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Objectives:

1. Define reaction rate, average rate,


instantaneous rate and initial rate.
2. Determine the reaction rate based on a
differential equation.
11.0 REACT!" #"ETC$

Chemical kinetics is the stud% of the rates of
chemical reactions, the factors that affect these
rates, and the reaction mechanisms b% &hich
reactions occur.
'Time
'
!(timum %ield
'
!(timum conditions
control over reaction,
obtain (roducts economicall%,
using o(timum conditions
m(ortant
industrial (rocess
REACT!" #"ETC$

rate )
d*+,
dt
d*+, ) change in concentration of +
+ecause *A, decreases &ith time, d*A, is negative.
rate )
d*A, ) change in concentration of A
E-am(le. A B
Rate of reaction
/
Reaction rate is the change in the concentration
of a reactant or a (roduct &ith time.
/
0nit of rate 1mol 2
'1
s
'1
3
/
rate
dt ) (eriod of time
Time
1

d*A,
dt
'

A +
time
rate ) '
d*A,
dt
rate )
d*+,
dt
*A, 4
*+, 5

/
The average rate is the rate over a (eriod of time.
/
The rate of reaction at a given time is called an
instantaneous rate of reaction.
/
The instantaneous rate at the beginning of a
reaction is called the initial rate of reaction.
/
nstantaneous rate is determined from a gra(h of
concentration vs time b% dra&ing a line tangent to
the curve at that (articular time.
Rate of reaction

Reaction6
7
2
!
2
(aq) 7
2
!(l) 8 9 !
2
(g)
Reaction rates are obtained
from the slo(es of the straight
lines.
An average rate from the
(ur(le line.
The instantaneous rate at
t ):00 s from the red line.
The initial rate from the blue
line.
Rate of reaction
blue
red
(ur(le

instantaneous rate = rate at a specific time
+r
2
1aq3 8 7C!!7 1aq3 2+r
'
1aq3 8 27
8
1aq3 8 C!
2
1g3
average rate ) '
d*Br
2
,
dt
) '
*+r
2
,
final
; *+r
2
,
initial
t
final
' t
initial

The differential rate equation
Rate )
dt
d[D]
d
1
dt
d[C]
c
1
dt
] d[B
b
1
dt
d[A]
a
1
= = =
Consider the reaction,
aA 8 b+ cC 8 dD
A differential rate equation enables the relationshi(
bet&een the rate of disa((earance of reactants and
the formation of (roducts.
a,b,c and d are the stoichiometric coefficients

E-am(le6
The formation of "7
:
,
The differential rate equation
"
2
1g3 8 :7
2
1g3 2"7
:
1g3
The differential rate equation is.
dt
] d[NH
2
1
dt
] d[H
3
1
dt
] d[N
3 2 2
= =
Rate )
The equation means that the rate of disa((earance
of "
2
is 1<: the rate of disa((earance of 7
2
and 1<2
the rate of formation of "7
:
.

Consider the reaction, 27 7
2
8
2
,
determine the rate of disa((earance of 7 &hen
the rate of
2
formation is 1.= - 10
'>
? s
'1
.
dt
] d[I
dt
] d[H
dt
d[HI]
2
1
2 2
= =
Example 1:
Rate )
Rate )
dt
] d[I
dt
d[HI]
2
1
2
=
dt
] d[I
2
) 1.= 10
'>
Solution:
dt
d[HI]
) 2 1.= 10
'>
) !" 1#
$"
% s
$1

E&ERC'SE 1:
7%drogen gas (roduced non(olluting (roduct is
&ater va(our &hen react in !
2
due to this reaction
has been used for fuel aboard the s(ace shuttle,
and ma% be used b% Earth'bound engines in the
near future.
27
2
1g3 8 !
2
1g3 27
2
!1g3
/ E-(ress the rate in terms of changes in *7
2
,,
*!
2
, and *7
2
!, &ith time.
/ @hen *!
2
, is decreasing at 0.2: mol 2
'1
s
'1
, at
&hat rate is *7
2
!, increasingA
(0.46 mol L
-1
s
-1
)

Consider the reaction,
"!1g3 8 !
2
1g3 2"!
2
1g3.
$u((ose that at a (articular time during the
reaction nitric o-ide 1"!3 is reacting at the rate of
0.0>> ? s
'1

a3 At &hat rate is "!
2
being formedA
b3 At &hat rate is molecular o-%gen reactingA

Exercise (:

Consider the reaction,
"
2
1g3 8 :7
2
1g3 2"7
:
1g3
$u((ose that at a (articular moment during the
reaction molecular h%drogen is reacting at the rate
of 0.0BC ? s
'1
a3 At &hat rate is ammonia being formedA
b3 At &hat rate is molecular nitrogen reactingA
Exercise :