Tugas
Tugas

Jelaskan

mengapa

pada reaksi

pembuatan metanol yang eksotermis lebih disukai pada tekanan tinggi dan

suhu rendah

CO + 2H 2 CH 3 OH kkal/mol

H 298 = -21.684

Berapa harga pasar metanol/ton