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CHAITLR 7
I NTLLLLCTUAL IROILRTY: YOURS,
MI NL, AND OURS
In lhis chaplei sludenls viII Ieain aloul inleIIecluaI piopeily, vhal il is and hov lhe iighls of
individuaIs and conpanies aie piolecled fion !"#$%&'(&)% and ('*#+.
,$%&--&!%#*- /'"/&'%0, Iike olhei piopeily, is a nallei of gieal inpoilance foi lhose vho aie invoIved
in ciealing nev ideas and infoinalion in any fieId of sludy oi voik, lul pailicuIaiIy in science,
lechnoIogy and enleilainnenl. In lhe 21
sl
cenluiy - vhen infoinalion, ideas and ailislic expiession
aie noie inpoilanl lhan evei - issues of inleIIecluaI piopeily have lecone incieasingIy inpoilanl.
Caining noie knovIedge aloul inleIIecluaI piopeily viII piovide sludenls, leacheis and lhe pulIic in
geneiaI, vilh cuiienl infoinalion on Iavs and issues ieIaled lo inleIIecluaI piopeily. Such
infoinalion can inciease chances foi elhicaI lusiness piaclices voiIdvide.
In lhis chaplei, ve viII expIoie sone issues deaIing vilh inleIIecluaI piopeily. Sludenls viII have
oppoilunilies lo lhink aloul and expIoie lheii elhicaI piincipIes and nake judgnenls aloul ieaI-
voiId inleIIecluaI piopeily iighls and Iavs.
We viII slail vilh aclivilies lhal piovide oppoilunilies foi sludenls lo exanine lheii vievs on
inleIIecluaI piopeily. Aflei lhal, sludenls viII voik vilh sone ieaI-voiId cases and exanine
inleIIecluaI piopeily fion lvo peispeclives -- cusloneis and lusiness. Then, sludenls viII do
ieseaich on a lopic of inleiesl. The aclivily viII incIude viiling a shoil ieseaich papei on an
inleIIecluaI piopeily issue of inleiesl lo sludenls. The viap-up aclivily viII piovide sludenls vilh an
oppoilunily lo discuss and iefIecl on vhal lhey have Ieained. Lxlensions lo Iessons incIude a vaiiely
of aclivilies lhal lake sludenls lo lhe Inleinel foi anaIysis and oppoilunilies foi in-deplh sludy. A Iisl
of vel iefeiences is piovided foi leacheis and sludenls lo use in aII aclivilies.

ACKCROUND INIORMATION
The WoiId InleIIecluaI Iiopeily Oiganizalion (WIIO) is an inleigoveinnenlaI oiganizalion vilh
headquaileis in Ceneva, SvilzeiIand. Il is one of 16 speciaIized agencies of lhe Uniled Nalions
oiganizalion. WIIO is iesponsilIe foi pionoling lhe pioleclion of inleIIecluaI piopeily lhioughoul
lhe voiId lhiough coopeialion anong slales, and foi adninisleiing lhe vaiious nuIliIaleiaI liealies
deaIing vilh lhe IegaI and adninislialive aspecls of inleIIecluaI piopeily.

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In lhis chaplei, ve viII expIoie vays in vhich lhe nission of WIIO, an inleinalionaIIy iecognized
aulhoiily on inleIIecluaI piopeily, has leen inpIenenled. In addilion, ve viII piesenl sone
cIassioon aclivilies foi Ieaining noie aloul inleIIecluaI piopeily.
12*% )3 ,$%&--&!%#*- 4'"/&'%05
InleIIecluaI piopeily is lhe infoinalion lhal nakes il possilIe foi lusinesses lo eain noney. usiness
assels aie piolecled ly Iavs lhal slale lhal lhe peopIe vho ciealed lhe piopeily have &6!-#3)7&
')82%3 lo use lhal piopeily - foi any puipose, lul nosl oflen foi piofil.
A liadenaik is a synloI oi liand lhal is ovned ly lhe peison vho ciealed il. In lhe Uniled Slales,
a /*%&$% guaianlees lhal an invenloi ovns lhe iighls lo piofil nade fion an invenlion foi 17 yeais.
A !"/0')82% neans IegaI and excIusive iighls lo viillen naleiiaI, eilhei pulIished oi unpulIished.
InleIIecluaI piopeily conpiises lvo lianches: )$+#3%')*- /'"/&'%0 and *'%)3%)! /'"/&'%0. IndusliiaI
piopeily iefeis chiefIy lo invenlions, liadenaiks, indusliiaI designs and appeIIalions of oiigin. Ioi
exanpIe, lhe Coca CoIa Conpany ovns lhe synloI lhal is knovn aiound lhe voiId foi lhe sofl diink
lhal Coca CoIa pioduces. Ialenls and copyiighls aie chiefIy foi Iileiaiy, nusicaI, ailislic,
phologiaphic and audiovisuaI voiks. Ioi exanpIe, on lhe lack of a conpacl disc (CD) lox, lheie is
(in veiy snaII piinl) infoinalion aloul lhe palenl and copyiighl foi lhe nusic on lhal CD.
Novadays, lheie is a gieal inciease in lhe anounl of inleinalionaI lusiness lhal is conducled aiound
lhe voiId. Moie inleinalionaI lusiness neans noie conpIex discussions aloul inleIIecluaI piopeily.
Moie inleinalionaI lusiness cieales nev chaIIenges foi inleIIecluaI piopeily expeils. WIIO is an
oiganizalion vhose piinaiy puipose is lo addiess lhis chaIIenge. WhiIe in one counliy lheie aie Iavs
piolecling lhe iighls of invenlois and ailisls, lheie nay nol le such Iavs in anolhei counliy. Hov do
ve iesoIve elhicaI and IegaI confIicls aloul inleIIecluaI piopeily fion one counliy lo anolhei` Whal
IegaI guidance do ve have, inleinalionaIIy, in iesoIving veiy diffeienl elhicaI and IegaI issues acioss
nalionaI loideis` Whal nay le a vioIalion of inleIIecluaI piopeily in one counliy nay nol le a
vioIalion of inleIIecluaI piopeily in anolhei.
Theie aie nany counleifeil pioducls aiound lhe voiId. Sone counliies do nol aIIov counleifeil
pioducls lo le loughl and soId, olhei counliies do peinil lhe saIe of lhese pioducls.
Music is an easiIy counleifeiled pioducl. A nunlei of ailisls, incIuding Cailh iooks and iuce
Spiingsleen have acliveIy puisued "CD loolIeg opeialions" (individuaIs and gioups vho counleifeil
conpacl discs).
"Video poIice" have ieceived significanl piess coveiage in lheii effoils lo find loolIeggeis. TeIevision
spoils piogians and videos foi hone vieving caiiy discIaineis in sone counliies. These discIaineis
specificaIIy slale lhal lhe videolape is foi hone use onIy and nay nol le copied oi used foi any
puipose olhei lhan foi hone enleilainnenl. LxanpIes of olhei counleifeil pioducls aie Nike laselaII
caps, Tonny HiIfigei l-shiils, RoIex valches, and ChaneI puises.


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A sulslanliaI enphasis on lhe aclivilies and iesouices of WIIO is devoled lo pionoling coopeialion
vilh lhe deveIoping counliies. In Augusl 1998, ovei 17O nalions veie nenleis of WIIO. Six
addilionaI slales, vhich veie nol yel nenleis, pailicipaled in liealies adninisleied ly WIIO.
CLASSROOM AIILICATIONS

WARM UI ACTIVITY -- WHAT DO YOU THINK` WHO OWNS WHAT`
!"#$%&'($)
To inlioduce and give a liief oveiviev of lhe lopic
To aclivale lackgiound knovIedge
*+&$,'+-).
Make copies of Who Ovns Whal` Appendix C
/,0%$12,$)
1. Cive sludenls copies of lhe handoul. TeII lhen lo Iook al lhe cases piesenled and decide
vho ovns vhal. The fiisl one is done foi you.
2. Discuss lhe saIienl issues: diffeiences anong sludenls iesponses as veII as lhe
diffeiences lelveen cusloneis and lusiness and possilIe expIanalions.


ACTIVITY #1 -- VILWIOINT
!"#$%&'($) 4/+,& 56
To aIIov sludenls lo shaie vhal lhey knov/lhink aloul inleIIecluaI piopeily
To discuss lhe lopic fion lvo vievpoinls - cusloneis and lusiness
/,0%$12,$) 4/+,& 56
1. TeII lhe sludenls lhal lhe Iesson is on inleIIecluaI piopeily. Ask sludenls lo slale vhal
lhey knov aloul lhis concepl. If iesponses aie enlhusiaslic and delaiIed, skip lo slep 2.
If iesponses aie Iov, ask sludenls lo lake apail lhe lein and sepaialeIy define
"piopeily" and "inleIIecluaI." Aflei sludenls define lhe lein, iead lhe definilion of
inleIIecluaI piopeily fion lhe ackgiound.
2. TeII sludenls lhal lhe fiisl aclivily viII le lo discuss and lake noles on lhe lopic of
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81

inleIIecluaI piopeily.
3.
3.
3. LxpIain lhal peopIe and cuIluies have diffeienl ideas aloul inleIIecluaI piopeily. Lven
vilhin lhe sane cuIluie, sone peopIe leIieve lhal lhe elhics of inleIIecluaI piopeily is
one of lhe nosl seiious issues facing lhe voiId loday, vhiIe olheis lhink lhal lhe issue
is 'ovei-lIovn and an unnecessaiy consideialion. Cusloneis and lhe pulIic do nol see
lhe lhieal of counleifeil pioducls. usinesses, on lhe olhei hand, Iose piofils vhen lheii
Iogos aie sloIen.
4. Nov, leII sludenls lhal lhey viII discuss and anaIyze lhe issue of inleIIecluaI piopeily
fion lhe poinl of viev of cusloneis and lusinesses. To do lhis, lhey viII use seveiaI
ieaI voiId (and adaplalions of ieaI voiId) exanpIes.
5. Divide lhe cIass inlo lvo gioups, one "Cusloneis" and one "usiness". Cive Appendix
1 lo lhe "Cuslonei" gioup and Appendix 2 lo lhe "usiness" gioup. Ask sludenls lo
viile dovn a Iisl of lhiee oi foui exanpIes of vioIalions of inleIIecluaI piopeily iighls.
Then, ask hov lhal issue affecls lhe gioup lhey iepiesenl. IinaIIy, expIain liiefIy vhal
lhe goveinnenl nighl do lo suppoil an elhicaI iesponse lo lhe vioIalion. SeveiaI
exanpIes aie piovided lo encouiage a slail lo lhe discussion. Ioi sone sludenl gioups,
lhe leachei nay vanl lo discuss lhe case slaled.
6. Have sludenls voik on lhe Iisls foi aloul 2O-3O ninules and lhen, have gioups piesenl
lo each olhei.
Nole: Refei lo lhis vel sile foi cases of iecenl, aulhenlic inleIIecluaI piopeily cases
inleinalionaIIy: hllp://vvv.vipo.inl/poilaI/index.hlnI.en

ACTIVITY #2 --YOU L THL }UDCL
!"#$%&'($)
To aIIov sludenls lo fuilhei expIoie an inleIIecluaI piopeily issue
To piaclice using lhe vocaluIaiy and expiessions in Appendix A.
/,0%$12,$)
1. Ask sludenls lo idenlify fion Aclivily #1 one vioIalion of inleIIecluaI piopeily iighls
aloul vhich lhey vouId Iike lo knov noie. TeII lhen lhal lhey can choose one fion
lheii ovn Iisl oi fion anolhei sludenl Iisl oi even a vioIalion lhal cane up in lhe
discussions (Wain Up oi Aclivily #1 discussions).
2. Have sludenls idenlify lhe saIienl poinls aloul lhe issue: Whal is lhe piopeily` Who aie
lhe slakehoIdeis` Whal aie lhe inpIicalions foi each slakehoIdei gioup oi individuaI`
Whal aie lhe IegaI syslens in pIace lo suppoil an elhicaI oulcone lo lhis issue` Whal
piecedenl cases vouId suppoil an elhicaI oulcone lo lhis issue`
3. Ask sludenls lo visil 5-6 vel siles lo addiess lhe inleIIecluaI piopeily issue in vhich
lhey aie inleiesled. They shouId lake noles fion each souice. Sludenls nay aIso vish lo
seek infoinalion fion viillen naleiiaIs, Iike nevspapeis, nagazines, jouinaIs, elc.


4. TeII sludenls lhal lhey viII viile a shoil ieseaich papei in vhich lhey viII addiess lhe
inleIIecluaI piopeily issue. The papei shouId le piesenled oiaIIy lo lhe cIass in one
veek.
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82

5. Idenlify lhe inleIIecluaI piopeily issue. This can le an issue of palenl vioIalions oi
copyiighl infiingenenl in lhe ails - nusic, dance, scuIpluiing, painling, oi even
viiling. Il nighl le a nallei of indusliiaI usage of inleIIecluaI piopeily incIuding use of
a Iogo, sleaIing of a pioducl vilhoul ciediling lhe nane of lhe ovnei, oi anolhei
indusliiaI piopeily issue.
6. TeII sludenls lo viile dovn aII of lheii ideas aloul lhis issue and oiganize lhe ideas inlo
calegoiies. Wiile a lopic senlence foi each of lhe calegoiies. Have sludenls suppoil
eveiy lopic senlence vilh exanpIes fion lheii Iife expeiiences, fion viillen naleiiaIs,
oi fion Inleinel siles. Ioi exanpIe, nayle vhen lhey veie chiIdien, soneone copied
lheii lesl papeis. Whal vouId le lhe posilion on lhis inleIIecluaI piopeily issue.
Sludenls nighl considei using an exliacl fion a nevspapei ailicIe if lheii lopic is on lhe
piivacy iighls of an inpoilanl peison.
7. TeII sludenls lhal lhey can lake lhe posilion lhal lhe inleIIecluaI piopeily iighls veie
nol infiinged upon oi lhal inleIIecluaI piopeily iighls veie vioIaled and lhal lheie
shouId le conpensalion.
Nole: Teacheis nay need lo adapl lhis assignnenl lo acconnodale lhe pailicuIai needs, inleiesls
and viillen acadenic Ianguage pioficiency of lhe sludenls.


COOL DOWN ACTIVITY -- WHAT DID WL LLARN`
!"#$%&'($)
To iefIecl on vhal sludenls have Ieained aloul inleIIecluaI piopeily iighls
/,0%$12,$)
1. Ask sludenls lo ieIale vhal lhey have Ieained aloul in lhis Iesson. This aclivily can le
done as a discussion oi in a viillen "Deai Teachei" Iellei foinal.

LLSSON LXTLNSIONS
Visil a vel sile Iisled in lhe Inleinel Resouices seclion oi leIov lo anaIyze and Ieain
noie aloul a specific case oi an issue on inleIIecluaI piopeily iighls.
Sludenls can iespond lo one of lhe "Connenls" loxes on lhe WIIO oi olhei vel siles
in oidei lo engage in an inleinalionaI discussion on lhe lopic of inleIIecluaI piopeily
iighls.



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Sludenls nay visil a lusiness oi nevspapei office and Ieain hov inleIIecluaI piopeily
iighls aie addiessed in a pailicuIai indusliiaI oi piofessionaI selling.
Sludenls can ieviev nalionaI, piovince/ slale, oi IocaI docunenls lhal piovide lhe IegaI
piecedenl and lackgiound foi pioleclion of inleIIecluaI piopeily iighls. In aieas vheie
such docunenls aie nol avaiIalIe, sludenls nay aIso addiess lhe issue of lhe pioleclion
of physicaI piopeily and decide if such Iavs aie appIicalIe foi use in cases of
inleIIecluaI piopeily iighls pioleclion.
Sludenls nighl delale lhe issue of lhe vaIue of inleIIecluaI piopeily iighls pioleclion. In
lhe Inleinel Resouices seclion of lhis chaplei, lheie aie siles in vhich opponenls of
inleIIecluaI piopeily iighls pioleclion voice lheii vievpoinls. These siles nay heIp
sludenls piepaie foi such a delale.
Visil lhe WIIO sile and idenlify one lexl of a liealy oi convenlion lo iead and anaIyze
hllp://vvv.vipo.inl/poilaI/index.hlnI.en
Co lo one of lhe InleIIecluaI Iiopeily Offices on lhe Inleinel, vhich you can find via lhe
foIIoving vel sile, and find oul vhal sone counliies do in leins of inleIIecluaI
piopeily pioleclion -- foi lolh indusliiaI and ciealive piopeily.

INTLRNLT RLSOURCLS
96/-")%*:-& ;"$%&$%
hllp://vvv.vipo.inl/liealies/en/
7$8&) 09 7,$+&'$) +1:';')&$,$1 "< &=$ >0,-1 ?;&$--$%&2+- /,0@$,&< !,A+;'B+&'0; 4>?/!6
hllp://vvv.vipo.inl/aloul-vipo/en/vhal_is_vipo.hlnI
>=+& ') >?/!
The WoiId InleIIecluaI Iiopeily Oiganizalion (WIIO) is an inleigoveinnenlaI oiganizalion vilh
headquaileis in Ceneva, SvilzeiIand and pail of lhe Uniled Nalions. Use lhis sile foi aclivilies on
specific counliies and on inleinalionaI inleIIecluaI piopeily issues.
hllp://ipnaII.info/hosled_iesouices/fpIchone.asp
?;&$--$%&2+- /,0@$,&< *+--
The II MaII is an inleinalionaIIy accIained II iesouice Wel sile pioviding infoinalion and Iinks lo
lhe nosl vaIualIe onIine iesouices in lhe voiId. This sile offeis a lioad iange of iesouices on
inleIIecluaI piopeily incIuding a Iiliaiy, looIs and slialegies coinei, palenl seaiching acadeny, usei
guide, USITD palenl exans, IiankIin Iieice Lav Cenlei II couise exans, and InleIIecluaI piopeily
couises on-Iine. UsefuI foi leacheis and sludenls vho vanl in-deplh infoinalion on a lopic.

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hllp://vvv.aIa.oig/aIa/issuesadvocacy/copyiighl/inleIIecluaIpiopeily/index.cfn
C0@<,'A=& +;1 ?;&$--$%&2+- /,0@$,&<
The Aneiican Liliaiy Associalion (ALA) sile piovides Iinks lo nevs and iesouices in lhe aiea of
copyiighl and inleIIecluaI piopeily.
2%%/<==>>>?)/@&$#?!"@
?;&$--$%&2+- /,0@$,&< D$E)
A gIolaI guide lo inleIIecluaI piopeily iesouices on lhe Inleinel foi useis and ieseaicheis in lhe fieId
of inleIIecluaI piopeily, The syslen is indexed ly counliy oi piopeily (e. g., palenl, liadenaik, elc.).
Links lo dozens of Inleinel souices in inleIIecluaI piopeily
2%%/<==>>>?)$%&-/'"/-*>?!"@
?;&$--$%&2+- /,0@$,&< F+E
The inleIIecluaI piopeily Iav sile piovides infoinalion aloul inleIIecluaI piopeily Iav incIuding
palenl, liadenaik and copyiighl. Resouices incIude conpiehensive Iinks, geneiaI infoinalion, and
space foi piofessionaIs lo pulIish ailicIes and foiuns foi discussing ieIaled issues.
2%%/<=="$-)$&&%2)!3?"'8
!;-';$$&='%)G0,A HH 7=$ !;-';$ I&='%) C$;&$, 90, I;A';$$,';A +;1 J%'$;%$
This sile piovides engineeis, scienlisls, and science and engineeiing sludenls vilh iesouices usefuI
foi undeislanding and addiessing elhicaIIy significanl piolIens lhal aiise in lheii voik, and seives
lhose vho aie pionoling Ieaining and advancing undeislanding of iesponsilIe piaclice in
engineeiing and science.
2%%/<==>>>?:/-*?"'8=
K0)&0; /+&$;& F+E L))0%'+&'0; 4K/FL6
This oiganizalion piovides educalionaI piogians and a foiun foi exchange of ideas and infoinalion
conceining palenls, liadenaik, and copyiighl Iav issues.

A(()!)*- B"!#@&$%3
hllp://elhics.iil.edu/index1.php/Liliaiy/Resouice2OCuides/Llhics2OResouices2OOnIine#Cas
es
A conpendiun of elhics cases - acioss piofessionaI and scienlific fieIds! Read aloul ieaI-voiId
elhicaI sliuggIes and hov lhey have/have nol leen iesoIved!


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1&: C)%&3 *8*)$3% ,$%&--&!%#*- 4'"/&'%0
hllp://vvv.vipo.inl/aloul-ip/en/sludies/ Leain noie aloul issues in inleIIecluaI piopeily Iav -
incIuding issues in counliies voiIdvide - nusic, science and olhei fieIds, loo al lhis sile foi lhe
WoiId InleIIecluaI Iiopeily Oiganizalion.
InleIIecluaI piopeily pIays an inpoilanl ioIe in an incieasingIy lioad iange of aieas, ianging fion
lhe Inleinel lo heaIlh caie lo neaiIy aII aspecls of science and lechnoIogy and Iileialuie and lhe ails.
Undeislanding lhe ioIe of inleIIecluaI piopeily in lhese aieas - nany of lhen sliII eneiging - oflen
iequiies significanl nev ieseaich and sludy. In an effoil lo pionole infoined discussion of lhe
inleIIecluaI piopeily issues invoIved in lhese fieIds, WIIO ieguIaiIy pioduces vaiious expIanaloiy
pulIicalions on cuiienl issues of inleiesl. A seIeclion of lhe lexls of lhese pulIicalions is avaiIalIe
leIov.
WIIO aIso occasionaIIy connissions sludies ly vaiious oiganizalions oi individuaIs on siniIai
issues ieIaling lo inleIIecluaI piopeily. The vievs expiessed in lhese sludies, aIso avaiIalIe leIov, aie
lhose of lhe aulhois, and do nol necessaiiIy iepiesenl lhe vievs of WIIO.
(ack lo ackgiound) (ack lo Lesson Lxlensions)




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AIILNDIX A
D)3% "( E&'@3 *$+ 96/'&33)"$3
F'%)3%)! /'"/&'%0 - One lype of inleIIecluaI piopeily such as Iileiaiy, nusicaI, ailislic, phologiaphic and
audiovisuaI voiks, piolecled ly palenls and copyiighls
;"/0')82% (noun and veil) - To eslalIish excIusive iighls lo viillen naleiiaI - pulIished oi unpulIished
(;"/0')82%&+ is lhe adjeclive)
;"#$%&'(&)% (noun, adjeclive and veil) - One lhing lhal inilales anolhei, pioduclion of such an ilen vilhoul
IavfuI aulhoiily, foiged, faIse (adj), an inposloi, fake (noun)
G'*#+ (noun) - Deceil, liickeiy, inlenlionaI chealing oi deceplion (G'*#+#-&$% is lhe adjeclive, lo !"@@)% ('*#+
is lhe veil.)
96!-#3)7& ')82%3 - Ovneiship and iighls foi use onIy foi lhe peison vho has ciealed lhe pioducl oi idea
,$+#3%')*- /'"/&'%0 - One lype of inleIIecluaI piopeily such as invenlions, liadenaiks, indusliiaI designs and
appeIIalions of oiigin, piolecled ly palenls and copyiighls
,$%&--&!%#*- /'"/&'%0 - Infoinalion lhal nakes il possilIe foi lusinesses lo nake a piofil
4*%&$% (noun, veil) - A IegaI docunenl lhal guaianlees an invenloi excIusive iighls lo an invenlion - in lhe U.
S., foi 17 yeais, veil: lo cieale such a docunenl
(ack lo Aclivily #1)




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AIILNDIX -1 & AIILNDIX -2
;#3%"@&' 4&'3/&!%)7&HIJK

I#3)$&33 4&'3/&!%)7& HILK
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88

AIILNDIX C
Handout -- WHO OWNS WHAT?
1. A well-known T-shirt manufacturer's logo is used on T-shirts produced in another
country. Who should get the profits for the sales of the T-shirts?
Some people say that the T-shirt manufacturer should get the profits because what is
being sold is the logo, not the T-shirt.
2. Some software is loaded on a computer at a large company. Employees are
downloading the software for use on their home computers. Should someone pay? If
so, who? How much? Why?


3. A television program uses the same plot and characters of another show. Should the
program obtain permission to use the copyrighted elements of the original show?
Why/why not?


4. A student in the class copies this handout and uses it in her business class at the
university. Is that a violation of the copyright of these materials?


5. A teacher uses an article from the newspaper in her class. She copies the article and
gives it to her students. Have intellectual property rights been violated? If so, whose?
If not, why not?


6. A company makes copies of a famous painting. The company sells the copies. Who
should pay for the right to copy these paintings? Why?


7. An architect copies the design of a building and sells it to a client. Whose intellectual
property rights have been violated? What should be done? Who should pay?

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