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G.k. No. L-104961


lalnLlff: CCnC8LSSMAn l8AnClSCC 8. AnlAC !8.

uefendanL: CCMMlSSlCn Cn LLLC1lCnS and uLA81MLn1 Cl !uS1lCL

onenLe: 8elloslllo !r., !"

CASL: eLlLlon for declaraLory rellef, cerLlorarl and prohlblLlon for Lhe
followlng CCMLLLC resoluLlons: 8esoluLlon no. 2327 for belng
unconsLlLuLlonal, and 8esoluLlon no. 92-0829 and 8esoluLlon no. 92-
0999 for wanL of legal and facLual bases.

uecember 11, 1991 ! CCMLLLC keso|ut|on 2323 (Cun 8an")
promulgaLlng rules and regulaLlons on bearlng, carrylng and
LransporLlng of flrearms or oLher deadly weapons, on securlLy
personnel or bodyguards, on bearlng arms by members of
securlLy agencles or pollce organlzaLlons, and organlzaLlon or
malnLenance of reacLlon forces durlng Lhe elecLlon perlod.
uecember 26, 1991 ! CCMLLLC keso|ut|on 2327 provldlng for
Lhe summary dlsquallflcaLlon of candldaLes engaged ln
gunrunnlng, uslng and LransporLlng of flrearms, organlzlng
speclal sLrlke forces, and esLabllshlng spoL checkpolnLs.
!anuary 10, 1992 ! pursuanL Lo Lhe Cun 8an", Seraplo .
1accad, SergeanL-aL-Arms, Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves, wroLe
peLlLloner who was Lhen Congressman of Lhe 1sL ulsLrlcL of
8ulacan requesLlng Lhe reLurn of Lhe Lwo (2) flrearms lssued Lo
hlm by Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves.
!anuary 13, 1992 ! upon belng advlsed, peLlLloner lnsLrucLed
hls drlver, LrnesLo Arellano Lo plck up former's flrearms from hls
house aL valle verde and reLurn Lhem Lo Congress.
3:00pm of !an.13 ! Senlor SuperlnLendenL uanllo Cordero seL
up a check polnL 20m from Lhe 8aLasan Complex enLrance.
o 30mlns laLer, Arrellano's car was flagged down as lL
approached. 1he car was searched and Lhe flrearms
found neaLly packed ln Lhelr gun cases lnslde Lhe Lrunk.
o Arrelano was afLerwards apprehended and deLalned,
afLer whlch he explalned Lhe lnsLrucLlons glven Lo hlm.
o 1he pollce referred Arellano's case Lo Lhe Cfflce of Lhe
ClLy rosecuLor, and dld noL lnclude hereln peLlLloner as
among Lhose charged wlLh elecLlon offense.
!anuary 13, 1992 ! ClLy rosecuLor ordered Lhe release of
Arellano afLer flndlng merlLous Lhe laLLer's sworn explanaLlon.
!anuary 28, 1992 ! ClLy rosecuLor lnvlLed peLlLloner Lo shed
llghL on Lhe clrcumsLances lnvolvlng Arellano. ln Lhe prellmlnary
lnvesLlgaLlon, peLlLloner conflrmed Arellano's sLaLemenL.
March 6, 1992 ! ClLy rosecuLory recommended LhaL Lhe case
agalnsL Arellano Lo be dlsmlssed, as well as Lhe unofflclal"
charge agalnsL peLlLloner.
Aprll 6, 1992 ! CCMLLLC lssued keso|ut|on No. 92-0829
dlrecLlng Lhe flllng of lnformaLlon agalnsL peLlLloner and
Arellano for vlolaLlon of Sec. 261, par. (q), of 8.. 8|g. 881
(Cmn|bus L|ect|on Code), ln relaLlon Lo Sec. 32 of k.A. No.
1hey asked peLlLloner Lo show cause why he should noL
be dlsquallfled from runnlng for an elecLlve poslLlon, pursuanL
Lo CCMLLLC keso|ut|on No. 2327, ln relaLlon Lo Sec. 32, 33 and
3S of k.A. 7166, and Sec. S2, par. (c), of 8.. 8|g. 881. 8.
eLlLloner asserLs LhaL (1) gunrunnlng, uslng or LransporLlng
flrearms or slmllar weapons menLloned ln Lhe resoluLlon are noL
wlLhln Lhe leLLer of Lhe Cmn|bus L|ect|on Code, and (2)
keso|ut|on No. 2327 creaLed Lhe presumpLlon of gullL as a
candldaLe may be dlsquallfled where crlmlnal charge ls sLlll
pendlng, no charge, or when Lhe accused ls acqulLLed.

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o eLlLloner proLesLs Lhe manner by whlch Lhe n
conducLed Lhe search of hls car ! wlLhouL warranL and
wlLhouL lnformlng Lhe drlver of hls rlghLs.
o eLlLloner should noL have been made respondenL ln
Lhe crlmlnal lnformaLlon as he was noL lmpleaded
durlng Lhe prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon of Lhe ClLy
rosecuLor nor lncluded ln Lhe charge sheeL.
o eLlLloner asserLs LhaL he dld noL vlolaLe k.A.7166, as
Arellano was a clvlllan employees asslgned as hls drlver.

1. WheLher or noL Anlag can be valldly prosecuLed for lnsLrucLlng
hls drlver Lo reLurn Lo Lhe SergeanL-aL-Arms of Lhe Pouse of
8epresenLaLlves Lhe Lwo flrearms lssued Lo hlm on Lhe basls of
Lhe evldence gaLhered from Lhe warranLless search of hls car.

ISSUL 1 ! WheLher or noL Anlag can be valldly prosecuLed for
lnsLrucLlng hls drlver Lo reLurn Lo Lhe SergeanL-aL-Arms of Lhe Pouse of
8epresenLaLlves Lhe Lwo flrearms lssued Lo hlm on Lhe basls of Lhe
evldence gaLhered from Lhe warranLless search of hls car. ! nC
1he rule of needlng a warranL for a valld search ls noL absoluLe.
Aslde from a search lncldenL Lo a lawful arresL, a warranLless
search had been upheld ln cases of movlng vehlcles and Lhe
selzure of evldence ln plaln vlew, as well as Lhe search
conducLed aL pollce or mlllLary checkpolnLs whlch we declared
are noL lllegal per se, and sLressed LhaL Lhe warranLless search ls
noL vlolaLlve of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon for as long as Lhe vehlcle ls
nelLher searched nor lLs occupanLs sub[ecLed Lo a body search,
and Lhe lnspecLlon of Lhe vehlcle ls merely llmlLed Lo a vlsual
An exLenslve search wlLhouL warranL could only be resorLed Lo lf
Lhe offlcers conducLlng Lhe search had reasonable or probable
cause Lo belleve before Lhe search LhaL elLher Lhe moLorlsL was
a law offender or LhaL Lhey would flnd Lhe lnsLrumenLallLy or
evldence perLalnlng Lo Lhe commlsslon of a crlme ln Lhe vehlcle
Lo be searched. 1he exlsLence of probable cause [usLlfylng Lhe
warranLless search ls deLermlned by Lhe facLs of each case.
Clven Lhe clrcumsLances and relylng on lLs vlsual observaLlon,
Lhe n could noL Lhoroughly search Lhe car lawfully as well as
Lhe package wlLhouL vlolaLlng Lhe consLlLuLlonal ln[uncLlon.
o 1he gun was noL ln Arellano's person nor placed wlLhln
hls reach. 1he packaglng of Lhe gun dld noL glve any
reason for Lhe n Lo suspecL LhaL lL conLalned
flrearms. Arellano dld noL acL ln any manner whlch was
susplclous or unnaLural.
1here was no evldence Lo show LhaL Lhe checkpolnL was seL up
because pollcemen were lmpelled Lo so due Lo any lnformaLlon
leadlng Lhem Lo reasonably belleve LhaL cerLaln moLorlsLs were
engaged ln gunrunnlng.
AlLhough keso|ut|on No. 2327 auLhorlzed Lhe seL up of
checkpolnLs lL sLressed LhaL guldellnes shall be made Lo ensure
LhaL no clvll and pollLlcal rlghL wlll be lnfrlnged. 1hus lL wlll be
done ln consulLaLlon wlLh Lhe CommlLLee on llrearms 8an and
SecurlLy ersonnel creaLed under Sec. S, keso|ut|on No. 2323.
o lacLs show LhaL when Lhe checkpolnL was lnsLalled,
noLlce Lo Lhe publlc regardlng lLs seL up and purpose
was noL made.
o As a resulL, moLorlsLs passlng LhaL place dld noL have
any lnkllng whaLsoever abouL Lhe reason behlnd Lhe
lnsLanL exerclse. WlLh Lhe auLhorlLles ln conLrol Lo sLop
and search passlng vehlcles, Lhe moLorlsLs dld noL have
any cholce buL Lo submlL Lo Lhe n's scruLlny.
CLherwlse, any aLLempL Lo LurnabouL albelL lnnocenL
would ralse susplclon and provlde probable cause for
Lhe pollce Lo arresL Lhe moLorlsL and Lo conducL an
exLenslve search of hls vehlcle.
1he manner by whlch CCMLLLC proceeded agalnsL peLlLloner
runs counLer Lo Lhe due process as peLlLloner was noL charged
by Lhe n under Lhe Cmn|bus L|ect|on Code nor was he
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && ,&-.$%$ /0120 3 01245 (%%67 $.,89.6 !(#,.)(9&(

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sub[ecLed by Lhe ClLy rosecuLor Lo prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon for
such offense. eLlLloner was lnvlLed Lo corroboraLe Arellano's
explanaLlon, and noL defend hlmself.

IINAL VLkDIC1: AbsenL such [usLlfylng clrcumsLances speclflcally
polnLlng Lo Lhe culpablllLy of peLlLloner and Arellano, Lhe search could
noL be valld. 1he acLlon Lhen of Lhe pollcemen unreasonably lnLruded
lnLo peLlLloner's prlvacy and Lhe securlLy of hls properLy, ln vlolaLlon of
Sec. 2, ArL. lll, of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon. ConsequenLly, Lhe flrearms obLalned
ln vlolaLlon of peLlLloner's rlghL agalnsL warranLless search cannoL be
admlLLed for any purpose ln any proceedlng.


CkU2, !"# %&'%())*'+
valmonLe v. ue vllla ! 1he bland declaraLlon LhaL lndlvldual
rlghLs musL yleld Lo Lhe demands of naLlonal securlLy lgnores
Lhe facL LhaL Lhe 8lll of 8lghLs was lnLended preclsely Lo llmlL Lhe
auLhorlLy of Lhe SLaLe even lf asserLed on Lhe ground of naLlonal
securlLy.1he lmprobable excuse ls LhaL Lhey are almed aL
"esLabllshlng an effecLlve LerrlLorlal defense, malnLalnlng peace
and order, and provldlng an aLmosphere conduclve Lo Lhe
soclal, economlc and pollLlcal developmenL of Lhe naLlonal
CaplLal 8eglon." lor Lhese purposes, every lndlvldual may be
sLopped and searched aL random and aL any Llme slmply
because he exclLes Lhe susplclon, caprlce, hosLlllLy or mallce of
Lhe offlcers mannlng Lhe checkpolnLs, on paln of arresL or
worse, even belng shoL Lo deaLh, lf he reslsLs.

VI1UG, !"# %&'%())*'+
1he ulLlmaLe hypoLhesls of sound governance ls noL mlghL buL
Lhe wllllngness of Lhe governed Lo accepL and subordlnaLe
Lhemselves Lo auLhorlLy.
1he people have kepL Lhelr rlghL Lo be secured ln Lhelr persons,
houses and effecLs agalnsL unreasonable searches and selzures.
1hey conceded Lhls rlghL only when a warranL ls lawfully lssued
for such purpose.
1here ls no lncompaLlblllLy beLween Lhe securlLy of Lhe SLaLe
and lLs due preservaLlon on one hand, and Lhe consLlLuLlonally
guaranLeed rlghL of an lndlvldual on Lhe oLher. 8oLh can be

kLGALADC, !"# %&'%())*'+ ,'- -*../'0*'+
keso|ut|on No. 92-0829 should be seL aslde, noL because of an
unconsLlLuLlonal warranLless search buL by reason of Lhe facL
LhaL he was noL acLually charged as a respondenL ln Lhe
prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon of Lhe case.
ulssenL: lL has been a seLLled rule LhaL a search may be valldly
conducLed wlLhouL a warranL lf Lhe person searched consenLed
(eople v. Malasugul), and such consenL may be glven expressly
or lmplledly (eople v. Lxcela, eL al.).
o lL ls clear from Lhe facLs of Lhe case LhaL Arellano had
consenLed Lo Lhe search of Lhe car.

DAVIDL Ir., !"# %&'%())*'+ ,'- -*../'0*'+
l regreL LhaL l can concur only ln Lhe resulL, vlz., Lhe granLlng of
Lhe peLlLlon.
(a) lllegal Lhe warranLless search conducLed by Lhe hlllpplne
naLlonal ollce (n) on 13 !anuary 1992.
o 1he search was noL ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe crlme of
lllegal possesslon of flrearms, whlch would have been
facLually and legally baseless slnce Lhe flrearms lnvolved
were llcensed and were duly lssued Lo Lhe peLlLloner by
Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves, buL for Lhe vlolaLlon of
Lhe gun ban whlch was valldly decreed by Lhe CCMLLLC
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && ,&-.$%$ /0120 3 01245 (%%67 $.,89.6 !(#,.)(9&(

!:;<=-><?;@; .A;BC><D -;<; -EFGDBBD? )>HD? IGJK;F #;C;K 9;C>J $EHDBG> %;< L;KCD? L;BDK;
pursuanL Lo lLs consLlLuLlonal power and lLs sLaLuLory
auLhorlLy Lo promulgaLe rules and regulaLlons
lmplemenLlng Lhe provlslons of Lhe Cmnlbus LlecLlon
Code or oLher laws whlch Lhe CCMLLLC ls requlred Lo
enforce and admlnlsLer.
o 1haL day was already wlLhln Lhe elecLlon perlod, whlch
commenced Lhe day earller pursuanL Lo CCMLLLC
keso|ut|on No. 2314 (In 1he Matter of I|x|ng 1he
Schedu|e of Act|v|t|es |n Connect|on W|th the L|ect|ons
of Nat|ona| and Loca| Cff|c|a|s on May 11, 1992)
o #$%&'(&)*' ,-(&. /*0 1-( '2)& 34&(4&) 56 (4& 7)&8$-2'
'(9(&0&1( #98$:& 39' '96$1% (49( (4& '&9);4 3-2<:
498& 5&&1 89<$:" =& 0&)&<6 '(9(&' <9(&) (49( $1 <$%4( ->
(4& >9;( (49( (4& 7&($($-1&) 39' ;49)%&: >-) 8$-<9($1%
1"2 3455? 34$;4 $' $1977<$;95<&? (49( (4&)& $' 1- 7-$1( $1
)2<$1% >-) (4& 9:0$''$5$<$(6 -> &8$:&1;&"
(b) lnadmlsslble ln evldence ln any proceedlng agalnsL Lhe
peLlLloner Lhe flrearms selzed durlng such warranLless search
o Conslderlng Lhen LhaL Lhe offense for whlch he was Lo
be charged was for Lhe vlolaLlon of paragraph (q),
SecLlon 261 of Lhe Cmnlbus LlecLlon Code, ln relaLlon Lo
SecLlon 32 of 8.A. no. 7166, whlch, ln vlew of hls
aforesald admlsslons, renders unnecessary Lhe offer ln
evldence of Lhe selzed flrearms, l fall Lo grasp Lhe
raLlonale of a rullng on Lhe admlsslblllLy ln evldence of
Lhe flrearms.
(c) unconsLlLuLlonal CCMLLLC 8esoluLlon no. 92-0829.
o 1he faLal flaw of keso|ut|on No. 92-0829 lles ln lLs
dlrecLlve Lo flle Lhe lnformaLlon agalnsL Lhe peLlLloner
desplLe Lhe facL LhaL he was never formally charged
before Lhe Cfflce of Lhe ClLy rosecuLor. 1here was only
an "'unofflclal' charge lmpuLed agalnsL" hlm. 1he
CCMLLLC Lhen acLed wlLh grave abuse of dlscreLlon
amounLlng Lo wanL or excess of [urlsdlcLlon.
o l voLe Lhen Lo granL Lhe peLlLlon, buL solely on Lhe
ground LhaL Lhe CCMLLLC acLed wlLh grave abuse of
dlscreLlon ln dlrecLlng Lhe flllng of an lnformaLlon
agalnsL Lhe peLlLloner for Lhe vlolaLlon of paragraph (q),
Sect|on 261 of the Cmn|bus L|ect|on Code, ln relaLlon
Lo Sect|on 32 of k.A. No. 7166.