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ANALYSIS REPORT ON THE

ACCIDENT OF #2 CHIMNEY
COLLAPSE BALCO 4×300MW CPP
PROJECT

Investigation Team of

SEPCO Electrical Power Construction Corp

November 20, 2009


Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Contents

Chapter-1 General....................................................................................................4
1. General Status of Chimney Construction ............................................................4
2. Accident Description ...........................................................................................6
3. Eyewitness Statement ..........................................................................................6
4. Emergency Treatment After The Accident ..........................................................6
5. Expert Consulting................................................................................................6
6. Documents & Data ..............................................................................................7
Chapter-2 Chimney Design......................................................................................7
1. Soil Investigation for Chimney ...........................................................................7
2. Chimney Design ..................................................................................................7
3. Chimney Design Recheck ...................................................................................8
Chapter-3 Material for Chimney Construction.....................................................9
1. Construction Water ..............................................................................................9
2. Coarse Sand & Stone Aggregate .........................................................................9
3. Cement.................................................................................................................9
4. Reinforcement .....................................................................................................9
5. Concrete...............................................................................................................9
6. Conclusion...........................................................................................................9
Chapter-4 Construction Facilities and Equipments............................................10
1. Batching Plant ...................................................................................................10
2. Slip Form System ..............................................................................................10
3. Temporary Lightning Protection .......................................................................10
Chapter-5 Construction Management.................................................................. 11
1. Experience of GDCL......................................................................................... 11
2. Construction Management................................................................................. 11
3. Construction Management System....................................................................12
4. Conclusion.........................................................................................................12

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Chapter-6 Post-incident Check & Test .................................................................13


1. Check for Chimney Foundation and Pile ..........................................................13
2. Evidence Obtaining and Inspection for Chimney Debris Rebar .......................15
3. Evidence Obtaining and Inspection for Chimney Debris Concrete ..................15
Chapter-7 External Factors Analysis....................................................................15
1. Local Weather Conditions (Wind and Rainfall) When Accident Occurred.......15
2. Analysis of Thunder Stroke Factors ..................................................................15
3. Man-made Factors .............................................................................................17
Chapter-8 Chimney Wreck distribution and Site Photos ...................................18
1. Bird's View Of Chimney Area...........................................................................18
2. Chimney Foundation Check ..............................................................................20
3. ESP Area Broken Concrete At North Of Chimney Area ...................................22
4. Concrete Pieces At Working Platform Area Which Is At North Side Of
Chimney ...................................................................................................................29
5. Chimney Bottom Shell ......................................................................................33
6. The Location Of Winch Machine ......................................................................33
7. Wreck Distribution At The Bottom Of Chimney Shell .....................................33
8. Concrete Piling Up At The Root Of Chimney...................................................35
9. Slip Form And Operation Platform ...................................................................35
10. Illumination of Chimney Ventilating Window Height...................................36
Chapter-9 Fracture Morphology Analysis of Chimney Collapse.......................37
1. Chimney Debris Distribution Illustration..........................................................37
2. Fracture Morphology Analysis & Speculation for Chimney Collapse..............37
Chapter-10 Analysis and Conclusion on the Accident ........................................39
Chapter-11 Appendices ..........................................................................................39

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Analysis Report of the Accident

Indian Bharat Aluminium Company Ltd awarded the EPC contract for its 4x300MW
Captive Power Plant Project to Shandong Electric Power Construction Corp. For this
project, every two units share one 275m double piped flue can chimney. As approved
by the contract owner, the chimney work EPC contract was awarded to GDCL.
BALCO appointed DCPL to be their engineering and construction supervision
company. Site representative for project financing is BV. Till the accident, the RCC
work for #1 chimney shell is completed. Flue can erection was preparing. RCC work
for #2 chimney had reached 247.5m.

Chapter-1 General

1. General Status of Chimney Construction

Natural foundation is adopted for the designing of #1 chimney, the external


diameter of the foundation is 31M, the buried depth of the foundation is
-14.235M, the bearing stratum consist of medium weathered bedrock. As Per
Soil Investigation Report, Natural foundation cannot meet the design
requirement, so cast-in-place pile is adopted for #2 chimney. Total number of the
pile is 167 nos., and the diameter of each is 1M, the external diameter of pile
foundation cap is 44M, the buried depth of the same is -6.235. The external
diameter of #2 chimney shell at ground level is 25M and the thickness is 600mm.
The external diameter of #2 chimney shell at EL271 is 14.2M and the thickness
is 300mm.

Contract duration of #1 chimney is 24.5 months; the same of #2 chimney is 25.5


months.

Detailed progress of #2 chimney construction:

¾ For pile foundation construction: 2008.08.31~2008.11.13

¾ For foundation construction: 2008.11.27~2009.01.07

¾ For shell construction up to ground level: 2009.02.07~2009.02.09

The designed size of chimney shell is shown as in Chart-1 [EC-034-502-R0]

Chart-1 Chimney Shell Dimension

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Height Major Thickness


m diameter m m

271 14.200 0.3


265 14.200 0.3
245 14.200 0.3
225 14.200 0.35
205 14.200 0.35
185 14.200 0.35
165 15.368 0.35
145 16.535 0.35
125 17.703 0.35
105 18.870 0.35
85 20.038 0.40
65 21.205 0.40
55 21.789 0.50
45 22.373 0.50
25 23.541 0.50
16.775 24.021 0.56
12.15 24.291 0.60
7.525 24.561 0.60
0 25.000 0.60
-2.235 25.130 0.60

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

2. Accident Description

On September 23rd 2009 after 3 o’clock p.m. local time, the weather at site area
suddenly changed, the wind blew strongly accompanied with thundering and
lightning, and then it started to rain heavily. A moment later about 4 o’clock p.m.,
the chimney (#2 chimney) in construction which has already reached the height
of 274.5 meter collapsed during severe rainstorm and thundering.

3. Eyewitness Statement

Eyewitness statement of the incident site is in Appendix-1.

4. Emergency Treatment After The Accident

Our personnel reported the accident to the owner immediately after the accident
happened. We tried to organize our subcontractors to rescue, but it had to be
cancelled due to the attack launched by a few of labors at site. Local police and
government officials hurried to the scene for rescue, sealed off the accident
scene and took some special measures to protect Chinese staff. Then our H.O
started the emergency plan at once, an accident treatment group was organized
and deployed the concerned personnel to site emergently. At the same time, an
accident analysis group was organized by our company, regarding the cause of
the accident we consulted and discussed with well-known expert of China
specializing in engineering, civil, mechanics and weather for several times.

After the accident, the government took charge of organizing the rescue job, the
accident treatment group from our side contacted with all concerned parties
actively, follow up the condition of the accident and rescue progress on daily
basis, try our best to collect all the true and valid information from various
resources to develop the accident investigation job.

5. Expert Consulting

Regarding the causes of collapse, we consulted well-known expert of China


specializing in engineering, civil, mechanics and weather, three times of expert
meetings and several special meeting have been organized to discuss, and the
experts were organized to site to develop on-site investigation, to analysis the
causes in different aspects. The experts are as followings:

NWEPDI: Xie Bao’an (Professorate Senior Engineer)

ECEPDI: Cai Hongliang (Professorate Senior Engineer)

SDEPCI: Zhang Lanchun (Professorate Senior Engineer), Zhang Bo (Senior


Engineer)

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

CSEE: Ma Shen (Professorate Senior Engineer), Li Bingyi (Professorate Senior


Engineer), Hou Jianguo (Professor), Zhou Liqiong (Professorate Senior
Engineer), Jiang Yusheng (Senior Engineer)

Institute of Mechanic, China Academy of Sciences: Zhou Jiahan (Researcher),


Zhang Deliang (Researcher)

China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research: Zhang Yongzhe


(Senior Engineer)

Thunder and Lightning Protection Center of Shandong Province: Yu Zhenbo


(Senior Engineer)

Chinese Academy of Meteorological: Yang Weilin (Senior Engineer), Meng


Qing (Senior Engineer), Dong Wansheng (Researcher), etc.

6. Documents & Data

According to the information which has been collected by us, we have analyzed
various reasons and factors that may cause the chimney collapse and screened
all the information that collect from various aspects. The reference information
are as following:

1) geology investigation report

2) chimney technical specification (preliminary)

3) chimney construction scheme, quality acceptance plan and inspection


record

4) all the drawings and design instructions related to chimney engineering

5) construction material acceptance and test documents

6) all the detailed information collected at site

Chapter-2 Chimney Design

1. Soil Investigation for Chimney

Soil Investigations Outline was provided by LNPDI.

SDEPCI supervised SK doing site soil investigation. The soil investigation


report was submitted by SK. The data of the report is true and reliable.

2. Chimney Design

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Chimney design is complied by Tandon Consultant Company (New Delhi)


which was approved by DCPL (Kolkata). GDCL supplied relevant drawing:
Drilling Position Drawing (DCPL); Pile foundation cap design sheet (DCPL);
Chimney pile design sheet (TCPL); Chimney shell design sheet (TCPL);
Chimney 25m to 265m platform design (TCPL); #2 Chimney design drawing.
There is only foundation difference between #1 and #2 chimneys. In principle
the shell designs are almost the same.

After the chimney accident, the chimney contractor GDCL contacted IIT (Delhi)
to recheck the chimney design. Expert S.N. Sinha from IIT (Delhi) said in his
report on October 23, 2009 that design of the chimney is safe and adequate.
[enclosed Annex III of GDCL Technical Committee Report- Consultancy Report
on Cause of Collapse of Chimney No.2].

3. Chimney Design Recheck

¾ Recheck by Indian Experts Invited by GDCL

Refer to above paragraph

¾ Recheck by Chinese Expert

Relevant experts from SDEPCI and Special Committee for Civil Construction
for Electrical of Engineering Institute of China rechecked the chimney design
according to relevant Chinese Standard. They also compared the chimney design
with Chinese Standard.

Standard and analysis software adopted:

z Chimney Design Standard (GB50051-2002)

z Chimney design software (2009 version)

z Architecture structure Loading Standard (GB-2001, 2006 version)

z Technical Norms for Thermal Power Plant Civil Structure Design


(DL5022-93)

Although there are some differences between Chinese and Indian Design on
chimney concrete strength grade, shell thickness & dimension and reinforcing,
full duct hole and strengthen measure for holes erection and slipping form
technology, the result of inspection indicated that chimney design is adequate
under normal design loading work condition.

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Chapter-3 Material for Chimney Construction

1. Construction Water

Water for chimney construction is from industrial water system supplied by


BALCO power plant. It is proved to be qualified after sample check and test by
GDCL.

2. Coarse Sand & Stone Aggregate

Sand coarse and stone aggregate were purchased locally in India. Certificate of
Origin is available. They did sample test for every batch of material. BV and our
engineer supervised the process. The tests were qualified.

3. Cement

In chimney shell construction, GDCL only used #43 OPC cement. #43 cement
was purchased from Ultra Tech and Ambuja Company by GDCL. They did
sample test for every batch of material. BV and our engineer supervised the
process. The tests were qualified.

4. Reinforcement

Chimney construction is adopted Fe500 reinforcement. We purchased


reinforcement from SAIL, TISCO and ESSAR as per the EPC contract.
Reinforcement was check after fabrication. Conformity certificate is available.

After the accident, we did sample recheck on site reinforcement. We totally took
6 sets of 12mm and 16mm diameter reinforcement (3 were used and 3 were not).
All are qualified [enclosed Mechanic Performance Test Report for
Reinforcement used in Chimney shell].

5. Concrete

As per code, GDCL did cubic block every time before they did concreting, and
then they did 7-day and 28-day strength test. BV and our engineer supervised
the process. The tests were qualified.

6. Conclusion

After check the material quality certificate for chimney construction, site
material sample test report and other materials, we confirmed that the material is
satisfied the design and code requirements.

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Chapter-4 Construction Facilities and Equipments

1. Batching Plant

The batching plant is manufactured by Schwing-Stetter (German company


located in India). It is a plant of 60 cum/hr capacity. This batching plant has
computerized operation. Engineers both from our company and BV check it
every month. It operates well.

2. Slip Form System

Slip form system for chimney shell construction is designed by Interform, a


Sweden company and fabricated by GDCL. Before and during use of the slip
form BV and our Engineers did specific inspection on its safety and quality. It is
qualified.

Photo-1 Slip form system and working platform (09,09,2009)

3. Temporary Lightning Protection

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

The arrangement of the protection during construction is shown in 20091027


GDCL Technical Committee Report Annex V - Detail of Earthing During
Construction of Chimney.

The temporary lightning protection was designed and provided as per


Para-E-2.6.1 of IS 4998 (Part-I) 1975[enclosed 20091027 GDCL Technical
Committee Report Annex IV]. During construction we tested the earthing
resistance of the lightning protection, it meets the requirement.

Chapter-5 Construction Management

1. Experience of GDCL

GDCL is one of the few construction companies in India specializing in


construction of tall chimneys since 1980s. It is understood that the chimney
which collapsed in the accident was the 6th 275m high chimney being completed
by GDCL after already completing 5 nos. chimneys of the same height. At
BALCO project a chimney of the same height design had already been
completed by GDCL and standing intact after the accident.

2. Construction Management

We arranged two civil engineers to supervise chimney working progress control,


quality management, work scheme inspection and safety management etc.

Piling Foundation Construction:

Before foundation constructing start, we reviewed the construction plan


submitted by GDCL and also submitted the same to BALCO and DCPL for
approval. Before piling construction, our engineers supervised piling test done
by GDCL and also complied loading test for the tested pile according to the
drawing and relevant standard. During piling, engineers from BALCO, DCPL
and SEPCO supervised and checked the same. After piling, we did loading test
and UT test on a sample pile. The tests were qualified.

Piling Foundation Cap Construction:

In the process of piling foundation cap construction, our engineers implemented


supervision nearby the same. There was no abnormality occurred during
construction.

Shell Construction:

Our engineers reviewed and examined the shell slip form construction scheme
submitted by GDCL and submitted to DCPL and BALCO for review and
approval. In the process of shell construction, our engineers together with DCPL

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

& BALCO engineers implemented one nos. acceptance every two days for the
rebar, radius, verticality and appearance quality of the shell. There was no
abnormality occurred during construction and the whole construction process
was under controllable & controlled conditions.

Construction progress schedule of the chimney shell is shown as in Chart-2. the


curve of construction progress record is smooth and reasonable, not over-speed
progress occurred during chimney construction.

Chart-2 shell construction schedule records (#2)

250

200

150

100

50

0
09-2-9

09-2-16

09-2-23

09-3-2

09-3-9

09-3-16

09-3-23

09-3-30

09-4-6

09-4-13

09-4-20

09-4-27

09-5-4

09-5-11

09-5-18

09-5-25

09-6-1

09-6-8

09-6-15

09-6-22

09-6-29

09-7-6

09-7-13

09-7-20

09-7-27

09-8-3

09-8-10

09-8-17

09-8-24

09-8-31

09-9-7

09-9-14

09-9-21

3. Construction Management System

We established construction management system. GDCL also made relevant


management systems as per our requirement, for example, layout plan,
construction scheme, employee training and etc. GDCL and our management
arrangement for chimney construction is efficient and in order.

4. Conclusion

To sum up, in the various construction stages for pile foundation, foundation and
the shell of the chimney, the management of SEPCO, DCPL and BALCO was
all in good condition, there were no unusual conditions in the process of the
construction and the construction quality was under controlled conditions all the
time.

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Chapter-6 Post-incident Check & Test

Our personnel did a serial of check and survey on the form of chimney at site after the
collapse, including chimney foundation and pile check, sample test for RCC debris of
the chimney and reinforcement and distribution status of the chimney debris.

1. Check for Chimney Foundation and Pile

After the accident happened, the government’s investigation team sent persons
to dig out the whole foundation and to clear & clean the surface; besides, dig out
the three piles in the bottom at the southern side of the foundation, and our
engineers & experts executed inspection and observation at site for many times
and observed: the pile body was in good condition and there’s no fracture; no
crack on the surface of the foundation, no uneven subsidence and no deviation
for the foundation.(see pile foundation pix 1-3)

Photo-2 Pile Picture 1 (26, 10, 2009)

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Photo-3 Pile Picture 2 (26, 10, 2009)

Photo-4 Pile Picture 3 (26, 10, 2009)

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

2. Evidence Obtaining and Inspection for Chimney Debris Rebar

After the accident occurred, we implemented sampling reinspection for the site
rebar and got totally six groups (three groups have never been used and three
groups have been used) of 12mm and 16mm diameter rebar, and the testing
results were all qualified. [Testing reports for shell rebar dynamics performance]

3. Evidence Obtaining and Inspection for Chimney Debris Concrete

我方委托当地有资质的实验室(加尔各答)进行混凝土钻芯取样试验。根
据试验结果,所有取样合格。

We consigned local qualified lab (Kolkata) to implement concrete core sampling


testing. As per the testing results, all the samples were qualified.

Chapter-7 External Factors Analysis

1. Local Weather Conditions (Wind and Rainfall) When Accident Occurred

We inquire meteorological information that day from Korba local


meteorological station after the accident occurred, yet due to equipment failure,
the meteorological station did not preserve weather information on September
23rd.

According to witnessed testimony, when the accident occurred that day, there
was furious storm with strong thunder and lightning at construction site: “at that
time “fierce wind” at site, difficult for persons to advance and even the office
doors could not be closed”, “the wind was too strong, although #2 turbine hall
roof had already been enclosed there’s no place to shelter from wind & rain”,
“fierce wind, lightning flashes and thunder rumbles and rainstorm pouring”,
“accompanied strong lightning from the sky to the ground and the situation was
quite shocking”, “the strong wind made the windows sound heavily and I had
never experienced so strong wind”.

Generally speaking, wind velocity of gust is 50% or even stronger than average
wind velocity. The stronger the average wind velocity is, the rougher the ground
surface is, and the wind velocity of gust is more percentage than average wind
velocity.

2. Analysis of Thunder Stroke Factors

¾ Data Analysis on thunder & lightning records

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Indian IPLN Company provided thunder & lightning records information


[20091021 Lightning Report IPLN] on the date of September 23rd

Sheet-1 provided thunder & lightning records sheet

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Chart -3 lightning records showed on Google Map

Through review and examination for the lightning record, we thought: the
lightning report provided by IPLN Company showed that there were nine times
of thunder strokes within 6km around #2 chimney when the accident occurred,
and the occurring time of the lightning record conformed to the collapse time of
chimney; although there was slight difference between the coordinate of
measured thunder stroke and the coordinate of #2 chimney (22°23′50″ north
latitude and 82°44′23″ east longitude), in view of the working principle and
inherent error of lightning locator, it could be confirmed that chimney collapsed
accident conformed to thunder stroke record information.

¾ Witness Statement

B.C.Chatterjee (GDCL site staff) reported that before the collapse they saw a
lightning entered the hollow of the top of chimney. [20091027 GDCL Technical
Committee Report Annex 1 - Eyewitness Report on Chimney Mishap at Korba].

3. Man-made Factors

At present there is no evidence that the collapse was caused by man-made


damage.

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Chapter-8 Chimney Wreck distribution and Site Photos

From 3rd Nov.2009 to 14th Nov.2009, several field surveys for the cleared chimney
site have been conducted by our investigation team, and detail surveys and
investigations have been done for the cleared chimney foundation, the remaining
concrete at the bottom of chimney shell, shell reinforcement, the broken concrete
scattering distribution when the chimney collapsed and the distribution of surrounding
buildings/ structures. Details are as follows:

1. Bird's View Of Chimney Area

There are lots of auxiliary and temporary constructions/ structures surrounding


the chimney, the detailed distribution is shown as in the general layout sketch of
chimney and surrounding constructions/ structures; bird's view pictures of
chimney area are shown in Photo-5 ~ Photo-7.

Photo-5 bird's view of chimney area (from north to south)

烟囱北侧

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Photo-6 Bird’s View of working platform for Water Wall of boiler (North to chimney area)

North to Chimney

Photo-7 Bird’s View of working platform for water wall and ESP hopper (N by E area of Chimney)

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

2. Chimney Foundation Check

Chimney foundation surface is cleaned. There are several deep pits with water in
them at outer side of foundation which were used for checking the quality of
pouring pile under the foundation. Showed in Photo-8 and Photo-2 ~ Photo-4.
From the foundation surface, we did not find any apparent cracks or damages,
except for some scratches by excavator. Foundation concrete quality is good as
seen at site. See Photo-9 and Photo-10.

Photo-8 Deep pit at south side of chimney foundation

South of
Chimney

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Photo-9 Integrality status at the top of chimney foundation

Photo-10 Scratches at the top of chimney foundation


3. ESP Area Broken Concrete At North Of Chimney Area

After the collapse of the chimney, the broken concretes are mainly dropped at
chimney north by east - each platforms of ESP, hopper and working platform for
water wall area which is at north by east side of chimney. The sizes of broken
concretes are not the same: the ones which are at #3 ESP area are bigger, the
ones which are at working platform for water wall are smaller, and some are
even like powder; the down sides of two hoppers of #3 ESP from south are
blocked by big broken concretes; although the 4 hoppers from north are not
blocked, there are many small concrete pieces on the ground under the hoppers;
besides, many stairs and steel grids at each platform of #3 ESP were broken by
concrete pieces. See Photo-11 ~ Photo-20.
Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Photo-11 blocking status A of broken concrete (the west hopper on south side of #3 ESP)

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Photo-12 blocking status B of broken concrete (the lower part of east hopper on south side of #3 ESP)

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Photo-13 scattering status A of broken concrete (EL 9.1m platform of #3 ESP area )

Photo-14 scattering status B of broken concrete (EL9.1m platform of #3 ESP area)

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Photo-15 scattering status C of broken concrete (EL9.1m platform of #3 ESP area)

Photo-16 scattering status D of broken concrete (EL2.5m platform of #3 ESP area)

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Photo-17 scattering status E of broken concrete (EL2.5m platform of #3 ESP area)

5.3kg

12.8kg
34.5m away from the
center of the chimney
slid form
component

Photo-18 scattering status F of broken concrete (EL9.1m platform of #3 ESP area)

12.3kg
35m away from the
center of the chimney

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Photo-19 scattering status G of broken concrete (EL9.1m platform of #3 ESP area)

20.9kg
36.4m away from the
center of the chimney

Photo-20 scattering status H of broken concrete (EL9.1m platform of #3 ESP area)

5.9kg

24.9kg
37.5m away from the
center of the chimney

4.2kg

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

4. Concrete Pieces At Working Platform Area Which Is At North Side Of Chimney

Concrete pieces at working platform for water wall of boiler at north side of
chimney are very dense. The pieces are very small, and they are mainly like
powders. See Photo-21 ~ Photo-26; There are a bit of concrete pieces at boiler
operation platform area which is far from chimney. See Photo-27.

Photo-21 scattering status A of broken concrete on the water wall of boiler (at north side of chimney)

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Photo-22 scattering status B of broken concrete on the water wall of boiler (at north side of chimney)

Photo-23 scattering status C of broken concrete on the water wall of boiler (at north side of chimney)

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Photo-24 scattering status D of broken concrete on the water wall of boiler (at north side of chimney)

Photo-25 scattering status E of broken concrete on the water wall of boiler (at north side of chimney)
Photo-26 scattering status F of broken concrete on the water wall of boiler (at north side of chimney)

Photo-27 scattering status of broken concrete on the operation level of boiler(at north side of chimney)
Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

5. Chimney Bottom Shell

Photo-33 shows that after the collapse, there was a new pile of earth at the north
side of the chimney. According to the relevant position between this new pile of
earth and buildings around chimney in the picture, we can conclude that the new
pile of earth is backfilling earth of chimney foundation raised by the falling of
the root of chimney shell. The new pile was pushed 5 meters to north side of the
chimney shell.

6. The Location Of Winch Machine

The arrangement of #2 chimney and winch machine is similar to the same of #1


chimney. The winch machine area was destroyed due to the collapse of #2
chimney, and the survey for the scene was not available. Take the location of #1
chimney and winch machine for reference. The details are as showed in
Photo-28.

Photo-28 Relative location between #1 chimney and winch machine shed

Winch machine shed

7. Wreck Distribution At The Bottom Of Chimney Shell

From the photos taken after the accident, there are laminated concreted shells at
the bottom of chimney which fell down to the south side. It is presumed that the
circled shell was damaged by extrusion, while the inner sides were covered each

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

other. See Photo-28 and Photo-29.

Photo-29 Overlap condition A of the bottom section of chimney shell after collapse

Photo-30 Overlap condition B of the bottom section of chimney shell after collapse

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

8. Concrete Piling Up At The Root Of Chimney

Broken concrete and pulverized concrete piled up at the root of chimney shell, it
was analyzed that the same may be caused by the piling of the concrete pieces
which was resulted by the inside recessing damage of the middle part and root
part of chimney shell. The details are as indicated in Photo-30 & Photo-31.

Photo-31 Concrete debris at the bottom of chimney (northeast direction)

Upper part of chimney shell


(the thickness of shell is thin)
Bottom part of the
chimney shell

The inner side of the chimney


shell is filled with plenty of
broken concrete

Photo-32 Concrete debris at the bottom of chimney (southwest direction)

the inner side of the chimney


shell is filled with plenty of
broken concrete

9. Slip Form And Operation Platform

It is presumed according to photos taken on site, all wrecks of slip form system
and operation platforms fell at the south side of the chimney, and they fell down
first. Some of the slip form system and operation platform fell down at 20m to
30m of south-east side of the chimney.

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Photo-33 Illustration of Construction Platform and Slip form device crash

Wrecks of slip form system and operation


platforms fell at the south side of the
chimney, and they fell down first

10. Illumination of Chimney Ventilating Window Height

Chart-4 Illumination of #2 Chimney Ventilating Window Height

EL 223m (2009.09.08)

EL 186m

EL 146m

EL 106m

EL 66m

EL 26m

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Chapter-9 Fracture Morphology Analysis of Chimney Collapse

1. Chimney Debris Distribution Illustration

According to eyewitness statement, the photos taken by project personnel and


collected through the media, the scene of the accident is re-created as in
following picture:

Chart-5 Illustration of chimney debris distribution

The length of chimney debris through vertical axis is 75 meters.

2. Fracture Morphology Analysis & Speculation for Chimney Collapse

We analyzed and speculated through survey data from the chimney collapse at
site and various existing photos & data after chimney collapsed and witnessed
testimony, and there were the following morphologies for chimney collapse
breaking:

Morphology I: Breaking from Chimney Upper Portion

¾ The chimney shell suffered from thunder stroke in the strong wind in a
sudden way, and the chimney shell also bore many strong effects of
complex impacts, consequently the part at the tens meters of the top of
concrete shell broke off with destructiveness towards southern side; the
Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

slip form platform fell on the ground in the southern side of the chimney
and the concrete debris of shell cracking scattered in #3 ESP in the
direction of north by east.

¾ Under the joint impacts of chimney top section’s breaking fracture pull,
pressure, torsion and strong wind, the concrete shell in the middle section
suffered from partial destabilization, inside concave and inflexion, and
broken concrete fell and filled inside the shell in the chimney bottom.

¾ chimney bottom section suffered from the joint effects of pull, pressure
and torsion from the middle section’s, and the concrete shell in the bottom
flue opening and holes remaining position of the opening was pressed and
damaged, then collapsed towards south by east with the collapsed debris
remained about 75m.

Morphology II: Breaking from Chimney Top Portion

¾ Various complex impacts caused damage of partial concrete on the top of


the chimney;

¾ Under the integrated impact of thunderstorm, strong settling airflow, gust


front and transverse wind shear, affected by elastic effects of chimney shell,
the chimney fractured and inclined at the location of tens of meters in
height from the top.

¾ Eccentricity resulted from Inclined shell caused chimney suffering


pressure and the chimney shell destabilized, then the concrete in the
bottom of the shell suffered gravity impact breakage from top concrete
shell and construction machineries and continuously damaged and
collapsed, and the chimney root received the impact and extrusion
breakage from the concrete on high, all of these finally caused chain
collapse.

Photo-34 fresh earth deposits after concrete shell collapsed (in the chimney northern side)

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Chapter-10 Analysis and Conclusion on the Accident

In conclusion of the above analysis, #2 chimney designs for BALCO project satisfied
the related standard and requirements, construction facilities and materials satisfied
the requirements of designs and specifications, construction technology was
reasonable and construction management was in order.

To sum up the site weather conditions, debris distribution after chimney collapse,
concrete debris distribution conditions and witnessed testimony that day, and after our
analysis of all aspects we think that, under the complex impacts of strong thunder and
lightning and strong wind, some section of #2 chimney shell upper portion or top of
chimney firstly suffered from damage, causing top section damaged fracture, and the
bottom shell suffered integrated effects of torsion, pull, pressure and impact and
continuously collapsed and damaged.

Considering the relevant information collected up to date is not so sufficient or


accurate to support to locate exactly the specific position of broken-down of the
chimney, we think that the upper portion of chimney is the most possible position
which broke down firstly, yet at this time we do not exclude that there are any
other possibilities of broken-down mode.

We shall try all our efforts to obtain updated information and execute analysis
continuously. If there’s further result, we will complement the investigation
report in a timely manner.

Chapter-11 Appendices

Appendix-1 20091107 Summary of witnessed testimony regarding weather condition

Appendix-2 Thunder Stroke Phenomenon and Damage

Appendix-3 20091027 GDCL Technical Committee Report

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Appendix-1 20091107 Summary of witnessed testimony regarding weather


condition

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Appendix-2 Thunder Stroke Phenomenon and Damage

Various physical phenomenon and damage due to thunder stroke discharging are as
follows:

Electricity Effects:

When thunder stroke discharging, there can be produced ten thousand volts impulse
voltage;

Heat Effects:

when several dozens to several thousands Amps of strong thunder and lightning
current passed conductor, it can be changed to a lot of thermal energy in extremely
short time. Taking medium thunder as example: instant power P of thunder main
discharging is extremely large, take I=50kA, arc road drop E=”6kV”/m, thundercloud
is calculated by 1000m height, main discharging power
P=”UI”=50x6x1000=300,000MW, it is even higher than any power plant’s power all
over the world at present. This shows that thunder discharging instant power is
extremely high, i.e. the destructive power is extremely high.

Mechanical Effects:

due to thunder’s heat effects, the air in the thunder passageway expanded when heated,
and meanwhile make water content and other matter resolve into gas and spread
around by supersonic velocity, therefore, there’s strong mechanical pressure inside the
objects stroke by lightning, causing the stroked objects suffering from severe damage
or causing explosion.

Affected by thunder’s mechanical effects, cold air surrounding thunder passageway is


strongly compressed to form “shock wave”. As for the place where “shock wave”
arrives, air density, pressure and temperature would suddenly increase. After “shock
wave” air pressure in this area declines until lower than atmospheric pressure. This
kind of “shock wave” spread in the air, and can make the buildings nearby suffering
from damage, and the effects of shock wave are like explosives explode which have
the same damage for the buildings nearby.

Other Effects:

There are such effects as electromagnetic induction and thunder incoming wave, etc.
of other effects for thunder.

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Analysis Report On The Accident Of #2 Chimney Collapse

Appendix-3 20091027 GDCL Technical Committee Report

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