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A Project rePort oN


Submitted to
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University-Anantapur.
In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of
bAcHeLor oF tecHNoLoGY
civiL eNGiNeeriNG
During the academic Year 2009-2013
Submitted By
N.RANI 102P1A0144
B.MURALI 102P1A0110

Under the Esteemed Supervision of
Sri C.MAHESH., B.Tech.,
Assistant Professor

Approved by AICTE,New Delhi, Affiliated to JNTUA,Anantapuramu
Vidyanagar, Proddatur,Y.S.R. District, Andhra Pradesh,India-516360
Phone number: 08564- 278000

(Approved by AICTE,New Delhi,Affiliated to JNTUA,Anantapur)
(Vidyanagar, Proddatur,Y.S.RDistrict,Andhra Pradesh,India-516360)

This is to certify that the project work entitled
Is the result of bonafide work done by
N.RANI 102P1A0144
B.MURALI 102P1A0110

submitted to
In partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of degreeof
During the academic year 2010-2014.

Assistant Professor




An endeavour over a long period can be successful only with the advice and
supports of many well wishers. We take this opportunity to express our gratitude and
appreciation to all of them.
We are extremely thankful to our beloved Secretary & Correspondent Sri
V.Jayachandra Reddy who took keen interest and encouraged us in every effort
throughout this course.
We owe our gratitude to our principal Dr.PanduranganRavi , for permitting
us to use the facilities available to accomplish the project successfully.
We express our heartful thanks to Sri G.Kumar,AsstProfessor & Head of the
Department, Civil Engineering for his kind attention and valuable guidance to us
throughout this course.
We also express our deep sense of gratitude towards Mr .Subbarayudu.Asst.
ProfessorProject coordinator, Civil Engineering for his support and guidance in
completing our project.
We express our profound respect and gratitude to our project supervisor Sri
Sri Mr C .Mahesh, Asst. Professor,for his valuable support and guidance in
completing the project successfully.
We are highly thankful to Mr.Sujith, Mentor, Trylogic Soft Solutions A.P.
Pvt.Limited, Hyderabad, who has been kind enough to guide us in the preparation and
execution of this project.
We also thank all the teaching and non-teaching staff of the Dept. of Civil
Engineering for their support throughout our B. Tech., course.
N.RANI 102P1A0144
B.MURALI 102P1A0110


Proddatur Municipality has a population of over 1.8 lakh . The steady
incremental in the population result in the increase of domestic sewage generation.
But still now there is no treatment plant. So it is required to construct a Sewage
Treatment Plant with sufficient capacity to treat the increased sewage.
The project deals with the Modeling, operation and maintenance of the
Sewage Treatment process and its major components such as screening chamber,
grit chamber, Equalization tank, Aeration tank, and sludge drying beds.etc
The project covers the 7.125 area , 40 wards of Proddatur Municipal
for next 30 years and its increased population. Proddatur the second largest town in
Kadapa District which is located 51 kilometres away from the district capital, Kadapa.
With regard to Proddatur , almost the entire town and environment are plain
and the general slope is from West to East. The town is situated at the altitude of
14.73 N latitude and 78.55E longitude. The soil of at area is being gravel, rocky
and a large proportion of sand and gravel. All the aspects of Proddatur 's climate and
topography, its population growth rate is to be considered while designing the
By the execution of the project the entire sewage of the city can be treated
effectively and efficiently and can be supplied for the irrigation purpose or can
dispose into nearby rivers.


1. Introduction 1-15
1.1 Preamble 1
1.2 Need For Safe Sanitation System 3
1.3 Present Scenario Of Urban Sanitation In India 3
1.4 Basic Philosophy Of Sewage Treatment 4
1.5 Sewage Treatment Technology 5
1.6 Operation And Maintenance 6
1.7 Need For O&M 7
1.8 Planning Of Sewerage Treatment System 9
1.8.1 Approach9
1.8.2 Design Population Forecast 9
1.8.3 Estimation Of Sewage Flow 9
1.8.4 Sewage Characteristics And Pollution Load 9
1.8.5 Planning Of Pumping Station 9
1.8.6 Planning Of Sewage Treatment Facilities 10
1.9.1 Engineering Considerations 10
1.9.2 Institutional Aspects 11
1.9.3 Environmental Considerations 12
1.9.4 Treatment Process 14
1.9.5 Financial Aspects 14
1.9.6 Legal Issues 14
1.9.7 Community Awareness 14
1.9.8 Geographical Information Systems 15
1.9.9 City Master Plan 15
1.9.10 City Sanitation Plan 15

2. Population Forecast 16-22
2.1 General Considerations 16
2.2 Demographic Method Of Population Projection 16
2.3 Arithmetic Increase Method 17
2.4 Incremental Increase Method 17
2.5 Geometrical Increase Method 17
2.6 Decreasing Rate Of Growth 17
2.7 Graphical Method 17
2.8 Logistic Method 18
2.9 Method Of Density 18
2.10 Population Forecast 19
2.11 Final Forecast 20
2.12 Per Capita Sewage Flow 21

3. Design And Construction Of Sewage Treatment Facilities 23-29
3.1. Treatment Process 23
3.2. Design Sewage Flow 28
3.3. Fundamental Principle Of Biological Treatment 28
3.4. Secondary Biological Treatment Process. 28
3.5. Arrangement Of Treatment Units In STP 29
4. Lab Tests. 30-39
4.1. Ph Test 30
4.2. Total Dissolved Solids 32
4.3. Total Suspended Solids 34
4.4. Hardness 36
4.5. Biological Oxygen Demand (Bod) 38
5. Bar Screen Chamber 40
5.1. Function 40
5.2. Design Criteria 40
5.3. Construction And Engineering 40
5.4. Design Of Inlet Chamber 41
5.5. Screen Chamber (Fine Screens) 42
5.6. Check for design 43
5.7. Operation And Maintainance Of Manual Bar Screen 45
6. Grit Chamber And Parshall Flume 48
6.1. Funtion 48
6.2. Composition Of Grit 48
6.3. Basic Data Required 48
6.4. Generic Design Of Grit Chambers 49 Settling Velocity 49 Surface Overflow Rate 50
6.5. Design Of Grit Removal Unit 51
6.6. Grit Removal Maintainance 52
6.7. Disposal Of Grit 52
7. Equalization Tank 54
7.1. Function 54
7.2. Design 54
7.3. Construction And Engineering 55
7.4. Equalization Tank (Collection Chamber ) 56
7.5. Mixing Arrangements 56
7.6. Operation And Maintenance Considerations 57
8. Raw Sewage Lift Pumps 58
8.1. Function 58
8.2. Design Criteria 58
8.3. Construction And Engineering 58
8.4. Raw Sewage Pumps 61
8.5. Operation And Maintenance Considerations 61
9. Biological Treatment Process 62
9.1. Function 62
9.2. Activated Sludge Process 62 Introduction 62
9.3. Activated Sludge Process Variables 63
10. Design Of Aeration Tank 65
10.1. Design Criteria 65
10.2. Extended Aeration 65
10.3. Design Consideration 66
10.4. Diffused Aeration 68
10.5. Design Of Aeration Tank 69
10.6. Operation And Maintenance 71
11. Design of Clarifiers 73
11.1. Functions 74
11.2. Rim Flow Sludge Suction Clarifiers 74
11.3. Improved Circular Secondary Clarifier 74
11.4. Design Procedure for Secondary clarifiers 74
11.5. Design of Secondary clarifier 75
12. Disinfection by chlorination 78
12.1. Function 78
12.2. Design 79
13. Sludge drying beds 80
13.1. Applicability 80
13.2. Unit Sizing 80
13.3. Percolation Type Bed Components 81
13.4. Sludge Removal 82
14. Conclusion 84

AF Anaerobic Filter
AFF Anaerobic Fixed Film
ASP Activated Sludge Process
AWPF Advanced Water Purification Facility
BIOFOR Biological Filtration and Oxygenated Reactor
BIS Bureau of Indian Standards
BOD Biochemical Oxygen Demand
BSUP Basic Services to Urban Poor
BWSSB Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board
CBO Community Based Organization
CC Cement Concrete
CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics
CMP City Master Plan
COD Chemical Oxygen Demand
CPCB Central Pollution Control Board
CPHEEO Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering
CPM Critical Path Method
CSP City Sanitation Plan
CSS Centralized Sewerage System
CWMS Centralized Wastewater Management System
DEWATS Decentralized Wastewater Treatment System
DMF Dual Media Filter
DO Dissolved Oxygen
DPR Detailed Project Report
DSMS Decentralized Sewage Management System
DWMS Decentralized Wastewater Management System
EB Expanded Bed
EBOD Effective Biochemical Oxygen Demand
EC Electrical Conductivity
ES Effective Size
F/M Food to Microorganism ratio
FBAS Fixed Bed Biofilm Activated Sludge Process
FFR Fixed Film Reactors
FS Faecal Sludge
GL Ground Level
HRT Hydraulic Retention Time
HWL High Water Level
I / O Input / Output
ID Internal Diameter
IS Indian Standards
ISO International Organization for Standardization
J ICA J apan International Cooperation Agency
LD Low Density
lpcd Litres per capita per day
LPD Litres Per Day
LPM Litres Per Minute
LWL Low Water Level
M&E Monitoring & Evaluation
MAP Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate
MBBR Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor
mg/l, mg/L Milligrams per litre
MBR Membrane Bio Reactor
MD Medium Density
MF Microfiltration
MFL Maximum Flood Level
ML Million Litres
MLD, mld Million Litres per Day
MLSS Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids
MLVSS Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids
MOEF, MoEF Ministry of Environment and Forests
MOP Manual of Practice
MS Mild Steel
MSL Mean Sea Level
NEERI National Environmental Engineering Research Institute
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
NPK Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium
NPSH Net Positive Suction Head
NS Nominal Size
NUSP National Urban Sanitation Policy
O&M Operation and Maintenance
OD Outside Diameter
OD Oxidation Ditch
PCC Precast cement concrete
PERT Program Evaluation Review Technique
PLC Programmable Logic Controller
R&D Research and Development
RAS Return Activated Sludge
RSC Residual Sodium Carbonate
SAFF Submerged Aeration Fixed Film
SAMP Sampling and Monitoring Program
SD Standard Deviation
SDB Sludge Drying Bed
SDI Silt Density Index
SF Safely Factor
SFBR Submerged Fixed Bed Reactor
SOR Surface Overflow Rate
SRT Sludge Retention Time
SS Suspended Solids
STP Sewage Treatment Plant
SVI Sludge Volume Index
SWD Side Water Depth
TDS Total Dissolved Solids
TS Total Solids
TSS Total Suspended Solids
TVS Total Volatile Solids
ULB Urban Local Body
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNICEF United Nations International Children Emergency Fund
UWSS Urban Water Supply and Sanitation
VS Volatile Solids
VSS Volatile Suspended Solids
WEF Water Environment Federation

WHO World Health Organization
WS & S Water Supply and Sanitation
WSP Water and Sanitation Program
WSP Waste Stabilization Pond
WTP Water Treatment Plant

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

Perhaps we need to be reminded what Gandhiji said For India, Sanitation is more
important than Independence.
1.1 Preamble
Over the years, there has been continuous migration of people from rural and
semi-urban areas to cities and towns. The proportion of population residing in urban
areas has increased from 27.8% in 2001 to 31.80% in 2011. The number of towns has
increased from 5,161 in 2001 to 7,935 in 2011. The uncontrolled growth in urban
areas has left many Indian cities deficient in infrastructural services as water supply,
sewerage, storm water drainage, and solid waste management.
Most urban areas inhabited by slums in the country are plagued by acute
problems related to indiscriminate disposal of sewage. Due to deficient efforts by
town/city authorities, sewage and its management has become a tenacious problem
and this is notwithstanding the fact that the large part of the municipal expenditure is
allotted to it. It is not uncommon to find that substantially a large portion of resources
is being utilized on manning sewerage system by Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) for
their operation and maintenance. Despite this, there has been a progressive decline in
the standard of services with respect to collection, transportation, treatment and safe
disposal of treated sewage as well as measures for ensuring safeguard of public health
& hygiene and environment. In many cities and towns in the country, a large quantity
of sewage remains unattended giving rise to insanitary conditions in especially
densely populated slums which in turn results in an increase in morbidity especially
due to pathogens, parasitic infections and infestations in all segment of population
particularly with the urban slum dwellers.
Sewerage and sewage treatment is a part of public health and sanitation, and
according to the Indian Constitution, falls within the purview of the State List. Since
this is non-exclusive and essential, the responsibility for providing the services lies
within the public domain. The activity being of a local nature is entrusted to the
ULBs, which undertake the task of sewerage and sewage treatment service delivery,
with its own staff, equipment and funds. In a few cases, part of the said work is
contracted out to private enterprises.

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

Cities and towns which have sewerage and sewage treatment facilities are
unable to cope-up with the increased burden of providing such facilities efficiently to
the desired level. Issues and constraints that are encountered by the ULBs responsible
for providing sewerage and sanitation facilities are compounded due to various
reasons. The main cause of water pollution is the unintended disposal of untreated,
partly treated and non-point sources of sewage and more important is its effect on
human health and environment.
The reasons for the above cited position are:
1. Almost all local bodies not being financially resourceful to self-generate the
required capital funds and looking up to the State and Central Governments for
outright grant assistance.
2. Lack of institutional arrangements and capacity building to conceive
planning, implementation, procurement of materials, operate and maintain the
sewerage system and sewage treatment plants at desired level of efficiency.
3. The fact that the collected sewage terminates far away beyond the
boundaries of the ULB and is a out of sight, out of mind syndrome.
4. The high cost of infrastructure investment, continual replacement and on-
going O&M costs of centralized sewerage system (CSS) facilities take these systems
beyond the financial grasp of almost any ULB in the country.
5. It is also necessary to recognize that the practice of piped sewer collection is
basically an inheritance from advanced countries with high water usages, which
ensures adequate flushing velocities in their high per capita water supply rates and do
not result in night soil lumps settling down in pipes and do not result in choking and
sulphide gas generation whereas in the Indian scenario, the per capita supply is low
and inequitable in many cities and that too intermittent and this results in settling
down of night-soil, choking, gasification etc., which necessitates very often the
extreme remedies of cutting open the roads to access and break open the pipes for
rectification, etc.
While the conventional sewerage may be an effective system for sewage
collection and transportation and treatment, it also remains as a highly resource-

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

inefficient technology. Consequentially, high capital cost and continuing significant
costs for operation and maintenance of this system prohibit its widespread adoption in
all sizes of urban areas in the country. There has been no major effort to create
community awareness either about the likely perils due to poor sewage management
or the simple steps that every citizen can take which will help in reducing sewage
generation and promote effective management of its generation and treatment. The
degree of community sensitization and public awareness is low. There is no system of
segregation of black water (from toilets) and grey water (other liquid wastes) at
household level. In most of cities and towns no proper service connections have been
provided to the toilets connecting to sewer collection system.
1.2 Need for Safe Sanitation System
Sanitation can be perceived as the conditions and processes relating to
peoples health, especially the systems that supply water and deal with human waste.
Such a task would logically cover other matters such as, solid wastes industrial and
other special/hazardous wastes and storm water drainage. However, the most potent
of these pollutants is the sewage.
When untreated sewage accumulates and is allowed to become septic, the
decomposition of its organic matter leads to nuisance conditions including the
production of malodorous gases. In addition, untreated sewage contains numerous
pathogens that dwell in the human intestine tract. Sewage also contains nutrients,
which can stimulate the growth of aquatic plants, and may contain toxic compounds
or compounds that are potentially mutagenic or carcinogenic. For these reasons, the
immediate and nuisance-free removal of sewage from its sources of generation,
followed by treatment, reuse, or dispersal into the environment in an eco-friendly
manner is necessary to protect public health and environment.
1.3Present Scenario of Urban Sanitation in India
The problem of sanitation is much worse in urban areas due to increasing
congestion and density in cities. Indeed, the environmental and health implications of
the very poor sanitary conditions are a major cause for concern. The study of Water
and Sanitation Program (WSP) of World Bank observes that when mortality impact is
excluded, the economic impact for the weaker section of the society accounting 20%

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

of the households is the highest. The National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP) of
2008 has laid down the framework for addressing the challenges of city sanitation.
The Policy emphasizes the need for spreading awareness about sanitation through an
integrated city-wide approach, assigning institutional responsibilities and due regard
for demand and supply considerations, with special focus on the urban poor.
According to the report on the Status of Wastewater Generation and Treatment
in Class-I Cities and Class-II towns of India, December 2009 published by Central
Pollution Control Board, the estimated sewage generation from 498 Class-I cities and
Class-II towns (Population estimated for 2008 based on 2001 census) together is
38,524 MLD, out of which only 11,787 MLD (35%) is being treated with a capacity
gap of 26,467 MLD.
Sewer networks for collection and transportation of sewage from each and
every household in cities and towns are too inadequate to carry sewage up to the
treatment plants. Treatment plants capacities are also woefully inadequate due to
many reasons such as poor planning and implementation of sewerage and sewage
treatment plants and other appropriate sanitation facilities by ULBs due to inadequate
financial resources and lack of adequate capacity of ULBs in the country. This
imposes significant public health and environmental costs to urban areas that
contribute more than 60% of the countrys GDP. Impacts of poor sanitation are
especially significant for the urban poor (22% of total urban population), women,
children and the elderly. The loss due to diseases caused by poor sanitation for
children under 14 years alone in urban areas amounts to Rs. 500 crores at 2001 prices
(Planning Commission-United Nations International Children Emergency Fund
(UNICEF), 2006). Inadequate discharge of untreated domestic/municipal wastewater
has resulted in contamination of more than 75% of all surface water across India.
1.4 Basic Philosophy of Sewage Treatment
Sewage when collected from communities can be perceived as a water
conveyor belt. Its treatment can be perceived as unloading the conveyor belt to
make the belt useable again. Thus, treated sewage must ultimately return to receiving
water bodies or on to the land or might be reused for specific purposes after proper
treatment specified for the purpose. The complex question faced by the design and

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

practicing engineers is: What levels of treatment must be achieved in a given type of
treatment beyond those prescribed by discharge standards to ensure protection of
the health of the community and the environment? The answer to this question
requires detailed analyses of local conditions and needs, application of scientific
knowledge and engineering judgment based on past experience, and consideration of
central, state, and local regulations. In some cases, a detailed assessment is required.
The reuse and disposal of sludge are vexing problems for some ULBs and need
careful consideration.
1.5 Sewage Treatment Technology
Sewage treatment technology is the branch of environmental engineering in
which the basic principles of engineering are applied to solve the issues associated
with the collection, those of biochemistry are applied to the treatment and
environmental issues are applied in the disposal, and reuse of treated sewage. The
ultimate goal is the protection of public health in a manner commensurate with
environmental, economic, social, and political concerns.
To protect public health and environment, it is necessary to have knowledge of:
1. Constituents of concern in sewage,
2. Impacts of these constituents when sewage is dispersed into the
3.The transformation and long-term fate of these constituents in treatment
4. Treatment methods which can be used to remove or modify the constituents
found in sewage, and
5. Methods for beneficial use or disposal of solids generated by the treatment
To provide an initial perspective on the field of sewerage and sewage treatment
technology,common terminology is first defined followed by:
1. A discussion of the issues that need to be addressed in the planning and
design ofsewerage management systems, and
2. The current status and new directions in sewerage and sewage treatment

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

1.6 Operation and Maintenance
In engineering parlance, operation refers to daily operation of the components
of a sewerage system such as collection system, pumping stations, pumping mains,
STPs, machinery and equipment, etc., in an effective manner by various technical
personnel, and is a routine function.
The term maintenance is defined as the art of keeping the structures, plants,
machinery and equipment and other facilities in optimum working order. Maintenance
includes preventive maintenance or corrective maintenance, mechanical adjustments,
repairs, corrective action and planned maintenance. However, replacements,
correction of defects etc., are considered as actions excluded from preventive
maintenance. For replacements with regard to sewerage and sewage treatment, the
broad categories of infrastructure which need to be addressed are as follows:
Collection System including house service connections and manholes
Pumping Stations
Pumping Mains
Utilization of biological sludge and containment of chemical sludge
There are standard O&M manuals for these in developed countries. However, O&M
manual is not yet prepared in detail in India. The following conditions prevail:
Most of the towns are only partially sewered
Most of generated grey water continues to flow in road side drains
Per capita water usage is practically only 25 to 30 % as used in
advanced countries
Water as used is mainly from local groundwater also with high TDS,
sulphates etc
The sulphates are an agent of corrosion of concrete in sewers
Wash basins, kitchen sinks etc do not have blenders below the sink
Detergent powders have significant grit content
Volumes of water usage are only about 30 to 40 %
Cattle are also housed inside the cities and their dung washed into

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

The cattle shed washing occurs during noon times after the peak flow
has passed
These cattle shed washed dung settles in sewers and builds up to choke
The budgets of most ULBs are inadequate for purchasing sewer
cleaning machines
Though sewer divers are banned, still manual labour is used to rod
and clean theSewers
Pumping stations are not connected by website to know of flooding in
the stationArea
Removing sewer blocks takes longer times due to manual work
Instrumentation based remote operation of STPs is a far away situation
Except a few metro cities, all records continue to be in hard copies
There are no newsletters aimed at operators sharing their experiences
Disposal of solid wastes in manholes
These issues as in Indian conditions are directly in contrast to the situations in
advancedcountries make it nessacery to evolve an O&M manual specific to the Indian
1.7 Need for O&M
Even though we all recognize the reasons as pointed out above, the absence of an
O&M manual based on which these defects can be step by step rectified is keenly felt.
There is the O&M manual for Water Supply Systems by CPHEEO, but there is no
such manual for Sewerage Systems. Moreover, unless there is an O&M manual,
ULBs cannot justify budget allocations to meet their obligations under such a manual.
The net result is this lack of attention to the important aspect of Operation &
Maintenance (O&M) of sewerage systems leads to deterioration of the useful life of
the systems necessitating premature replacement of many system components and
also affecting overall sanitation. As such, even after creating such assets by investing
millions of rupees, they are unable to provide the services effectively to the
community for which they have been constructed, as they remain defunct or
underutilized most of the time.

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

Some of the key issues contributing to the poor Operation & Maintenance have been
identified as follows:
i. Lack of finance, inadequate data on Operation & Maintenance
ii. Multiplicity of agencies, overlapping responsibilities
iii. Inadequate training of personnel
iv. Lesser attraction of maintenance jobs in career planning
v. Lack of performance evaluation and regular monitoring
vi. Inadequate emphasis on preventive maintenance
vii. Lack of operation manuals
viii. Lack of appreciation of the importance of facilities by the community
ix. Lack of real time field information etc.
Therefore, there is a need for clear-cut sector policies and legal framework and
a clear demarcation of responsibilities and mandates within the water supply sub-
sector. From the Indian experience, it has been observed that by and large, about 20 to
40% of the total annual Operation & Maintenance cost goes towards the personnel
(Operation & Maintenance Staff),70 to 50% of the cost is incurred on power charges
and the balance is utilized for consumables, repairs and replacement of parts and
machinery and miscellaneous charges. In most of the cities in India, the tariffs are so
low that they do not even cover the annual Operation & Maintenance cost.
The O&M Manual is required to encompass various issues pertaining to an
effective O&M such as technical, managerial, administrative, personnel, financial &
social aspects etc. The O&M Manual is a long felt need of the sector. At present, there
is no Technical Manual on this subject to benefit the field personnel and to help the
O&M authorities to prepare their own specific manuals suitable for their
organizations. Therefore, CPHEEO made plans to publish the O&M Manual for
Indian Sewerage System with J ICA support.


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

1.8.1 Approach
The approach to planning of sewerage shall be governed by optimum utilization of
the fundsavailable such that the sewerage system when completed does not become
unused for long and at the same time does not become inadequate very soon.
1.8.2 Design Population Forecast
This shall be as per the methods in Chapter 2 and its validation with respect to known
growths in recent decades and evolving a reasonable basis by comparing with other
similar habitations. There is no hard and fast mathematical basis for this and the
methods in Chapter are only a guideline.
1.8.3 Estimation of Sewage Flow
This shall be as per the methods in Chapter 2 and its validation with respect to known
growths in recent decades and evolving a reasonable basis. The design population
having been established, the judgement of per capita water supply is the key.
1.8.4 Sewage Characteristics and Pollution Load
The raw sewage characteristics are a function of the level of water supply and per
capita pollution load as shown in Chapter 2. Thus, the level of water supply decides
the concentration of pollutants. The pollutant load from a given habitation expressed
as kg/day will remain the same but the concentration will vary depending on the level
of water supply. Where the actual level of water supply is not foreseeable, the
desirable level as in Chapter 3 shall be followed.
1.8.5 Planning of Pumping Station
The design principles in Chapter 8 shall be followed. In essence, it stipulates that the
options of horizontal foot mounted centrifugal pump sets in a dry well adjacent to wet
well has its importance in shallow lift smaller capacity pump stations and submersible
pump sets are not a panacea for all applications. Also the twin wet well concept for
degrading shall be considered.

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

1.8.6 Planning of Sewage Treatment Facilities
The design principles in Chapter 9 shall be followed. In essence, it stipulates that the
choice ofconventional systems as also recent emerging trends can also be considered
provided the costsof the latter are ascertained from recent contracts in the country and
not arbitrarily based onquotes from vendors of these technologies.
Engineering considerations
Institutional aspects
Environmental considerations
Treatment process
Financial aspects
Legal issues
Community awareness
Inter and Intra departmental coordination
Geographical information systems
City master plan
City sanitation plan.
1.9.1 Engineering Considerations
Topographical, engineering and other considerations which figure prominently in
project design are noted below:
a) Design period, stage wise population to be served and expected sewage
flow quality and fluctuation
b) Topography of the general area to be served, its slope and terrain, and soil
profilesaffecting construction. Tentative sites available for treatment plant, pumping
stations and disposal works, considering flooding

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

c) Available hydraulic head in the system up to high flood level in case of
disposal to a nearby river or high tide level in case of coastal discharge or the level of
the irrigation area to be commanded in case of land disposal
d) Depth of groundwater table and its seasonal fluctuation affecting
construction, sewer infiltration, structural design (uplift considerations)
e) Soil bearing capacity and type of strata expected to be met with in
f) On site disposal facilities, including the possibilities of segregating the
sullagewater and sewage and reuse or recycle sullage water within the households
g) Existing water supply, sewerage and sanitation conditions
h) Water reliability, augmentation steps, drought conditions
i) Reuse in agriculture, farm forestry, non-potable urban, industry
j) Decentralized sewerage and progressive coverage.
1.9.2Institutional Aspects
a) Capability of existing local authority
b) Revenue collection and reliability
c) Capacity building needs
d) Public Private Partnership.
1.9.3 Environmental Considerations
(a) SurfaceWater Hydrology and Quality
Hydrological considerations affect the location of outfalls to rivers with regard
to protection of nearby water supply intake points either upstream or downstream,
especially at low flow conditions in the river. Hydrological considerations also help
determine expected dilutions downstream, frequency of floods and drought
conditions, flow velocities, travel times to downstream points of interest, navigation,
etc. Surface water quality considerations include compliance with treated effluent

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

standards at the discharge point with respect to parameters like BOD, suspended and
floating solids, oil & grease, nutrients, coliforms, etc. Special consideration may be
given to the presence of public bathing ghats downstream. The aquatic ecosystem
(including fish) may also need protection in case of rivers through minimum dissolved
oxygen downstream, ammonia concentrations in the water, uptake of refractory and
persistent substances in the food chain, and protection of other legitimate uses to
which the river waters may be put.
(b)GroundWater Quality
Another environmental consideration is the potential for ground water pollution
presented bythe treatment units proposed to be built. For example, in certain soils,
special precautions may be needed to intercept seepage of sewage from lagoons and
ponds. Land irrigation would also present a potential for ground water pollution
especially from nitrates. In case of low cost sanitation methods involving on-site
disposal of excreta and sullage waters, ground water pollution may need special
attention if the ground water table is high and the topsoil relatively porous.
(c) CoastalWater Quality
Shoreline discharges of sewage effluents, though treated, could lead to bacterial and
viral pollution and affect bathing water quality of beaches. Discharges have to be
made sufficiently offshore and at sufficient depth through marine outfall to benefit
from dilution and natural dieaway of organisms before they are washed back to the
shoreline by currents. The presence of nutrients could also promote algal growth in
coastal waters, especially in bays where natural circulation patterns might keep the
nutrients trapped in the water body.
d) Odour and Mosquito Nuisance
Odour and mosquito nuisance in the vicinity of sewage treatment plants,
particularly in thedownwind direction of prevailing winds, can have adverse impacts
on land values, public health and well-being and general utility of amenities may be
threatened. These factors have to beconsidered in selecting technologies and sites for
location of sewage treatment plants andtreated sewage irrigation fields.


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

f ) Public Health
Public health considerations pervade through all aspects of design and
operation of sewage treatment and disposal projects. Some aspects have already been
referred to in earlier part of this Section. Public health concepts are built into various
byelaws, regulations and codes of practicewhich must be observed, such as:
i) Effluent discharge standards including permissible microbial and helminthic
quality requirements
ii) Standards for control of toxic and accumulative substances in the foodchain
iii) Potential for nitrate and microbial pollution of ground waters
iv) Deterioration of drinking water resources including wells
v) Deterioration of bathing water quality Control measures for health and
safety of sewage plant operators and sewage farm workers, and nearby residents, who
are exposed to bio-aerosols or handle raw and/or treated sewage.
(d) Landscaping
Sewage treatment plant structures need not be ugly and unsightly. At no real extra
cost, somearchitectural concepts can be used and the buildings designed to suit the
main climates (humid or dry) generally met within India.
Apart from the usual development of a small garden near the plants office or
laboratory, someconsiderations need to be given to sites for disposal of screenings and
grit in an inoffensivemanner, general sanitation in the plant area and provision of a
green-belt around the treatmentplant. Green belt around the treatment plant shall be
preferably of plants with shallow roots inorder to avoid deep and spread roots from
trees accessing the water retaining structures and damaging their construction by
ingress to the moist zones.
g) Status of pollution of surface waters, ground waters and coastal waters
h) Remediation needs and realistic solutions to mitigation of pollution
i) Solid wastes disposal and leachates as affecting the likely siting of STPs

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

j) Fate of sludge generated in STPs and potential to go in for vermicomposting
k) Clean Development Mechanism by biomethanation and energy recovery from
l) Vital statistics and frequency of water borne and vector borne diseases.
1.9.4 Treatment Process
Process considerations involve factors which affect the choice of treatment
method, its design criteria and related requirements such as sewage flow and
characteristics, degree of treatment required, performance characteristics, other
Process Requirements like Land, Power and its dependability, Operating (and control)
equipment requirement and its indigenous availability, Skilled staff, Nature of
maintenance problems, Extent of sludge production and its disposal requirements etc.,
1.9.5 Financial Aspects
Finally from among the few selected options, the overall costs (capital and operating)
andfinancial sustainability have to be determined in order to arrive at the most
optimum solution.
1.9.6 Legal Issues
In general, legalities do not affect sewerage projects except land acquisition issues
whichrequire tact, patience and perseverance.
1.9.7 Community Awareness
In general, the decision making on sewerage system management is carried out
withoutinvolving the public at large and this has to change by appropriate web based
messages, handouts, public hearings and documenting the outcomes and taking the
population along.


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

1.9.8 Geographical Information Systems
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) should be an integral part of sewage
collection system. It allows developing city master plans including city sanitation plan
rapidly and in a precise manner and can be related precisely to its position in 735 the
ground. The spatial modelling capabilities of GIS can be used to estimate current and
future sewage flows, evaluate the capacity of the sewers, and estimate the condition of
the sewers.
1.9.9 City Master Plan
The city master plan shall be prepared clearly indicating the various aspects as this
will form a basis for the project. The city sanitation plan shall also mandatorily form
part of the city master plan. Any proposal submitted for funding shall mandatorily
include the city master plan and city sanitation plan. It is very important and pertinent
to include and account for the mandatory provision of adequate and proper sanitation
facilities in each and every school in the country thus complying with the directive of
the Government of India. The planning period to be adopted for the preparation of the
master plan shall be 30 years. In order to bring the master plan projections on the
same time line for comparison and funding, the Town & Country planning authority
would also be required to increase their planning period from the present 20 years to
30 years for the reasons mentioned earlier.
1.9.10 City Sanitation Plan
City sanitation plan should be a part of city master plan and it should be prepared in
accordancewith NUSP. The planning design period for onsite, decentralised and
centralised systems shall be 5 years, 5 to 15 years and 30 years, respectively.


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

2.1 General Considerations
The design population should be estimated paying attention to all the factors
governing the future growth and development of the project area in the industrial,
commercial, educational, social, and administration spheres. Special factors causing
sudden immigration or influx of population should also be predicted as far as possible.
A judgement based on these factors would help in selecting the most suitable
method of deriving the probable trend of the population growth in the area or areas of
the project from the following mathematical methods, graphically interpreted where
a) Demographic method of population projection
b) Arithmetic increase method
c) Incremental increase method
d) Geometrical increase method
e) Decreasing rate of growth
f) Graphical method
g) Logistic method
h) Method of density
2.2 Demographic method of population projection
Population change can occur in three ways: by birth (population gain), by
death (population loss), or by migration (population loss or gain depending on
whether movement-out or movement-in occurs in excess). Annexation of area may
be considered a special form of migration. Population forecasts are frequently made
by preparing and summing up separate but related projections of natural increases and
of net migration, and are expressed below.
The net effect of births and deaths on population is called natural increase
(natural decrease, if deaths exceed births).Migration also affects the number of births
and deaths in an area, and so, projections of net migration are prepared before
projections for natural increase. This method thus takes into account the prevailing
and anticipated birth rates and death rates of the region or city for the period under

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

consideration. An estimate is also made of the emigration from and immigration to the
community, its growth area-wise and the net increase of population is calculated
accordingly considering all these factors by arithmetical balancing.
2.3 Arithmetic increase method
This method is generally applicable to large and old cities. In this method, the
average increase of population per decade is calculated from the past records and
added to the present population to estimate population in the next decade. This
method gives a low value and is suitable for well settled and established communities.
2.4 Incremental increase method
In this method, the increment in arithmetical increase is determined from the
past decades and the average of that increment is added to the average increase. This
method gives increased values compared to the figures obtained by the arithmetical
increase method.
2.5 Geometrical increase method
In this method, the percentage increase is assumed to be the rate of growth and
the average of the percentage increase is used to determine the increment in future
population. This method gives a much higher value.
2.6 Decreasing rate of growth
In this method, it is assumed that the rate of percentage increase decreases and
the average decrease in the rate of growth is calculated. The percentage increase is
modified by deducting the decrease in the rate of growth. This method is applicable
only to those cases where the rate of growth of population shows a downward trend.
2.7 Graphical method
There are two methods: in the first method, only the city in question is considered;
and in the second method, other similar cities are also taken into account.


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

i) Graphical method based on single city
In this method the population curve of the city (i.e., the population vs. past decades) is
smoothly extended for obtaining values for the future. The curve should be extended
carefully; this requires vast experience and good judgement. The line of best fit may
be obtained by the method of least squares.
ii) Graphical method based on cities with similar growth pattern
In this method, the city in question is compared with other cities that have
already undergone the same phases of development which the city in question is
likely to undergo. Based on this comparison, a graph of populations versus decades is
plotted and extrapolated.
2.8 Logistic method
The S shaped logistic curve for any city gives the complete trend of growth for
the city right from beginning to the saturation limit of population of the city. This
method is applicable tovery large cities with adequate demographic data.
2.9 Method of density
In this approach, the trend in rate of increase in population density for each
sector of a city is determined and population is forecasted for each sector based on the
above approach. Addition of population sector-wise gives the population of the city.


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

Incremental increase method is used for the forecasting because it gives values
nearly to the actul population.

Forecasting method :Incremental increase method.
2.1 Population Forecast by Incremental increase method
Year Population Increase (X) Incremental increase
1981 116432 -
1991 133914 17482
2001 150309 16395 -1087
2011 164973 14664 -1731
Total 48541 -644
AVG 16180 -322

Population can be projected using the formula: P
Therefore , population in 2024 can be given as
= 164973+1.3 x 16180-
= 185525.
Intermediate period as 2034 P
= 164973+2.3 x 15462-
= 200965
Ultimate design period as 2044, P
= 162816+3.3 x 15462-
= 216082


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

2.2 Fig showing Trend of population from 1981 to 2044
2.11 Final Forecast
While the forecast of the population of a project area at any given time during the
design period can be derived by any one of the foregoing methods appropriate to each
case, the density and distribution of such population in several areas, zones or districts
will again have to be estimated based on the relative probabilities of expansion in
each zone or district, according to the nature of development and based on existing
and contemplated town planning regulations. Wherever population growth forecast or
master plans prepared by town planning authorities or other appropriate authorities
are available, the design population should take these figures into account. Floating
population should also be considered which includes number of persons visiting the
project area for tourism, pilgrimage or for working. The numbers should be decided in
consultation with the tourism departments and specified for water supply and

2044, 216082
1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050
Population growth

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

The entire spent water of a community should normally contribute to the total
flow in a sanitary sewer. However, the observed Dry Weather Flow quantities usually
are slightly less than the percapita water consumption, since some water is lost in
evaporation, seepage into ground, leakage etc. In arid regions, mean sewage flows
may be as little as 40% of water consumption and in well developed areas, flows may
be as high as 90%. However, the conventional sewers shall be designed for a
minimum sewage flow of 100 litres per capita per day or higher as the case may be.
Non-conventional sewers shall be designed as the case may be.
For some areas, it is safe to assume that the future density of population for
design purpose to be equal to the saturation density. It is desirable that all sewers
serving a small area be designed on the basis of saturation density.
For new communities, design flows can be calculated based on the design
population and projected water consumption for domestic use and commercial and
industrial activity. In case a master plan containing land use pattern and zoning
regulation is available, the anticipated population can be based on the ultimate
The flow in sewers varies from hour to hour and also seasonally. But for the
purpose of hydraulic design estimated peak flows are adopted. The peak factor or the
ratio of maximum to average flows depends upon contributory population as given in
2.2 Peak factor for contributory population
Contributory Population Peak Factor
up to 20,000 3.00
Above 20,001 to 50,000 2.50
Above 50,001 to 7,50,000 2.25
above 7,50,001 2.0


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

The peak factors also depend upon the density of population, topography of the site,
hours of water supply and therefore individual cases may be further analysed if
required. The minimum flow may vary from 1/3 to 1/2 of average flow.
At Present the average Percapita water consumption is 135 lpcd in India. But it was
estimated to increase to 215 lpcd within next 30 years
So The Sewage generated will be 80 % of the water supplied 0.8 x 215 =172 lpcd
Average Sewage Generated Per Day is 80% of supplied = 256082 x 0.8 x 215
= 43108532 lpd
= 43.11 Mld
= 45 Mld (say )
Quantity of Flow (Average ) = 45000.00Cum/day
Average Sewage flow entering the treatment plant = 45000000.00 lpd
Assumed Peak Factor = 2.25
Peak Sewage flow entering the treatment plant = 101250000.00 lpd
Peak Flow = 101250.00Cum/day
= 1.17 Cum/Sec


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

3.1 Treatment Process
Process considerations involve factors which affect the choice of treatment method,
its designcriteria and related requirements such as the following:
a) Sewage Flow and Characteristics
This constitutes the primary data required for process design. The various parameters
to bedetermined are described in other Sections of this manual.
b) Degree of Treatment Required
In case of domestic or municipal sewage, this is considered, for example, in
terms of removal of BOD nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous), coliforms, helminths
etc. Land disposal generally has to meet less stringent discharge standards than
disposal to surface waters. Land disposal also has the advantage of avoiding nutrient
removal and is, thus, preferred wherever it is feasible. It is often not enough to aim
only at BOD removal and let other items be left to unspecified, incidental removal,
whatever may occur. The selection of a treatment process thus, depends on the extent
of removal efficiency required for all important parameters and the need to obviate
nuisance conditions.
c) Performance Characteristics
The dependability of performance of a process in spite of fluctuations in influent
quality and quantity are very useful attributes in ensuring a stable effluent quality.
Similarly, ability to withstand power and operational failures, also form important
considerations in choice of process. The more high-rated process, the more sensitive it
is in operation. Other processes like digesters, lagoons and ponds may be sensitive to
extreme temperature range. The choice has to match with the discharge standards to
be met in a specific case.


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

d) Other Process Requirements
Various other factors affecting the choice of a process include requirements in terms
- Land
- Power and its dependability
- Operating (and control) equipment requirement and its indigenous availability
- Skilled staff
- Nature of maintenance problems
- Extent of sludge production and its disposal requirements
- Adoption of modular system.
Between land and power requirements, a trade-off is often possible, based on actual
costs of thetwo items. This could well be exploited to get an optimum solution for
meeting treatment requirements and giving a dependable performance. The operating
equipment and its ancillary control equipment should be easy to operate and maintain
(with indigenously available spare parts) as far as possible. It is to be noted that,
methane gas collection, scrubbing to remove hydrogen sulphide wherever necessary
and its conversion to electricity, should be effectively done. The option of gas
collection and supply to a nearby industry or area should be favoured during the site
selection stage wherever possible. The related issues are
e) To be affordable by the local body for its O&M
f) Trade-offs between portions to be treated for industries and portions to be
g) Possibility of upgrading with respect to incrementing flows over time
h) Depending on proprietary spares to be avoided or inbuilt into the O&M
i) Local skills to comprehend and implement monitoring.

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

Sewage is 99 % water carrying domestic wastes originating in kitchen,
bathing, laundry, urine and night soil. A portion of the wastes go into solution and the
rest are partly in colloidal suspension and true suspension. Besides these salts are also
added to the water by the human usage from salts used in cooking, body washings,
laundry and urine. Besides sewage also contains water borne pathogenic organisms of
cholera, jaundice, typhoid, dysentery and gastroenteritis which originate from the
night soil of already infected persons. The rate at which these are contributed by a
person is in the range as in Table 3.1.
Table 3..1 Contribution of human wastes in grams per capita per day (Ref Arceivala)


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

1. Since all the organic matter does not reach the sewers and hence for DPRcalculation
the BOD can be taken as 36 gm per person per day.
2. Values given in the table represent approximate daily per capita contributions.
3. To these must be added the contents in the original water supply i.e., in respect
of inorganic dissolved saltsthe concentration in the water supply will also add
up in the raw sewage
4. The pH of the sewage generally ranges from 6.8 to 8.0 again depending on
raw water quality.
5. The major nitrogen compound in domestic waste is urea CO(NH2)2 which is
readily hydrolyzed to ammonia(NH3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) by the
enzyme urease present in sewage. Hence, NH3 constitutes the majorfraction of
total nitrogen in domestic sewage.
The objective of sewage treatment is to meet the relevant discharge standards laid
down by the MOEF. The relevant state PCBs/ULBs can prescribe the same standards
or they can prescribe more stringent standards. The standards prescribed by MOEF
are given in Table3.2
3.2 Discharge standards for treated sewage in mg/l where applicable as per MOEF


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

Sewage Treatment is normally by either the aerobic bacteria or anaerobic bacteria
wherebythese metabolise the organic matter and multiply themselves and which are
settled out and disposed as sludge. The pathways of such processes are in Figure 3.2
and Figure 3.3.

Source: Dr.Akepati S. Reddy, Thapar Centre for Industrial Research & Development, Punjab
Figure 3.3 Aerobic metabolism

Source: Dr.Akepati S. Reddy, Thapar Centre for Industrial Research& Development, Punjab
Figure 3.4 Anaerobic metabolism


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

3.2 Design Sewage Flow
Sewage Treatment Plants are designed for a design period of 10 years from the base
year which may be three or four years from the date of approval of the DPR for
The sequence of unit operations is as in Figure 3.4, Figure for aerobic, anaerobic and
facultative processes respectively.

Figure 5.3 Unit operations in aerobic mechanized biochemical sewage treatment
(Secondary Treatment can also be extended aeration and without digester)
Aerobic Treatment Process
Activated Sludge Process (ASP)
Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR)
Moving media like Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR)
Fixed media like Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC)

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR)
Oxidation ditch (OD)
BIOFOR Biological Filtration and Oxygenated Reactor (BIOFOR)
High Rate Activated Sludge BIOFOR-F Submerged Aeration Fixed Film
Technology (SAFF)
Fixed Bed BiofilmActivated Sludge Process (FBAS)
3.5 Arrangement of Treatment Units in STP
The preferred arrangement will be the one where the civil construction will
economize by contiguous arrangement of the successive units as the flow goes
through the successive units and avoiding the buried piping and valves as much as
possible and instead using open channel flows with stop gates operated by hand
wheels on a rack and pinion method. The idea should be to not only reduce the civil
construction costs but also to permit the provision of a cover above the units in later
days to facilitate complying with indoor air qualities when it comes up in future.


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

4.1 pH test
AIM:To determine the P
of the sewage water.
pH Paper
1. Dip pH paper strip into the solution.
2.Allow the paper to dry for 2 to 3 min.
3. Compare the resulting color with standard colors.
4. The papers in use to-day generally have dyes which do not fade during
the measuring

Sample details P

Sample 1 7.5
Sample 2 7.5
Sample 3 7.5
Table 2.1.pH
The P
of the Sewage 2 samples of sewage is 7.5.

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

pH test by pH meter
pH Meter,
pH tablets.
1. Standardize the pH meter according to the manufacturers instructions.
2. Select a standard buffer solution with a pH value close to that of the water to be
3. Set the temperature control to the temperature of the buffer.
4. Set the meter to the pH of the buffer at that temperature.
5. Check the electrode response by measuring a second standard buffer solution of
different ph.
6. Wash the electrode thoroughly first with distilled water and then with the sample.
7. Set the temperature control to the temperature of the sample.
8. Immerse electrodes in the sample and record the pH after stabilizing the system.

The pH of sewage by pH meter is 7.5


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

To find out total dissolved solids present in The Tungabhadra river water
1. Evaporating dishes
2. Oven
3. Desiccator
4. Whitman filter
5. Water bath
1. A clean porcelain dish is heated in a muffle furnaces and after partial
cooling in the Air, it is cooled in a desiccator and weighed.
2. A 100ml of filtered sample is placed in the dish in the dish and evaporated
at 100
c on Water bath, followed by drying in oven at 103
c for 1 hour
3. Dry to constant weight at 103
c, cool in a desiccators and weight it.
TDS (mg/l) =
A-B x 1000

Where , A = Final weight of the dish in mg.
B = Initial weight of the dish in mg.
V = Volume of sample taken in ml.


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

Sample details Volume of
sample (ml)
Initial weight of
the dish(mg)
Final weight of
the dish(mg) (B)
Total dissolved
solids mg/l
Sample 1 100 106922 107070 1480
Sample 2 100 111342 111496 1540
Sample 2 100 109097 109248 1510
Table2.2: Total dissolved solids

The total dissolved solids in water sample 1 =1480 mg/l
The total dissolved solids in water sample 2 =1540 mg/ll
The total dissolved solids in water sample 3 =1510 mg/l


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

To determine total suspended solids present in the sewage water.
1. Gooch crucible or glass fiber filter
2. Suction apparatus
3. Desiccator
1. A clean gooch crucible is heated in a muffle furnace and after partial
cooling in the air,Cool in a desiccator and weigh (W1).
2. Pour a 100ml of well mix sample on gooch crucible or glass fiver filter
which is kept on Filter flask and apply suction.
3. Wash the gooch crucible with 100ml distilled water to remove all soluble
4. Carefully remove the glass fiber filter paper or gooch crucible and dry in an
oven at 105
c for 1 hour.
5. Cool in a desiccator and weigh (W2).
Total suspended solids (mg/l) =
w2-w1x 1000
ml of sample taken


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

Volume of
Initial weight
Of gooch
crucible (mg)
Final weight of
The gooch
crucible (mg)
Sample 1 100 40620

40660 400
Sample 2 100

40840 40900 600
Sample 3 100

40562 40600 380
Table: Total suspended solids
The total suspended solids of water sample 1 =400 mg/l
The total suspended solids of water sample 2 =600 mg/l
The total suspended solids of water sample 3 =380 mg/l


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

To determine the total hardness of the samples.
1. Burette
2. Pipette
3. Conical flask
1. Buffer solution
2. Erio chrome black T indicator.
3. Standard EDTA solution (0.01M)
4. Standard calcium solution
5. Murexide indicator
6. Sodium hydroxide (2N)
1. Take 100ml of well mixed sample in conical flask.
2. Add 1-2ml of buffer solution followed by 1ml inhibitor
3. Add 2drops of Erio chrome black T and titrate with standard EDTA (0.01M)
till Wine-red color changes to blue.
4. Note down the volume of EDTA required (A).
5. Run a reagent lank if buffer is not checked properly. Note the volume of
EDTA Required for blank(B) .
6. Calculate the volume of EDTA required for sample (A-B).
Total hardness (mg/l) as CaCO
=((A-B)*1000)/ ml of sample


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

used (ml)
used (ml)
( mg/l )
Sample1 100 0 21 21 0 210
Sample2 100 0 21 21 0 210
Sample3 100 0 24 24 0 240
Sample4 100 0 25 25 0 250
Sample5 100 0 27 27 0 270
Table4: Hardness

The hardness of the water sample 1 =210 mg/l
The hardness of the water sample 2 =210 mg/l
The hardness of the water sample 3 =240 mg/l
The hardness of the water sample 4 =250 mg/l
The hardness of the water sample 5 =270 mg/l


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

AIM: To Determine the BOD of the sample
1. BOD meter with probe for measurement of dissolved oxygen in 300 mL BOD
2. 300 mL BOD bottles
3. Incubator, capable of maintaining 20 +/- 1C
4. 250 mL graduated cylinders
5. 100 mL graduated cylinders
6. 25 mL measuring pipettes (wide-mouth)
7. 10 mL measuring pipettes (wide-mouth)
8. 100 mL beaker
9. 1000 mL beaker
10. 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask
11. Burette graduated to 0.1 mL
12. Dilution water bottle of suitable volume for the number of tests to be performed
13. Pipette bulb

1. Completely fill two BOD bottles with dilution water.

2. Into additional BOD bottles, partially filled with dilution water, carefully
measure out the proper volume of sample. Add dilution water until the bottles
are completely filled.

NOTE: If the modified Winkler procedure is to be used for DO measurements, two
BOD bottles should be prepared for each dilution; one for determination of the initial
DO and one for incubation and final DO measurement. If the meter method is used
for DO measurements the initial and final DO determinations can be performed on the
same bottle.

ADDITIONAL NOTE: If the nitrification inhibition is to be used to determine the
carbonaceous BOD fraction (CBOD) of the sample, a separate dilution series of
uninhibited sample can be prepared to determine the combined nitrogenous and
carbonaceous BOD for the sample. To inhibit the nitrifying bacteria in the sample,
add 3.33 mg of nitrification inhibitor to one set of sample dilutions, while the second
set of dilutions remains untreated. Continue with the remaining procedural steps with
both sets of dilutions.

3. Stopper each bottle taking care to avoid trapping air bubbles inside the bottles as
the bottle stoppers are inserted.

4. Fill the top of each bottle neck around the stopper with dilution water.

5. Determine the initial DO content on one of each set of duplicate bottles,
including the dilution water blank by one of the approved methods and record
data on the lab sheet.


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

6. Place the remaining bottles in the incubator at 20C and incubate for five days.

7. At the end of exactly five days (+/-3 hours), test the DO content of the incubated

8. Calculate the BOD for each dilution. The most accurate BOD will be obtained
from those dilutions that have a depletion of at least 2 mg/L DO and at least 1.0
mg/L DO residual. If there is more than one dilution that meets these criteria, the
BOD results should be averaged to obtain a final BOD value.

9. The dilution water blanks are used only to check the quality of the dilution water.
If the quality of the water is good and free from impurities, the depletion of DO
should be less than 0.2 mg/L. In any event, do not use the depletion obtained as a
blank correction.

10. If nitrification inhibition is used, the BOD test must also be performed on a series
of sample dilutions which have not been inhibited.

11. Report the results of the nitrification inhibited samples as CBOD
uninhibited samples as BOD


To determine the value of the BOD in mg/L, use the following formula:

BOD, mg/L =[(Initial DO - Final DO) x 300]/mL sample

For example:

Initial DO =10.2 mg/L

Final DO =4.9 mg/L

Sample size =5 mL

BOD mg/L =[(10.2 - 4.9) x 300]/5 =(5.3 x 300)/5 =1590/5 =320 mg/L

Whenever a sample is dechlorinated, it must be seeded. If the sample is seeded, a
correction factor must be calculated to determine the effects that the seed material has
on the DO depletion. A number of BODs must be run on the seed material to
determine the seed correction factor.


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

5.1 Function
Screening is an essential step in sewage treatment for removal of materials
which would otherwise damage equipment, Screens are used ahead of pumping
stations, meters and as a first step in all treatment works. Accordingly, the sewage
after screening shall be free of floating materials like sachets, plastic sheet bits,
leaves, fibres, rages, etc. A screen is a device with openings generally of uniform size
for removing bigger suspended or floating matter in sewage. The screening element
may consist of parallel bars, rods, gratings wire meshes or perforated plates and the
openings may be of any shape although generally they are circular or rectangular
The function of the bar screen is to prevent entry of solid particles above a certain
size; such as plastic cups, paper dishes, polythenebags, grocery bags ,condoms and
sanitary napkins into the STP. (If these items are allowed to enter the STP,they clog
and damage the STP pumps, and cause stoppage of the plant.)The screening is
achieved by placing a screen made out of vertical bars, placed across the sewage
flow.The gaps between the bars may vary between 10 and 30 mm.
5.2 Design Criteria
The design criteria applies more to the sizing and dimensions of the Screen chamber
rather than the screen itself. The screen chamber must have sufficient cross-sectional
opening area to allow passage of sewage at peak flow rate (2.25 to 3 times the average
hourly flow rate) at a velocity of 0.6 to 1.0 m/s, (The cross-sectional area occupied by
the bars of the screen itself is not to be counted in this calculation.)The screen must
extend from the floor of the chamber to a minimum of 0.3 m above the maximum
design level of sewage in the chamber under peak flow conditions.
5.3 Construction And Engineering
Bar screen racks are typically fabricated out of 50mm x 10 mm bars either of
epoxy-coated mild steel or stainless steel. A specified opening gap is kept between the
bars. The screen frame is fixed in the bar screen chamber at an angle of 45
to 60 to
the horizontal, leaning away from the incoming side. Care is to be taken to see that

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

there are no gaps left between the screen frame and the floor and the sides of the
chamber. The upper end of the screen must rest against an operating platform, on
which the STP operator stands to rake the debris collected at the grill. The platform
itself must be provided with weep holes, so that the operator can leave the collected
debris on the platform for some time to allow unbound water and moisture from the
screened debris to drip back into the chamber. This not only reduces the weight and
volume of trash to be finally disposed off, but also reduces the nuisance of odour
coming from the putrefying matter
Raw Sewage Characteristics
Average Sewage flow entering the treatment plant = 45000000.00 lpd
= 45000.00 Cum/day
Assumed Peak Factor = 2.25
Peak Sewage flow entering the treatment plant = 101250000.00 lpd
= 101250.00Cum/day
= 1.17Cum/Sec
Assumed Detention period = 120.00sec
Volume of the Inlet Chamber = Peak flow x DetentionPeriod
= 120 x 1.17
= 140.63 Cum
Assumed Depth of flow = 0.60 m
Area Required for Inlet Chamber = 234.38 Sq.m
Assumed Length to Breadth Ratio = 2.00
Breadth of the Tank = 10.90 m
length of the Tank = 21.80 m

Provide the Dimension of Inlet Chamber as 21.8 m x 10.9 m x 0.6 m
SWD + 0.3 m Freeboard


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

Peak Design Flow = 1.17 Cum/s
Assuming the screen flats of size having a thickness of 10 mm and a width of 50mm
Assuming Clear spacing between bars, o = 30.00 mm
Velocity ahead of screen (Va) = 0.60 m/sec
Area of Screen Channel, A=(/) =

= 1.95 m

Keeping Water Depth = 0.50 m
Taking Width of screen channel, W = 3.90 m
Water depth upstream, ha =A/W = 0.50 m
Number of openings in chamber, = X
W =X.o +(X - 1).t
where , X =No. of Opening ;
o =Clear Space between bars ;
t =Thickness of flat
X =


= 98.00 nos
Total width of opening, Ws =X o =2.94 m
Providing Angle of inclination = 60.00 Degree
Assumed Detention Period in the Screen channel =10.00 sec
Length of the screen chamber =Velocity x detention Period
= 6.00 m
Inclined height of the screen, H1 =


= 0.58 m
Velocity through the screen, Vs=Q/H1*Ws =
0.58 x 2.94

= 0.69 m/sec


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

5.6Check for design
Head loss through screen in normal condition,
) = 0.0729 (0.69
=0.01 m
less than 0.15 m hence ok
Head loss on 50% clogging h1=0.0729(2*Vs
) = 0.07292x 0.69

= 0.04m
less than 0.3 m hence ok
Water Depth downstream Hb,
/2g+Ha-Headloss thru screen in normal condition
= 0.48 m
Water Depth downstream Hb,
/2g+Ha-Headloss thru screen in clogged condition
= 0.45 m
Provide the Dimension of Screen Chamber (Fine Screens) as 6 m x
3.9 m x 0.5 m SWD + 0.3 m Freeboard


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

Hand cleaned screens should be cleaned as often as required to prevent backing up of
A manually-cleaned bar screen is shown in Figure .6.1

2.1 A typical manual bar screen
The following are important for O&M of bar screen:
a. Preventive maintenance for checking and repairing
Check whether the standing platform is at least 2 m wide with the first 1 m as
slotted. An example of a risky platform is presented in Figure 6.2, in which
there is no space for the operator to stand after he has lifted and dumped
screenings on it. Because of the lack of space, he may move backwards and
fall into the sewage channel. Also, screens should be inclined to the horizontal
by an angle of 60 degrees or more, otherwise, the operator has to bend
forward. The rear side of the platform should have handrails.

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

Check the condition of ladders and paint them periodically.
Once a month check the rigidity of handrails.
Verify the platform for its sturdiness by gently setting the foot on it.
Verify that the lighting is not in front or behind the operator. It should be
above the operator, at least 2.5 m high and mounted on the sidewall.
Verify that the operator platform and slotted platform have 3-m head room
androof so that the operator is not drenched and he can lift the cleaning rake
b. Regular maintenance on a daily basis and repairs
Verify that the screen rods have not broken loose.
Verify that the cleaning rake is well washed in running water after each use.
Verify that gum boots are kept inside a locker covered with mesh.
Verify that disposable gloves are available for all 3 shifts and a stock of one
month is available.
Verify that helmet is available.
c. Maintainance
Before daily operation, verify all the above. If these points are not met, do not
enter the screen area. Enter all missing items in the site register
If all items are in order, do the cleaning once in four hours in each shift.

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

Ensure that operators do not stand one behind the other. This may cause an
accident because while pulling the rake backwards, the operator in the front
may hit and push the operator in the rear into the sewage channel.
Once the screens are cleaned and screenings are deposited on the slotted
platform allow them to drip dry till the next cleaning after 4 hours.
Push the screenings with the rake to the side of the platform to drop them into
the tipper positioned there.


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

Grit removal is necessary to protect the moving mechanical equipment and
pump elements from abrasion and accompanying abnormal wear and tear. Removal of
grit also reduces the frequency of cleaning of digesters and settling tanks. It is
desirable to provide screens device ahead of grit chambers to reduce the effect of rags
and other large floating materials .
Grit in sewage consists of coarse particles of sand, ash and clinkers, egg shells, bone
chips and many inert materials inorganic in nature. Both quality and quantity of grit
varies depending upon (a) types of street surfaces encountered (b) relative areas
served (c) climatic conditions (d) types of inlets and catch basins (e) amount of storm
water diverted from combined sewers at overflow points (f) sewer grades (g)
construction and condition of sewer system (h) ground and ground water
characteristics (j) industrial wastes (k) relative use of dumping chutes or pail depots
where night soil and other solid wastes are admitted to sewers and (1) social habits.
The specific gravity of the grit is usually in the range of 2.4 to 2.65. Grit is non-
putrescible and possesses a higher hydraulic subsidence value than organic solids.
Hence it is possible to separate the gritty material from organic solids by differential
sedimentation in a grit chamber.
The basic data essential for a rational approach to the design of grit chambers are
hourly variations of sewage flow and typical values for minimum, average and peak
flows. Since the grit chamber is designed for peak flows and the flow through
velocity is maintained constant within the range of flow, successful design and
operation of grit chamber calls for a fairly accurate estimation of the flows, the
quantity and quality of grit varies from sewage to sewage. Data relating to these two
factors is very useful in proper design of grit collecting, elevating and washing
mechanisms. In the absence of specific data, for every 1 Million litres of raw
sewage,grit content may be taken as 0.05 to 0.15 m3/ML for domestic sewage and

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

0.06 to 0.12 m3/ML for combined sewage. The quantity may increase three to four
fold during peak flow hours which may last for 1 to 2 hours.
6.4 Generic Design of Grit Chambers
6.4.1 Settling Velocity
Grit chamber may be designed on a rational basis by considering it as a
sedimentation basin. The grit particles are treated as discrete particles settling with
their own settling velocities. The settling velocity is governed by the size and
specific gravity of the grit particles to be separated and the viscosity of the sewage.
The minimum size of the grit to be removed is 0.20 although 0.10 to 0.15 mm is
preferred for conditions where considerable amount of ash is likely to be carried in
the sewage. The specific gravity of the grit may be as low as 2.4 but for design
purposes a value of 2.65 is used. The settling velocity of discrete particles can be
determined using the appropriate equation depending upon the Reynolds number,
1. Stokes Law


where, R
= Settling velocity, m/s
g = Acceleration due to gravity, m/s
= Mass density of grit particle, kg/m3
= Mass density of liquid, kg/m3
d =Size of the particle,
= Kinematic viscosity of sewage, m
Ss = Specific gravity of grit particle, dimensionless
Stokes law holds good for Reynolds number R below 1.0;
This corresponds to particles of size less than 0.1 mm. The flow conditions are
laminar where viscous forces dominate over inertial forces.
2. Transition Law
The design of grit chamber is based on removal of grit particles with minimum
size of 0.2 mm or 0.15 mm and therefore Stokes Law is not applicable to
determine the settling velocity of the grit particles for design purposes. The
settling velocity of a discrete particle is given by the general equation.

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

s =



Where C
is the Newton coefficient of Drag which is a function of Reynolds
number. The transition flow conditions hold when Reynolds number is between 1
and 1,000. In this range, C
can be approximated by

s d

Substituting the value of CD in above equation and simplifying
=[0.707( 1)

The settling velocity of grit particles in the transition zone is also calculated by
the Hazens modified formula
=60.6 (S
3 +70
Where d in equation7.5 is in cm and T is the temperature in degree Centigrade
and R
in cm/s. The settling velocity of grit particles in the range of 0.1 mm and
1mm can be determined using equation (7.4) and this equation or its approximate
empirical form of equation (7.5) should be used in design of grit chambers which
are designed to remove particles of size 0.15 mm or 0.2 mm.
3. Newtons Law When the particle size increases beyond 1 mm and Reynolds
number beyond 1,000, the Newton coefficient drag C
assumes a constant value
of 0.4 and the following equation can be used to determine the settling velocity
of grit particles.
=[3.3 g (S
-1) d ]
6.4.2 Surface Overflow Rate
Efficiency of an ideal settling basin is expressed as the ratio of the settling velocity of
the particles to be removed (R
) to the surface overflow rate (o).

Where R
is defined as the ratio of flow of sewage to be treated in an ideal settling
tank to the plan area of the tank, i.e., Q/A. It is equal to the settling velocity of those
particles which will be 100% removed in ideal settling tank.


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

No. of Grit channels = 2
Computation of Settling Velocity: Stoke's Law
Kinematic Viscosity of Effluent assumed = 0.0000011 m
Particle Diameter assumed = 0.000150 m
Settling Velocity =R



= 0.02 m/s
Reynold's number, Re=(d.Vs/Kinematic viscosity) = 2.73
for Transition flows, Vs=[(0.707(Ss-1)d
= 0.02 m/s
Actual Setling velocity = 0.02 m/s
Removal efficiency = 0.02 x 24 x 3600
= 1474.07cum/sqm/d
Assumed Removal Efficiency = 75.00 %
= 1105.55cum/sqm/d
Actual Surface Over Flow Rate :(Q/A)=V
-1] = 974cum/sqm/d
take n=.125,

Dimensions of grit channel:
Peak Flow = 101250.00 cum/day
Total Plan area of Grit channel =Qpeak/(Q/A) = 103.97 m

Assumed Width of the Grit channel = 2.50 m
Length of the Channel = 41.60 m
Liquid Depth assumed = 1.50 m
Provide a depth for the Grit Storage = 0.30 m
Provide the Dimension of Grit Removal unit as 41.6 m x 2.5 m x 1.5 m SWD +
0.3 m Freeboard


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

6.6 Grit Removal Maintainance
6.6.1 Preventive Maintenance
Almost all these equipment are patented. Each manufacturer has proprietary
schedules for preventive maintenance. These schedules should be followed.
Preventive maintenance should done only by the manufacturer or the erection
contractor who has installed these equipment, and not by the operators.
5.6.2 Regular Day to Day Maintenance
The operator should hose the mechanical parts using the high pressure hose, and
pump the final treated sewage so that slime does not accumulate.Where flap gates or
turnstiles are provided, the operator should necessarily exercise these once a
day.The operator should not enter the chambers unless the sewage entry is blocked,
the chamber has been dry for at least two hours and the operator is wearing an
oxygen mask.
In the case of velocity controlled channels, the trip switch controlled travelling
bridge with suspended suction hoses for each channel all connected to a vacuum
pump set are standard items. If this system fails and grit accumulates in the channel,
each channel should be taken out of sewage flow. The scour valve should be opened
below the chamber and the sewage after filtering through the in-built filter port
should be allowed to drain to the site drain. Thereafter, the chamber should be
allowed to air dry for at least two hours, high pressure water jetting, draining and air
drying cycle carried out at least three times. Subsequently, labourers can be deployed
to scrap the grit provided that the labourers wear goggles, gloves, safety shoes and
oxygen masks.
The grit is usually pre-rinsed in the grit removal chamber itself before it is evacuated
from it. shows a typical grit chamber.Clean grit is characterised by the lack of odour.
Washed grit may resemble particles of sand and gravel, interspersed with inert
materials from households. Grit washing mechanism has to be included whenever
the detention time is more and flow through velocity is less. Unless washed, it may
contain considerable amount of organic matter. This becomes an attraction to rodents
and insects and is also unsightly and odorous. The grit should be contained in a
secure landfill as directed by the local pollution control authority or disposed along
with the municipal solid wastes, if permitted.

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

The sewage from the bar screen chamber and grit trap comes to the
equalization tank. The equalization tank is the first collection tank in an STP. Its main
function is to act as buffer: To collect the incoming raw sewage that comes at widely
fluctuating rates, and pass it on to the rest of the STP at a steady (average) flow rate.
During the peak hours, sewage comes at a high rate. The equalization tank stores this
sewage, and lets it out during the non-peak time when there is no/little incoming
sewage. Through constant outflow rate, it is easier to design the rest of the units of the

7.1 Equalization tank
Since the diurnal variation in the quality of the sewage is not significant, the
equalization tank is used only for buffering the daily fluctuations in the sewage flow
quantity. The equalization tank must be of sufficient capacity to hold the peak time
inflow volumes. Peak times and volumes are site-specific and variable:
In the case of residential complexes, there is a distinct morning major peak
(when all residents are using their kitchens, bathrooms and toilets), followed

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

by a minor peak in the late evening hours. In a typical residential complex, an
equalization tank with a capacity to hold 4-6 hours of average hourly flow
should be adequate (based on the diversity of the population in the complex).
In addition, the sewage generation may be heavier during the weekends. In
such cases, the sewage volume generated on a weekend should be taken as
In the case of a commercial or software complex, peak flows commonly occur
during the lunch hour.
In the case of manufacturing units, the shift timings is a major factor. Peaks
occur at breakfast, lunch and dinner timings of the canteen.

The incoming sewer line is usually gravity-fed,and is likely to be at
considerable depth below the ground level. Therefore it is prudent not to make the
tanks of STP too deep, otherwise it requires very deep excavations and expensive
construction. It also makes the maintenance and cleaning processes very hazardous.
It is necessary to force compressed air in the sewage held in the tank. This is
mandatory for two reasons:
It keeps the raw sewage aerated, thereby avoiding septicity and suppressing
odor generation
It keeps solids in suspension and prevents settling of solids in the tank, thereby
reducing frequency of manual cleaning of the tank

The tank may be of any shape, provided it permits placement of air diffusers for
full floor coverage and uniform mixing over the entire floor area. The diffusers should
be retrievable: Individual diffusers (or sets of diffusers) may be lifted out and cleaned
for routine maintenance. This will reduce frequency of shut down of the Equalization
tank for manual cleaning purposes. If membrane diffusers are used, they will fail
frequently, due to the repeated cycles of expansion and contraction caused by
fluctuating water levels in the equalization tank. Therefore, only coarse bubble
diffusers must be used in the equalization tank


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

Peak Design Flow = 101250.00 Cum/day
Assumed Detention period = 2 hours
Volume of the Tank required =
x 2
=8437.5 Cum
Assumed Depth of Liquid column = 3 m
Area required for the equalization tank = 2812.5 Sq.m
No. of Tanks Proposed = 2nos
Area required for each equalization tank = 1406.25 Sq.m
Length to Breadth ratio = 1
Breadth of the tank = 37.5 m
Length of the tank = 37.5 m

Provide the Dimension of Equalization Tank (Collection Chamber )
as 37.5 m x 37.5 m x 3 m SWD + 0.3 m Freeboard

Assumed BOD reduction in the tank = 15% Percent
Incoming BOD of Raw sewage = 320.00 mg/L
BOD to be reduced = 320 x 0.15
= 48 mg/L
BOD Load =
4860.0 kg/day
Oxygen required to remove BOD load = 2 kg/kg of
Oxygen required = 9720.0 kg/day
= 405.00 kg/hr
Actual Air Required = 25510.20 Cum/hr

Provide Corse bubble aeration grids for = 25520.00 cum/hr


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

7.6 Operation And Maintenance Considerations
Keep air mixing on at all times
Ensure that the air flow/ mixing is uniform over the entire floor of the tank.
Adjust the placement of diffusers and the air-flow rate as needed.
Keep the equalization tank nearly empty before the expected peak load hours
(otherwise it will overflow)
Check and clean clogged diffusers at regular intervals
Manually evacuate settled muck/ sediments at least once in a year


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

If we use gravity to move the sewage through the units of STP, the units would have
to be placed progressively deeper below the ground level. To avoid deep excavations,
a pumping stage is introduced to lift sewage to the next unit in the STP, which is the
aeration tank.
This strategy yields a double benefit:
All downstream units may be placed at a convenient level above ground,
resulting in cost savings.
At the same time, the maintenance of STP becomes easier. The pumping rate
can be set at a calibrated uniform flow, so that downstream units are not
affected by fluctuating flows.
The capacity of the raw sewage lift pump is selected based on daily average rated
capacityof the STP, on the premise that the pumps shall be operated for 20 Hours in a
The lifting capacity of the pumps (called total head or total lifting height) may be
selected based on the level difference between the sewage-delivery level at the
aeration tank and the floor level of the equalization tank.
Despite the presence of the bar screen(s) before the equalization tank, in real-life
situations, we cannot rule out the presence of solids, polythene bags, plastic covers,
cups etc. in the equalization tank. These items pose a serious threat to the pumps. Let
us compare three different types of pumps for this job:
Submersible pumps with smaller flow passages in their impellers are not the
correct application for this duty: They are prone to frequent failures (either the
impeller gets damaged, or the pumps stall and then the winding burns).
Comminutor pumps with a cutter/shredder option solve the clogging issue by
pulverizing the obstacles, but they end up mixing nonbiodegradable material

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

in the sewage in such a way that separating the material becomes impossible.
This is a threat to the environment.
Therefore, the correct choice would be horizontal, centrifugal, non-clog, solids
handling (NC-SH) pumps with open impellers.

There are other valid and practical reasons for this selection:
1. The NC-SH pump is robust for this application, and failure rate/ frequency is
very low.
2. The NC-SH pumps are rated to handle solids up to even 20 mm size with an
open impeller design, whereas submersible pump with closed impeller design
comes with smaller openings.
3. The NC-SH pumps are less expensive than submersible pumps, but work at a
lower efficiency due to open impeller design. In an STP, robust treatment
performance is of prime importance and of higher priority than savings in
energy at the cost of treatment efficiency.

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

4. Repair/ servicing costs for NC-SH pumps are negligible compared to
submersible pumps
5. The NC-SH pumps may be serviced at the STP site itself within a few hours
with readily available spares and consumables. On the other hand, the
submersible pumps have to be sent to their service center/ factory for any
repairs, and the time required is typically 2 weeks.
6. Once a submersible pump goes for repair, it never recovers 100% efficiency,
and failures start occurring periodically (As per our experience, these pumps
are for use and throw duty only)
7. Guarantees/ warranties on repaired units are available, only if sent to the
respective factories.
8. The NC-SH pumps are equipped with a Non Return Flap valve in the body
itself, which functions as a normal foot valve: hence priming of these pumps is
not required at every start.
The raw sewage lift pump is a critical machinery, and so it must have a standby unit.
The electrical control circuit must ensure that both pumps cannot run at the same time
(otherwise they will
generate excessive pressure and damage the plumbing. Also, a higher flow rate means
partially treated sewage is passed out of STP.) Separate suction piping for each of the
two pumps is preferred, so that a clogged inlet pipe can be cleaned while the other
pump is operating. The delivery header of the two pumps must conform to good
piping engineering practice with necessary fittings for isolating the pumps for
maintenance, etc. It is nearly impossible to get pumps that provide the exact
combination of flow rate and head we need. Therefore, a bypass branch line (back
tothe equalization tank) with a control valve must be provided, so that the sewage
flow rate can be precisely set to the designed value. At the same time, provide for
locking this valve, so that the STP operator cannot tamper with its settings to increase
the flow rate. Sufficient space must be allowed around the pump for movement of
operators and technicians for routine operation and maintenance activities.


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

No. of pumps - 2 (2W+2SB)
Type of Pumps used - Horizontal Centrifugal
Average flow = 45000.00 Cum/day
Number of working hours = 20 hrs
Flow Capacity of Pump required =

= 2250.00 Cum/hr
Proposed pumps 4numbers (2W + 2SB), flow per Pump =

= 1125.00 Cum/hr
= 312.50 lps
Head required = 14.00m
HP required for pump =


= 117.00 hp

Switch between the main and standby pumpevery 4 hours (approximately).
Check oil in the pump every day; top up ifnecessary
Check motor-to-pump alignment after everydismantling operation
Check condition of coupling and replacedamaged parts immediately
Check for vibrations and tighten the anchorbolts and other fasteners
Check condition of bearings, oil seals,mechanical seal and replace if
necessaryCompletely drain out oil and replace afresh asper manufacturers
recommendationAlways keep safety guard in its properposition
Ensure discharge of raw sewage into theaeration tank is visible and can be
Maintain the flow rate at designed level (notampering with the bypass valve)


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

9.1 Function
Sewage Treatment addressed here will be on biological treatment technology
and cover such of those technologies for which validated design guidelines are
available in India over the past many decades and which permits drafting the unit
sizes without depending on any equipment manufacturer or any patented process
covered by a royalty of usage. There are no doubt other more recent technologies with
each of them having their own design guidelines by the respective equipment vendors
and for which obviously there are proprietary issues in procurement out of public
funds. No doubt, unless these are tried out at some point in time, there is no way of
inheriting these forever, but at the same time the proprietary issue has to be got over.
Hence, these technologies will be addressed later in this chapter under the title
Recent Technologies. Accordingly, the technologies to be considered in this chapter
will be the Activated Sludge Processes, Attached Growth Systems, Treatment
Methods Using Immobilization Carrier, Stabilization Ponds and Anaerobic Treatment.
The Trickling filter technology of yesteryears is decided to be phased out considering
the difficulties of its rotary distributor upkeep; Psychoda flies nuisance and the
induction of more effective surface area to unit volume configured media.
9.2 Activated Sludge Process
9.2 .1 Introduction
Aerobic suspended growth systems are of two basic types, those which
employ sludge recirculation, viz., conventional activated sludge process and its
modifications and those which do not have sludge recycle, viz., aerated lagoons, in
both cases sewage containing waste organic matter is aerated in an aeration basin in
which micro-organisms metabolize the soluble and suspended organic matter. Part of
the organic matter is synthesized into new cells and part is oxidized to carbon dioxide
and water to derive energy. In activated sludge systems the new cells formed in the
reaction are removed from the liquid stream in the form of a flocculent sludge in
settling tanks. A part of this activated sludge is recycled to the aeration basin and the
remaining forms waste or excess sludge. In aerated lagoons the microbial mass leaves
with the effluent stream or may settle down in areas of the aeration basin where

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

mixing is not sufficient. The suspended solids concentration in the aeration tank
liquor, also called mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), is generally taken as an
index of the mass of active micro-organisms in the aeration tank. However, the MLSS
will contain not only active micro-organisms but also dead cells as well as inert
organic and inorganic matter derived from the influent sewage. The mixed liquor
volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) value is also used and is preferable to MLSS as it
eliminates the effect of inorganic matter. Aerobic and facultative bacteria are the
predominant micro-organisms which carry out the above reactions of organic matter
i.e. oxidation and synthesis. Their cellular mass contains about 12% Nitrogen and 2%
Phosphorous. These nutrients should be present in sufficient quantity in the waste or
they may be added, required, for the reactions to proceed satisfactorily. A generally
recommended ratio of BOD5:N:P is 100:5:1. Domestic sewage is generally balanced
with respect to these nutrients.
9.2.2 Activated Sludge Process Variables
An activated sludge plant essentially consists of the following:
(i) Aeration tank containing microorganisms in suspension in which the
reaction takes place,
(ii) Activated sludge recirculation system
(iii) Excess sludge wasting and disposal facilities,
(iv) Aeration systems to transfer oxygen and
(v) Secondary sedimentation tank to separate and thicken activated sludge.
These are schematically illustrated in Figure 9.1 (a) to (e). The main variables of the
activatedsludge process are the loading rate, the mixing regime and the flow scheme.


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

10.1 Design Criteria
Typical values of loading parameters for various activated sludge modifications
commonly usedin India are furnished in Table below

10.1 Characteristics and design parameters of activated sludge systems for sewage

10.2 Extended Aeration
The flow scheme of the extended aeration process and its mixing regime are
similar to that of the completely mixed process except that primary settling is omitted.
The process employs low organic loading, long aeration time, high MLSS
concentration and low F/M. The BOD removal efficiency is high. Because of long
detention in the aeration tank, the mixed liquor solids undergo considerable
endogenous respiration and get well stabilized. The excess sludge does not require
separate digestion and can he directly dried on sand beds. Also the excess sludge
production is a minimum.
The oxygen requirement for the process is higher and the running costs are
also therefore high. However, operation is rendered simple due to the elimination of
primary settling and separate sludge digestion. The method is, therefore, well suited
specially for small and medium size communities and zones of a larger city.
In small plants intermittent operation of extended aeration systems may be adopted,
intermittent aeration cycles are:
(i) closing of inlet and aerating the sewage,
(ii) Stopping aeration and letting the contents settle and

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

(iii) Letting in fresh sewage which displaces an equal quantity of clarified
effluent. Sludge is wasted from the mixed liquor. To handle continuous flows
a number of units may be operated in parallel.
The oxidation ditch is one form of an extended aeration system having certain special
features like an endless ditch for the aeration tank and a rotor for the aeration
mechanism. The ditch consists of a long continuous channel usually oval in plan. The
channel may be earthen with lined sloping sides and lined floor or it may be built in
concrete or brick with vertical walls. The sewage is aerated by a surface rotor placed
across the channel. The rotor not only aerates the sewage but also imparts a horizontal
velocity to the mixed liquor preventing the biological sludge from settling out.
10.3 Design Consideration
The items for consideration in the design of activated sludge plant are aeration tank
capacity and dimensions, aeration facilities, secondary sludge settling and recycle and
excess sludge wasting.
10.3.1 Aeration Tank
-S) / (1 +Kd C) ..............(10.1)
The volume of the aeration tank is calculated for the selected, value of
byassumingasuitable value of MLSS concentration, X, in Equation (10.1 ).
Alternatively the tank capacity may be designed from F/M and MLSS concentration
according to Equation (). The F/M and MLSS levels generally employed in different
types of commonly used activated sludge systems are given in Table 10.1 along with
their corresponding BOD removal efficiencies.
It is seen that economy in reactor volume can be achieved by assuming a large
value for X. However, it is seldom taken to be more than 5,000 g/m3. A common
range is between 1,000 and 4,000 g/m3. Considerations which govern the upper limit
are: initial and running cost of sludge recirculation system to maintain a high value of
MLSS, limitations of oxygen transfer equipment to supply oxygen at required rate in a
small reactor volume, increased solids loading on secondary clarifier which may
necessitate a larger surface area to meet limiting solid flux, design criteria for the tank
and minimum HRT for the aeration tank for stable operation under hydraulic surges.

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

Except in the case of extended aeration plants and completely mixed plants, the
aeration tanks are designed as long narrow channels. This configuration is achieved
by the provision of round the- end baffles in small plants when only one or two tank
units are proposed and byconstruction as long and narrow rectangular tanks with
common intermediate walls in large plants when several units are proposed. In
extended aeration plants other than oxidation ditches and in complete mix plants the
tank shape may be circular or square when the plant capacity is small or rectangular
with several side inlets and equal number of side outlets, when the plant capacity is
The width and depth of the aeration channel depends on the type of aeration
equipment employed. The depth controls the aeration efficiency and usually ranges
from 3 to 4.5 m for surface aerators, the deeper depth being justified by use of hopper
bottomed tank square cells
and draft tubes. In the case of diffused aeration, the delivery pressure at the
compressor plays a crucial part in that in general, where this exceeds about 6.5 m
water cooled compressors will be needed and this shall be duly considered, Beyond
70 mld duplicate units are preferred. The width controls the mixing and is usually
kept between 5 and 10 m. Width-depth ratio should be adjusted to be between 1.2 to
2.2. The length should not be less than 30 or not ordinarily longer than 100 m in a
single section length before doubling back. The horizontal velocity should be around
1.5 m/min. Excessive width may lead to settlement of solids in the tank Triangular
baffles and fillets are used to eliminate dead spots and induce spiral flow in the tanks.
Tank free board is generally kept between 0.3 and 0.5 m.
Due consideration must be given in the design of aeration tanks to the need for
emptying them for maintenance and repair of the aeration equipment. Intermediate
walls should be designed for empty conditions on either side. The method of
dewatering should be considered in the design and provided for during construction.
The inlet and outlet channels of the aeration tank should be designed for empty
conditions oneither side. The method of dewatering should be considered in the
design and provided forduring construction.

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

The inlet and outlet channels of the aeration tanks should be designed to maintain a
minimumvelocity of 0.2 m/s to avoid deposition of solids. The channels or conduits
and their appurtenances should be sized to carry the maximum hydraulic load to the
remaining aerationtank units when any one unit is out of operation. The inlet should
provide for free fall into aeration tank when more than one tank unit or more than one
inlet is proposed. The free fall will enable positive control of the flows through the
different inlets. Outlets usually consist of free fall weirs. The weir length should be
sufficient to maintain a reasonably constant water level in the tank. When multiple
inlets or multiple tanks are involved, the inlets should be provided with valves, gates
or stop planks to enable regulation of flow through each inlet.
Diffused air aeration involves the introduction of compressed air into the sewage
through submerged diffusers of fine bubble or coarse bubble type. In the former,
compressed air is released at or near the bottom of the aeration tank through porous
tubes or plates made of aluminium oxide or silicon oxide grains cemented together in
a ceramic matrix. Troubles due to clogging from the inside can be reduced by
providing air filters and those due to clogging from outside can be avoided by
providing adequate air pressure below the diffusers at all times. In spite of such
precautions, fine bubble diffusers will require periodical cleaning. Air supplied to
porous diffusers should contain less than 0.02 mg of dust per cum of air.
Coarse bubble aerators have lower aeration efficiency than fine bubble aerators but
are cheaper in first cost and are less liable to clogging and do not require filtration of
air. In longish channel type aeration tanks, air diffusers are generally placed along one
side of the aeration tank, helping to set up a spiral flow in the tank which improves
mixing and prevents the solids from settling. They are located 0.3 m to 0.6 m above
tank floor to aid in tank cleaning and reduce clogging during shutdown. The agitator-
sparger is a special mechanical aerator system involving the release of compressed air
at the bottom of the aeration tank in large bubbles and the breaking up of the bubbles
into fine bubbles by submerged turbine rotors located above the air outlets. The
turbine rotors also provide mixing.


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

No of Tanks = 2
Flow - completely mixed
Q- per tank = 22500.00 cum/day
BOD = 320 48
= 272.00 mg/Lt
MLSS = 2500.00
Type Aeration - Diffuser type fine bubble
Blowers - = 2.00 ( 1W+1SB)
F/M assumed = 0.12
Volume of the tank =

= 20400.00 Cum
Add additional volume of 25% for sludge recycle = 0.25x20400.00
= 5100.00 Cum
Total volume of tank = 20400.00+5100.00
= 25500.00 Cum
Hydraulic Detention Time =

= 2.04 day
Depth of the tank = 4.00 m
Area of the Tank =

= 6375.00 Sq.m

Area for each tank = 6375.00 Sq.m
Assumed Breadth to Length Ratio = 1.00
Width of the tank =
= 79.9 m
Length of tank =

=79.8 m
Provide the Dimension of Aeration tank as 79.8 m x 79.9 m x 4 m SWD + 0.5 m

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

10.1 Aeration tank
Blower capacity
BoD load =
22500 x 272

= 6120.00 kg/day

= 255.00 kg/hr
Oxygen Required for 1 kg BOD removal = 2.00 kg
Theoretical Oxygen =255.00 x 2.00
= 510.00 kg/hr
Actual requirement of air =

= 24092.97 cum/hr
Total Air Requirement = 24092.97+25510.20
= 49603.50 Cum/hr
Fine bubble diffuser assumed to inject oxygen of = 10.00 cum/hr

Provide Membrane diffuser for aeration tank = 4960 No.

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

Provide 2 Blowers of capacity at 0.45 ksc (1W+ 1 SB)
= 49603.50 cum/hr
Sludge Volume Index assumed = 100.00
Sludge Recirculation Qr/Q=X
) = 0.33
Volumetric loading rate =
22500 x 272
25500 x 1000

= 0.24 kg/cum
= 2500x20400
= 51000000.00
Xt V =
Q (Y
/(1 + k

) = 22500.00x(272.00-20)
= 5670000.00
= 56700000.0051000000
= 0.11
= 0.11-0.6
= 0.05
Hydraulic Mean Cell Residence Time =

= 19.54 days
Reduction in the Aeration Tank = 95.00 %

Outlet BOD from the Aeration tank = 272.00-(95.00x272.00)
= 13.60 mg/L
10.6 Operation And Maintenance
Two methods are commonly used to supply oxygen from the air to the bacteria-
mechanical aeration and diffused aeration. Both methods are mechanical processes
with the difference being whether the mechanisms are at or in the aerator or at a
remote location. Mechanical aeration devices agitate the water surface in the aerator
to cause spray and waves by paddle wheels mixers, rotating brushes or some other
method of splashing water into the air or air into the water so that oxygen can be
absorbed. Mechanical aerators in the tank tend to be lower in installation and
maintenance costs. Usually, they are more versatile in terms of mixing, production of

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

surface area of bubbles, and oxygen transfer per unit of applied power. Diffused air
systems use a device called a diffuser to break up the air stream from the blower
system into fine bubbles in the mixed liquor. The smaller the bubble, the greater is the
oxygen transfer due to the greater surface area of rising air bubbles surrounded by
water. Unfortunately, fine bubbles will tend to regroup into larger bubbles while
rising unless they are broken up by suitable mixing energy and turbulence.
Record the pumping time and weekly waste solids for this time period if results are
satisfactory. If the extended activated sludge plant does not have an aerobic digester,
applying waste activated sludge to drying beds may cause odour problems. If odours
from waste activated sludge drying beds are a problem, consider the following
Waste the excess activated sludge into an aerated holding tank. This tank can
be pumped out and the sludge disposed of in an approved sanitary landfill. If
aerated long enough, the sludge could be applied to drying beds.
The excess or waste activated sludge can be removed by a septic tank pumper
and disposed of in an approved sanitary landfill.
Arrange for disposal of the excess activated sludge at a nearby treatment plant.
Annually, check the bottom of the hoppers for rocks, sticks, and grit deposits.
Also, check the tail pieces of the air lifts to be sure that they are clear of rags
and rubber goods and in proper working condition.


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process


11.1 Functions
Clarifiers are settling tanks built with mechanical means for continuous removal of
solids being deposited by Sedementation. A clarifier is generally used to remove
solid particulates or suspended solids from liquid for clarification and (or) thickening.
Concentrated impurities, discharged from the bottom of the tank are known as sludge,
while the particles that float to the surface of the liquid are called scum.

11.2 Rim Flow Sludge Suction Clarifiers

These are clarifiers with inlet along the rim and sludge sucked out at the floor through
suctionboxed arms instead of scrappers and is reported to save on foot print and
denser sludges andquicker return to aeration tank without analysis of the live sludge.
11.2.1 Advantages
It is claimed that given the same clarifier volume as conventional centre feed
clarifiers, these types of clarifiers can handle much higher throughputs and the
rising sludge phenomenon is minimized.
The need for a buried central feed pipe in large central feed clarifiers is
The sludge is sucked out as soon as it settles on the floor and transferred to
aerationtank and thus avoiding cell lysis.
11 . 2. 2 Disadvantages
Here again, each vendor advocates his own criteria for the equipment and their
types which makes it difficult to bring about a common and validated
designcriteria.The sludge suction arrangement if it gets into repair necessitates the
emptying ofthe clarifier for repairs.
11.3 Improved Circular Secondary Clarifier (HYDROPLUME)
The conventional secondary clarifiers do not take hydraulic energy dissipation into
account, they are either too large or often fail in giving the efficient solids-liquid
separation. In this endeavour, CSIR - NEERI has developed a clarifier design
radically different from the conventional circular clarifiers. It is called as
HYDROPLUME, which is an effective hydraulic energy dissipating, solids contact

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

and sludge recirculation type high rate secondary clarifier that provides natural
flocculation through plume formation. It produces excellent effluent quality and helps
in attaining the treated effluent quality conforming to discharge standards and the
settled sludge is removed through a specially designed suction mechanism. The
sludge removal mechanism is designed and fabricated to remove sludge from all
around the clarifier and discharging it from a stationary outlet as depicted in Figure
11.4 Design Procedure for Secondary clarifiers:
The clarifier detention times from NEERI study based on the compilation of the list
ofsecondary clarifier of STPs throughout the country
1. Choose the average overflow rate in Table and arrive at the surface area
2. Choose the peak overflow rate in Table and arrive at the surface area
3. Choose the average solids loading rate in Table and arrive at the surface area
4. Choose the peak solids loading in Table and arrive at the surface area
5. Choose the higher of the above four values and decide the diameter
6. Verify the weir overflow rate for compliance to Table
7. If the rate exceeds, verify the same with a double sided launder inside the clarifier
8. Even with this, if the rate exceeds, increase the diameter suitably.
9. Choose a compatible SWD.


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

11.5 Design of Secondary clarifier
No. of Tanks =2
Average Flow in each tank =

=22500.00 cum/day
SOR = 25.00Cum/Sqm/day
SWD = 2.00 m
Solid conc. In settled sludge -% = 0.8 to 0.9 %
Withdrawal frequency - continuous
Area Required for the Tank =

= 900.00 Sq.m
Diametre Required for Secondary Settling Tank = 900 x 2
=33.85 m
Assumed Detention Period = 3.10 hrs
)x 3.10
=2906.25 Cum
Depth of the Clarifier assumed = 2.50 m
Area of the Clarifier = 1162.50 Sq.m

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

Provide Secondary Clarifier of Diametre =

=38.50 m
Surface Loading Rate =

=19.35 Cum/Sq.m/day
Provide the Dimension of Secondary clarifier as 38.5 m diametre x 2.5 m
SWD + 0.5 m Freeboard


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process



Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process


12.1 Function
Disinfection of effluent from water reclamation facilities (WRFs) is required
to decrease thedisease risks associated with the discharge of sewage containing
human pathogens (diseasecausing organisms) into receiving waters. These
microorganisms are present in large numbers in sewage effluents.

Disinfection by chlorination is the most widely used technology in both
water supply and sewage treatment. As thetreated sewage is fresh from secondary
aerobic biological treatment, the chlorination of sucheffluents does not result in
hazards. In the case of effluents from anaerobic processes like UASB,the provision of
an aerobic polishing treatment is mandatory before such chlorination. The usual
dosage used is 10 mg/l and the detention time in the contact tank is 30 minutes.
Suitable bafflesare provided in these tanks to maximize the duration of contact. These
tanks shall not becovered and free wind must be allowed to blow across the tank. The
residual chlorine after thecontact has been generally detected at 1 to 1.5 mg/l at the
maximum and there are no offensive
The chlorine gas is controlled, metered, introduced into a stream of injector water and
thenconducted as a solution to the point of application.
The primary advantage of vacuum operation is safety. If a failure or breakage occurs
in thevacuum system, the chlorinator either stops the flow of chlorine into the
equipment or allows airto enter the vacuum system rather than allowing chlorine to
escape into the surroundingatmosphere. In case the chlorine inlet shutoff fails, a vent
valve discharges the incoming gas tothe outside of the chlorinator building.

The operating vacuum is provided by a hydraulic injector. The injector operating
water absorbsthe chlorine gas and the resultant chlorine solution is conveyed to a
chlorine diffuser throughcorrosion resistant conduit. A vacuum chlorinator also
includes a vacuum regulating valve todampen fluctuations and allow smooth
operation. Vacuum relief prevents excessive vacuumwithin the equipment.
Chlorine gas flows from the chlorine container to the gas inlet. After entering the
chlorinator,the gas passes through spring-loaded pressure regulating valve which
maintains the proper

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

operating pressure. A rotameter is used to indicate the rate of gas flow. The rate is
controlled byV-notch variable orifice. The gas then moves to the injector where it
dissolved in water andleaves the chlorinator as a chlorine solution (HOCl) ready for
Percentage of Chlorine in Bleaching powder = 25
Density of solution = 1 gm/ml
Strength of the solution = 1 %

Bleaching powder required = 144.0000 kg/d
for one percent solution, tank capacity, = 14400 liter
Dosing Rate = 1.44E+08 ml/day
= 144000 l/day
= 6000 lph
Volume of the tank required per shift of 8 hours = 48 cum

Provide a tank size of3.0m x 3.0m x(1.5m +.3m ) TD

BOD reduction after Disinfection = 10 %
BOD outlet to Garden, Irrigation or Reuse for Flushing is = 7.8 Mg/Lsafe
for irrigation


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

13.1 Applicability
This method can be used in all places where adequate land is available 13260 and
dried sludge can beused for soil conditioning. Where digested sludge is deposited on
well drained bed of sand andgravel, the dissolved gases tend to buoy up and float the
solids leaving a clear liquid at thebottom which drains through the sand rapidly. The
major portion of the liquid drains off in a fewhours after which drying commences by
evaporation. The sludge cake shrinks producing crackswhich accelerates evaporation
from the sludge surface. The areas having greater sunshine, lowerrainfall and lesser
relative humidity, the drying time may be about two weeks while in otherareas, it
could be four weeks or more. Covered beds are not generally necessary.
13.2 Unit Sizing
The sludge drying process is affected by weather, sludge characteristics, system
design (including depth of bed) and length of time between scraping and lifting of
sludge material.High temperature and high wind velocity improve drying while high
relative humidity andprecipitation retard drying.
13.2.1 Area of Beds
The area needed for dewatering and drying the sludge is dependent on the volume of
the sludge,cycle time required to retain sludge for dewatering, drying and removal of
sludge and makingthe sand bed ready for next cycle of application and depth of
application of sludge on dryingbed. The cycle time between two dryings of sludge on
drying beds primarily depends on thecharacteristics of sludge including factors
affecting its ability to allow drainage and evaporationof water, the climatic parameters
that influence evaporation of water from sludges and themoisture content allowed in
dried sludge. The cycle time may vary widely, lesser time requiredfor aerobically
stabilized sludges than for anaerobically digested sludge and for hot and dryweather
conditions than for cold and/or wet weather conditions.
Area of land required for sludges can be quite substantial with value of 0.1 to 0.25
m3/capitabeing reported for anaerobically digested sludge under conditions that are
unfavourable for dewatering and drying. The average cycle time for drying may range
from a few days to 2weeks in warmer climates to 3 to 6 weeks or even more in
unfavourable ones.


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

13.3 Percolation Type Bed Components
A sludge drying bed usually consists of a bottom layer of gravel of uniform size over
which islaid a bed of clean sand. Open jointed tile under drains are laid in the gravel
layer to providepositive drainage as the liquid passes through the sand and gravel.
13.3.1 Gravel
Graded gravel is placed around the under drains in layers up to 30 cm with a
minimum of 15 cmabove the top of the under drains. At least 3 cm of the top layer
shall consist of gravel of 3 to 6mm size.
13.3.2 Sand
Clean sand of effective size of 0.5 to 0.75 mm and uniform coefficient not greater
than 4.0 isused. The depth of sand may vary from 20 to 30 cm. The finished sand
surface shall be level.
13.3.3 Under Drains
Under drains are made of vitrified clay pipes or tiles of at least 13300 10 cm dialaid
with open joints.However other suitable materials may also be used. Under drains
shall be placed not more than6 m apart.
13.3.4 Walls
Walls shall preferably be of masonry and extend at least 40 cm above and 15 cm
below sandsurface. Outer walls should be kerbed to prevent washing outside soil on to
13.3.5 Dimensions
Drying beds are commonly 6 to 8 m wide and 30 to 45 m long. A length of 30 m
away from theinlet should not be exceeded with a single point of wet sludge
discharge, when the bed slope isabout 0.5%. Multiple discharge points may be used
with large sludge beds to reduce the lengthof wet sludge travel.
13.3.6 Sludge Inlet
All sludge pipes and sludge inlets are so arranged to easily drain and have a minimum
of 200mm dia terminating at least 30 cm above the sand surface. Splash plates should
be provided atdischarge points to spread the sludge uniformly over the bed and to
prevent erosion of the sand.
13.3.7 Cover
Sludge drying bed in high rainfall areas in the country needs cover with FRP etc., in
accordancewith requirement.

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

13.3.8 Drainage
Drainage from beds should be returned to the primary settling units if it cannot be
satisfactorilydisposed of otherwise.
13.4 Sludge Removal
13.4.1 Preparation of Bed
Sludge drying beds should be prepared well in advance of the time of
application of a freshbatch of sludge. All dewatered sludge which has formed a cake
should be removed by rakes andshovels or scrapers, care being taken not to pick up
sand with the sludge. After the completeremoval of sludge cake, the surface of the bed
is cleaned, weeds and vegetation removed, thesand levelled and finally the surface
properly raked before adding the sludge. The rakingreduces the compaction of the
sand on the surface and improves the filterability of the bed.
Only properly digested sludge should be applied to the drying beds. Poorly digested
sludge willtake a much longer time for dewatering. Sludge containing oils, grease and
floating matter clogthe sand and interfere with percolation. Samples of sludge from
the digester should be examinedfor the physical and chemical characteristics to ensure
that it is ready for withdrawal.
13.4.2 Withdrawal of Sludge
Sludge should be withdrawn from the digester at a sufficiently high rate to clear the
pipeline.Rodding and back-flushing of the inlet pipe may sometimes become
necessary to make thematerial flow easily. Valves must be opened fully to start with
and later adjusted to maintainregular flow. The flow may be regulated to keep the
pipe inlet from being submerged. Nakedflames should be prohibited while opening
sludge valves and exposed discharge channels.
13.4.3 Removal of Sludge Cake
Dried sludge cake can be removed by shovel or forks when the moisture content is
less than70%. When the moisture content reaches 40% the take becomes lighter and
suitable for grinding.Some sand always clings to the bottom of the sludge cake and
results in loss of sand thusreducing the depth of the bed. When the depth of the bed is
reduced to 10 cm, clean coarse sandwhich matches the original sand, should be used
for replenishment to the original depth of thebed.
13.4.4 Hauling and Storage of Sludge Cakes
Wheel barrows or pickup trucks are used for hauling of sludge cakes. In large plants
mechanicalloaders and conveyors may be required to handle large quantities of dried

Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process

sludge. Sludgeremoved from the bed may be disposal of directly or stored to make it
friable, therebyimproving its suitability for application to soil.

13.1 Sludge drying beds


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process


A successful technical project involves integration of various fields. This is
an attempt to combine several aspects of environmental, biological and chemical and
civil engineering.

Since, in ProddaturMunicipal Corporation there is no proper treatment plant
for sewage, it is necessary to construct a Sewage Treatment Plant. The plant is
designed perfectly to meet the future expansion for the next 30 years in accordance
with Indian Codal provisions. This project consists the design of the complete
components of a Sewage Treatment Plant from receiving chamber, screening
chamber, grit chamber, sedimentation tank, secondaty clarifier, active sludge tank
and sludge drying beds for sewage. The output generated can be successfully used
for the irrigation, gardening and flushing purpose.


Modeling, Operation and maintenance of Waste (Sewage) water Treatment Process


1.Engineering Manual On Sewerage And Sewage Treatment By
Central Public Health And Environmental Engineering
Organization, Ministry Of Urban Development, New Delhi.

2. Operation And Maintenance Manual OnSewerage And Sewage
Treatment By Central Public Health And Environmental
Engineering Organization, Ministry Of Urban Development ,New

2. Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering - G. S. Birdie

3. Water supply and sanitary engineering by S K Garg.