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Geochemistry, Fate, and ThreeDimensional Transport Modeling of

Subsurface Cyanide Contamination at a


Manufactured Gas Plant

Technical Report

Geochemistry, Fate, and


Three-Dimensional Transport
Modeling of Subsurface Cyanide
Contamination at a Manufactured
Gas Plant
1001301

Final Report, January 2001

Cosponsor
Alliant Energy
222 W. Washington Avenue, 2nd Floor
Madison, WI 53701

EPRI Project Manager


A.J. Coleman

EPRI 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303 USA
800.313.3774 650.855.2121 askepri@epri.com www.epri.com

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES


THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN
ACCOUNT OF WORK SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH
INSTITUTE, INC. (EPRI). NEITHER EPRI, ANY MEMBER OF EPRI, ANY COSPONSOR, THE
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ORGANIZATION(S) THAT PREPARED THIS DOCUMENT
ThermoRetec Consulting Corporation

ORDERING INFORMATION
Requests for copies of this report should be directed to the EPRI Distribution Center, 207 Coggins
Drive, P.O. Box 23205, Pleasant Hill, CA 94523, (800) 313-3774.
Electric Power Research Institute and EPRI are registered service marks of the Electric Power
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Copyright 2001 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

CITATIONS
This report was prepared by
ThermoRetec Consulting Corporation
One Monroeville Center, Suite 1015
Monroeville, Pennsylvania 15146-2121
Principal Investigators
D. Nakles
R. Ghosh
F. DiGnazio
This report describes research sponsored by EPRI and Alliant Energy.
The report is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner:
Geochemistry, Fate, and Three-Dimensional Transport Modeling of Subsurface Cyanide
Contamination at a Manufactured Gas Plant, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA and Alliant Energy,
Madison, WI: 2001. 1001301.

iii

REPORT SUMMARY

This report documents the geochemistry, fate, and three-dimensional transport modeling of
subsurface cyanide contamination at a manufactured gas plant.
Background
Cyanide contamination of groundwater has been observed at many former manufactured gas
plant (MGP) sites, aluminum production facilities, former or active electroplating facilities, ore
heap leaching sites, and other types of industrial sites. Cyanide is present in several forms,
including free cyanide (HCN, or CN-) and metal-cyanide complexes involving cadmium, cobalt,
copper, iron, nickel, and others. Cyanide toxicity to humans and aquatic life is mainly associated
with free cyanide; the metal-cyanide complexes, especially the strong complexes with cobalt and
iron, are essentially non-toxic. However, metal-cyanide complexes can dissociate under certain
conditions (for example, low pH and in sunlight) to yield toxic free cyanide. Thus, all forms of
cyanide in groundwater may be of concern at a given site depending on site-specific conditions.
The fate and transport of cyanide in subsurface environments has received little attention in the
literature. Available data on chemical speciation of cyanide indicates that iron-cyanide
complexes are predominant in contaminated groundwater at MGP sites. These species are stable
in dark, neutral- to high-pH environments, and are highly resistant to biodegradation. At neutral
pH, iron-cyanide species also exhibit little adsorption onto iron oxides and possibly greater
adsorption to aluminum oxides, both of which can be important adsorbents in groundwater
systems. This information suggests that cyanide may be mobile and persistent in groundwater
systems, but this hypothesis has not been tested against field data. The fate and transport of
cyanide compounds in groundwater must be understood to assess compliance with applicable
environmental regulations, to conduct risk assessments, and to design control and remediation
measures.
Objectives
To obtain an understanding of the chemistry and movement of a groundwater plume containing
cyanide at an MGP site in Portage, Wisconsin; to interpret the observed plume data with a
numerical fate and transport model to investigate behavior of dissolved cyanide compounds in
the subsurface; to assess the potential for natural attenuation of the cyanide plume; and, to
predict future movement of the cyanide plume under existing site conditions.
Approach
Investigation of the cyanide groundwater plume at the Portage, Wisconsin, MGP site consisted
of field studies, laboratory studies, and modeling. Field studies characterized cyanide speciation
and transport in groundwater at the site and assessed the potential for natural attenuation of
dissolved cyanide species. The project team conducted these field studies over a four-year period
v

using a network of 41 monitoring wells. An additional cyanide source investigation at the site
evaluated potential continuing source areas that were identified from groundwater monitoring
data. The team designed laboratory studies to improve understanding of cyanide geochemistry, in
particular, interactions of cyanide species with aquifer material from the field site and the
potential for iron-cyanide complexes to dissociate to form free cyanide. Field study results were
interpreted using a two- and three-dimensional groundwater flow and non-reactive contaminant
transport model that incorporated findings from the laboratory studies.
Results
Sampling and analysis of site groundwater and aquifer material, including a detailed
hydrogeologic analysis, permitted delineation of the cyanide plume at the site and subsequent
characterization of the aquifer in terms of geochemical and hydraulic properties. Groundwater
speciation studies indicated that iron cyanide complexes were dominant, accounting for greater
than 92 to 98% of the total cyanide. No native oxide box materials were discovered during the
additional source investigation at the site, confirming that the majority of oxide box materials
were removed during the remedial excavations in 1992 and 1993. Only isolated cyanide stringers
(1 to 3 inches thick) were detected on the native sand and gravel surfaces in the vadose and
saturated zones of the two areas under investigation. These stringers are likely present as a result
of the dissolution and re-precipitation of cyanide solids under excess iron conditions that exist in
these areas. These stringers represent a disperse source of iron-cyanide complexes that provide a
minor contribution to the cyanide concentration in groundwater at the site. The magnitude of this
contribution is a function of the water table elevation and the pH and pE conditions of the
subsurface environment. Laboratory column tests indicate that dissolved iron cyanide complexes
do not adsorb onto the sand/gravel aquifer material in a neutral pH environment, a condition that
exists at many MGP sites. The conservative nature of the iron cyanide species in a sand/gravel
medium under neutral pH conditions was further established by interpreting the field data with a
non-reactive solute transport model. The observations suggest that dilution might be the only
natural attenuation mechanism for iron cyanide complexes in sand/gravel aquifers at MGP sites.
EPRI Perspective
This research shows the fate and transport of cyanide compounds in sand and gravel aquifers.
The research also sheds some light on the natural attenuation of such aquifer systems. This study
provides information that illustrates and demonstrates how the stability and nonreactivity of iron
cyanide complexes in sand and gravel aquifers under different pH conditions may occur.
Keywords
MGP
Cyanide
Oxide box
Groundwater
Natural attenuation

vi

ABSTRACT
This report presents the results of field, laboratory, and modeling studies that were conducted to
better understand the geochemistry and transport of a cyanide groundwater plume in a
sand/gravel aquifer underlying a manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. The field characterization
and continuous monitoring of the plume were conducted to delineate the cyanide movement in
the subsurface and to assess the potential for natural attenuation of dissolved cyanide species in
groundwater. An additional source investigation was performed at two areas at the site that were
identified, based on groundwater monitoring data, as potential continuing cyanide source areas.
Laboratory studies were designed to improve the understanding of cyanide geochemistry, and in
particular, to provide an understanding of cyanide speciation and chemistry in groundwater at the
site. Information obtained from the field and laboratory studies was incorporated into a two- and
a three-dimensional groundwater flow and non-reactive contaminant transport model.
Cyanide was found to exist mostly as iron cyanide complexes in the groundwater at the
MGP site, with less than 8% as weak acid dissociable cyanide. Free cyanide constituted almost
15 to 25% of the weak-acid dissociable cyanides in the site groundwater, accounting for
0.3 to 2.0% of the total cyanide. Laboratory column studies indicated that all of the cyanide
species, including iron cyanide complexes, moved conservatively through the sand/gravel aquifer
material from the site. Laboratory studies also indicated that iron cyanide complexes were stable
in the groundwater under the neutral pH conditions, dissociating very slowly to form free
cyanide.
The additional source investigation conducted in the two potential continuing source areas
revealed no native oxide box residuals. However, the investigation did detect scattered stringers
(1-3 inches thick) of precipitated blue-colored iron cyanide solids in both areas. Prior to the
removal in 1992 and 1993, the cyanide source was leaching or dissolving cyanide which
proceeded to re-precipitate at depth. This re-precipitation phenomena occurred due to excess iron
conditions in the vicinity of this source material and from slight fluctuations in the pH and pE.
This field observation is consistent with laboratory observations made in the CMU study
regarding the precipitation/dissolution behavior of iron cyanide solids as a function of pH and pE
under excess iron conditions.
The movement of the MGP site cyanide plume was monitored over a period of four years.
The observed plume concentration data could be predicted using a two-dimensional and a
three-dimensional groundwater flow and non-reactive solute transport model. The modeling
results were consistent with the nonreactive transport that was observed in the laboratory column
tests using the site groundwater (which was impacted predominantly by iron cyanide complexes)
and site aquifer materials. Based on the modeling and laboratory results, it appears that following
source removal, dilution may often be the only natural attenuation mechanism for iron cyanide
complexes in a sand/gravel aquifer under neutral pH conditions at MGP sites. It is also true that
vii

the continued dissolution of iron-cyanide complexes from the re-precipitated stringers of


iron-cyanide solids identified at the site is not resulting in offsite groundwater impacts that
exceed the groundwater or drinking water standards of the State environmental regulatory
agency or the U.S. EPA.

viii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank Dr. Ishwar Murarka of Ish Inc. (formerly of the Electric Power Research Institute
[EPRI]), Ms. Adda Quinn of EPRI, and Mr. Joseph Shefchek and Mr. Bruce Greer of
Alliant Energy Corporation for their support and thoughtful suggestions during the course of this
research. We also acknowledge valuable assistance from Ms. Carol McKee, Mr. Anthony Como,
Mr. Jonathan Murer, Ms. Michelle McGovern, Mr. Andrew Kirkman, Mr. Christopher Ahrendt,
and Dr. Alessandro Battaglia of ThermoRetec and from Dr. David Dzombak,
Mr. Brian Blashich, Mr. Joseph Robinson, and Mr. Anping Zheng of Carnegie Mellon
University. Finally, we would like to thank Dr. Carol McCartney, Dr. Galen Kenoyer, and
Mr. John Rice of RMT, Inc., for their thorough review of the groundwater flow and contaminant
transport models developed in this study.

ix

CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................. 1-1
1.1 Background .................................................................................................................. 1-1
1.2 Organization of the Report ............................................................................................ 1-2

2 FIELD, LABORATORY AND MODELING STUDIES000000000 ......................................... 2-1


2.1 Methods........................................................................................................................ 2-1
2.1.1 Field Studies ......................................................................................................... 2-1
2.1.1.1 Monitoring Well Network ................................................................................ 2-1
2.1.1.2 Site Hydrogeological Conditions .................................................................... 2-3
2.1.1.3 Plume Monitoring........................................................................................... 2-4
2.1.1.4 Additional Source Investigation...................................................................... 2-4
2.1.2 Laboratory Studies ................................................................................................ 2-5
2.1.2.1 Column Studies ............................................................................................. 2-5
2.1.2.2 Batch Studies ................................................................................................ 2-6
2.1.3 Modeling Studies................................................................................................... 2-6
2.1.3.1 Two-Dimensional Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model....... 2-6
2.1.3.2 Three-Dimensional Flow and Transport Model .............................................. 2-7
Groundwater Flow Model (MODFLOW) ................................................................ 2-7
Particle Tracking Transport Model (MT3D) ......................................................... 2-11
2.2 Results and Discussion............................................................................................... 2-12
2.2.1 Field Studies ....................................................................................................... 2-12
2.2.2 Laboratory Studies .............................................................................................. 2-19
2.2.2.1 Column Tests .............................................................................................. 2-19
2.2.2.2 Dissociation Studies .................................................................................... 2-21
2.2.3 Modeling Studies................................................................................................. 2-22
2.3 Summary of Observations .......................................................................................... 2-32

3 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK ................................ 3-1

xi

3.1 Major Findings of this Research.................................................................................... 3-1


3.2 Engineering and Field Scale Implications...................................................................... 3-2
3.3 Recommendations for Future Work .............................................................................. 3-2

4 REFERENCES..................................................................................................................... 4-1
A APPENDIX A GEOPROBE SURVEY FOR PLUME DELINEATION ................................A-1
B APPENDIX B MONITORING WELL LOCATIONS AND DEPTHS ...................................B-1
C APPENDIX C GROUNDWATER HEAD DATA ................................................................C-1
D APPENDIX D HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY ESTIMATES FROM SLUG TESTS ...........D-1
E APPENDIX E COMPILATION OF CYANIDE MONITORING DATA OBTAINED
FROM THE ANALYSIS OF GROUNDWATER SAMPLES AT THE PORTAGE,
WISCONSIN MGP SITE..........................................................................................................E-1
F APPENDIX F COMPILATION OF METALS AND MAJOR ION DATA OBTAINED
FROM THE ANALYSIS OF GROUNDWATER SAMPLES AT THE PORTAGE,
WISCONSIN MGP SITE.......................................................................................................... F-1
G APPENDIX G COMPILATION OF PH, PE, CONDUCTIVITY DISSOLVED OXYGEN
(DO) AND TEMPERATURE DATA OF GROUNDWATER SAMPLES AT THE
PORTAGE, WISCONSIN MGP SITE ..................................................................................... G-1
H APPENDIX H METHODS EMPLOYED FOR THE CENTER OF MASS
CALCULATIONS ....................................................................................................................H-1
References .........................................................................................................................H-2

I APPENDIX I FATE AND TRANSPORT MODEL FOR CYANIDE IN


GROUNDWATER .................................................................................................................... I-1
Flow Model .......................................................................................................................... I-1
MT3D Transport Model........................................................................................................ I-6
References .......................................................................................................................... I-6

J APPENDIX J PUMPING DATA FROM THE MUNICIPAL WELL...................................... J-1


K APPENDIX K DISSOCIATION OF COMPLEX IRON CYANIDE SPECIES IN THE
DARK......................................................................................................................................K-1

xii

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2-1 Geoprobe and Monitoring Well Locations at Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site ........... 2-2
Figure 2-2 Schematic Vertical Cross Section of the MGP Site (1 ft = 0.3048 m)...................... 2-3
Figure 2-3 Approximate Boring Locations for Additional Source Characterization at the
Portage MGP Site........................................................................................................... 2-5
Figure 2-4 Model Boundary Conditions Under Pumping and Non-Pumping Conditions
(1 ft = 0.3048 m) .............................................................................................................. 2-8
Figure 2-5 Model Finite Difference Grid with the Location of the Municipal Well
(1 ft = 0.3048 m) ............................................................................................................ 2-10
Figure 2-6 Steady State Flow Model Calibration with Observed Heads Versus Simulated
Heads (1 ft = 0.3048 m) ................................................................................................ 2-10
Figure 2-7 Schematic Showing the Plan and Cross-Sectional Area of the Contamination
Scenario Used for Three-Dimensional Modeling Purposes (1 ft = 0.3048 m) ................. 2-11
Figure 2-8 Water Table Elevation Contours at Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
(from average groundwater elevations measured between July 1996 and
November 1999) [1 ft = 0.3048 m] ................................................................................. 2-12
Figure 2-9 Total Cyanide Plume in Groundwater at Portage, WI MGP Site,
June/July 1996 (1 ft = 0.3048 m) .................................................................................. 2-14
Figure 2-10 Total Cyanide Plume in Groundwater at Portage, WI MGP Site,
November 1999 (1 ft = 0.3048 m) ................................................................................. 2-14
Figure 2-11 Vertical Profile of Total Cyanide Concentration Along the Centerline of the
Plume at Well Nests near the Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site, November 1999
(1 ft = 0.3048 m) ............................................................................................................ 2-16
Figure 2-12 Vertical Profile of Total Cyanide Concentration along the Centerline of the
Plume at Well Nests near the Municipal Well, Downgradient of the Site
(1 ft = 0.3048 m) ............................................................................................................ 2-16
Figure 2-13 WAD Cyanide Plume in Groundwater at Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site,
June/July 1996 (1 ft = 0.3048 m) .................................................................................. 2-17
Figure 2-14 WAD Cyanide Plume in Groundwater at Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site,
November 1999 (1 ft = 0.3048 m) ................................................................................. 2-18
Figure 2-15 Total Cyanide Breakthrough in Column Study with MGP Site Groundwater
and Aquifer Material....................................................................................................... 2-19
Figure 2-16 Breakthrough in Column Study with Nickel Cyanide and Clean Ottawa Sand..... 2-20
Figure 2-17 Breakthrough in Column with a Nickel Cyanide and Iron Cyanide Mixture
and Clean Ottawa Sand................................................................................................. 2-21

xiii

Figure 2-18 Profile of Complex and Free Cyanide Concentrations During Batch
Dissociation Experiments with Ferrocyanide Solutions in Dark. Initial ferrocyanide
concentration = 15.03 mg/l ............................................................................................ 2-22
Figure 2-19 Total Cyanide Isoconcentration Map in the Top Saturated Layer
(K = 13.87 ft/day) for Simulation of 49.6 Years of Transport. (40 years pre-pumping
conditions plus pumping from 1986 to July 1996) [1 ft = 0.3048 m]................................ 2-23
Figure 2-20 Total Cyanide Isoconcentration Map in the Top Saturated Layer
(K = 13.87 ft/day) for Simulation of 53 Years of Transport. (40 years pre-pumping
conditions plus pumping from 1986 to November 1999) [1 ft = 0.3048 m]...................... 2-23
Figure 2-21 Total Cyanide Isoconcentration Map in the Top Saturated Layer
(K = 13.87 ft/day) for Simulation of 40 Years of Transport (Pre-Pumping Conditions)
[1 ft = 0.3048 m]............................................................................................................. 2-24
Figure 2-22 Total Cyanide Isoconcentration Map in the Second Saturated Layer
(K = 106.67 ft/day) for Simulation of 40 Years of Transport (Pre-Pumping
Conditions) [1 ft = 0.3048 m].......................................................................................... 2-25
Figure 2-23 Total Cyanide Isoconcentration Map in the Second Saturated Layer
(K = 106.67 ft/day) for Simulation of 49.6 Years of Transport (40 years pre-pumping
conditions plus pumping from 1986 to July 1996) [1 ft = 0.3048 m]................................ 2-25
Figure 2-24 Total Cyanide Isoconcentration Map in the Second Saturated Layer
(K = 106.67 ft/day) for Simulation of 53 Years of Transport (40 years pre-pumping
conditions plus pumping from 1986 to November 1999) [1 ft = 0.3048 m]...................... 2-26
Figure 2-25 Total Cyanide Isoconcentration Map in the Third Saturated Layer
(K = 98.76 ft/day) for Simulation of 40 Years of Transport. (Pre-Pumping
Conditions) [1 ft = 0.3048 m].......................................................................................... 2-27
Figure 2-26 Total Cyanide Isoconcentration Map in the Third Saturated Layer
(K = 98.76 ft/day) for Simulation of 49.6 Years of Transport (40 years pre-pumping
conditions plus pumping from 1986 to July 1996) [1 ft = 0.3048 m]................................ 2-27
Figure 2-27 Total Cyanide Isoconcentration Map in the Third Saturated Layer
(K = 98.76 ft/day) for Simulation of 53 Years of Transport (40 years pre-pumping
conditions plus pumping from 1986 to November 1999) [1 ft = 0.3048 m]...................... 2-28
Figure 2-28 Three-Dimensional Representation of the 0.01 PPM Total Cyanide Plume
Iso-Surface .................................................................................................................... 2-29
Figure 2-29 Two-Dimensional Vertical Representation of the 0.01 PPM Total Cyanide
Plume Iso-Surface ........................................................................................................ 2-29
Figure 2-30 Model Prediction for Total Cyanide Concentration at the Municipal Well ............ 2-32
Figure A-1 Geoprobe and Monitoring Well Locations at Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site ...........A-2
Figure A-2 Main features of the Geoprobe screen point sampler (obtained from
Technical Bulletin No. 94-440, Standard Operating Procedure, Geoprobe Systems,
KS) ..................................................................................................................................A-3
Figure H-1 Center of Mass Movement for the Midwest Total Cyanide Plume
(1 ft = 0.3048m) ...............................................................................................................H-2
Figure I-1 Model Conceptualization of Saturated Thickness of the Portage Aquifer
(1 ft = 0.3048 m) ............................................................................................................... I-1
Figure I-2 Model Finite Difference Grid (1 ft = 0.3048 m).......................................................... I-2

xiv

Figure I-3 Model Potentiometric Surface Map Under Pre-Pumping Conditions


(prior to 1986) ................................................................................................................... I-3
Figure I-4 Model Potentiometric Surface Map Under Pumping Conditions ............................... I-3
Figure I-5 Two-Dimensional Flow Vectors During Non-Pumping Conditions............................. I-4
Figure I-6 Two-Dimensional Flow Vectors During Pumping Conditions .................................... I-4
Figure I-7 Vertical flow Vector Cross-Sector Locations Steady State Flow Model Under
Pumping Conditions.......................................................................................................... I-5
Figure I-8 Vertical Flow Vector Cross-Section A-A Steady State Flow Model Under
Pumping Conditions.......................................................................................................... I-5
Figure K-1 Kinetic dissociation data for the first set of batch experiments, with an
average initial pH of 6.7 and an initial total cyanide concentration of 15.03 mg/L.............K-1
Figure K-2 Kinetic dissociation data for the second set of batch experiments, with an
average initial pH of 6.5 and an initial total cyanide concentration of 15.5 mg/L...............K-2

xv

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2-1 Geometric Average Hydraulic Conductivity Values for the Four Saturated
Layers in the Site Aquifer (1 ft = 0.3048 m)...................................................................... 2-4
Table 2-2 Average Major Ion and Metal Concentrations Observed in Groundwater at
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site (data averaged over 5 sampling events)......................... 2-13
Table 2-3 Cyanide Speciation Results from November 1997 Sampling of Groundwater at
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site........................................................................................ 2-17
Table 2-4 Parameter Values Used to Model Existing Cyanide Plume at Portage,
Wisconsin MGP Site ...................................................................................................... 2-30
Table 2-5 Comparison Between Observed (Field) and Simulated (Model) Movement of
0.04 mg/l Total Cyanide Contour in the Uppermost Aquifer Layer Between
July 1996 And November 1999...................................................................................... 2-31
Table B-1 Monitoring Well Locations and Screen Interval Depths at the Portage,
Wisconsin MGP Site ........................................................................................................B-1
Table C-1 Piezometric Head Data Obtained During Sampling of the Monitoring Wells at
the Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site....................................................................................C-1
Table D-1 Hydraulic Conductivity Estimates from July 1996 Sampling Period .........................D-1
Table D-2 Hydraulic Conductivity Estimates from September 1997 Sampling Period ..............D-2
Table E-1 Cyanide in Geoprobe Groundwater Samples November 1995 .............................E-1
Table E-2 Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples November 1995.........................................E-4
Table E-3 Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples June 1996/July 1996 ..................................E-5
Table E-4 Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples September 1996.........................................E-7
Table E-5 Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples January 1997..............................................E-8
Table E-6 Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples April 1997 .................................................E-10
Table E-7 Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples September 1997.......................................E-12
Table E-8 Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples November 1997........................................E-14
Table E-9 Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples June 1998 ................................................E-17
Table E-10 Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples September/October 1998 .......................E-18
Table E-11 Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples December 1998......................................E-21
Table E-12 Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples January 1999..........................................E-22
Table E-13 Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples April 1999 ...............................................E-23
Table E-14 Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples July 1999................................................E-25
Table E-15 Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples November 1999......................................E-26
Table F-1 Major Ion and Metal Concentrations in Groundwater June 1996/July 1996 .......... F-1

xvii

Table F-2 Major Ion and Metal Concentrations in Groundwater September 1996................. F-2
Table F-3 Major Ion and Metal Concentrations in Groundwater January 1997 ..................... F-2
Table F-4 Major Ion and Metal Concentrations in Groundwater April 1997 ........................... F-3
Table F-5 Major Ion and Metal Concentrations in Groundwater September 1997................. F-3
Table G-1 Groundwater Sampling Data June 1996/July 1996 ............................................. G-1
Table G-2 Groundwater Sampling Data September 1996.................................................... G-2
Table G-3 Groundwater Sampling Data January 1997 ........................................................ G-3
Table G-4 Groundwater Sampling Data April 1997.............................................................. G-4
Table G-5 Groundwater Sampling Data September 1997.................................................... G-5
Table G-6 Groundwater Sampling Data November 1997..................................................... G-6
Table G-7 Groundwater Sampling Data June 1998 ............................................................. G-7
Table G-8 Groundwater Sampling Data September/October 1998 ...................................... G-8
Table G-9 Groundwater Sampling Data January 1999 ........................................................ G-9
Table G-10 Groundwater Sampling Data April 1999.......................................................... G-10
Table G-11 Groundwater Sampling Data July 1999........................................................... G-11
Table G-12 Groundwater Sampling Data November 1999................................................. G-12
Table J-1 Municipal Well Pumping Data 1986 ...................................................................... J-1
Table J-2 Municipal Well Pumping Data 1987 ...................................................................... J-2
Table J-3 Municipal Well Pumping Data 1988 ...................................................................... J-3
Table J-4 Municipal Well Pumping Data 1989 ...................................................................... J-4
Table J-5 Municipal Well Pumping Data 1990 ...................................................................... J-5
Table J-6 Municipal Well Pumping Data 1991 ...................................................................... J-6
Table J-7 Municipal Well Pumping Data 1992 ...................................................................... J-7
Table J-8 Municipal Well Pumping Data 1993 ...................................................................... J-8
Table J-9 Municipal Well Pumping Data 1994 ...................................................................... J-9
Table J-10 Municipal Well Pumping Data 1995 .................................................................. J-10
Table J-11 Municipal Well Pumping Data 1996 .................................................................. J-11
(1)

Table J-12 Municipal Well Pumping Data 1997 ................................................................ J-12


Table J-13 Model Calculation of Average Daily Pumping Volume and Daily Pumping
Rate............................................................................................................................... J-13

xviii

1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
Cyanide has been observed as a groundwater contaminant at various types of current and former
industrial sites. The presence of cyanide in these aquifers has occurred as a result of the leakage
of cyanide solutions from baths and storage tanks in electroplating processes and from ore
leaching basins, as well as, by leaching of cyanide-bearing solid residuals that are present at
industrial facilities (e.g., aluminum manufacturing or manufactured gas plant [MGP] sites).
At MGP sites, boxes (commonly called oxide boxes) containing wood shavings or crushed
blast-furnace slag mixed with a chemically active form of hydrated iron oxide were used to scrub
hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from the product gas; hydrogen cyanide in the gas was removed
simultaneously (Lowry, 1945). The resultant oxide box material, which was regenerated, reused,
and then finally managed on- and off-site, contained iron cyanide solids. As a result of the
leaching of this material by infiltrating rainwater or direct contact with groundwater, dissolved
forms of cyanide have been released to groundwater. Cyanide can also infiltrate the groundwater
from iron cyanide anti-caking agents in road salt that is used for de-icing purposes during the
winter (Paschka et al., 1999).
The geochemistry, transport, and treatment of cyanide in groundwater systems have not been
extensively studied. Available information indicates that cyanide usually exists as metal-cyanide
complexes in groundwater systems, with iron cyanide complexes often being the dominant
form at MGP and aluminum production sites (Meeussen et al., 1992b; Theis et al., 1994;
Dzombak et al., 1996). Iron cyanide complexes are stable in the dark (Meeussen et al., 1992a)
and are highly resistant to biodegradation (Aronstein et al., 1994; Laha and Luthy, 1991).
Limited available sorption data (Alessi and Fuller, 1976; Theis and West, 1986) indicate that iron
cyanide complexes may not exhibit significant sorption onto oxide minerals in the neutral pH
range. These data suggest that cyanide in the subsurface may be mobile and recalcitrant in many
cases, a hypothesis which has not been tested against field data.
The research described in this report had four principal objectives. These were: i) to obtain an
understanding of the chemistry and movement of a groundwater plume containing cyanide at an
MGP site in Portage, Wisconsin; ii) to interpret the observed plume data with a numerical fate
and transport model to investigate the behavior of the dissolved cyanide compounds in the
subsurface; iii) to assess the potential for natural attenuation of the cyanide plume; and iv) to
predict the future movement of the cyanide plume under existing site conditions. Specific goals
and activities associated with each of these overall objectives are outlined below.
To study the speciation and movement of cyanide compounds in groundwater, a groundwater
monitoring program was conducted at the Site. A network of 41 groundwater monitoring wells
1-1

Introduction

was established and quarterly sampling was performed over a period of four years to characterize
the cyanide species in groundwater and to monitor their movement over time. Field work
included the collection of aquifer hydraulic property data and contaminant distribution data. An
additional source investigation was also conducted as part of the field studies at two areas of the
Site that represent potential continuing source areas for cyanide impacts to groundwater.
Laboratory studies were also performed to help understand the stability of cyanide species in the
subsurface environment and the nature of their movement through actual and synthetic aquifer
media.
Two numerical models were used to analyze the subsurface fate and transport of the cyanide
species. Initially, a two-dimensional particle tracking solute transport model was used to model
the shallow plume data. Later, the modeling effort was enhanced with the three-dimensional
GMS-V2.1 numerical transport model. This model was used to interpret the shallow plume data
and the vertical distribution of the contaminants. The hydraulic data and the cyanide chemistry
data that were collected during the field and laboratory studies were used to calibrate the
two- and three-dimensional models. These models were then used to predict the fate and
transport of cyanide in the subsurface at the Site.
Lastly, the three-dimensional numerical transport modeling coupled with laboratory column test
data associated with the site groundwater and aquifer material were used to evaluate the potential
for natural attenuation of cyanide in the site groundwater. This was accomplished by comparing
the predicted movement of the cyanide plume, which assumed non-reactive transport of the
cyanide, to the actual movement observed in the field monitoring data.

1.2 Organization of the Report


The results of this research project are presented entirely in Section 2 of this report. This section
consists of three major subsections that address the field studies, the laboratory studies, and the
groundwater modeling efforts. The final section of the report, Section 3, presents the overall
conclusions of this research and provides recommendations for future work. Raw data and other
supplementary information are provided in Appendices A through K.

1-2

2
FIELD, LABORATORY AND MODELING STUDIES

This project was conducted as a tailored collaboration (TC) project between EPRI and Alliant
Energy Corporation (Alliant Energy). It addresses the chemical speciation, fate, and transport
of cyanide compounds in groundwater at an MGP site in Portage, Wisconsin (hereafter referred
to as Site). MGP operations at the Site began in 1887 and ceased in 1947. Because of the on-site
management of oxide-box wastes as fill during the course of site operations, cyanide is present in
the soil and groundwater at the Site.
The investigation of the cyanide groundwater plume at the Portage MGP site involved laboratory
studies, field studies, and fate and transport modeling. The field studies were designed to
characterize cyanide speciation and transport in groundwater at the Site and to assess the
potential for natural attenuation of the cyanide plume. Laboratory studies were designed to
improve the understanding of the cyanide geochemistry, in particular, the interactions of cyanide
species with the field site aquifer material. Information from the field and laboratory studies was
used in a fate and transport model to predict the movement of cyanide in groundwater at the Site.
The overall objective of the field, laboratory, and modeling investigations was to gain an
understanding of the factors affecting the fate and transport of cyanide in a sand/gravel aquifer,
to assess the potential for natural attenuation of cyanide in such an environmental setting, and to
predict the future movement of the cyanide plume under existing site conditions.

2.1 Methods
2.1.1 Field Studies
A cyanide-impacted groundwater plume at the Site was studied for a period of four years. Field
studies focused on a detailed delineation of the plume through a geoprobe survey, quarterly
groundwater elevation and water-quality monitoring, and an additional source investigation.
2.1.1.1 Monitoring Well Network
An initial survey to delineate the boundaries of the plume was conducted using a Geoprobe
Screen Point Ground Water Sampler (See Appendix A for Geoprobe Sampler details). Eleven
wells were already located at the Site to monitor the extent and movement of the plume at the
time of the survey. Following the survey, 30 additional monitoring wells were installed on-site.
The additional well installations occurred in June 1996 and again in November 1997. The
locations of these wells are shown in Figure 2-1.

2-1

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

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Figure 2-1
Geoprobe and Monitoring Well Locations at Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site

The wells were drilled using the rotasonic drilling method. Well casings were constructed of
PVC with an internal diameter of 2 inches (5 cms). The screened interval for each well was
constructed of slotted PVC, and the screened length varied from a length of 10 ft (3 m) for wells
located near the water table to a length of 2 ft (0.61 m) for deeper wells. The screen intervals of
the monitoring wells for the Portage monitoring well network are listed in Appendix B. The well
locations were largely confined to city streets and alleys where there was ready access to prevent
disruption of current residential land use.
Most of the additional wells were installed to sample the top 10 ft (3 m) of the aquifer where the
majority of the cyanide mass was identified in the samples collected from the geoprobe survey.
However, multilevel well nests were also installed at eight locations to delineate the vertical
extent of impacts and the vertical hydraulic gradients. Five of these multilevel well nests were
located along the centerline of the plume and include the following: Well nest MW-422A/B/C;
Well nest MW-423A/B/C; Well nest MW-408A/B and MW-421; Well nest MW-426A/B/C/D;
and Well nest MW-427A/B/C/D. The three-well well nests (MW-422, MW-423, and
MW-408/MW-421) permitted sampling at depths of 25 to 30 feet (7.6 to 9.1 m), 40 feet
(12.2 m), and 60 feet (18.3 m). The four-well well nests (MW-426 and MW-427) permitted
sampling at depths of 30 feet (9.1 m), 60 feet (18.3 m), 90 feet (27.4 m), and 130 feet (39.6 m).
Three other multi-level wells were installed at the plume edges perpendicular to the direction of
flow to delineate the transverse extent of the plume. These multi-level well nests included:
MW-409A/B; well nest MW-410A/B; and well nest MW-425A/B/C/D. The multi-level well
nests MW-409 and MW-410 permitted sampling at depths of 25 feet (7.6 m) and 45 feet
(13.7 m). The multi-level well nest MW-425 permitted sampling at depths of 30 feet (9.1 m),
60 feet (18.3 m), 90 feet (27.4 m), and 130 feet (39.6 m).
2-2

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

2.1.1.2 Site Hydrogeological Conditions


The aquifer underlying the Site and the area downgradient of the Site consists of sand and gravel
with a saturated thickness of approximately 110 feet (33.5 m). A schematic representation of the
subsurface geological profile is presented in Figure 2-2. Potentiometric head measurements
indicate that the average water table occurs at a depth of approximately 25 feet (7.6 m). All
groundwater head data that were obtained during the study are provided in Appendix C.

Not drawn to scale

Figure 2-2
Schematic Vertical Cross Section of the MGP Site (1 ft = 0.3048 m)

Slug tests were conducted at various locations in the flow field in July 1996 and September 1997
and hydraulic conductivities were determined for the aquifer from these tests using the Bouwer
and Rice solution method (Bouwer and Rice, 1976; Bouwer, 1989). Both falling and rising head
data were acquired during the course of the slug testing. The time-displacement data were
interpreted using the software Aqtesolv (Geraghty and Miller, Reston, VA). A tabulation of
hydraulic conductivity estimates for the two sampling periods and the Aqtesolv output for the all
of the wells that were tested are provided in Appendix D.
During the September 1997 event, slug tests were also conducted in wells screened at multiple
depths to determine if horizontal hydraulic conductivity varied with depth in the aquifer. Based
on the calculated hydraulic conductivities, four distinct hydrogeological layers were identified in
the saturated zone. The geometric average hydraulic conductivity values for these four layers
(using both rising head and falling head slug test data) are listed in Table 2-1. From this table, it
is observed that the top layer, comprising the first 10 feet of the saturated zone, has a
significantly lower hydraulic conductivity than the underlying layers. The second layer has the
highest hydraulic conductivity in the aquifer and hydraulic conductivity values become
progressively lower in the third and fourth layers. From these data, it was determined that the
plume would likely travel fastest in the middle two layers of the aquifer and slowest in the most
shallow and the deepest layers.
2-3

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies


Table 2-1
Geometric Average Hydraulic Conductivity Values for the Four Saturated Layers in the Site
Aquifer (1 ft = 0.3048 m)
Layer Number

Depth Interval from Water


Table, ft (m)

Hydraulic Conductivity, ft/day (m/day)


Falling Head

Rising Head

Layer 1

0-10 (0-3)

77.7 (23.7)

197.4 (60.2)

Layer 2

10-40 (3-12.2)

597.35 (182.1)

689.33 (210.1)

Layer 3

40-70 (12.2-21.3)

553.03 (168.5)

491.79 (149.9)

Layer 4

70-110 (21.3-33.5)

131.45 (49.2)

114.13 (34.8)

2.1.1.3 Plume Monitoring


Sampling of the groundwater monitoring wells at the Site was conducted on nine occasions
between June 1996 and November 1999. Groundwater samples from the Site were analyzed
for total cyanide and weak-acid-dissociable cyanide using standard distillation methods
(Method 4500-CN-C and I, APHA, 1995). Free cyanide was also measured for all the sampling
rounds by the microdiffusion method (Method D-4282, ASTM, 1989). Total cyanide provides a
measure of all the cyanide present in a sample, including strong and weak metal-cyanide
complexes, as well as free cyanide. Weak-acid-dissociable cyanide encompasses free cyanide
plus weak metal-cyanide complexes. Free cyanide encompasses cyanide that diffuses as HCN
at room temperature from a solution at pH 6. On five occasions between June 1996 and
September 1997, samples from the wells exhibiting elevated total cyanide concentrations were
analyzed for metal-cyanide complexes by ion chromatography (Dionex Corporation, 1989). A
complete compilation of all well monitoring data for cyanide concentrations is provided in
Appendix E. In addition to the cyanide measurements taken during these same five monitoring
events, samples from a subset of the 41 monitoring wells were analyzed for metals (Ca, Na, Mg,
K, Fe) and major ions (SO42-, Cl-, NO3-, HCO3-) by atomic absorption spectroscopy and ion
chromatography, respectively. A detailed record of the major ion and metal concentration data
are presented in Appendix F. Field measurements of groundwater were also made for pH, pE,
conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and temperature at different monitoring well locations during
each of the nine sampling events. A detailed record of the groundwater conditions during each
sampling period is presented in Appendix G.
The center of mass for the cyanide plume was calculated for six of the nine rounds of sampling
with the purpose of analyzing the plume transport on the basis of center of mass movement
(Freyberg, 1986). Methods employed for the center of mass calculations are provided in
Appendix H.
2.1.1.4 Additional Source Investigation
An additional source investigation was conducted in January 2000 at the Site to evaluate areas
that were potentially acting as continuing sources of dissolved-phase cyanide to the aquifer.
Based on quarterly groundwater monitoring data for the Site and previously acquired soil boring
2-4

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

data acquired during Phase I and II remedial investigations, two areas that represented the
maximum potential to contain cyanide-bearing residuals were identified. These areas are
designated as Area A and Area B in Figure 2-3. Area A is located in the vicinity of the MW-423
well cluster and Area B is located in the vicinity of monitoring well MW-419 on Alliant
Energy property. Eighteen borings were completed in Area A and 9 borings in Area B (Figure
2-3). The soil borings were completed using a geoprobe groundpoint sampling device and
advanced to depths ranging from 24 to 40 feet below ground surface. Continuous soil cores were
collected for visual inspection of cyanide impacts and selected soil boring samples were
submitted for analysis of total cyanide.

SB-27
SB-16 SB-15
SB-14
SB-10
SB-9
SB-6

SB-13

MW-423A
MW-423B
MW-423C

SB-3

SB-12
SB-11
SB-7

MW-424

AREA A
SB-26

MW-402

SB-5

SB-2
SB-1

MW-422A

AREA B
SB-17

SB-8
SB-22

SB-25
SB-24
SB-23

MW-422C
MW-404
MW-422B

MW-407

MW-403

RE

ET

T
TS

SB-18

SB-21
SB-20
SB-19

AT
IV
PR

CYANIDE IMPACTED AREAS

T
ME

E.

MW-419

(VERTICAL EXTENT OF
CONTAMINATION = 0' - 30')

EM

F
JE

MW-418

MW-416

RT
PE
RO

ON
RS
FE

MW-408A&B
ET
RE
MW-421
ST

MW-413

LEGEND

MW-414
MW-417

RAILROAD
ROADWAYS

MW-415

STRUCTURES
MW-417

MONITORING WELL

ON
RI
MA

GEOPROBE SOIL
SAMPLING LOCATIONS

ET
RE
ST

MGP SITE

MW-410A&B
MW-409A&B

Figure 2-3
Approximate Boring Locations for Additional Source Characterization at the Portage
MGP Site

2.1.2 Laboratory Studies


Factors influencing the transport and transformation of cyanide in aquifer media were studied via
laboratory column and batch tests using combinations of synthetic solutions, site groundwater,
synthetic porous media, and site aquifer materials.
2.1.2.1 Column Studies
The potential for retardation of cyanide transport in the subsurface at the MGP site was
investigated through laboratory column studies. These experiments involved passage of
cyanide-bearing groundwater collected from the Site, as well as some synthesized cyanide
solutions, through a 2.5 cm diameter, variable length (5 to 10 cm) glass column containing
2-5

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

aquifer material. A constant flow rate of 1 ml/min was maintained with the use of an HPLC
pump. Tests were performed with the actual field-site sand and also clean Ottawa sand.
Complete details of the column tests are provided in Ghosh et al. (1999b).
Some column tests were conducted with synthetic solutions of iron (II)- and iron (III)-cyanide
complexes in de-aerated water as the influent. Column tests were also performed with a nickel
cyanide solution, which is a weak-acid dissociable cyanide compound, and with a solution
comprising a mixture of nickel cyanide and ferricyanide. The tests with the iron cyanide
solutions were conducted with columns packed with field-site aquifer material and Ottawa sand,
while the column tests involving nickel cyanide used Ottawa sand, only.
2.1.2.2 Batch Studies
Batch experiments were conducted to examine the stability of iron-cyanide complexes in the
dark under neutral pH conditions. These tests were conducted with ferrocyanide, which is
reported to decompose somewhat more rapidly than ferricyanide (Meeussen et al., 1992a). A
15.5 mg/l stock solution of potassium ferrocyanide was prepared with deaerated, deionized
water. Centrifuge vials of 40 mL capacity were filled with the ferrocyanide solution to capacity,
capped, covered with aluminum foil, and placed in a vial rack in a constant temperature bath
(Temperature = 22.00.5C). At pre-selected times over a period of several weeks, individual
vials were removed from the bath and were analyzed for total cyanide (Method 4500-CN-C,
APHA, 1995), iron-cyanide complex via UV spectrophotometry (Dionex Corporation, 1989),
and free cyanide using the microdiffusion technique (Method D-4282, ASTM, 1989). The
complete data set for these batch dissociation studies is presented in Appendix K.

2.1.3 Modeling Studies


2.1.3.1 Two-Dimensional Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model
A two-dimensional groundwater flow and solute transport model was used to fit the shallow
groundwater plume data from June 1996 through November 1997. The model was used to
describe the observed plume movement and to predict future plume movement. Based on the
results from the groundwater sample analyses and the laboratory column tests, it was determined
that total cyanide at the field site could be modeled as a single, nonreactive, nondegrading
chemical species. This model consisted of a modified version of the random walk particle
tracking numerical model (Prickett et al., 1981) which incorporates two-dimensional flow in the
x and y directions and two-dimensional solute transport in the x-y plane. The particle tracking
algorithm for solute transport is similar to those employed in other groundwater solute transport
models including MODPATH and PATH3D used in conjunction with the USGS MODFLOW
model (Pollock, 1988, 1989; Zheng, 1989). The flow model uses the iterative, alternating
direction, implicit method to calculate the heads in a finite difference grid (Pricket and
Lonnquist, 1971).
The flow module was calibrated using the average piezometric head levels that were obtained
from the six rounds of sampling between June 1996 and November 1997, including the effect of
a municipal supply well located 1600 ft (487.68 m) to the southeast of the Site. The municipal
2-6

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

well was constructed in 1982 and started pumping on an intermittent basis from 1986 to the
present. As an approximate representation of the actual pumping data (Appendix J), the well was
considered to operate under a schedule of 7 days on followed by 7 days off, with an average
pumping rate of 560 gpm when operating. It was assumed that a steady state head distribution is
reached within a short time of initiation of pumping from the well (i.e., the transient response
of the water table to the onset and cessation of pumping was neglected). The rate of
cyanide-contaminated leachate input to the saturated zone was estimated using the average
precipitation rate of 78.26 cms/yr for the Site (Hydro-Search, 1991) and assuming a runoff
coefficient of 0.5 (Ven Te Chow, 1964). The average leachate concentration was estimated to be
6 mg/l, based on groundwater analysis of cyanide near the apparent source location (MW-423A).
The discrete hydraulic conductivity data (Appendix D) were interpolated over the simulation
domain. These interpolated values were thereafter used in the flow model to generate the steady
state head distribution. Simulations, performed with the geometric average value of hydraulic
conductivity data in the top 10 ft (3 m) of the aquifer, yielded similar head distributions that were
observed using the interpolated values. This can be attributed to the homogenous nature of the
sand/gravel aquifer near the water table.
Two-dimensional modeling required the assumption of uniform cyanide concentration across the
saturated thickness of the aquifer (i.e., a vertical cyanide concentration gradient of zero was
assumed). Insufficient vertical concentration resolution prior to November 1997 limited the
modeling to this two-dimensional approach. The complete details of this model, the associated
flow calibration, and the plume prediction data and figures are presented in an earlier EPRI
report (EPRI, 1998).
2.1.3.2 Three-Dimensional Flow and Transport Model
As previously mentioned, additional monitoring wells were installed in November 1997. These
wells included multi-level well nests to permit sampling of the aquifer across the entire length of
its saturated thickness for improved vertical delineation of the plume. Following the acquisition
of multilevel data from these wells, it was possible to interpret the field data with a more
sophisticated three-dimensional fate and transport model. Hence, the state-of-the-art Department
of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS v2.1) software (Brigham Young University,
1998) was used to interpret field data and to predict future plume movement at the Site. The
entire GMS system consists of a graphical user interface and a number of analysis modules
(MODFLOW, MT3D, RT3D, MODPATH, SEEP2D, FEMWATER). The analysis modules used
in the Portage MGP site modeling included the USGS MODFLOW module to generate a
three-dimensional head distribution and the MT3D module to determine advective-dispersive
solute transport. Details of the numerical model, including descriptions of flow and transport
models, and relevant figures from the flow and transport simulations are provided in Appendix I.
Groundwater Flow Model (MODFLOW)

To accurately represent the regional flow conditions, a finite unconfined aquifer was modeled
using the specified head boundaries shown in Figure 2-4. These head boundaries were
determined from a USGS 7.5-minute topographic map that included the area of the Site. Two
steady state flow models were used in the simulation: one model incorporating the effect from
the municipal well pumping (1986 to present); and the other model incorporating forty years of
2-7

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

flow under the natural hydraulic gradient (i.e., the time period following the cessation of plant
operations and prior to operation of the municipal pump in 1986). As in the 2-D modeling, the
transient response of the water table to the onset and cessation of the pumping was neglected.
The model boundary conditions shown in Figure 2-4 were used for the steady models under both
pumping and non-pumping conditions.

780 ft amsl

788.5 ft amsl

Municipal
Well No. 7

783 ft amsl

Portage MGP
Site

786 ft amsl

785 ft amsl

Note:

783 ft amsl

Orange lines represent specified head boundaries. Elevations of nodes along the specified head boundaries are denoted with a black arrow
and the associated elevation. Green outlined areas indicate approximate extent of Alliant Energy property.

Figure 2-4
Model Boundary Conditions Under Pumping and Non-Pumping Conditions
(1 ft = 0.3048 m)

Based on the Site data, the groundwater flow model was constructed to include four distinct
saturated layers with varying hydraulic conductivities and thickness as shown in Table 2-1.
Vertical flow between the four saturated layers in the groundwater flow model was accounted for
through a vertical leakance factor. The following formula was used to calculate the leakance
between the layers:
=

where,

ZU
KZU
ZL
KZL
2-8

=
=
=
=
=

ZU
Z L
+
2 K ZU
2 K ZL

leakance
thickness of the upper layer (ft)
hydraulic conductivity of the upper layer (ft/day)
thickness of the lower layer (ft)
hydraulic conductivity of the lower layer (ft/day)

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

An identical finite difference grid was used for each saturated layer. A series of four refine
points was used to achieve improved grid resolution in the Site area within the model domain.
The base cell size in a grid varied from a minimum value of 50 ft (15.24 m) in the x direction and
50 ft (15.24 m) in the y direction at the Site and in the vicinity of the municipal well to a
maximum of 500 ft (152.4 m) in the x direction and 500 ft (152.4 m) in the y direction elsewhere
in the flow domain. The depth of the cells in the vertical (z) direction were 30 ft (9 m) for all the
cells in the first layer (of which 10 feet was saturated), 30 ft (9 m) for the second and third layer
and 40 ft (12.2 m) for the fourth layer. Figure 2-5 shows the typical model finite difference grid
for a layer with the location of the municipal well.
A complete list of the hydraulic parameters used in the development of the three-dimensional
groundwater flow model are listed in Table 2-4 (Page 2-30 of this report). The average daily
pumping rate of 363 gpm was calculated for the Portage municipal well from pumping logs
provided by the city of Portage. The detailed calculation of the average pumping volume is
provided in Appendix J. During calibration of the model, it was necessary to reduce the layer
hydraulic conductivities (reported previously in Table 2-1) uniformly by a factor of 5.6 to
achieve calibration. Slug tests provide a good estimate of the relative difference in hydraulic
conductivities between locations and depths with an aquifer, however, the slug test values are not
always accurate with respect to the true hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer material. As such,
this uniform reduction of the slug test-derived hydraulic conductivity values is believed to be
valid. A plot showing the model calibration between the observed heads and the simulated heads
at each monitoring well is presented in Figure 2-6. From this figure it is observed that the
observed heads and simulated heads are in good agreement which confirms the validity of the
steady state flow model for use in the transport simulations.
Except for the municipal well location, groundwater piezometric elevation data were not
available for the flow domain prior to the establishment of the municipal well. However, using
the boundary conditions previously described, the piezometric surface generated by the flow
model during the non-pumping period predicted a piezometric elevation of 785.26 ft amsl
(239.35 m) at the municipal well location (Figure I-3 in Appendix I), which is very close to the
actual water level measurement of 785 ft amsl (239.27 m) measured at that location prior to
pumping.

2-9

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

Municipal
Well No. 7

Portage MGP
Site

Note:

Orange lines represent specified head boundaries. Green outlined areas indicate approximate extent of Alliant Energy property.

Figure 2-5
Model Finite Difference Grid with the Location of the Municipal Well (1 ft = 0.3048 m)

786.00

785.50

785.00

Predicted Head (ft amsl)

784.50

784.00

783.50

783.00

782.50

782.00

1:1 Line
781.50

781.00
781.00

781.50

782.00

782.50

783.00

783.50

784.00

784.50

785.00

785.50

786.00

Average Observed Head (ft amsl)

Figure 2-6
Steady State Flow Model Calibration with Observed Heads Versus Simulated Heads
(1 ft = 0.3048 m)

2-10

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

Particle Tracking Transport Model (MT3D)

Two distinct sources of cyanide input to the saturated zone were considered in the contaminant
transport modeling. A schematic representation of these areas are shown in Figure 2-7 which
shows one in the vicinity of MW-423A and the other near the down-gradient well MW-419. The
existence of these two sources is well supported by the observed shallow plume contours
(Figures 2-9 and 2-10) which show two distinct epicenters around those areas. Following the
introduction of the cyanide input to the first and second saturated layer of the simulation domain,
a particle tracking approach was used to advance individual particles (particle masses per grid
volume = cyanide concentration in that grid) through advection and dispersion. Assuming that
the cyanide input to the saturated aquifer began in 1947 (i.e., the cessation of plant operations),
the particle transport was performed with continuous source input for 40 years under a
non-pumping hydraulic gradient until 1986 when the well began operating. In 1986, transport
was simulated with the municipal well pumping 365 days a year under the daily average flow
rate of 363 gpm. The three parameters that were used to fit the observed plume were longitudinal
dispersivity, transverse dispersivity, and time since initiation of cyanide discharge. Table 2-4
(Page 2-30 of the report) lists the different transport parameters that were used in the simulation.
Details about the particle transport package are provided in Appendix I.
415 ft
Ground surface
MW-423
cluster

MW-419

20 ft
10 ft

Layer 1

30 ft

Layer 2
Constant
Source Input
in 1st and
2nd layers
MGP Site
Constant
Source Input
in 1st and 2nd
Layers

Water table

Layer 3

30 ft

Layer 4

40 ft

Municipal
Well

Flow Direction

Bedrock

1600 ft
MW-423

Vertical Section
Municipal Well
MW-419
Vadose Zone

Layer 1
z

Layer 2
Note: Source in
each layer is
introduced along a
single cell at the well
locations 423A and 419.

Layer 3
Layer 4

3-D Aquifer Unit

d
Figure 2-7
Schematic Showing the Plan and Cross-Sectional Area of the Contamination Scenario
Used for Three-Dimensional Modeling Purposes (1 ft = 0.3048 m)

2-11

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

2.2 Results and Discussion


2.2.1 Field Studies

60
2.
78

80
2.
78

.0 0
7 83

0
7 8 3 .4

784 .60

784.80

4.
78

783 .80

784 .00

784 .20

784 .40

80

Measured groundwater elevations observed at the Site indicate that groundwater flows toward
the ESE (Figure 2-8). Groundwater flow at the Site is influenced significantly by the pumping of
the municipal water supply well located approximately 1600 ft (487.68 m) SE of the Site.
Figure 2-8 shows the slope of the water table at the Site as determined from the average
groundwater elevation measurements between the July 1996 and November 1999 sampling
periods. The average hydraulic gradient observed during the study period was approximately
0.0014 ft/ft (m/m) when the pump was in operation. The average hydraulic conductivity in the
aquifer, as determined from the falling head slug test data, is 13.87 ft/day (4.23 m/day) in the top
10 ft (3 m) of the aquifer with higher values obtained at greater depths. Based on the hydraulic
gradient and average hydraulic conductivity, and considering an aquifer material porosity of
about 36% as measured for samples of the Site aquifer material, the average linear groundwater
velocity in the shallow aquifer at the Site is approximately 19.69 ft/yr (6.00 m/yr) when the
pump is operating. Variations of flow velocity across the flow field occur, however, due to
variations in the hydraulic conductivity, and range from 109 to 848 ft/yr (33.3 to 258.4 m/yr)
with depth as calculated using Darcys law.

78

2.

40

78

2.

7 82

20

.0 0

7 81

.8 0

7 81 .6

Figure 2-8
Water Table Elevation Contours at Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site (from average
groundwater elevations measured between July 1996 and November 1999) [1 ft = 0.3048 m]

2-12

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

Groundwater at the Site has a total dissolved solids concentration of approximately 600 mg/L,
with Ca2+ and Mg2+ as the major cations and HCO3- and SO42- as the major anions. The pH ranges
from 6.5 to 8 (Appendix G). Groundwater pE is between 4 and 5 (anoxic) in the top portion of
the aquifer, and has a pE < 3 at greater depths (Appendix G). Average major ion and metal
concentration data are provided in Table 2-2; a complete listing of all the major ion and metal
concentration data are provided in Appendix F.
Table 2-2
Average Major Ion and Metal Concentrations Observed in Groundwater at Portage,
Wisconsin MGP Site (data averaged over 5 sampling events)
Well
Numbers

Cl
(mg/l)

SO42(mg/l)

NO3(mg/l)

HCO3(mg/l)

Na
(mg/l)

Mg
(mg/l)

K
(mg/l)

Ca
(mg/l)

Fe
(mg/l)

411

112.74

15.43

20.59

222.21

40.13

35.07

4.75

61.61

0.17

417

53.1

13.02

9.21

226.21

36.14

29.26

3.49

57.72

0.12

419

37.72

42.85

7.58

256.32

19.4

28.73

12.72

71.61

1.72

420

80.26

47.29

20.21

342.31

27.58

43.49

12.85

93.44

0.09

421

38.65

77.41

5.02

320.32

23.02

39.77

2.53

86.12

0.17

423A

64.09

56.93

30.77

284.32

22.37

44.61

5.17

97.71

2.51

423B

17.65

66.25

25.71

339.33

14.71

42.57

3.78

101.62

0.21

423C

169.35

53.64

15.31

313.31

70.35

41.24

7.69

91.43

0.01

Nine rounds of quarterly sampling have yielded a good representation of the plume geometry in
two-dimensional plan view. Figures 2-9 and 2-10 show the shape of the shallow total cyanide
plume as defined by the groundwater analysis results for the June/July 1996 and November 1999
sampling rounds, respectively. As shown in these figures, the measured total cyanide
concentration in the groundwater near the on-site source (i.e., MW-423 cluster) is approximately
7.0 mg/L, consistent with the solubility of Prussian Blue/Turnbulls Blue solid in presence of
excess iron and under the observed pH and pE conditions (Ghosh et al., 1999a). Total cyanide
concentration decreases continuously with distance from the source (i.e., from 7 mg/l to less than
0.01 mg/l) suggesting that the isolated stringers of re-precipitated iron-cyanide solids observed
during the additional investigation are serving as a minor continuing source of cyanide impacts
to groundwater. The overall geometry of the plume shows more significant longitudinal
dispersion as compared to transverse dispersion (Figures 2-9 and 2-10). Also, as previously
noted, two distinct potential source regions are evident in these two figures, one around the
MW-423 cluster and the other further down-gradient around MW-419.

2-13

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

Figure 2-9
Total Cyanide Plume in Groundwater at Portage, WI MGP Site, June/July 1996
(1 ft = 0.3048 m)

Figure 2-10
Total Cyanide Plume in Groundwater at Portage, WI MGP Site, November 1999
(1 ft = 0.3048 m)

2-14

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

Calculations for locating the center of mass for the total cyanide plume in the shallow aquifer did
not show any appreciable movement of the center of mass (Appendix H), although the leading
edge of the plume has shown some movements over the course of the last three years. Center of
mass analysis is most useful for assessing migration of a fixed mass of solute in the ground
(i.e., cases in which solute is injected into the aquifer in the form of a pulse input or
instantaneous point source) (Freeze and Cherry, 1979; Freyberg, 1986). It is of limited use when
a continuous source is present. At the MGP site, the release of cyanide to the groundwater
appears to be based on the fact that the total amount of cyanide mass in the aquifer increased
over the entire period of monitoring.
Vertical profiles of cyanide concentration were obtained for the MW-423A/B/C, the
MW-422A/B/C, and the MW-408/MW-421 well nests during the November 1999 sampling
period. These data show that total cyanide concentrations decrease with depth but are still
detectable at 60 ft (18.29 m) (Figure 2-11). However, when vertical profiles of cyanide
concentrations were plotted for well nests immediately upgradient of the municipal well
(MW-425A/B/C/D and MW-426A/B/C/D for the same sampling period, cyanide concentrations
were found to increase with a depth down to 60 ft (18.3 m) after which it decreased to
non-detectable levels (Figure 2-12). The reason for this variation in the vertical concentration
profile throughout the saturated thickness can be attributed to the heterogeneity of the aquifer in
terms of the variable hydraulic conductivity, which is further confirmed by the three dimensional
fate and transport model (i.e., there are preferential flow pathways of higher hydraulic
conductivities at depths through which the cyanide compounds migrate more readily).
Total and weak acid dissociable cyanide analyses by distillation, free cyanide analyses by
microdiffusion, and iron-cyanide complex analyses by ion chromatography indicate that cyanide
in the groundwater is mostly complexed with iron. The data in Table 2-3, which show the
November 1997 speciation of cyanide in the Site groundwater at selected well locations, confirm
this observation. Concentration data for iron-cyanide complexes that are presented in the table
were based on the difference between total and weak acid dissociable cyanide concentrations and
by direct measurement using ion chromatography. A complete compilation of all cyanide
monitoring data is provided in Appendix E.
Figures 2-13 and 2-14 show the shallow weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide concentrations in
groundwater for the June/July 1996 and November 1999 sampling events. As shown in these
figures, the overall dimensions of the weak acid dissociable cyanide plume are similar to the total
cyanide plume, with longitudinal dispersion being more significant than transverse dispersion.
However, the concentrations of weak acid dissociable cyanide were much lower than total
cyanide concentrations, ranging from 0.002 mg/l to 0.086 mg/l. As a point of comparison for
these cyanide concentrations, consider that the relevant state groundwater enforcement standard
(ES) for free cyanide is 0.2 mg/L, and the U.S.EPA maximum contaminant limit (MCL) for
cyanide in drinking water is 0.2 mg/l as free cyanide. None of the on-site or off-site weak acid
dissociable cyanide concentrations measured during these two events exceed the ES or the MCL
(weak-acid dissociable cyanide is a conservatively high estimate of the free cyanide
concentration).

2-15

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies


M W 423 cl er
ust

M W 422 cl er
ust

M W 408 cl er
ust

gw t e
abl

D ept ft
h,

20

40

60
0.
0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
C N ( ot conc. ppm
t )
,

1.
0

2.
0

3.
0

C N ( ot conc. ppm
t )
,

0.
0

0.
5

1.
0

C N ( ot conc. ppm
t )
,
372 f
t

260 f
t

Not drawn to scale

Figure 2-11
Vertical Profile of Total Cyanide Concentration Along the Centerline of the Plume at Well
Nests near the Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site, November 1999 (1 ft = 0.3048 m)

M uni pal W el
ci
l
M W 425 cl er
ust

M W 426 cl er
ust

0
gw t e
abl
20

D ept f
h, t

40

60

80

100

120

140

0.
0
0.
05
0.
1
C N ( ot conc. ppm
t )
,
245 f
t

0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.
0 1 2 3 4 5
C N ( ot conc. ppm
t )
,
180. f
5 t
N ot dr n t scal
aw
o
e

Figure 2-12
Vertical Profile of Total Cyanide Concentration along the Centerline of the Plume at Well
Nests near the Municipal Well, Downgradient of the Site (1 ft = 0.3048 m)

2-16

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies


Table 2-3
Cyanide Speciation Results from November 1997 Sampling of Groundwater at Portage,
Wisconsin MGP Site

3.69

Iron Cyanide by
Distillation (total
cyanide minus
(2)
WAD cyanide), mg/l
3.61

Iron
Cyanide
(1)
by I.C. ,
(2)
mg/l
3.54

Free Cyanide
by
Microdiffusion
Method, ppb
18

% Difference
between
Distillation and
I.C. Results
+2.0

MW 407

1.66

1.63

1.61

+1.2

MW 408A

1.13

1.10

1.24

Well
Numbers

Total Cyanide
by Distillation
(2)
Method, mg/l

MW 402

MW 411

0.04

0.04

-12.7

0.05

(3)

<2

-25.0

0.25

(3)

<2

-13.6

MW 413

0.23

0.22

MW 419

5.64

5.56

5.46

15

+1.8

MW 422A

1.74

1.71

1.69

+1.2

MW 423A

6.19

6.13

5.97

10

+2.6

MW 424

4.25

4.20

4.08

+2.8

<2

-20.0

+2.2

MW 425B

0.10

0.10

MW 426B

0.47

0.46

0.12

(3)

0.45

(1)

I.C. = Ion Chromatography


All concentrations reported as mg/l of total cyanide.
(3)
These results were below the calibrated range of the instrument for iron cyanide.
Calibration range was from 0.28 mg/l to 13.9 mg/l.
(2)

Figure 2-13
WAD Cyanide Plume in Groundwater at Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site, June/July 1996
(1 ft = 0.3048 m)

2-17

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

Figure 2-14
WAD Cyanide Plume in Groundwater at Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site, November 1999
(1 ft = 0.3048 m)

The additional source characterization study conducted at the site in January of 2000 revealed no
cyanide-bearing oxide box residuals at Area A and Area B (locations of Area A and Area B are
presented in Figure 2-3). The major portion of the cyanide-bearing oxide box residuals at the site
(Area A) appear to have been removed during the excavations in 1992 and 1993. However, a
dissolution and re-precipitation event appears to have occurred at disperse depth intervals
(1 3 inch stringers) throughout the vadose zone and in the upper portions of the saturated zone.
Of the 33 soil samples that were collected during this study and were submitted for the analysis
of total cyanide, 16 samples showed detectable cyanide with concentrations ranging from
0.8 to 95 mg/Kg. Most of the detects were located in Area A around the MW-423 cluster where
the highest cyanide concentrations in groundwater are reported, with fewer detects in Area B.
This observation of isolated cyanide stringers is consistent with the recent study performed at
Carnegie Mellon University regarding the precipitation/dissolution behavior of iron cyanide
solids as a function of pH and pE in the laboratory under excess iron conditions (Ghosh et al.,
1999a). The studies suggest that cyanide will dissolve from the iron cyanide solids at certain
combinations of pH and pE only to re-precipitate further down in the soil column as the pH
and/or pE conditions change. However, the occurrence of this re-precipitation requires the
presence of excess iron. The scattered stringers of precipitated cyanide solids in Area A and
Area B appear to be serving as a minor continuing source of cyanide contamination to the
groundwater around these areas.

2-18

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

2.2.2 Laboratory Studies


2.2.2.1 Column Tests
Column tests performed with contaminated site groundwater samples and site aquifer media
under anoxic conditions, consistent with the actual aquifer conditions, indicated no retardation of
cyanide movement relative to the water transport. Results of the test with near-source
contaminated site groundwater and the field site sand from uncontaminated portions of the
aquifer are shown in Figure 2-15. From this figure it is observed that dissolved iron-cyanide, the
predominant form of cyanide in the field site groundwater, clearly moved through the site sand
without retardation in absence of excess iron conditions. Breakthrough of influent total cyanide
occurred in about one pore volume, consistent with the transport characteristics of a nonreactive
solute. The absence of retardation can be attributed to the lack of sorption in the porous media. In
other column tests using the uncontaminated site sand/gravel aquifer material (Ghosh et al.,
1999b), solutions of NaCl and ferri-/ferrocyanide also demonstrated breakthrough in about one
pore volume, confirming the nonreactive transport of the total dissolved cyanide at the site.

Figure 2-15
Total Cyanide Breakthrough in Column Study with MGP Site Groundwater and Aquifer
Material

To investigate the extent of retardation, if any, of weak acid dissociable cyanide species through
sand aquifer material, column tests were conducted with synthetic solutions of nickel cyanide
and Ottawa sand. Some tests with synthetic solutions comprising mixtures of nickel cyanide and
ferricyanide were also performed. These tests were performed because monitoring the
2-19

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

breakthrough of weak acid dissociable cyanide using actual site contaminated groundwater was
impractical due to the very low concentrations of these species in the site groundwater. Nickel
cyanide concentrations higher than those observed at the site were employed in the column tests.
Figure 2-16 shows the breakthrough profile for the nickel cyanide column tests. It can be seen
from this figure that the nickel cyanide, a weak-acid dissociable cyanide, also came through the
sand medium within one pore volume, showing no signs of retardation.

Figure 2-16
Breakthrough in Column Study with Nickel Cyanide and Clean Ottawa Sand

The results for the test with the nickel and iron cyanide mixture are presented in Figure 2-17. The
weak-acid dissociable nickel cyanide, which constituted 12% of the total cyanide in the mixture,
came through the column within one pore volume in this case also. These results indicate that,
like iron-cyanide complexes, weak metal-cyanide complexes are not retarded by a sand medium
under neutral pH conditions.

2-20

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

Figure 2-17
Breakthrough in Column with a Nickel Cyanide and Iron Cyanide Mixture and Clean Ottawa
Sand

2.2.2.2 Dissociation Studies


Studies to examine the dissociation of iron cyanide to free cyanide were performed over a
pH range of 6.5 to 6.7 with solutions of potassium ferrocyanide prepared in deaerated, deionized
water. Time-series results of these batch tests showed little conversion of ferrocyanide
complexes into free cyanide (3 to 5%). Figure 2-18 presents the results from one of these batch
dissociation studies. Complete data from the batch dissociation studies, all of which are similar
to that shown in Figure 2-18, are presented in Appendix K. As shown in Figure 2-18, the
concentration of free cyanide gradually increased and the concentration of complex cyanide
gradually decreased over approximately 9,000 hours. Equilibrium was not achieved over the
course of the experiments, although the dissolved concentrations were progressing toward
equilibrium conditions. Further long-term batch experiments are recommended to identify the
exact nature and extent of dissociation of iron-cyanide complexes in the subsurface.

2-21

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

Figure 2-18
Profile of Complex and Free Cyanide Concentrations During Batch Dissociation
Experiments with Ferrocyanide Solutions in Dark. Initial ferrocyanide
concentration = 15.03 mg/l

2.2.3 Modeling Studies


Modeling efforts were targeted at representing the observed cyanide plume using the
three-dimensional model described previously, assuming two continuous source input areas. The
longitudinal and transverse dispersion coefficients and the time since initiation of cyanide
discharge to the saturated zone were adjusted using a trial and error approach to match the
observed field data. Results of fitting the June/July 1996 and November 1999 shallow plume
(depth = 20 ft to 30 ft or 9.14 m to 18.29 m) data are presented in Figure 2-19 and Figure 2-20,
respectively, where fits for the 0.04 mg/l total cyanide leading edge is shown. Note that for the
predicted plume, a continuous gradation in concentration is presented with color coding whereas
for the observed plume, selected isoconcentration lines are shown in red. From these figures, it is
observed that the predicted plume leading edge and the observed plume leading edge match
reasonably well.

2-22

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

Concentration
(mg/L)
14.12

MW423A
MW402
MW422A

12.36
MW419

10.59
MW408A

8.83
7.06

MW425A

5.30
3.53
MW426A
Municipal Well No. 7

1.77
0.04

MW427A

Note:

Predicted plume extent displayed as a shaded range of colors.


Observed plume extext displayed as red linear contours.

Figure 2-19
Total Cyanide Isoconcentration Map in the Top Saturated Layer (K = 13.87 ft/day) for
Simulation of 49.6 Years of Transport. (40 years pre-pumping conditions plus pumping
from 1986 to July 1996) [1 ft = 0.3048 m]

Concentration (mg/L)
14.12

MW423A

MW402

12.36
MW422A

MW419

10.59
MW408A

8.83
7.06

MW425A

5.30
3.53
MW426A
Municipal Well No. 7

1.77
0.04

MW427A

Note:

Predicted plume extent displayed as a shaded range of colors.


Observed plume extext displayed as red linear contours.

Figure 2-20
Total Cyanide Isoconcentration Map in the Top Saturated Layer (K = 13.87 ft/day) for
Simulation of 53 Years of Transport. (40 years pre-pumping conditions plus pumping from
1986 to November 1999) [1 ft = 0.3048 m]

2-23

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

In absence of real monitoring data prior to 1995, the modeling of the cyanide plume provides
information about the length of time since the start of contamination of the aquifer (the start of
the contamination did not necessarily occur at same time as placement of the onsite fill), and
about the effect of the municipal water supply well on plume movement. For nonreactive
transport, continuous source input, and the introduction of a pumping well near the site in 1986,
reasonable fits of the field contours of total cyanide from the June/July 1996 and November 1999
monitoring data (i.e., 2.5, 1.0, 0.2 and 0.04 mg/l contours) were obtained by assuming that input
of dissolved species of cyanide to the aquifer began approximately in 1947. Thus, it appears that
input to the aquifer began near the end of active operations at the MGP site (e.g., the box wastes
might have been placed in the ground during plant closure). Figure 2-21 shows the cyanide
isoconcentration contours for the upper saturated layer simulated by the model for 40 years of
transport under non-pumping conditions.

Concentration (mg/L)
14.12

MW423A

12.36

MW402
MW422A

MW419

10.59
MW408A

8.83
7.06

MW425A

5.30
3.53
MW426A
Municipal Well No. 7

1.77
0.04

MW427A

Note:

Predicted plume extent displayed as a shaded range of colors.


Observed plume extext displayed as red linear contours.

Figure 2-21
Total Cyanide Isoconcentration Map in the Top Saturated Layer (K = 13.87 ft/day) for
Simulation of 40 Years of Transport (Pre-Pumping Conditions) [1 ft = 0.3048 m]

Figures 2-22, 2-23 and 2-24 present the first 40 years, the July 1996, and the November 1999
plume predictions, respectively, for a deeper (i.e., layer 2) saturated layer (depth = 30 ft to 60 ft
or 9.14 m to 18.29 m). As shown in Figure 2-22, cyanide impacts have moved past the municipal
well and reached the Portage Canal further downgradient at the end of the first 40 years of
transport. This is due to the fact that the second saturated layer has the highest hydraulic
conductivity of all four layers of the aquifer. Although the observed concentrations in the few
wells screened at the depth of this layer near the municipal well bear resemblance to the
predicted concentrations, no observed contours at this depth are shown in these figures. Since
there are only a few wells (8 in number) screened at this depth, contouring the actual well
concentrations was not justified. Figures 2-23 and 2-24 show that with the onset of pumping, the
plume downgradient of the municipal well has shrunk over time due to the pumping action and
has finally disappeared. Also, the overall size of the plume has been reduced over time since
2-24

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

more cyanide mass has been pulled out by the well relative to the cyanide mass input to the
second layer near the source regions.
Concentration (mg/L)
14.12
12.36

MW423B

10.59

MW422B
MW421

8.83
MW425B

7.06
5.30

MW426B
Municipal Well No. 7

3.53
1.77

MW427B

Note:

0.04

Predicted plume extent displayed as a shaded range of colors.

Figure 2-22
Total Cyanide Isoconcentration Map in the Second Saturated Layer (K = 106.67 ft/day) for
Simulation of 40 Years of Transport (Pre-Pumping Conditions) [1 ft = 0.3048 m]

Concentration (mg/L)
14.12
12.36
MW423B

10.59

MW422B

8.83

MW421
MW425B

7.06
5.30

MW426B
Municipal Well No. 7

3.53
1.77

MW427B

Note:

0.04

Predicted plume extent displayed as a shaded range of colors.


Observed concentrations in groundwater from wells screened in layer-2 are
displayed in parentheses adjacent to well ID

Figure 2-23
Total Cyanide Isoconcentration Map in the Second Saturated Layer (K = 106.67 ft/day) for
Simulation of 49.6 Years of Transport (40 years pre-pumping conditions plus pumping
from 1986 to July 1996) [1 ft = 0.3048 m]

2-25

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

Concentration (mg/L)
14.12
12.36
MW423B

10.59

MW422B

8.83

MW421
MW425B

7.06
5.30

MW426B
Municipal Well No. 7

3.53
1.77

MW427B

Note:

0.04

Predicted plume extent displayed as a shaded range of colors.


Observed concentrations in groundwater from wells screened in layer-2 are
displayed in parentheses adjacent to well ID

Figure 2-24
Total Cyanide Isoconcentration Map in the Second Saturated Layer (K = 106.67 ft/day) for
Simulation of 53 Years of Transport (40 years pre-pumping conditions plus pumping from
1986 to November 1999) [1 ft = 0.3048 m]

Figures 2-25, 2-26 and 2-27 present the pre-pumping (first 40 years), July 1996, and November
1999 plume predictions, respectively, for a deeper (i.e., layer 3) saturated layer (depth = 60 ft to
90 ft or 18.29 m to 27.43 m). As shown in these figures, cyanide contamination has moved past
the municipal well and reached the Portage Canal further downgradient. This is due to the fact
that the third saturated layer has hydraulic conductivity values comparable to the second layer.
Although the observed concentrations in the few wells screened at the depth of this layer bear
resemblance to the predicted concentrations, no observed contours at this depth are shown in
these figures. Since there are only few wells (3 in number) screened at this depth, contouring the
actual well concentrations was not justified. Figures 2-26 and 2-27 show that with the onset of
pumping, the plume downgradient of the municipal well has shrunk over time due to the
pumping action. Also, the overall size of the plume has been reduced over time since more
cyanide mass have been pulled out by the well relative to the cyanide mass input to the
second layer near the source regions. No cyanide plume was predicted in the fourth layer
(depth = 90 ft to 130 ft or 27.43 m to 39.62 m) during the entire simulation period.

2-26

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

Concentration (mg/L)
14.12
12.36
MW423C

10.59

MW422C

8.83
7.06
MW425C

5.30
3.53

MW426C
Municipal Well No. 7

1.77
0.04
MW427C

Note:

Predicted plume extent displayed as a shaded range of colors.

Figure 2-25
Total Cyanide Isoconcentration Map in the Third Saturated Layer (K = 98.76 ft/day) for
Simulation of 40 Years of Transport. (Pre-Pumping Conditions) [1 ft = 0.3048 m]

Concentration (mg/L)
14.12
12.36

MW423C
MW422C

10.59
8.83
7.06

MW425C

5.30
MW426C
Municipal Well No. 7

3.53
1.77
0.04

MW427C

Note:

Predicted plume extent displayed as a shaded range of colors.


Observed concentrations in groundwater from wells screened in layer-2
are displayed in parentheses adjacent to well ID

Figure 2-26
Total Cyanide Isoconcentration Map in the Third Saturated Layer (K = 98.76 ft/day) for
Simulation of 49.6 Years of Transport (40 years pre-pumping conditions plus pumping
from 1986 to July 1996) [1 ft = 0.3048 m]

2-27

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

Concentration (mg/L)
14.12
12.36

MW423C
MW422C

10.59
8.83
7.06

MW425C

5.30
MW426C
Municipal Well No. 7

3.53
1.77
0.04

MW427C

Note:

Predicted plume extent displayed as a shaded range of colors.


Observed concentrations in groundwater from wells screened in layer-2
are displayed in parentheses adjacent to well ID

Figure 2-27
Total Cyanide Isoconcentration Map in the Third Saturated Layer (K = 98.76 ft/day) for
Simulation of 53 Years of Transport (40 years pre-pumping conditions plus pumping from
1986 to November 1999) [1 ft = 0.3048 m]

Figure 2-28 shows the three dimensional realization of the total cyanide contamination profile in
the subsurface and Figure 2-29 shows the two-dimensional cross-section of this profile.
As shown in these figures, the maximum transport potential for cyanide is occurring in the
second saturated layer and to some extent in the third layer, with the cyanide contamination
reaching the fourth saturated layer only near the cone of depression created by the municipal
well. The model parameters used to fit the cyanide concentration contours from the
June/July 1996 and November 1999 field monitoring data were identical and are listed in
Table 2-4. The fitted value of the longitudinal dispersivity is in the range of the lower bound of
dispersivity values for similar plume travel distances as given in Gelhar et al. (1992).

2-28

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

Figure 2-28
Three-Dimensional Representation of the 0.01 PPM Total Cyanide Plume Iso-Surface
Portage MGP Site

Municpal Well No. 7

Layer 1

Layer 2

Layer 3

Layer 4

Figure 2-29
Two-Dimensional Vertical Representation of the 0.01 PPM Total Cyanide Plume
Iso-Surface

2-29

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies


Table 2-4
Parameter Values Used to Model Existing Cyanide Plume at Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Parameter

Saturated Layer

-1

3.42

day

-1

0.99

day

-1

0.36

First Layer

10.0

mg/l

Second Layer

1.3

First Layer

Second Layer

0.3

All Layers

0.0006

ft/ft or
m/m
In/year
(m/year)

All Layers

110 (33.53)

ft (m)

First Layer

0.5 (0.15)

ft (m)

Second Layer

2.0 (0.61)

Third Layer

2.0 (0.61)

Fourth Layer

2.0 (0.61)

First Layer

0.125 (0.04)

Second Layer

0.5 (0.15)

Third Layer

0.5 (0.15)

Fourth Layer

Recharge rate

day

10 (0.25)

Hydraulic gradient during


(1)
non-pumping conditions

0.82

All Layers

Source input cyanide


(2)
concentration Second
source near well 419

23.47 (7.15)

Third layer

Source input cyanide


(2)
concentration First source
near well 423A

98.76 (30.10)

First layer

(1)

106.67 (32.51)

ft/day
(m/day)

Second Layer

Porosity

13.87 (4.23)

Fourth Layer
Leakance

First Layer

Third layer

(1)

Units

Second Layer

Hydraulic conductivity

Value

0.5 (0.15)

(4)

(1)

Aquifer thickness

Longitudinal dispersivity

Transverse dispersivity

(3)

(3)

Time since initiation of


(3)
cyanide discharge
(1)

Values fixed using available data.


Values adjusted to maintain constant source concentrations at MW-423A and MW-419 locations.
(3)
Values adjusted to fit the 0.04, 0.2, 1.0 and 2.5 mg/l total cyanide contours for July 1996 and November 1999 data.
(4)
Typically observed values
(2)

2-30

53

mg/l

ft (m)

years

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

Table 2-5 compares the simulated and observed movement for the 0.04 mg/l total cyanide
contour for the uppermost aquifer layer between the June/July 1996 and November 1999
sampling periods. Movement was determined along the straight line path connecting the
principal source (near monitoring well 423A) and the municipal well. The model simulations
correspond to those fitted values for the adjustable parameters performed using the trial and
error approach. Although conservative in nature, the predicted plume shows good agreement
with observed plume movement. The apparent differences between the relative movements of
the calculated and observed contours can be attributed to the uncertainties associated with the
interpolation scheme for the simulated and observed concentration contouring program in Surfer
and the areal heterogeneities with respect to the hydraulic conductivity distribution in the
subsurface that were not accounted for in the model. Nonetheless, the three dimensional
modeling of the plume demonstrates the nonreactive nature of the total cyanide transport and the
stability of iron-cyanide complexes in the subsurface environment.
Table 2-5
Comparison Between Observed (Field) and Simulated (Model) Movement of 0.04 mg/l Total
Cyanide Contour in the Uppermost Aquifer Layer Between July 1996 And November 1999
Contour
(mg/l)

July 1996

November 1999

field, ft (m)
0.04

model, ft (m)

field,ft (m)

model, ft (m)

858.95 (261.81)

970.61 (295.84)

972.63 (296.46)

1007.64 (307.13)

(1)

Movement calculated between July 1996 and November 1999 along the straight line path connecting the source
(near 423A well location) and the municipal well. Distance measured from MW-423A location.

Cyanide analysis data for the monitoring well samples showed very little weak-acid dissociable
cyanide (<0.1 mg/l), with most results near the detection limit of the method (Detection Limit
=0.006 mg/l). Thus, definition of the weak acid dissociable plume is somewhat uncertain
because of the very low concentrations involved. (Note that the concentration of free cyanide is
even less than the weak acid dissociable cyanide as it represents only a small fraction of the
weak acid dissociable cyanide).
The model developed for the site was used to predict future total cyanide concentrations at the
municipal well. Figure 2-30 illustrates the predicted year-end total cyanide concentrations at the
pumping well until the year 2020. As shown in the figure, the observed concentrations in the
municipal well match very well with the predicted concentrations with the exception of one,
unexplained outlier. The model predicts that the total cyanide concentration in the well will not
exceed 0.08 mg/l total cyanide in the next twenty years (the MCL is 0.2 mg/l free cyanide) due
to the presence of a large degree of dilution over the thickness of the aquifer. It is also important
to note that the anticipated concentrations of weak acid dissociable and free cyanide would also
be well below the predicted 0.04 mg/l of total cyanide as they represent only a small fraction
(i.e., approximately 2 to 8% and 0.3 to 2%, respectively) of the total cyanide.

2-31

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

0.2000
0.1800

Total Cyanide Concentration (mg/L)

0.1600
0.1400
0.1200
0.1000
0.0800
0.0600
0.0400
0.0200

11/28/20

11/09/18

10/20/16

10/01/14

09/11/12

08/23/10

08/03/08

07/15/06

06/25/04

06/06/02

05/17/00

04/28/98

04/08/96

03/20/94

02/29/92

02/09/90

01/21/88

01/01/86

0.0000

Time
Predicted Concentration (mg/L)

Observed Concnetration

Figure 2-30
Model Prediction for Total Cyanide Concentration at the Municipal Well

In the absence of detailed multilevel data, it is difficult to delineate the three-dimensional


contamination at the site. However, the best possible judgement has been used in the numerical
model in conjunction with the available data to portray a possible path of cyanide contamination
through the aquifer thickness from the source to the sink (municipal well) in Figures 2-28 and
2-29. As shown in Figure 2-29, the contamination only reaches the bottom-saturated layer
(the municipal well is screened between 80 ft [24.4 m] to 120 ft [36.6 m] in the bottom saturated
layer) in the vicinity of the municipal well. This leaves a significant volume in the bottom-most
saturated layer and the layer above it, through which uncontaminated water can move towards
the municipal well causing substantial dilution of the cyanide concentration in the well. Although
a three-dimensional representation of the groundwater flow and plume transport is a good
approximation of the field system, there is some degree of uncertainty in these predictions due to
the lack of additional multilevel site data to validate the three-dimensional model.

2.3 Summary of Observations


Studies of a cyanide-impacted groundwater plume in an aquifer underlying the MGP site indicate
that cyanide emanating from MGP oxide-box residuals is primarily in the form of iron-cyanide
complexes. An additional source investigation revealed that the majority of oxide box materials
were removed from the site in 1993 and that only isolated stringers remain and continue to serve
as a minor source of cyanide to groundwater around the areas of MW-423 and MW-419. These
complexes are stable under the conditions in the aquifer and are transported as nonreactive
tracers in the sand/gravel porous medium comprising the aquifer. The stability of iron-cyanide
complexes in the subsurface at neutral pH conditions is suggested by the field data and has been
2-32

Field, Laboratory and Modeling Studies

confirmed via batch tests in the laboratory and modeling studies. The lack of interaction of the
iron-cyanide complexes and weak-acid dissociable cyanide complexes with the sand/gravel
porous medium in the aquifer has been demonstrated clearly in laboratory column experiments.
Furthermore, the nonreactivity of the dissolved iron-cyanide complexes with the aquifer material
is supported by the field data in that a nonreactive solute transport model is capable of describing
the observed movement of the cyanide plume over a four-year monitoring period. Thus, it
appears that dilution may be the only natural attenuation mechanism for iron-complexed cyanide
in sand/gravel aquifers at MGP sites. This is reflected in the predicted total cyanide
concentrations in a municipal well downgradient of the plume, where total cyanide concentration
is predicted to reach a plateau, due to dilution, at a concentration of 0.04 mg/L. Based on the
known fraction of free cyanide in the total cyanide, this translates to a predicted free cyanide
concentration of 0.00012 to 0.0008 mg/L which is well below the MCL (ES) of 0.2 mg/l free
cyanide.

2-33

3
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
FUTURE WORK

This research addressed two broad questions, as outlined in Section 1: i) What factors control
the fate and transport of cyanide compounds in sand/gravel aquifers? and ii) Is there potential
for natural attenuation in such systems? This section discusses the major findings of the research
in the context of these two questions. Specific scientific contributions of the research, related
engineering and field implications, and recommendations for additional research are also
discussed.

3.1 Major Findings of this Research


The fate and transport of dissolved-phase cyanide in the subsurface was studied in a sand/gravel
aquifer underlying an MGP site in Portage, Wisconsin. The research involved field, laboratory
and modeling studies. Sampling and analysis of groundwater and aquifer material, in conjunction
with hydrogeologic analyses and field hydraulic tests, led to a detailed delineation of the cyanide
plume and characterization of the aquifer in terms of its geochemistry and hydraulic properties.
Cyanide speciation analyses indicated that cyanide in groundwater was primarily complexed
with iron, with less than 8% present as weak-acid dissociable cyanide of which free cyanide
constituted 5 to 25%.
Additional source investigation for cyanide-impacted residuals revealed the presence of disperse
stringers (1 3 inches thick) of precipitated cyanide solids on sand and gravel surfaces
throughout the vadose zone and in the upper portion of the saturated zone in the vicinity of
monitoring wells MW-423A and MW-419. These scattered pockets of precipitated solids appear
to be serving as a continuing source of cyanide contamination in groundwater around these areas.
No oxide box materials were observed in this investigation.
Laboratory column studies indicated that dissolved ferro- and ferricyanide in a sand/gravel
aquifer at neutral pH conditions moves with the water as a nonreactive solute. Batch dissociation
studies conducted with solutions of ferro- and ferricyanide complexes showed that these
complexes are highly stable in groundwater under neutral pH conditions with dissociation to free
cyanide proceeding slowly towards equilibrium conditions.
The nonreactive nature of the iron cyanide complexes was further confirmed through two and
three-dimensional groundwater modeling of the observed plume movement. The random walk
groundwater solute transport model, which employs a particle tracking transport submodel for
solute transport, was first employed to interpret the observed plume movement at the site. It
rendered a good fit of the observed total cyanide concentrations for the various monitoring
events. The modeling efforts were then upgraded to a three-dimensional fate and
3-1

Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work

transport model (GMS-V2.1) to predict the three-dimensional cyanide contamination profile


in the subsurface. The three-dimensional modeling efforts explained the probable cause for the
presence of detectable cyanide concentrations in the nearby municipal well and elucidated
possible migration pathways of cyanide through the subsurface saturated layers. Like before,
the predicted plumes from the three-dimensional model agreed well with the observed plume
movement. From these observations, it appears that dilution may be the only natural attenuation
mechanism in sand/gravel aquifers for the iron cyanide complexes that predominate at
MGP sites.

3.2 Engineering and Field Scale Implications


Field data from the Portage, Wisconsin MGP site indicated clearly that cyanide, if present in
the groundwater at an MGP site, can be expected to occur primarily as iron cyanide complexes.
Furthermore, the laboratory experiments and plume modeling demonstrated the stability and
nonreactivity of the iron cyanide complexes in a sand/gravel aquifer under neutral pH conditions.
Finally, for dissolved iron cyanide contamination in a sand/gravel aquifer under neutral
pH conditions, dilution is likely to be the only natural attenuation mechanism forseen at
this juncture.
More specifically, for the MGP site in Portage, Wisconsin, this study has confirmed that
dissolved cyanide species have entered the local aquifer and have been transported offsite to
a municipal supply well. While detectable concentrations of total cyanide have been recorded
in this municipal well, they are currently well below any State or Federal standard. For example,
the total cyanide concentration has never been greater than 0.09 mg/l in the municipal drinking
water well and typically has ranged between 0.02 and 0.05 mg/l throughout the four-year
monitoring period. These values are nearly an order-of-magnitude below the Enforcement
Standard for free cyanide in the State of Wisconsin which is 0.2 mg/l. Also, since the free
cyanide concentration at the Portage MGP site has historically been determined to be as low as
0.3% to 2% of the total cyanide concentration, it is clear that the free cyanide concentration is
also well below the Federal drinking water MCL for free cyanide of 0.2 mg/l. Lastly, projections
for the total cyanide concentration in the municipal well that were made as part of this study
predict that the concentration of total cyanide will be between 0.02 and 0.06 mg/l for the next
20 years. These findings suggest that the existing environmental conditions in the aquifer do not
represent a threat to human health, either today or in the future.

3.3 Recommendations for Future Work


Field data obtained from the MGP site in Portage, Wisconsin provided a good picture of the
two-dimensional nature of the cyanide-impacted groundwater plume. Furthermore, a
two-dimensional model was found to be useful for describing the plume movement. However,
the presence of a vertical gradient at well clusters closer to the site and at well clusters near the
municipal well indicated that the assumption of uniform vertical distribution of cyanide
contamination over the entire saturated thickness of the aquifer would, in fact, lead to an
over-prediction of the actual plume concentration and transport. Hence, the three-dimensional
modeling of the plume was necessary.

3-2

Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work

The three-dimensional modeling of cyanide in the groundwater plume more than adequately
represents the observed data from the site. It also provides a good picture of the preferred
transport pathways that exist for the cyanide to move from the source to the municipal well.
It is on the basis of this understanding that the predictions of the cyanide concentration in the
municipal well were made. The presence of sentinel wells immediately upgradient of the
municipal well (i.e., MW-426A/B/C/D) provides an efficient means to continue the monitoring
of cyanide concentrations over time to validate the model predictions. As a result, it is
recommended that the monitoring program at the site be reduced to include monitoring of only
the MW-426 sentinel well nest and the city municipal well for the next two years.
It may also be of interest to further explore the dissociation of iron cyanide complexes in the
dark under neutral pH conditions. The results from this study revealed that this reaction proceeds
at a very slow rate although equilibrium conditions were not achieved. The existence of
equilibrium conditions between free cyanide and iron cyanide complexes under these conditions
could provide valuable information regarding the fate of iron-cyanide complexes in the
subsurface environment.
Finally, field and laboratory studies should be considered using other aquifer materials that have
different aquifer properties, e.g., clay content or soil pH conditions. This information can then be
incorporated in the three-dimensional cyanide transport model to make it applicable to a wide
range of subsurface conditions at MGP sites.

3-3

4
REFERENCES

Alesii, B.A. and Fuller, W.H. (1976), The Mobility of Three Cyanide Forms in Soils, in
Proceedings of the Hazardous Waste Research Symposium, EPA-600/9-76-015, U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.
APHA (1995), Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 19th ed.,
American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water
Environment Federation, Washington D.C.
Aronstein, B.N., Maka, A., and Srivastava, V.J. (1994), Chemical and Biological Removal
of Cyanides from the Aqueous and Soil-Containing Systems, Applied Microbiology and
Biotechnology, Vol. 40, pp. 700-707.
ASTM (1989), Standard Test Method for Determination of Free Cyanide in Water and
Wastewater by Microdiffusion, Method D4282-89, American Society for Testing and
Materials, Philadelphia, PA.
Bouwer, H., Rice, R.C. (1976), A slug test for determining hydraulic conductivity of
unconfined aquifers with completely or partially penetrating wells,
Water Resources Research, 12, pp. 423-428.
Bouwer, H. (1989), The Bouwer and Rice slug test - an update,
Ground Water, 15, pp. 358-364.
Brigham Young University (1998), GMS-2.1 Groundwater Modeling System, Engineering
Computer Graphics Laboratory, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
Dionex Corporation (1989), Determination of Metal Cyanides-An Application Note,
Dionex Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA.
Dzombak, D.A., Dobbs, C.L., Culleiton, C.J., Smith, J.R., Krause, D. (1996), Removal of
Cyanide from Spent Potlining Leachate by Iron Cyanide Precipitation, in Proceedings of
WEFTEC 96, Volume 3, Water Environment Federation, Alexandria, VA, pp. 107-116.
EPRI (1998), Fate and Transport of Cyanide in the Subsurface at a Manufactured Gas Plant Site,
Report No. TR111312, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.
Freeze, R. Allan and John A. Cherry, (1979), Groundwater, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs,
NJ. Freyberg, D.L. (1986), A Natural Gradient Experiment on Solute Transport in a
4-1

References

Sandy Aquifer 2. Spatial Moments and the Advection and Dispersion of Nonreactive Tracers,
Water Resources Research, Vol. 22, No. 13, pp. 2031-2046.
Gelhar, L.W., Welty, C., and Rehfeldt, K.R. (1992), A Critical Review of Data on Field-Scale
Dispersion in Aquifers, Water Resources Research, Vol. 28, No. 7, pp. 1955-1974.
Ghosh, R.S., Dzombak, D.A., and Luthy, R.G. (1999a), Equilibrium Precipitation and
Dissolution of Iron Cyanide Solids in Water, Environmental Engineering Science, Vol.16,
No. 4, pp. 293-313.
Ghosh, R.S., Dzombak, D.A., Luthy, R.G., and Smith, J.R. (1999b), In Situ Treatment of
Cyanide-Contaminated Groundwater by Iron Cyanide Precipitation, Water Environment
Research, Vol.71, No. 6, pp.1217-1228.
Hydro-Search, (1991), Phase II Environmental Investigation at the Manufactured Gas Plant
Site, Portage, Wisconsin - Volume 1, prepared for Wisconsin Power & Light Company,
Madison, Wisconsin.
Laha, S. and Luthy, R.G. (1991), Investigation of Microbial Degradation of Fixed Cyanide,
Report submitted to Aluminum Association, Washington, D.C. and Gas Research Institute,
Chicago, IL, p. 44.
Lowry, H.H. (1945), Chemistry of Coal Utilization - Chapter 26, Removal of Sulfur
Compounds from Coal Gas by H. Gollmar, John Wiley and Sons, NY.
Meeussen, J.L., Keizer, M.G., and de Haan, F.A.M. (1992a), Chemical Stability and
Decomposition Rate of Iron Cyanide Complexes in Soil Solutions, Environ. Sci. Technol.,
Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 511-516.
Meeussen, J.L., Keizer, M.G., van Riemsdijk, W.H., and de Haan, F.A.M. (1992b), Dissolution
Behavior of Iron Cyanide (Prussian Blue) in Contaminated Soils, Environ. Sci. Technol.,
Vol. 26, No. 9, pp. 1832-1838.
Paschka, M. G., Ghosh, R. S., and Dzombak, D. A. (1999), Potential Water Quality Impacts
from Iron Cyanide Anti-Caking Agents in Road Salt, Water Environment Research, Vol. 71,
No. 6, pp. 1235-1239.
Pollock, D.W. (1988), Semianalytical Computation of Path Lines of Finite-difference Models,
Groundwater, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 743-750.
Pollock, D.W., (1989), Documentation of Computer Programs to Complete and Display
Pathlines Using Results from the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Three-dimensional
Finite-Difference Ground-water Model, U.S. Geological Survey, Open File Report 89-381,
USGS, Reston, VA.

4-2

References

Prickett, T.A., and Lonnquist, C.G. (1971), Selected Digital Computer Techniques for
Groundwater Resource Evaluation, Illinois State Water Survey Bulletin 55, Illinois Department
of Energy and Natural Resources, Champaign, IL.
Prickett, T.A., Naymic, T.G., and Lonnquist, C.G. (1981), A Random Walk Solute Transport
Model for Selected Groundwater Quality Evaluations, Illinois State Water Survey Bulletin 65,
Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources, Champaign, IL.
Theis, T.L., and West, M.J. (1986), Effects of Cyanide Complexation on Adsorption of Trace
Metals at the Surface of Goethite, Environ. Technol. Letters, Vol. 7, pp. 309-318.
Theis, T.L., Young, T.C., Huang, M., and Knutsen, K.C. (1994), Leachate Characteristics and
Composition of Cyanide-Bearing Wastes from Manufactured Gas Plants, Environ. Sci. Technol.,
Vol. 28, pp. 99-106.
Ven Te Chow (1964) Handbook of Applied Hydrology, McGraw-Hill Book Company, NY.
Zheng, C. (1989), PATH3D, S.S. Papadopulos & Assoc., Rockville, MD.

4-3

A
APPENDIX A GEOPROBE SURVEY FOR PLUME
DELINEATION

A Geoprobe screen point ground water sampler (Geoprobe Systems, Inc., Salina, KS) was used
to delineate the boundaries and approximate concentration contour locations of the cyanide
plume at the MGP site during the month of December, 1995. A total of 48 locations on or
adjoining the Portage MGP site were sampled using the geoprobe assembly. Locations of
Geoprobe sampling are presented in Figure A-1. The sampling sites were selected on the basis of
initial understanding of the cyanide plume movement and a detailed area survey so as not to
include any residential property within the proposed sampling program.
A Geoprobe sampler is a vehicle-mounted, hydraulically-powered soil probing machine that
utilizes static force and percussion to advance small diameter sampling tools into the subsurface
for collecting soil core, soil gas or groundwater samples. Figure A-2 presents the main features
of the Geoprobe sampler. The assembled screen point sampler has an outside diameter of 1 inch.
(2.54 cm) and is 36 inches (0.91 m) in length. This sampler contains a 19 inch screen encased in
a perforated stainless steel sleeve.
During the process of sample acquisition, the assembled screen point sampler threads onto the
leading end of a probe rod and is driven into the subsurface by the Geoprobe machine.
Additional probe rods are connected to increase the depth of the sample zone. O-ring
connections placed at critical locations along the assembly help to seal the entire sampler unit. A
teflon tube with a ball and check valve at its end is then inserted into the probe rod assembly so
as to reach the bottom of the screen. When the desired sampling depth is reached, the sampler is
retracted about 2 feet which disengages the expendable drive point and creates an open borehole
for sample grab. The inner core, which consists of a stainless steel wire screen inside a perforated
stainless steel sleeve, is then pushed out into the borehole and water is allowed to enter the
sampler and the teflon tube by the lifting action of the ball and check valve. The other end of the
tube is connected to 0.45 micron online filter which dispenses directly onto the sample bottle by
the pulling action of a vacuum pump.
The groundwater samples from the Portage MGP site were recovered by pumping the water
through the 0.45 micron online filter directly into sample bottles, after purging a few well
volumes prior to sample collection. Samples for cyanide analyses were stored in air-tight amber
bottles with NaOH preservative to prevent the release of HCN. Samples were also field analyzed
for pH, redox potential, conductivity and dissolved oxygen. Results of Geoprobe sample
analyses for total and weak acid dissociable cyanide are presented in Appendix E.

A-1

Appendix A Geoprobe Survey for Plume Delineation

MW-401 GP-46

RAILROAD RIGHT-OF-WAY

GP-44 GP-47
MW-423A
MW-423B
MW-423C

GP-31
GP-32
GP-28
GP-29 MW-420
GP-30 GP-27

GP-35

GP-48 GP-45
GP-40
GP-39
GP-41 GP-43
GP-42
GP-38
MW-404 GP-37
GP-9
MW-403

GP-34
GP-33

MW-424
GP-8 MW-422A

GP-25

GP-13

GP-26

MW-422C
MW-422B

GP-24

GP-15

MW-419

GP-7

MW-407

GP-11

MW-408A&B
GP-17 MW-421

GP-22
MW-418

GP-12

GP-16

GP-6

GP-23

GP-14

MW-416

GP-5

MW-412

GP-10

MW-413
MW-417

GP-4

GP-20
MW-414

GP-3
GP-18

MW-411

MW-425A&B

GP-1

MW-415

GP-19

MW-425C&D

GP-36
GENERAL DIRECTION OF
GROUNDWATER FLOW

MW-410A&B
MW-409A&B

MW-426A&B
MW-426C&D
LEGEND
RAILROAD
ROADWAYS
STRUCTURES
MGP SITE BOUNDARY

MW-417
GP-36

MONITORING WELL
MW-427C&D
GEOPROBE

Figure A-1
Geoprobe and Monitoring Well Locations at Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site

A-2

MW-427A&B

Appendix A Geoprobe Survey for Plume Delineation

Figure A-2
Main features of the Geoprobe screen point sampler (obtained from Technical Bulletin
No. 94-440, Standard Operating Procedure, Geoprobe Systems, KS)

A-3

B
APPENDIX B MONITORING WELL LOCATIONS AND
DEPTHS
Table B-1
Monitoring Well Locations and Screen Interval Depths at the Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Monitoring Well Numbers

(1)

Screen Length, ft

MW 401

19.5 - 29.5

MW 402

23 - 33.0

MW 403

22.7 - 32.7

MW 404

(3)

20 - 30

MW 407

22 - 32
(2)

19.63 - 29.63

(2)

44.20 - 49.20

(2)

19.63-24.63

(2)

39.75-44.75

(2)

17.94-22.94

(2)

MW 410B

39.25-44.25

MW 411

19.15 - 29.15

MW 412

18.80 - 28.80

MW 413

16.80 - 26.80

MW 414

13.54 - 23.54

MW 415

13.60 - 23.60

MW 416

18.70 - 28.70

MW 417

14.62 - 24.62

MW 418

15.60 - 25.60

MW 419

19.15 - 29.25

MW 420

18.60 - 28.60

MW 408A
MW 408B
MW 409A
MW 409B
MW 410A

(2)

MW 421

29.40 - 39.40

(2)

19.80 - 29.80

(2)

37.60 - 39.60

(2)

57.50 - 59.50

(2)

19.30 - 29.30

MW 422A
MW 422B

MW 422C
MW 423A
(1)

Please see Figure 2-1 in the main body of the report for monitoring well locations.
Nested wells.
(3)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.
(2)

B-1

Appendix B Monitoring Well Locations and Depths


Table B-1
Monitoring Well Locations and Screen Interval Depths at the Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
(Continued)
Monitoring Well Numbers

(1)

Screen Length, ft

(2)

37.40 - 39.40

(2)

MW 423C

57.80 - 59.80

MW 424

(3)

19.70 - 29.70

MW 423B

(2)

22-32

(2)

58-60

(2)

88-90

(2)

128-130

(2)

23-33

(2)

58-60

(2)

88-90

(2)

128-130

(2)

30-40

(2)

58-60

(2)

88-90

(2)

128-130

MW 425A
MW425B

MW425C
MW425D
MW426A
MW426B

MW426C
MW426D
MW427A
MW427B

MW427C
MW427D

Note: There are eight clusters of nested wells in the field. They are: a) 423A, 423B and 423C, b) 422A, 422B and 422C,
c) 408A, 421 and 408B, d) 409A and 409B, e) 410A and 410B, f) 425A through 425D, g) 426A through 426D, and
h) 427A through 427D.
(1)

Please see Figure 2-1 in the main body of the report for monitoring well locations.
Nested wells.
(3)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.
(2)

B-2

C
APPENDIX C GROUNDWATER HEAD DATA
Table C-1
Piezometric Head Data Obtained During Sampling of the Monitoring Wells at the Portage,
Wisconsin MGP Site

Well ID
MW401

786.48

785.51

784.58

785.29

784.64

812.08

786.24

785.33

784.38

785.12

784.45

MW403

809.39

786.19

785.36

784.42

785.17

784.49

MW404

810.38

786.36

785.43

784.5

785.17

784.55

MW407

809.07

786.02

785.07

784.09

784.85

784.18

MW408A

807.43

785.63

784.69

783.68

784.43

783.82

MW408B

807.44

785.64

784.7

783.7

784.45

783.83

MW409A

802.08

785.36

NM

783.42

784.18

783.57

MW409B

802.12

785.39

NM

783.43

784.18

783.58

MW410A

801.12

786.08

785.13

784.22

784.92

784.24

MW410B

801.1

786.07

785.15

784.22

784.95

783.27

MW411

808.32

785.56

784.07

782.9

783.64

783.17

MW412

809.2

785.85

784.34

783.27

784.04

783.46

MW413

805.45

785.94

784.43

783.37

784.14

783.55

MW414

802.92

786.01

784.52

783.47

784.23

783.61

MW415

802.67

786.06

784.58

783.64

784.3

783.68

MW416

808.82

786.09

784.6

783.58

784.34

783.72

MW417

804.03

786.36

784.88

783.89

784.64

783.98

MW418

805.68

786.61

785.14

784.2

784.9

784.25

MW419
(2)

812.13

MW402

(1)

Top of PVC
Casing
(1)
Elevation

808.8

786.42

784.84

783.95

784.7

784.05

July-96

(1)

(1)

September-96

January-97

(1)

April-97

(1)

November-97

(1)

All elevations are in ft MSL (1 ft = 0.3048 m)


NI = Not yet installed.

C-1

Appendix C Groundwater Head Data


Table C-1
Piezometric Head Data Obtained During Sampling of the Monitoring Wells at the Portage,
Wisconsin MGP Site (Continued)

Well ID

Top of PVC
Casing
(1)
Elevation

MW420

808.96

786.35

784.85

783.87

784.62

783.98

MW421

807.02

786.18

784.7

783.7

784.44

783.82

MW422A

809.37

786.59

785.12

784.15

784.89

784.24

MW422B

808.86

786.59

785.11

784.15

784.89

784.23

MW422C

808.86

786.61

785.14

784.17

784.91

784.25

MW423A

810.46

786.89

785.42

NA

785.2

784.54

MW423B

810.22

787.86

785.38

784.43

785.16

784.51

MW423C

810.26

786.88

785.36

784.48

785.2

784.54

MW424

809.52

786.63

July-96

(1)

(1)

September-96

January-97

(1)

April-97

(1)

November-97

785.12

784.2

784.93

784.28

(2)

NI

NI

NI

783.04

(2)

NI

NI

NI

783.06

MW425A

810.18

NI

MW425C

810.23

NI

NI

NI

NI

783.05

MW425D

810.26

NI

NI

NI

NI

783.15

MW426A

810.66

NI

NI

NI

NI

782.72

MW426B

810.66

NI

NI

NI

NI

782.52

MW426C

811.04

NI

NI

NI

NI

782.70

MW426D

811.04

NI

NI

NI

NI

782.81

MW427A

816.97

NI

NI

NI

NI

782.12

MW427B

816.89

NI

NI

NI

NI

782.13

MW427C

817.17

NI

NI

NI

NI

782.14

MW427D
(2)

NI

MW425B

(1)

810.19

817.51

NI

NI

NI

NI

782.71

All elevations are in ft MSL (1 ft = 0.3048 m)


NI = Not yet installed.

C-2

(1)

Appendix C Groundwater Head Data


Table C-1
Piezometric Head Data Obtained During Sampling of the Monitoring Wells at the Portage,
Wisconsin MGP Site (Continued)

Well ID

Top of PVC
Casing
(1)
Elevation

MW-401

812.13

782.41

MW-402

812.08

782.42

MW-403

809.39

782.42

MW-404

810.38

782.39

MW-407

809.07

782.42

783.73

MW-408A

807.43

782.36

783.50

MW-409A

802.08

782.35

MW-409B

802.12

782.35

MW-410A

801.12

782.50

MW-410B

801.10

782.51

MW-411

808.32

MW-412

809.20

782.24

MW-413

805.45

782.25

MW-414

802.92

782.27

MW-415

802.67

782.30

MW-416

808.82

782.28

MW-417

804.03

782.37

MW-418

805.68

782.42

MW-419

808.80

782.37

MW-420

808.96

782.23

MW-421

807.02

782.34

MW-422A

809.37

782.39

(1)

June-98

September/October-98

(1)

(1)

December-98

January-99

(1)

783.48

MW-408B

(1)

783.31

782.13

783.08

All elevations are in ft MSL (1 ft = 0.3048 m)

C-3

Appendix C Groundwater Head Data


Table C-1
Piezometric Head Data Obtained During Sampling of the Monitoring Wells at the Portage,
Wisconsin MGP Site (Continued)

Well ID
MW-422B

808.86

MW-422C

808.86

MW-423A

810.46

782.44

782.96

MW-423B

810.22

782.39

782.92

MW-423C

810.26

782.42

MW-424

809.52

782.40

MW-425A

810.19

783.04

782.18

783.04

MW-425B

810.18

783.03

782.19

783.05

MW-425C

810.23

783.02

782.20

783.05

MW-425D

810.26

783.15

782.22

783.04

MW-426A

810.66

781.91

782.11

782.78

MW-426B

810.66

781.58

781.93

782.58

MW-426C

811.04

781.62

782.13

782.79

MW-426D

811.04

782.02

782.12

782.82

MW-427A

816.97

782.11

781.80

782.42

MW-427B

816.89

782.09

781.81

782.44

MW-427C

817.17

782.09

781.82

782.43

MW-427D
(1)

Top of PVC
Casing
(1)
Elevation

817.51

782.31

782.29

782.91

June-98

(1)

September/October-98

December-98

(1)

January-99

782.39

All elevations are in ft MSL (1 ft = 0.3048 m)

C-4

(1)

(1)

Appendix C Groundwater Head Data


Table C-1
Piezometric Head Data Obtained During Sampling of the Monitoring Wells at the Portage,
Wisconsin MGP Site (Continued)

Well ID
MW-401

812.13

784.51

784.48

MW-402

812.08

784.29

784.29

MW-403

809.39

784.34

784.34

MW-404

810.38

784.40

784.40

MW-407

809.07

783.95

784.00

MW-408A

807.43

783.49

783.55

MW-408B

807.44

783.50

783.56

MW-409A

802.08

783.29

MW-409B

802.12

783.28

MW-410A

801.12

784.12

784.12

MW-410B

801.10

784.12

784.12

MW-411

808.32

782.50

MW-412

809.20

782.98

783.08

MW-413

805.45

783.13

783.21

MW-414

802.92

783.24

783.47

MW-415

802.67

783.37

783.42

MW-416

808.82

783.40

783.42

MW-417

804.03

783.75

783.78

MW-418

805.68

784.08

784.09

MW-419

808.80

783.80

783.84

MW-420

808.96

783.74

783.76

MW-421

807.02

783.50

783.57

MW-422A
(1)

Top of PVC
Casing
(1)
Elevation

809.37

784.04

784.08

(1)

April-99

July-99

(1)

782.50

November-99

(1)

782.60

All elevations are in ft MSL (1 ft = 0.3048 m)

C-5

Appendix C Groundwater Head Data


Table C-1
Piezometric Head Data Obtained During Sampling of the Monitoring Wells at the Portage,
Wisconsin MGP Site (Continued)

Well ID
MW-422B

808.86

784.04

783.98

MW-422C

808.86

784.04

784.07

MW-423A

810.46

784.40

784.39

MW-423B

810.22

784.37

784.36

MW-423C

810.26

784.76

784.39

MW-424

809.52

784.07

784.12

MW-425A

810.19

782.01

783.39

782.16

MW-425B

810.18

782.01

783.40

782.16

MW-425C

810.23

781.99

783.39

782.14

MW-425D

810.26

782.32

783.53

782.40

MW-426A

810.66

780.74

782.26

781.18

MW-426B

810.66

780.42

781.90

781.01

MW-426C

811.04

780.44

781.94

780.75

MW-426D

811.04

781.09

782.34

781.30

MW-427A

816.97

781.05

782.22

781.49

MW-427B

816.89

781.05

782.25

781.48

MW-427C

817.17

781.09

782.27

781.45

MW-427D
(1)

Top of PVC
Casing
(1)
Elevation

817.51

781.71

782.90

781.72

(1)

April-99

All elevations are in ft MSL (1 ft = 0.3048 m)

C-6

(1)

July-99

(1)

November-99

D
APPENDIX D HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY
ESTIMATES FROM SLUG TESTS

Table D-1
Hydraulic Conductivity Estimates from July 1996 Sampling Period
Well ID

Type of Test

Hydraulic Conductivity
ft/min

MW 423C

0.064

0.032

0.117

0.059

Falling

0.036

0.018

0.090

0.046

Falling

0.075

0.038

0.102

0.052

Falling

0.269

0.136

0.276

0.140

Falling

0.086

0.044

0.123

0.062

Falling

0.274

0.139

Rising

MW 423B

Falling

Rising

MW 423A

0.042

Rising

MW 421

0.082

Rising

MW 420

0.018

Rising

MW 419

0.035

Rising

MW417

Falling
Rising

MW 411

cm/sec

0.304

0.154

Falling

0.277

0.141

Rising

0.303

0.154

D-1

Appendix D Hydraulic Conductivity Estimates from Slug Tests

Table D-2
Hydraulic Conductivity Estimates from September 1997 Sampling Period
Well ID

Type of Test

Hydraulic Conductivity
ft/min

D-2

0.055

Falling

0.033

0.017

0.2

0.102

Falling

0.045

0.023

0.153

0.078

Falling

0.141

0.072

0.127

0.065

Falling

0.014

0.007

0.1

0.051

Falling

0.049

0.025

0.191

0.097

Falling

0.047

0.024

0.121

0.061

Falling

0.2

0.102

0.29

0.147

Falling

0.076

0.038

0.153

0.077

Falling

0.242

0.123

0.279

0.142

Falling

0.469

0.238

0.287

0.146

Falling

0.132

0.067

0.095

0.048

Falling

0.261

0.133

Rising

MW 423B

0.108

Rising

MW 423A

0.028

Rising

MW 422C

0.056

Rising

MW 422B

Falling

Rising

MW 422A

0.143

Rising

MW 421

0.281

Rising

MW 420

0.145

Rising

MW 419

0.285

Rising

MW 418

Falling

Rising

MW 417

0.043

Rising

MW 416

0.085

Rising

MW 415

0.009

Rising

MW 411

0.019

Rising

MW 408A

Falling
Rising

MW 401

cm/sec

0.321

0.163

Appendix D Hydraulic Conductivity Estimates from Slug Tests


Table D-2
Hydraulic Conductivity Estimates from September 1997 Sampling Period (Continued)
Well ID

Type of Test

Hydraulic Conductivity
ft/min

MW 427D

0.035

0.153

0.077

Falling

1.05

0.532

0.688

0.349

Falling

0.437

0.222

0.237

0.12

Falling

0.079

0.04

0.059

0.03

Falling

0.058

0.029

0.111

0.056

Falling

0.515

0.261

0.697

0.354

Falling

0.38

0.193

0.498

0.253

Falling

0.039

0.019

0.039

0.019

Falling

0.092

0.047

0.118

0.06

Falling

0.744

0.378

0.968

0.492

Falling

0.355

0.18

Rising

MW 427C

0.068

Rising

MW 427B

Falling

Rising

MW 427A

0.085

Rising

MW 426D

0.17

Rising

MW 426C

0.007

Rising

MW 426B

0.013

Rising

MW 426A

Falling

Rising

MW 425D

0.149

Rising

MW 425C

0.293

Rising

MW 425B

0.154

Rising

MW 425A

0.303

Rising

MW 424

Falling
Rising

MW 423C

cm/sec

0.469

0.238

Falling

0.247

0.125

Rising

0.214

0.109

D-3

E
APPENDIX E COMPILATION OF CYANIDE
MONITORING DATA OBTAINED FROM THE ANALYSIS
OF GROUNDWATER SAMPLES AT THE PORTAGE,
WISCONSIN MGP SITE
Table E-1
Cyanide in Geoprobe Groundwater Samples November 1995
WAD Cyanide Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

Geoprobe Sample ID

Total Cyanide Concentration,


(1)
mg/L

GP 1

0.0074

GP 2

0.0071

ND

GP 3

0.0076

ND

GP 4

0.06

ND

GP 5

0.103

0.008

GP 6

0.46

0.008

GP 7

0.45

0.012

GP 8

1.23

0.009

GP 9

0.41

ND

GP 10

0.01

ND

GP 11

0.01

ND

GP 12

0.00716

ND

GP 13

ND

(2)

ND

(2)

ND

GP 14

0.012

ND

GP 16
(2)

ND

GP 15

(1)

ND

1.44

0.0064

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.005 mg/L.

E-1

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-1
Cyanide in Geoprobe Groundwater Samples November 1995 (Continued)

Geoprobe Sample ID

2.43

0.015

GP 18

ND

ND

GP 19

0.028

0.0064

GP 20

0.217

0.0064

GP 21

0.04

ND

GP 22

0.0385

ND

GP 23

0.059

0.0064

GP 24

2.27

0.0134

GP 25

0.157

GP 26

2.31

0.0064

GP 27

0.081

ND

GP 28

0.028

ND

GP 29

0.096

0.0064

GP 30

0.0076

ND

GP 31

0.02

ND

GP 32

0.01

ND

GP 33

1.12

0.0097

GP 34

1.68

0.0076

GP 35

4.05

0.014

GP 36

ND

GP 37

0.075

ND

GP 38
(2)

WAD Cyanide Concentration,


(1)
mg/L

GP 17

(1)

Total Cyanide Concentration,


(1)
mg/L

0.2

0.0074

(2)

ND

(2)

ND

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.005 mg/L.

E-2

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-1
Cyanide in Geoprobe Groundwater Samples November 1995 (Continued)
Geoprobe Sample ID

3.3

0.026

GP 40

3.2

0.017

GP 41

5.81

0.077

GP 42

0.074

ND

GP 43

5.46

0.038

GP 44

7.76

0.012

GP 45

3.1

0.021

GP 46

1.23

0.0163

GP 47

0.36

0.0095

GP 48
(2)

WAD Cyanide Concentration,


(1)
mg/L

GP 39

(1)

Total Cyanide Concentration,


(1)
mg/L

0.078

ND

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.005 mg/L.

E-3

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-2
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples November 1995
Monitoring Well
Numbers

Total Cyanide
(1)
Concentration, mg/L

WAD Cyanide
(1)
Concentration, mg/L

MW 401

0.31

0.011

19.5 - 29.5

MW 402

2.9

0.03

23 - 33.0

MW 403

0.103

0.0064

22.7 - 32.7

MW 404

0.088

0.013

20 - 30

MW 407

1.54

0.02

22 - 32

MW 408A

1.47

0.03

19.63 - 29.63

MW 408B

0.35

0.022

44.20 - 49.20

MW 409A

(2)

ND

ND

(2)

Screen Length, ft

19.63 - 24.63

MW 409B

ND

39.75 - 44.75

MW 410A

ND

ND

17.94 - 22.94

MW 410B
(1)

ND

ND

ND

39.25 - 44.25

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.005 mg/L.
(3)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.
(2)

E-4

(3)

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-3
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples June 1996/July 1996
WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
g/L(2)

Monitoring
Well Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

MW 401

0.1

ND

MW 402

1.44

0.015

ND

23 - 33.0

MW 403

0.15

ND

ND

22.7 - 32.7

MW 404

0.14

0.007

ND

20 - 30

MW 407

2.28

0.012

ND

22 - 32

MW 408A

1.06

0.017

ND

19.63 - 29.63

MW 408B

0.38

0.007

ND

44.20 - 49.20

MW 409A

(3)

ND

ND

19.63 - 24.63

ND

(3)

ND

(3)

Screen length,
(4)
ft
19.5 - 29.5

MW 409B

ND

ND

ND

39.75 - 44.75

MW 410A

ND

ND

ND

17.94 - 22.94

MW 410B

ND

ND

ND

39.25 - 44.25

MW 411

0.007

ND

ND

19.15 - 29.15

MW 412

0.011

ND

ND

18.80 - 28.80

MW 413

0.17

0.006

ND

16.80 - 26.80

MW 414

0.007

ND

ND

13.54 - 23.54

MW 415

ND

ND

ND

13.60 - 23.60

MW 416

0.02

ND

ND

18.70 - 28.70

MW 417

0.015

ND

ND

14.62 - 24.62

MW 418

0.016

ND

ND

15.60 - 25.60

MW 419

3.98

0.064

16.86

19.15 - 29.25

(1)

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.005 mg/L; Free Cyanide = 2.8 g/L.
(4)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.
(2)

E-5

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-3
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples June 1996/July 1996 (Continued)

Monitoring
Well Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
g/L(2)

Screen length,
(4)
ft

MW 420

0.17

0.007

ND

18.60 - 28.60

MW 421

0.23

0.025

7.2

29.40 - 39.40

MW 422A

1.48

0.009

ND

19.80 - 29.80

MW 422B

0.25

0.02

7.5

37.60 - 39.60

MW 422C

0.42

0.015

4.9

57.50 - 59.50

MW 423A

6.35

0.055

12.3

19.30 - 29.30

MW 423B

0.50

0.015

4.0

37.40 - 39.40

MW 423C

0.2

ND

ND

57.80 - 59.80

MW 424

1.03

0.016

5.3

19.70 - 29.70

Note: There are five clusters of nested wells in the field. They are: a) 423A, 423B and 423C, b) 422A, 422B and 422C,
c) 408A, 421 and 408B, d) 409A and 409B, e) 410A and 410B
(1)
Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
(2)
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.005 mg/L; Free Cyanide = 2.8 g/L.
(4)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.

E-6

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-4
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples September 1996

Monitoring
Well Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L
(3)

WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L
ND

(3)

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
g/L(2)
ND

(3)

Screen length,
(4)
ft

MW 411

ND

19.15 - 29.15

MW 412

0.006

ND

ND

18.80 - 28.80

MW 413

0.09

ND

ND

16.80 - 26.80

MW 414

ND

ND

ND

13.54 - 23.54

MW 415

ND

ND

ND

13.60 - 23.60

MW 416

0.0135

ND

ND

18.70 - 28.70

MW 417

0.0076

ND

ND

14.62 - 24.62

MW 418

0.006

ND

ND

15.60 - 25.60

MW 419

5.92

0.074

7.89

19.15 - 29.25

MW 420

0.106

ND

ND

18.60 - 28.60

MW 421

0.29

0.014

ND

29.40 - 39.40

MW 422A

1.08

0.012

3.96

19.80 - 29.80

MW 422B

0.203

0.015

3.64

37.60 - 39.60

MW 422C

0.178

0.0081

ND

57.50 - 59.50

MW 423A

5.77

0.053

13.9

19.30 - 29.30

MW 423B

0.53

0.017

14.8

37.40 - 39.40

MW 423C

ND

ND

ND

57.80 - 59.80

MW 424

1.15

0.011

ND

19.70 - 29.70

Municipal Well

0.048

ND

ND

89.00 - 129.00

Note: There are five clusters of nested wells in the field. They are: a) 423A, 423B and 423C, b) 422A, 422B and 422C,
c) 408A, 421 and 408B, d) 409A and 409B, e) 410A and 410B.
(1)
Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
(2)
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.005 mg/L; Free Cyanide = 3.6 g/L.
(4)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.

E-7

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-5
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples January 1997

Monitoring
Well Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
g/L(2)

Screen length,
(4)
ft

MW 401

0.1087

0.0067

ND

19.5 - 29.5

MW 402

4.3

0.094

43.87

23 - 33.0

MW 403

0.124

0.0069

ND

22.7 - 32.7

MW 404

0.055

ND

ND

20 - 30

MW 407

2.33

0.065

22.54

22 - 32

1.11

0.0188

ND

19.63 - 29.63

0.32

0.00645

ND

44.20 - 49.20

(3)

ND

ND

19.63 - 24.63

MW 408A
MW 408B
MW 409A

ND

0.007

ND

ND

39.75 - 44.75

ND

ND

ND

17.94 - 22.94

MW 410B

ND

ND

ND

39.25 - 44.25

MW 411

0.0065

ND

ND

19.15 - 29.15

MW 412

0.0074

ND

ND

18.80 - 28.80

MW 413

0.058

ND

ND

16.80 - 26.80

MW 414

0.0067

ND

ND

13.54 - 23.54

MW 415

0.0329

ND

ND

13.60 - 23.60

MW 416

0.026

ND

ND

18.70 - 28.70

MW 417

ND

ND

ND

14.62 - 24.62

MW 418

0.015

ND

ND

15.60 - 25.60

MW 419

5.25

0.096

3.64

19.15 - 29.25

MW 409B
MW 410A

(1)

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.005 mg/L; Free Cyanide = 3.6 g/L.
(4)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.
(2)

E-8

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-5
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples January 1997 (Continued)
WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
g/L(2)

Monitoring
Well Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

MW 420

0.267

ND

MW 421

0.22

0.012

ND

29.40 - 39.40

MW 422A

2.0

0.0116

ND

19.80 - 29.80

MW 422B

0.218

0.00645

ND

37.60 - 39.60

MW 422C

0.198

0.00645

ND

57.50 - 59.50

MW 423A

NA

NA

NA

19.30 - 29.30

MW 423B

0.568

ND

ND

37.40 - 39.40

MW 423C

ND

ND

ND

57.80 - 59.80

MW 424

1.85

0.014

ND

19.70 - 29.70

(4)

(3)

ND

(3)

Screen length,
(5)
ft
18.60 - 28.60

Note: There are five clusters of nested wells in the field. They are: a) 423A, 423B and 423C, b) 422A, 422B and 422C,
c) 408A, 421 and 408B, d) 409A and 409B, e) 410A and 410B.
(1)
Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
(2)
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.005 mg/L; Free Cyanide = 3.6 g/L.
(4)
NA = Not Analyzed.
(5)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.

E-9

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-6
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples April 1997

WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

Monitoring
Well
Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

MW 401

0.144

ND

MW 402

2.38

0.023

MW 403

0.12

MW 404

(4)

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
g/L(2)
(4)

(5)

Screen
(6)
length, ft

NA

19.5 - 29.5

ND

2.37

23 - 33.0

0.0069

ND

NA

22.7 - 32.7

0.082

ND

ND

NA

20 - 30

MW 407

1.94

0.043

15.54

1.83

22 - 32

MW 408A

1.09

0.021

4.78

1.05

19.63 - 29.63

MW 408B

0.32

0.023

2.83

NA

44.20 - 49.20

MW 409A

(4)

ND

ND

NA

19.63 - 24.63

ND

ND

Total CN as
Fe(CN)6
complex,
(3)
mg/L

MW 409B

ND

ND

ND

NA

39.75 - 44.75

MW 410A

ND

ND

ND

NA

17.94 - 22.94

MW 410B

ND

ND

ND

NA

39.25 - 44.25

MW 411

0.05

ND

ND

NA

19.15 - 29.15

MW 412

0.018

ND

ND

NA

18.80 - 28.80

MW 413

0.77

0.015

ND

0.73

16.80 - 26.80

MW 414

ND

ND

ND

NA

13.54 - 23.54

MW 415

ND

ND

ND

NA

13.60 - 23.60

MW 416

0.021

ND

ND

NA

18.70 - 28.70

MW 417

ND

ND

ND

NA

14.62 - 24.62

(1)

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
Complex cyanide measured by Ion Chromatography.
(4)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.005 mg/L; Complex cyanide = 0.2 mg/L;
Free Cyanide = 3.6 g/L.
(5)
NA = Not Analyzed.
(6)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.
(2)

E-10

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-6
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples April 1997 (Continued)

Monitoring
Well
Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
g/L(2)

Total CN as
Fe(CN)6
complex,
(3)
mg/L

Screen length,
(6)
ft

MW 418

0.007

ND

ND

NA

15.60 - 25.60

MW 419

3.36

0.044

4.56

3.32

19.15 - 29.25

MW 420

0.32

ND

(4)

0.31

18.60 - 28.60

MW 421

0.24

0.01

ND

0.21

29.40 - 39.40

MW 422A

2.17

0.031

17.5

2.14

19.80 - 29.80

MW 422B

0.23

0.013

ND

0.2

37.60 - 39.60

MW 422C

0.176

0.013

NA

MW 423A

7.72

0.07

MW 423B

0.495

MW 423C

ND

(5)

(5)

NA

57.50 - 59.50

10.16

7.5

19.30 - 29.30

0.01

3.8

0.491

37.40 - 39.40

ND

ND

ND

NA

57.80 - 59.80

MW 424

2.43

0.028

5.6

2.36

19.70 - 29.70

Municipal
Well

0.028

ND

ND

0.026

89.0 - 129.0

Note: There are five clusters of nested wells in the field. They are: a) 423A, 423B and 423C, b) 422A, 422B and 422C,
c) 408A, 421 and 408B, d) 409A and 409B, e) 410A and 410B.
(1)
Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
(2)
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
Complex cyanide measured by Ion Chromatography.
(4)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.005 mg/L; Complex cyanide = 0.2 mg/L;
Free Cyanide = 3.6 g/L.
(5)
NA = Not Analyzed.
(6)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.

E-11

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-7
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples September 1997

Monitoring
Well
Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
g/L(2)

Total CN as
Fe(CN)6
complex,
(3)
mg/L

Screen length,
(6)
ft

MW 401

0.114

0.011

4.56

NA

19.5 - 29.5

MW 402

3.02

0.035

ND

3.13

23 - 33.0

MW 403

0.172

0.012

2.17

NA

MW 404

0.227

0.015

ND

0.194

20 - 30

MW 407

1.07

0.019

3.8

1.08

22 - 32

MW 408A

0.93

0.008

ND

0.93

19.63 - 29.63

MW 408B

0.344

0.015

2.28

NA

44.20 - 49.20

ND

NA

19.63 - 24.63

(4)

(5)

22.7 - 32.7

MW 409A

ND

MW 409B

0.014

ND

ND

NA

39.75 - 44.75

MW 410A

ND

ND

ND

NA

17.94 - 22.94

MW 410B

ND

ND

ND

NA

39.25 - 44.25

MW 411

0.028

ND

ND

NA

19.15 - 29.15

MW 412

0.01

ND

ND

NA

18.80 - 28.80

MW 413

0.113

0.006

ND

NA

16.80 - 26.80

MW 414

ND

ND

ND

NA

13.54 - 23.54

MW 415

0.023

0.007

ND

NA

13.60 - 23.60

MW 416

0.017

ND

ND

NA

18.70 - 28.70

MW 417

ND

ND

ND

NA

14.62 - 24.62

(1)

ND

(4)

(4)

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
Complex cyanide measured by Ion Chromatography.
(4)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.005 mg/L; Complex cyanide = 0.2 mg/L;
Free Cyanide = 3.6 g/L.
(5)
NA = Not Analyzed.
(6)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.
(2)

E-12

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-7
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples September 1997 (Continued)
WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

Monitoring
Well
Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

MW 418

0.025

MW 419

5.0

0.115

MW 420

0.057

MW 421

Screen length,
(6)
ft

(5)

15.60 - 25.60

44.13

5.12

19.15 - 29.25

ND

ND

NA

18.60 - 28.60

0.234

0.017

ND

0.21

29.40 - 39.40

MW 422A

0.87

0.04

26.95

0.86

19.80 - 29.80

MW 422B

0.247

0.018

4.45

NA

37.60 - 39.60

MW 422C

0.22

0.019

4.13

NA

57.50 - 59.50

MW 423A

5.8

0.047

6.52

6.26

19.30 - 29.30

MW 423B

0.58

0.021

13.03

0.61

37.40 - 39.40

MW 423C

ND

ND

ND

NA

57.80 - 59.80

MW 424

1.41

0.025

3.7

1.48

19.70 - 29.70

Municipal
Well

0.032

ND

ND

0.033

89.0 - 129.0

ND

(4)

Total CN as
Fe(CN)6
complex,
(3)
mg/L
NA

ND

(4)

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
g/L(2)

Note: There are five clusters of nested wells in the field. They are: a) 423A, 423B and 423C, b) 422A, 422B and 422C,
c) 408A, 421 and 408B, d) 409A and 409B, e) 410A and 410B.
(1)
Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
(2)
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
Complex cyanide measured by Ion Chromatography.
(4)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.005 mg/L; Complex cyanide = 0.2 mg/L;
Free Cyanide = 3.6 g/L.
(5)
NA = Not Analyzed.
(6)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.

E-13

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-8
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples November 1997
Monitoring
Well
Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

MW 401

0.163

0.0069

NA

NA

MW 402

3.691

0.0776

18.02

3.54

MW 403

0.116

0.0111

ND

MW 404

0.146

0.0116

ND

NA

20 - 30

MW 407

1.660

0.0256

2.674

1.61

22 - 32

MW 408A

1.127

0.0256

6.16

1.24

19.63 - 29.63

MW 408B

0.332

0.0214

2.79

NA

44.20 - 49.20

NA

NA

19.63 - 24.63

(4)

(5)

(4)

Total CN as
Fe(CN)6
complex,
(3)
mg/L
(5)

(5)

NA

Screen length,
(6)
ft

19.5 - 29.5
23 - 33.0
22.7 - 32.7

MW 409A

ND

MW 409B

0.016

0.0065

NA

NA

39.75 - 44.75

MW 410A

ND

ND

NA

NA

17.94 - 22.94

MW 410B

ND

ND

NA

NA

39.25 - 44.25

MW 411

0.035

ND

NA

0.047

19.15 - 29.15

MW 412

0.017

ND

NA

NA

18.80 - 28.80

MW 413

0.228

0.0079

ND

0.256

16.80 - 26.80

MW 414

ND

ND

ND

NA

13.54 - 23.54

MW 415

0.068

0.0107

ND

NA

13.60 - 23.60

MW 416

0.021

ND

NA

NA

18.70 - 28.70

MW 417

0.007

ND

NA

NA

14.62 - 24.62

(1)

ND

(4)

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
g/L(2)

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
Complex cyanide measured by Ion Chromatography.
(4)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.005 mg/L; Complex cyanide = 0.28 mg/L;
Free Cyanide = 2.32 g/L.
(5)
NA = Not Analyzed.
(6)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.
(2)

E-14

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-8
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples November 1997 (Continued)
Monitoring
Well
Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
(2)
g/L

Total CN as
Fe(CN)6
complex,
(3)
mg/L

Screen length,
(6)
ft

MW 418

0.037

0.0065

NA

NA

15.60 - 25.60

MW 419

5.641

0.0865

14.54

5.46

19.15 - 29.25

MW 420

0.082

0.0065

NA

NA

18.60 - 28.60

MW 421

0.230

0.0102

2.79

NA

29.40 - 39.40

MW 422A

1.737

0.0259

9.42

1.69

19.80 - 29.80

MW 422B

0.194

0.0121

3.95

NA

37.60 - 39.60

MW 422C

0.207

0.0111

ND

NA

57.50 - 59.50

MW 423A

6.189

0.0579

10.00

5.97

19.30 - 29.30

MW 423B

0.544

0.0111

3.95

NA

37.40 - 39.40

MW 423C

ND

ND

NA

NA

57.80 - 59.80

MW 424

4.246

0.0448

2.59

4.084

19.70 - 29.70

MW 425A

0.014

ND

NA

NA

22 - 32

MW425B

0.101

0.123

58 - 60

MW425C

0.009

ND

NA

MW425D

0.006

ND

NA

NA

128 - 130

MW426A

0.007

0.0065

NA

NA

23 - 33

MW426B

0.474

0.0102

5.58

0.454

58 - 60

NA

NA

88 - 90

MW426C

0.061

(4)

ND

(4)

ND

(5)

NA

(5)

NA

88 - 90

(1)

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
Complex cyanide measured by Ion Chromatography.
(4)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.005 mg/L; Complex cyanide = 0.28 mg/L;
Free Cyanide = 2.32 g/L.
(5)
NA = Not Analyzed.
(6)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.
(2)

E-15

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-8
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples November 1997 (Continued)
Monitoring
Well
Numbers
MW426D

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L
(4)

ND

WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L
ND

(4)

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
g/L(2)
(5)

NA

Total CN as
Fe(CN)6
complex,
(3)
mg/L
(5)

NA

Screen length,
(6)
ft

128 - 130

MW427A

ND

ND

NA

NA

30 - 40

MW427B

ND

ND

NA

NA

58 - 60

MW427C

0.012

ND

NA

NA

88 - 90

ND

ND

NA

NA

128 - 130

MW427D

Note: There are eight clusters of nested wells in the field. They are: a) 423A, 423B and 423C, b) 422A, 422B and 422C,
c) 408A, 421 and 408B, d) 409A and 409B, e) 410A and 410B, f) 425A through 425D, g) 426A through 426D, and
h) 427A through 427D.
(1)
Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
(2)
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
Complex cyanide measured by Ion Chromatography.
(4)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.005 mg/L; Complex cyanide = 0.28 mg/L;
Free Cyanide = 2.36 g/L.
(5)
NA = Not Analyzed.
(6)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.

E-16

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-9
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples June 1998
WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
(2)
mg/L

Monitoring
Well Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

CITYWELL

0.031

MW-411

ND

ND

ND

19.15 - 29.15

MW-425A

0.011

ND

NA

22 - 32

MW-425B

0.102

0.005

ND

58 - 60

MW-425C

0.005

ND

NA

88 - 90

MW-425D

ND

ND

NA

128 - 130

MW-426A

0.005

ND

NA

23 - 33

MW-426B

0.234

0.024

0.0043

58 - 60

MW-426C

0.043

0.005

ND

88 - 90

MW-426D

ND

ND

NA

128 - 130

MW-427A

ND

ND

NA

30 - 40

MW-427B

ND

ND

NA

58 - 60

MW-427C

ND

ND

NA

88 - 90

MW-427D

ND

ND

NA

128 - 130

ND

(3)

ND

(3)

Screen length,
(4)
ft
89 - 129

Note: There are five clusters of nested wells in the field. They are: a) 423A, 423B and 423C, b) 422A, 422B and 422C,
c) 408A, 421 and 408B, d) 409A and 409B, e) 410A and 410B.
(1)
Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
(2)
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.001 mg/L; Complex cyanide = 0.28 mg/L;
Free Cyanide = 2.32 g/L.
(4)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.

E-17

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-10
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples September/October 1998
Monitoring
Well Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

CITYWELL

0.038

0.011

MW-401

0.140

0.009

0.00388

19.5 - 29.5

MW-402

3.240

0.125

0.1232

23 - 33.0

MW-403

0.750

0.045

0.0133

22.7 - 32.7

MW-404

1.732

0.072

0.0318

20 - 30

MW-407

1.714

0.276

0.2488

22 - 32

MW-408A

0.487

0.150

0.1632

19.63 - 29.63

MW-408B

0.303

0.036

0.016

44.20 - 49.20

MW-409A

ND

ND

NA

19.63 - 24.63

MW-409B

ND

ND

NA

39.75 - 44.75

MW-410A

ND

ND

NA

17.94 - 22.94

MW-410B

0.002

ND

NA

39.25 - 44.25

MW-411

ND

ND

NA

19.15 - 29.15

MW-412

0.022

0.004

ND

18.80 - 28.80

MW-413

0.204

0.066

0.0538

16.80 - 26.80

MW-414

0.003

ND

NA

13.54 - 23.54

MW-415

0.004

ND

NA

13.60 - 23.60

MW-416

0.013

0.003

ND

18.70 - 28.70

MW-417

0.001

0.002

ND

14.62 - 24.62

(1)

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
(2)
mg/L
(3)

ND

Screen length,
(4)
ft
89 - 129

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.001 mg/L; Free Cyanide = 2.5 g/L.
(4)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.
(2)

E-18

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-10
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples September/October 1998 (Continued)
Monitoring
Well Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
(2)
mg/L

MW-418

0.004

0.002

MW-419

3.474

0.079

MW-420

ND

ND

MW-421

0.305

0.013

0.0063

29.40 - 39.40

MW-422A

0.104

0.021

0.0156

19.80 - 29.80

MW-422B

0.379

0.056

0.0287

37.60 - 39.60

MW-422C

0.220

0.069

0.042

57.50 - 59.50

MW-423A

6.104

0.391

0.335

19.30 - 29.30

MW-423B

7.234

0.148

0.1527

37.40 - 39.40

MW-423C

0.003

ND

NA

57.80 - 59.80

MW-424

1.010

0.071

0.0501

19.70 - 29.70

MW-425A

0.017

<0.001

NA

22 - 32

MW-425B

0.083

0.007

0.00475

58 - 60

MW-425C

0.007

0.001

0.00263

88 - 90

MW-425D

ND

ND

NA

128 - 130

MW-426A

ND

ND

NA

23 - 33

MW-426B

0.536

0.047

0.0265

58 - 60

MW-426C

0.070

0.007

ND

88 - 90

MW-426D

ND

ND

NA

128 - 130

ND

(3)

0.0475
(4)

NA

Screen length,
(5)
ft
15.60 - 25.60
19.15 - 29.25
18.60 - 28.60

(1)

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.001 mg/L; Free Cyanide = 2.5 g/L.
(4)
NA = Not Analyzed.
(5)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.
(2)

E-19

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-10
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples September/October 1998 (Continued)
Monitoring
Well Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
(2)
mg/L

Screen length,
(5)
ft

MW-427A

ND

ND

NA

30 - 40

MW-427B

0.001

ND

NA

58 - 60

MW-427C

0.011

0.001

ND

88 - 90

MW-427D

ND

ND

NA

128 - 130

(1)

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.001 mg/L; Free Cyanide = 2.5 g/L.
(4)
NA = Not Analyzed.
(5)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.
(2)

E-20

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-11
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples December 1998
Monitoring
Well Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
(2)
mg/L

Screen length,
(3)
ft

MW-402

3.270

0.042

0.0025

23 - 33

MW-407

2.174

0.056

0.0129

22 - 32

MW-408A

0.776

0.026

0.0059

19.63 - 29.63

MW-423A

8.394

0.210

0.1352

19.30 - 29.30

MW-423B

4.212

0.048

0.045

37.40 - 39.40

(1)

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.
(2)

E-21

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-12
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples January 1999
WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
(2)
mg/L

Screen length,
(5)
ft

Monitoring
Well Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

CITYWELL

0.092

MW-411

ND

NA

NA

19.15 - 29.15

MW-425A

0.015

ND

NA

22 - 32

MW-425B

0.114

0.001

ND

58 - 60

MW-425C

0.007

ND

NA

88 - 90

MW-425D

0.006

ND

ND

128 - 130

MW-426A

ND

NA

NA

23 - 33

MW-426B

0.337

0.018

0.0045

58 - 60

MW-426C

0.084

ND

NA

88 - 90

MW-426D

ND

NA

NA

128 - 130

MW-427A

0.001

NA

NA

30 - 40

MW-427B

0.004

ND

NA

58 - 60

MW-427C

0.006

ND

NA

88 - 90

MW-427D

ND

NA

NA

128 - 130

(1)

ND

(3)

(4)

NA

89 - 129

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.001 mg/L; Free Cyanide = 2.5 g/L.
(4)
NA = Not Analyzed.
(5)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.
(2)
(3)

E-22

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-13
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples April 1999
WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
(2)
mg/L

Screen length,
(5)
ft

Monitoring
Well Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

CITYWELL

0.029

ND

MW-401

0.105

0.005

ND

19.5 - 29.5

MW-402

3.192

0.137

0.0365

23 - 33.0

MW-403

0.156

0.008

ND

22.7 - 32.7

MW-404

0.095

0.005

ND

20 - 30

MW-407

1.774

0.021

ND

22 - 32

MW-408A

0.865

0.030

ND

19.63 - 29.63

MW-408B

0.378

0.007

ND

44.20 - 49.20

(3)

(4)

NA

ND

(3)

(4)

NA

89 - 129

MW-410A

ND

17.94 - 22.94

MW-410B

ND

NA

NA

39.25 - 44.25

MW-411

ND

NA

NA

19.15 - 29.15

MW-412

ND

NA

NA

18.80 - 28.80

MW-413

0.879

0.017

0.00439

16.80 - 26.80

MW-414

ND

NA

NA

13.54 - 23.54

MW-415

ND

NA

NA

13.60 - 23.60

MW-416

0.021

ND

NA

18.70 - 28.70

MW-417

ND

NA

NA

14.62 - 24.62

MW-418

0.068

0.004

ND

15.60 - 25.60

MW-419

3.384

0.028

0.00317

19.15 - 29.25

(1)

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.002 mg/L; Free Cyanide = 2.5 g/L.
(4)
NA = Not Analyzed.
(5)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.
(2)

E-23

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-13
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples April 1999 (Continued)
Monitoring
Well Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

MW-420

0.158

0.003

MW-421

0.395

0.007

ND

29.40 - 39.40

MW-422A

5.735

0.016

ND

19.80 - 29.80

MW-422B

0.268

0.007

ND

37.60 - 39.60

MW-422C

0.232

0.005

ND

57.50 - 59.50

MW-423A

18.85

0.119

0.04

19.30 - 29.30

MW-423B

1.652

0.050

0.0351

37.40 - 39.40

MW-423C

ND

MW-424

(4)

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
(2)
mg/L
ND

(3)

(4)

Screen length,
(5)
ft
18.60 - 28.60

NA

NA

57.80 - 59.80

0.780

0.005

ND

19.70 - 29.70

MW-425A

ND

NA

NA

22 - 32

MW-425B

0.090

0.005

ND

58 - 60

MW-425C

0.011

0.002

ND

88 - 90

MW-425D

ND

NA

NA

128 - 130

MW-426A

ND

NA

NA

23 - 33

MW-426B

0.536

0.032

0.00817

58 - 60

MW-426C

0.057

0.005

ND

88 - 90

MW-426D

ND

NA

NA

128 - 130

MW-427A

ND

NA

NA

30 - 40

MW-427B

ND

NA

NA

58 - 60

MW-427C

0.008

MW-427D

ND

(1)

ND

(3)

NA

(4)

NA

NA

88 - 90
128 - 130

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.002 mg/L; Free Cyanide = 2.5 g/L.
(4)
NA = Not Analyzed.
(5)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.
(2)

E-24

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-14
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples July 1999
WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
(2)
mg/L

Screen length,
(5)
ft

Monitoring
Well Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

CITYWELL

0.025

MW-411

0.016

ND

MW-425A

0.004

ND

NA

22 - 32

MW-425B

0.068

0.002

ND

58 - 60

MW-425C

0.011

ND

NA

88 - 90

MW-425D

ND

NA

NA

128 - 130

MW-426A

0.002

ND

ND

23 - 33

MW-426B

0.589

0.045

0.0064

58 - 60

MW-426C

0.057

0.006

ND

88 - 90

MW-426D

ND

NA

NA

128 - 130

MW-427A

ND

NA

NA

30 - 40

MW-427B

ND

NA

NA

58 - 60

MW-427C

ND

NA

NA

88 - 90

MW-427D

ND

NA

NA

128 - 130

ND

(3)

(3)

89 - 129

(4)

19.15 - 29.15

ND
NA

(1)

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 00.002 mg/L; Free Cyanide = 2.5 g/L.
(4)
NA = Not Analyzed.
(5)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.
(2)
(3)

E-25

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-15
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples November 1999
Monitoring
Well Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

CITYWELL

0.028

0.002

MW-401

0.094

ND

ND

19.5 - 29.5

MW-402

4.125

0.117

0.03405

23 - 33.0

MW-403

0.143

0.003

ND

22.7 - 32.7

MW-404

0.163

0.003

ND

20 - 30

MW-407

2.722

0.065

0.01757

22 - 32

MW-408A

0.757

0.009

ND

19.63 - 29.63

MW-408B

0.309

0.004

ND

44.20 - 49.20

(4)

(3)

ND

(4)

NA

Screen length,
(5)
ft
89 - 129

MW-409A

ND

MW-409B

0.005

ND

NA

39.75 - 44.75

MW-410A

ND

NA

NA

17.94 - 22.94

MW-410B

ND

NA

NA

39.25 - 44.25

MW-411

0.006

ND

NA

19.15 - 29.15

MW-412

0.005

ND

NA

18.80 - 28.80

MW-413

0.261

0.006

ND

16.80 - 26.80

MW-414

ND

NA

ND

13.54 - 23.54

MW-415

0.045

0.003

NA

13.60 - 23.60

MW-416

0.016

ND

NA

18.70 - 28.70

MW-417

ND

NA

NA

14.62 - 24.62

(1)

NA

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
(2)
mg/L

19.63 - 24.63

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.002 mg/L; Free Cyanide = 2.7 g/L.
(4)
NA = Not Analyzed.
(5)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.
(2)

E-26

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-15
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples November 1999 (Continued)
WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
(2)
mg/L

Screen length,
(5)
ft

Monitoring
Well Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

MW-418

0.006

ND

MW-419

3.108

0.047

0.01081

19.15 - 29.25

MW-420

0.058

ND

ND

18.60 - 28.60

MW-421

0.314

0.008

ND

29.40 - 39.40

MW-422A

2.357

0.013

0.00595

19.80 - 29.80

MW-422B

0.334

0.016

ND

37.60 - 39.60

MW-422C

0.204

0.021

0.00405

57.50 - 59.50

MW-423A

7.396

0.085

0.01919

19.30 - 29.30

MW-423B

0.757

0.011

0.00946

37.40 - 39.40

MW-423C

ND

NA

NA

57.80 - 59.80

MW-424

0.547

0.005

ND

19.70 - 29.70

MW-425A

0.004

ND

NA

22 - 32

MW-425B

0.057

0.005

ND

58 - 60

MW-425C

0.007

ND

NA

88 - 90

MW-425D

ND

NA

NA

128 - 130

MW-426A

0.002

ND

NA

23 - 33

MW-426B

0.508

0.044

0.01486

58 - 60

MW-426C

0.038

0.006

ND

88 - 90

MW-426D

ND

NA

NA

128 - 130

(3)

(4)

NA

15.60 - 25.60

(1)

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.002 mg/L; Free Cyanide = 2.7 g/L.
(4)
NA = Not Analyzed.
(5)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.
(2)

E-27

Appendix E Compilation of Cyanide Monitoring Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at the
Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table E-15
Cyanide in Monitoring Well Samples November 1999 (Continued)
Monitoring
Well Numbers

Total Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

WAD Cyanide
Concentration,
(1)
mg/L

Free Cyanide
Concentration,
(2)
mg/L

Screen length,
(5)
ft

MW-427A

ND

NA

NA

30 - 40

MW-427B

ND

NA

NA

58 - 60

MW-427C

ND

NA

NA

88 - 90

MW-427D

ND

NA

NA

128 - 130

(1)

Total cyanide and weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide measured by strong and weak acid distillation (APHA, 1995).
Free cyanide measured by microdiffusion (ASTM, 1989).
(3)
ND = Not Detected. Detection limit for Total and WAD Cyanides = 0.002 mg/L; Free Cyanide = 2.72 g/L.
(4)
NA = Not Analyzed.
(5)
1 ft = 0.3048 m.
(2)

E-28

F
APPENDIX F COMPILATION OF METALS AND
MAJOR ION DATA OBTAINED FROM THE ANALYSIS
OF GROUNDWATER SAMPLES AT THE PORTAGE,
WISCONSIN MGP SITE
Table F-1
Major Ion and Metal Concentrations in Groundwater June 1996/July 1996
-

2-

2-

Cl
(mg/L)

SO4
(mg/L)

NO3
(mg/L)

S
(mg/L)

Na
(mg/L)

Mg
(mg/L)

Mn
(mg/L)

K
(mg/L)

Ca
(mg/L)

Fe
(mg/L)

MW408A

79.38

35

9.84

<0.1

34.75

46.43

<0.05

6.26

7.13

0.5

MW408B

47.17

60.64

<0.05

0.99

21.95

47.58

0.188

3.39

6.02

0.247

MW411

277.16

15.96

19.45

1.31

59.95

57.77

<0.05

4.98

7.7

0.013

MW417

92.7

21.76

15.29

1.63

59.15

38.90

<0.05

3.56

5.07

0.013

MW420

80.1

42.33

22.21

1.98

22.05

56.29

<0.05

10.7

8.20

0.087

MW421

38.65

58.65

<0.05

0.34

23.65

50.73

0.147

2.26

7.04

0.117

MW423A

69.32

53.35

35.42

0.66

18.45

61.03

0.418

3.86

9.41

2.47

MW423B

28.26

66.57

31.21

1.63

19.30

63.27

0.989

3.21

9.42

0.229

MW423C

123.59

43.01

14.45

1.31

107.7

39.40

0.205

4.41

72.45

0.014

Well ID

(1)

(1)

Refer to Figure 2-1 in the main body of the report for monitoring well locations

F-1

Appendix F Compilation of Metals and Major Ion Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at
the Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table F-2
Major Ion and Metal Concentrations in Groundwater - September 1996
Cl
(mg/L)

SO42(mg/L)

NO3(mg/L)

Na
(mg/L)

Mg
(mg/L)

Mn
(mg/L)

K
(mg/L)

Ca
(mg/L)

Fe
(mg/L)

MW411

45.59

10.72

10.99

36.68

28.32

<0.05

3.23

60.15

0.006

MW417

49.70

12.89

3.53

28.95

25.97

<0.05

2.72

59.70

0.011

MW419

26.02

30.52

3.67

20.29

26.75

<0.05

11.34

69.55

2.3

MW420

74.52

29.82

9.37

23.56

37.72

<0.05

15.14

93.74

0.064

MW421

40.87

65.23

<0.05

26.77

35.58

<0.05

1.7

89.63

0.211

MW423A

57.06

40.29

13.63

20.31

37.13

0.78

4.16

104.72

2.90

MW423B

18.27

62.99

13.88

8.19

39.77

<0.05

3.72

110.10

0.279

MW423C

232.72

51.65

8.64

82.42

43.84

<0.05

7.82

103.58

0.012

Municipal
Well

87.02

41.0

4.37

41.54

37.67

<0.05

3.55

76.28

0.075

Well ID

(1)

(1)

Refer to Figure 2-1 in the main body of the report for monitoring well locations

Table F-3
Major Ion and Metal Concentrations in Groundwater - January 1997
-

2-

Cl
(mg/L)

SO4
(mg/L)

NO3
(mg/L)

NO2
(mg/L)

Na
(mg/L)

Mg
(mg/L)

Mn
(mg/L)

K
(mg/L)

Ca
(mg/L)

Fe
(mg/L)

MW411

63.52

16.81

26.56

<1.0

14.59

29.5

<0.05

6.2

61.97

0.002

MW417

33.62

11.92

12.23

<1.0

18.26

26.92

<0.05

4.13

59.43

0.003

MW419

29.56

48.15

8.05

<1.0

10.55

30.27

0.2

14.33

77.25

1.91

MW420

81.86

57.73

23.03

<1.0

25.7

41.45

<0.05

15.79

100.20

0.153

MW421

37.41

103.39

4.09

2.08

23.26

38.17

0.07

2.28

88.50

0.158

MW423B

14.93

85.12

24.76

<1.0

27.89

38.06

<0.05

4.4

103.47

0.174

MW423C

183.49

72.97

17.99

<1.0

9.19

46.03

<0.05

10.04

101.97

0.0015

MW424

87.90

57.11

22.17

<1.0

25.3

42.51

<0.05

15.4

101.00

0.182

Well ID

(1)

(1)

Refer to Figure 2-1 in the main body of the report or monitoring well locations

F-2

Appendix F Compilation of Metals and Major Ion Data Obtained from the Analysis of Groundwater Samples at
the Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table F-4
Major Ion and Metal Concentrations in Groundwater - April 1997
-

2-

Cl
(mg/L)

SO4
(mg/L)

NO3
(mg/L)

HCO3
(mg/L)

Na
(mg/L)

Mg
(mg/L)

Mn
(mg/L)

K
(mg/L)

Ca
(mg/L)

Fe
(mg/L)

MW411

64.9

16.02

14.08

292.66

24.68

30.61

<0.05

4.88

66.04

0.017

MW417

45.69

9.64

8.69

279.42

18.28

26.85

<0.05

3.62

54.16

0.334

MW419

42.76

42.23

7.58

321.68

17.62

28.14

0.12

11.51

72.38

1.04

MW420

69.97

40.6

14.57

389.80

27.98

37.52

<0.05

11.52

83.34

0.097

MW421

36.53

73.56

<0.05

362.04

22.60

35.72

<0.05

4.39

82.50

0.135

MW423A

77.07

79.3

34.97

353.21

25.86

42.95

0.94

7.99

98.40

2.58

MW423B

15.63

57.44

19.71

408.09

9.96

35.50

<0.05

3.86

91.92

0.142

MW423C

153.2

49.08

12.88

382.23

70.36

37.76

<0.05

7.62

76.56

0.005

Dup#2

69.07

41.42

14.27

390.43

27.72

38.47

<0.05

11.91

80.40

0.105

Well ID

(1)

(1)

Refer to Figure 2-1 in the main body of the report for monitoring well locations

Table F-5
Major Ion and Metal Concentrations in Groundwater - September 1997
-

2-

Cl
(mg/L)

SO4
(mg/L)

NO3
(mg/L)

HCO3
(mg/L)

Na
(mg/L)

Mg
(mg/L)

Mn
(mg/L)

K
(mg/L)

Ca
(mg/L)

Fe
(mg/L)

MW411

112.53

17.61

31.86

222.2

64.74

29.16

<0.05

4.46

58.3

0.82

MW417

43.79

8.87

6.29

226.2

56.04

27.65

<0.05

3.40

57.58

0.26

MW419

52.52

50.51

11.02

256.3

29.12

29.75

<0.05

13.68

67.26

1.61

MW420

94.86

65.95

31.86

342.3

38.59

44.45

<0.05

11.1

96.48

0.03

MW421

39.79

86.23

21

320.3

18.84

38.68

<0.05

2.03

83.86

0.22

MW423A

52.93

54.77

39.05

284.3

24.88

37.34

0.554

4.69

90.00

2.09

MW423B

11.16

59.15

38.99

339.3

8.20

36.23

<0.05

3.71

100.98

0.23

MW423C

153.7

51.51

22.58

313.3

82.07

39.16

<0.05

8.54

83.6

0.010

Dup#2

42.57

9.35

6.95

230.2

56.66

27.51

<0.05

3.60

56.15

0.21

Well ID

(1)

(1)

Refer to Figure 2-1 in the main body of the report for monitoring well locations

F-3

G
APPENDIX G COMPILATION OF PH, PE,
CONDUCTIVITY DISSOLVED OXYGEN (DO) AND
TEMPERATURE DATA OF GROUNDWATER SAMPLES
AT THE PORTAGE, WISCONSIN MGP SITE
Table G-1
Groundwater Sampling Data June 1996/July 1996
Monitoring Well
(1)
Numbers
MW 401
MW 402
MW 403
MW 404
MW 407
MW 408A
MW 408B
MW 409A
MW 409B
MW 410A
MW 410B
MW 411
MW 412
MW 413
MW 414
MW 415
MW 416
MW 417
MW 418
MW 419
MW 420
MW 421
MW 422A
MW 422B
MW 422C
MW 423A
MW 423B
MW 423C
MW 424
(1)
(2)

pH
7.16
6.95
7.35
7.17
7.24
7.03
7.34
7.08
7.03
7.23
7.20
6.6
6.56
6.80
7.05
6.37
6.59
6.85
6.91
7.05
6.82
7.38
7.11
7.03
7.35
7.13
7.25
7.34
7.12

(2)

pE

3.44085
3.4578
3.4239
3.4239
3.4578
8.15295
5.30535
3.4239
3.4239
3.44085
3.4239
6.28845
6.72915
7.8987
7.03425
7.0173
7.1868
5.81385
6.05115
8.32245
8.0682
5.40705
7.88175
1.7967
2.49165
8.3394
2.15265
3.30525
8.1699

Conductivity
(mho/cm)
(3)
156
(3)
148
(3)
130
(3)
177
(3)
196
609
529
(3)
201
(3)
167
(3)
203
(3)
223
1193
445
462
504
338
735
574
427
547
715
575
662
578
736
635
695
813
554

Dissolved
Oxygen (mg/l)
9.2
4.1
7.1
7.4
3.6
1.8
1.9
7.9
6.0
6.6
5.8
10.73
10.46
6.20
9.58
9.90
6.6
9.3
8.9
3.8
6.3
1.9
6.1
2.2
1.9
4.7
3.6
2.8
7.3

Temperature
o
( C)
9.8
10.9
10.3
9.9
11.9
12.4
13.5
11.5
12.3
11.3
12.0
12.7
12.1
11.8
11.3
11.6
12.1
12.8
12.2
13.8
12.4
13.0
13.1
13.3
13.5
10.5
12.2
12.2
12.4

Refer to Figure 2-1 in the main body of the report for monitoring well locations.
pE = 16.95 Eh, where Eh (Oxidation Reduction Potential) is in volts.

G-1

Appendix G Compilation of pH, pE, Conductivity Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Temperature Data of Groundwater
Samples at the Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table G-2
Groundwater Sampling Data September 1996
Conductivity
(mho/cm)

Dissolved
Oxygen (mg/l)

Temperature
o
( C)

7.20375

384

8.4

11.4

6.77

7.8987

635

2.9

11.5

MW 403

6.86

7.8987

486

7.6

11.8

MW 404

6.58

7.6953

463

7.1

11.5

MW 407

7.04

8.15295

860

5.1

12.7

MW 408A

7.09

8.2716

610

4.8

13.0

MW 408B

7.19

5.1867

527

1.5

12.9

MW 409A

6.91

6.4071

604

6.5

13.5

MW 409B

7.21

6.4071

529

5.2

12.1

MW 410A

7.09

6.22065

532

5.8

14.5

MW 410B

7.14

6.3732

613

6.2

12.3

MW 411

7.12

6.3732

791

8.4

12.9

MW 412

7.13

8.39025

593

8.1

12.2

MW 413

7.19

8.45805

376

6.6

12.4

MW 414

6.79

8.136

220

6.6

12.6

MW 415

7.17

7.3563

320

6.8

12.6

MW 416

7.11

7.0851

493

5.8

12.4

MW 417

7.72

7.458

388

7.6

13.6

MW 418

7.49

7.1868

326

7.1

12.2

MW 419

7.63

8.93265

409

4.6

13.5

MW 420

7.40

8.2038

485

6.6

12.1

MW 421

8.03

4.83075

458

2.6

11.9

MW 422A

7.40

9.0174

497

5.5

13.5

MW 422B

7.61

3.729

421

1.7

12.8

MW 422C

7.58

2.8815

569

2.3

12.3

MW 423A

7.11

7.9665

478

5.0

11.0

MW 423B

7.4

8.59365

460

6.3

10.8

MW 423C

7.55

7.10205

660

5.3

11.1

MW 424

7.58

8.76315

571

7.3

12.1

Monitoring Well
(1)
Numbers
MW 401

(2)

6.97

MW 402

(1)

pH

pE

(2)

Refer to Figure 2-1 in the main body of the report for monitoring well locations.
pE = 16.95 Eh, where Eh (Oxidation Reduction Potential) is in volts.

G-2

Appendix G Compilation of pH, pE, Conductivity Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Temperature Data of Groundwater
Samples at the Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table G-3
Groundwater Sampling Data January 1997
Monitoring Well
(1)
Numbers

pH

pE

Conductivity
(mho/cm)

Dissolved
Oxygen (mg/l)

Temperature
o
( C)

MW 401

7.40

8.136

332

9.6

10.2

MW 402

7.22

7.0851

468

3.8

10.0

MW 403

7.34

7.74615

411

8.4

10.1

MW 404

7.38

7.98345

364

8.4

10.2

MW 407

7.34

7.71225

560

3.2

12.0

MW 408A

7.00

8.49195

475

4.5

11.3

MW 408B

7.21

2.6103

428

2.6

11.3

MW 409A

7.04

5.50875

481

7.8

12.3

MW 409B

7.07

5.7291

448

7.0

11.2

MW 410A

7.31

5.94945

412

7.2

11.3

MW 410B

7.38

5.7291

485

7.1

10.8

MW 411

7.52

5.37315

390

8.0

11.5

MW 412

7.49

5.5257

423

8.3

10.6

MW 413

7.48

7.1868

438

6.8

10.6

MW 414

7.08

7.84785

289

5.7

10.5

MW 415

7.51

7.57665

405

7.4

9.6

MW 416

7.20

7.54275

552

5.7

10.9

MW 417

7.61

4.4409

367

8.1

11.0

MW 418

7.65

5.00025

350

7.7

10.9

MW 419

7.48

7.98345

428

3.0

12.2

MW 420

7.31

8.136

581

5.9

10.9

MW 421

7.85

4.4748

500

3.3

11.2

MW 422A

7.55

7.6953

592

5.6

11.4

MW 422B

7.69

2.1357

496

3.0

11.6

MW 422C

7.62

2.2035

683

3.3

11.1

MW 423A

(3)

NM

MW 423B

7.43

8.3733

480

6.5

10.6

MW 423C

7.52

6.8817

735

6.1

10.5

MW 424

7.53

8.01735

482

6.1

11.4

(2)

3.39

(3)

NM

(3)

NM

(3)

NM

(1)

Refer to Figure 2-1 in the main body of the report for monitoring well locations.
pE = 16.95 Eh, where Eh (Oxidation Reduction Potential) is in volts.
(3)
NM = Not Measured.
(2)

G-3

Appendix G Compilation of pH, pE, Conductivity Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Temperature Data of Groundwater
Samples at the Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table G-4
Groundwater Sampling Data April 1997
Monitoring Well
(1)
Numbers

Conductivity
(mho/cm)

Dissolved
Oxygen
(mg/l)

Temperature
o
( C)

7.18

7.00035

381

8.3

9.3

MW 402

7.30

7.40715

541

3.2

9.6

MW 403

7.39

6.78

431

7.0

9.5

MW 404

7.43

7.0512

427

7.3

9.3

MW 407

6.56

7.57665

643

4.2

10.6

MW 408A

7.47

7.6614

524

3.2

10.3

MW 408B

7.57

5.8647

520

2.9

10.9

MW 409A

7.46

5.77995

648

7.3

10.5

MW 409B

7.22

5.7969

467

6.9

10.7

MW 410A

6.92

7.0512

472

6.2

10.0

MW 410B

6.71

7.23765

601

7.0

10.7

MW 411

7.27

6.3732

466

7.6

9.9

MW 412

7.19

5.4918

521

8.7

10.2

MW 413

7.27

7.2546

448

7.1

10.0

MW 414

7.15

6.8139

515

7.6

9.3

MW 415

7.37

6.4749

425

7.5

9.2

MW 416

6.89

5.47485

614

6.1

10.2

MW 417

6.97

7.06815

389

8.1

9.8

MW 418

7.51

6.4071

358

8.7

9.6

MW 419

7.35

7.91565

487

4.3

11.3

MW 420

7.19

8.0343

584

5.4

9.9

MW 421

7.24

4.7121

535

3.4

11.4

MW 422A

7.39

7.20375

490

4.1

9.7

MW 422B

7.56

2.5086

569

2.0

11.0

MW 422C

7.41

5.67825

735

3.8

10.5

MW 423A

7.25

7.67835

696

3.2

9.9

MW 423B

7.23

5.5596

556

5.9

10.5

MW 423C

7.32

3.98325

793

4.8

10.6

MW 424
(2)

pE

MW 401

(1)

pH

6.55

8.2716

444

6.2

9.9

(2)

Refer to Figure 2-1 in the main body of the report for monitoring well locations.
pE = 16.95 Eh, where Eh (Oxidation Reduction Potential) is in volts.

G-4

Appendix G Compilation of pH, pE, Conductivity Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Temperature Data of Groundwater
Samples at the Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table G-5
Groundwater Sampling Data September 1997
Monitoring Well
(1)
Numbers

Conductivity
(mho/cm)

Dissolved
Oxygen (mg/l)

Temperature
o
( C)

7.35

9.6954

444

9.82

12.3

MW 402

7.28

8.59365

530

4.67

12.7

MW 403

7.46

9.3903

477

8.24

13.7

MW 404

7.21

8.7123

404

9.1

11.8

MW 407

7.03

9.33945

884

7.27

13.2

MW 408A

7.04

9.1191

484

4.15

13.4

MW 408B

7.23

7.94955

494

2.3

14.7

MW 409A

6.92

8.93265

598

8.35

14.3

MW 409B

6.63

9.27165

463

6.82

13.2

MW 410A

7.08

8.9835

538

6.96

16.0

MW 410B

7.11

9.153

579

6.78

14.7

MW 411

7.17

8.62755

548

10.3

12.5

MW 412

6.90

10.0344

498

9.42

12.1

MW 413

7.07

9.6954

398

8.09

12.4

MW 414

6.72

9.831

348

6.61

13.2

MW 415

7.08

8.5428

371

8.78

13.3

MW 416

6.97

8.45805

676

7.15

12.5

MW 417

7.10

8.8479

498

9.12

14.3

MW 418

7.47

8.4072

370

9.21

12.8

MW 419

7.14

8.28855

485

4.83

14.2

MW 420

6.94

8.814

652

8.51

12.8

MW 421

7.14

6.49185

485

2.7

12.7

MW 422A

7.32

8.79705

593

7.27

14.3

MW 422B

7.51

2.2035

550

2.74

12.7

MW 422C

7.45

4.11885

673

1.87

12.5

MW 423A

7.49

9.2208

545

5.02

11.7

MW 423B

7.39

9.47505

499

7.02

11.9

MW 423C

7.47

9.33945

690

5.69

11.8

MW 424
(2)

pE

MW 401

(1)

pH

7.46

8.32245

823

7.84

12.9

(2)

Refer to Figure 2-1 in the main body of the report for monitoring well locations.
pE = 16.95 Eh, where Eh (Oxidation Reduction Potential) is in volts.

G-5

Appendix G Compilation of pH, pE, Conductivity Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Temperature Data of Groundwater
Samples at the Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table G-6
Groundwater Sampling Data November 1997
Monitoring Well
(1)
Numbers

(2)

pE

Conductivity
(mho/cm)

MW 401
MW 402
MW 403
MW 404
MW 407
MW 408A
MW 408B
MW 409A
MW 409B
MW 410A
MW 410B
MW 411
MW 412
MW 413
MW 414
MW 415
MW 416
MW 417
MW 418
MW 419
MW 420
MW 421
MW 422A
MW 422B
MW 422C
MW 423A
MW 423B
MW 423C
MW 424
MW 425A
MW425B
MW425C
MW425D
MW426A
MW426B
MW426C
MW426D
MW427A
MW427B
MW427C
MW427D
(1)

pH
7.27
7.17
7.3
7.23
7.38
7.46
7.58
7.15
7.24
7.46
7.48
7.24
7.08
7.135
6.82
7.02
6.75
7.49
7.41
7.36
7.24
7.70
7.36
7.5
7.45
7.19
7.07
7.24
7.30
7.23
7.27
7.54
7.49
7.27
7.43
7.63
7.63
6.93
7.65
7.57
7.48

8.42415
7.119
7.61055
8.22075
7.81395
8.1699
5.7291
8.45805
8.4411
8.7462
8.86485
NM
8.59365
8.79705
8.814
8.2038
8.01735
8.69535
8.15295
8.0682
8.25465
4.93245
7.20375
2.11875
2.96625
7.3563
8.2716
7.57665
8.814
6.45795
6.0342
1.017
3.4917
5.50875
6.52575
5.7969
6.4749
5.8986
4.2036
-2.932
0.22035

488
539
451
402
953
479
462
520
491
524
582
414
514
427
304
463
596
1115
373
458
625
503
472
556
648
511
483
667
652
651
486
398
431
470
570
490
578
560
402
521
636

(2)

Refer to Figure 2-1 in the main body of the report for monitoring well locations.
pE = 16.95 Eh, where Eh (Oxidation Reduction Potential) is in volts.

G-6

Dissolved
Oxygen
(mg/l)
10.16
3.45
8.97
9.14
5.79
5.35
4.37
7.93
6.88
8.22
8.12
9.36
9.84
7.05
7.45
7.89
4.57
11.06
6.83
3.82
6.17
3.09
5.11
3.06
-3.05
3.72
7.77
5.95
5.43
6.8
1.73
3.70
2.50
7.97
4.22
3.43
3.17
5.77
4.44
3.10
3.86

Temperature
o
( C)
11.0
11.1
11.3
10.8
12.1
11.4
10.7
13.6
11.9
13.2
11.3
12.6
12.1
12.5
12.1
11.7
11.6
12.9
11.5
12.6
11.4
10.8
12.5
11.1
10.7
10.7
10.5
10.5
12.1
11.8
11.4
11.1
11.2
12.1
11.5
11.4
11.2
11.1
10.5
10.9
10.7

Appendix G Compilation of pH, pE, Conductivity Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Temperature Data of Groundwater
Samples at the Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table G-7
Groundwater Sampling Data June 1998
Monitoring Well
(1)
Numbers
MW 412

(2)

Conductivity
(mho/cm)

Dissolved
Oxygen (mg/l)

Temperature
o
( C)

5.77995

592

15.3

11.8

7.28

5.47485

658

13.0

11.3

MW 425B

7.19

5.1867

538

3.5

12.0

MW 425C

7.32

5.085

430

1.3

11.7

MW 425D

6.81

5.74605

431

2.8

11.8

MW 426A

7.29

5.54265

713

12.8

12.1

MW 426B

7.28

5.50875

694

4.5

13.1

MW 426C

7.56

5.23755

571

1.6

13.5

MW 426D

7.23

5.74605

661

3.6

13.0

MW 427A

7.16

5.424

473

10.5

12.3

MW 427B

6.79

5.37315

436

0.5

12.4

MW 427C

7.56

5.3562

654

0.4

12.6

MW 427D
(2)

7.09

MW 425A

(1)

pH

pE

7.26

5.763

742

0.7

12.3

Refer to Figure 2-1 in the main body of the report for monitoring well locations.
pE = 16.95 Eh, where Eh (Oxidation Reduction Potential) is in volts.

G-7

Appendix G Compilation of pH, pE, Conductivity Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Temperature Data of Groundwater
Samples at the Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table G-8
Groundwater Sampling Data September/October 1998
Monitoring Well
(1)
Numbers
MW 401
MW 402
MW 403
MW 404
MW 407
MW 408A
MW 408B
MW 409A
MW 409B
MW 410A
MW 410B
MW 411
MW 412
MW 413
MW 414
MW 415
MW 416
MW 417
MW 418
MW 419
MW 420
MW 421
MW 422A
MW 422B
MW 422C
MW 423A
MW 423B
MW 423C
MW 424
MW 425A
MW 425B
MW 425C
MW 425D
MW 426A
MW 426B
MW 426C
MW 426D
MW 427A
MW 427B
MW 427C
MW 427D
(1)
(2)

pH
7.52
7.37
7.46
7.38
7.59
7.46
7.53
7.21
7.26
7.25
7.67
7.19
7.34
7.24
7.20
7.12
6.94
7.28
7.50
7.41
7.00
7.73
7.46
7.59
7.48
7.01
7.26
7.21
7.63
7.26
7.32
7.53
7.66
7.56
7.59
7.72
7.65
7.55
7.45
7.59
7.48

(2)

pE

8.28855
8.76315
8.2716
8.7462
7.6275
7.7631
5.67825
5.2884
5.2884
6.2376
5.40705
5.37315
6.42405
6.1698
5.13585
5.50875
6.3054
5.8986
5.6952
8.0004
4.4748
3.03405
3.0171
1.695
2.22045
7.5936
8.8479
8.35635
7.94955
4.3392
5.91555
5.0172
3.77985
5.03415
5.27145
2.11875
2.373
4.72905
3.9324
2.9154
4.2375

Conductivity
(mho/cm)
388
556
601
534
849
568
530
396
586
881
581
521
554
584
281
414
862
1352
404
729
862
702
1558
684
831
388
496
800
866
894
602
465
445
573
669
608
705
551
536
643
831

Refer to Figure 2-1 in the main body of the report for monitoring well locations.
pE = 16.95 Eh, where Eh (Oxidation Reduction Potential) is in volts.

G-8

Dissolved
Oxygen (mg/l)
10.2
3.0
9.55
9.62
3.73
7.7
3.1
7.8
7.4
9.5
7.9
9.84
9.9
7.6
6.1
7.0
7.9
8.8
9.1
4.3
9.0
2.9
8.98
2.1
1.6
3.0
2.9
5.5
7.8
8.3
2.0
2.8
2.2
9.6
1.8
2.7
3.6
10.4
1.5
1.9
2.1

Temperature
o
( C)
12.3
12.1
12.4
11.6
12.4
12.5
11.4
13.6
12.2
13.9
12.9
13.5
13.3
13.3
13.8
13.6
12.3
14.4
13.0
13.5
11.9
11.9
14.1
12.4
12.8
11.6
11.1
11.0
12.5
12.9
10.9
11.5
12.8
13.2
12.3
13.0
12.6
12.6
13.2
12.2
13.0

Appendix G Compilation of pH, pE, Conductivity Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Temperature Data of Groundwater
Samples at the Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table G-9
Groundwater Sampling Data January 1999
(2)

Monitoring Well
(1)
Numbers

Conductivity
(mho/cm)

Dissolved
Oxygen (mg/l)

Temperature
o
( C)

7.49

5.33925

426

9.3

11.5

MW 425A

7.18

7.3902

799

6.6

10.5

MW 425B

7.31

7.458

573

2.0

9.4

MW 425C

7.73

5.98335

434

1.1

1.0

MW 425D

7.65

6.0003

40

1.8

10.1

MW 426A

7.28

5.7291

727

12.6

11.0

MW 426B

7.48

6.3732

698

1.0

4.7

MW 426C

7.74

1.27125

575

2.7

10.7

MW 426D

7.68

2.2035

572

3.0

9.5

MW 427A

7.55

5.8986

461

10.1

10.5

MW 427B

7.65

5.94945

467

0.6

9.8

MW 427C

7.65

3.0849

633

2.4

9.8

MW 427D
(2)

pE

MW 412

(1)

pH

7.51

6.01725

717

2.1

9.5

Refer to Figure 2-1 in the main body of the report for monitoring well locations.
pE = 16.95 Eh, where Eh (Oxidation Reduction Potential) is in volts.

G-9

Appendix G Compilation of pH, pE, Conductivity Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Temperature Data of Groundwater
Samples at the Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table G-10
Groundwater Sampling Data April 1999
Monitoring Well
(1)
Numbers
MW 401
MW 402
MW 403
MW 404
MW 407
MW 408A
MW 408B
MW 410A
MW 410B
MW 411
MW 412
MW 413
MW 414
MW 415
MW 416
MW 417
MW 418
MW 419
MW 420
MW 421
MW 422A
MW 422B
MW 423A
MW 423B
MW 423C
MW 424
MW 425A
MW 425B
MW 425C
MW 425D
MW 426A
MW 426B
MW 426C
MW 426D
MW 427A
MW 427B
MW 427C
MW 427D
(1)
(2)

pH
7.07
6.79
6.85
6.91
7.02
7.66
7.77
6.24
6.79
7.49
7.92
7.59
7.80
7.81
7.47
6.63
6.70
6.80
6.67
7.78
6.91
7.05
6.90
6.84
6.88
6.48
6.86
7.36
7.61
7.74
7.04
7.45
7.87
7.37
6.83
7.25
7.48
7.54

(2)

pE

2.8476
3.10185
3.729
3.74595
3.00015
5.0172
5.7291
3.3222
3.2544
5.47485
3.1866
6.1698
4.08495
4.11885
4.83075
NM
3.3222
3.2205
3.2544
4.8138
3.06795
2.96625
3.13575
3.0849
3.051
3.4239
4.9155
4.52565
3.8985
3.91545
5.5935
4.9833
1.6272
3.13575
4.93245
4.4409
3.74595
3.1866

Conductivity
(mho/cm)
420
780
580
50
946
530
534
480
610
593
413
534
619
1046
781
730
410
550
780
651
1020
740
680
590
810
740
896
614
446
445
470
672
619
686
501
458
653
783

Refer to Figure 2-1 in the main body of the report for monitoring well locations.
pE = 16.95 Eh, where Eh (Oxidation Reduction Potential) is in volts.

G-10

Dissolved
Oxygen (mg/l)
9.5
10.0
7.3
8.0
4.2
3.6
1.3
8.1
6.6
10.3
10.0
7.6
8.9
10.8
6.1
8.7
6.4
3.2
5.8
0.5
4.1
4.5
1.4
5.0
7.1
6.5
6.3
0.4
0.7
4.2
9.9
3.1
4.1
0.6
3.0
0.3
0.3
0.3

Temperature
o
( C)
10.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
11.6
11.8
11.0
11.0
11.5
11.7
11.1
10.2
10.2
11.6
11.0
10.0
11.0
10.5
11.7
11.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
10.0
10.0
11.4
11.6
10.9
11.3
11.5
11.8
12.9
11.6
11.3
11.2
11.2
11.1

Appendix G Compilation of pH, pE, Conductivity Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Temperature Data of Groundwater
Samples at the Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table G-11
Groundwater Sampling Data July 1999
(2)

Monitoring Well
(1)
Numbers

Conductivity
(mho/cm)

Dissolved
Oxygen (mg/l)

Temperature
o
( C)

7.36

3.84765

877

9.0

14.7

MW 425A

7.10

5.00025

716

7.1

13.2

MW 425B

7.25

4.8138

634

5.9

12.6

MW 425C

7.54

4.5087

588

4.3

14.4

MW 425D

7.62

4.1019

445

0.8

16.0

MW 426A

7.56

5.0511

729

11.5

13.8

MW 426B

7.74

4.96635

785

2.8

13.8

MW 426C

7.83

2.2035

647

4.1

13.8

MW 426D

7.64

1.9662

730

0.5

14.3

MW 427A

7.34

4.7799

514

9.2

16.5

MW 427B

7.45

4.2036

506

0.6

13.8

MW 427C

7.44

2.7798

770

0.5

13.4

MW 427D

(2)

pE

MW 412

(1)

pH

7.32

3.8646

794

0.6

12.4

Refer to Figure 2-1 in the main body of the report for monitoring well locations.
pE = 16.95 Eh, where Eh (Oxidation Reduction Potential) is in volts.

G-11

Appendix G Compilation of pH, pE, Conductivity Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Temperature Data of Groundwater
Samples at the Portage, Wisconsin MGP Site
Table G-12
Groundwater Sampling Data November 1999
Monitoring Well
(1)
Numbers
MW 401
MW 402
MW 403
MW 404
MW 407
MW 408A
MW 408B
MW-409A
MW-409B
MW 410A
MW 410B
MW 411
MW 412
MW 413
MW 414
MW 415
MW 416
MW 417
MW 418
MW 419
MW 420
MW 421
MW 422A
MW 422B
MW-422C
MW 423A
MW 423B
MW 423C
MW 424
MW 425A
MW 425B
MW 425C
MW 425D
MW 426A
MW 426B
MW 426C
MW 426D
MW 427A
MW 427B
MW 427C
MW 427D
(1)
(2)

pH
7.35
7.24
7.47
7.38
7.33
7.13
7.13
7.09
7.10
7.30
7.26
7.19
7.10
6.95
6.56
6.94
6.89
7.27
7.22
7.17
6.80
7.35
7.34
7.56
7.47
7.18
7.20
7.21
7.44
7.18
7.25
7.29
7.38
7.25
7.01
7.47
7.40
6.68
7.22
7.40
7.22

(2)

pE

7.2207
7.61055
6.45795
6.7461
7.797
6.49185
6.52575
5.2545
5.23755
6.25455
6.1698
5.00025
6.4071
6.8817
4.89855
6.0342
6.8478
6.39015
5.94945
7.50885
6.8817
3.6951
7.67835
1.61025
1.47465
7.98345
7.74615
7.30545
7.119
5.74605
6.05115
6.102
5.7291
5.71215
5.9325
1.5933
1.88145
3.8646
3.77985
2.28825
3.94935

Conductivity
(mho/cm)
476
1130
640
605
1377
772
723
1486
731
588
921
519
844
631
330
723
948
817
524
770
975
861
1086
805
1002
801
602
1071
1236
1678
872
694
602
725
884
928
933
669
681
999
1040

Refer to Figure 2-1 in the main body of the report for monitoring well locations.
pE = 16.95 Eh, where Eh (Oxidation Reduction Potential) is in volts.

G-12

Dissolved
Oxygen (mg/l)
7.0
0.3
8.2
5.9
1.4
0.6
0.3
5.2
5.7
4.8
4.0
6.1
7.1
5.1
4.4
4.0
4.1
6.8
4.4
1.0
6.2
0.5
5.9
0.4
0.0
1.6
5.7
3.3
7.1
6.6
1.2
0.0
0.4
6.1
0.3
1.4
0.3
7.8
0.3
0.7
0.0

Temperature
o
( C)
12.6
12.4
12.2
12.4
14.3
12.3
10.0
14.1
12.8
13.2
11.9
10.4
12.8
12.1
13.8
11.7
12.0
13.5
13.7
14.2
12.3
10.8
13.9
12.7
12.5
11.8
10.7
11.0
14.8
11.6
10.8
7.7
10.0
11.9
10.4
7.9
10.0
11.3
10.9
10.0
9.6

H
APPENDIX H METHODS EMPLOYED FOR THE
CENTER OF MASS CALCULATIONS

Shallow plume (depth = 20 to 30 ft or 6.1 to 9.2 m) center of mass was calculated for six rounds
of sampling between July 1996 and November 1997 using the methodology presented by
Freyberg (1986). The spatial center of contaminant mass was calculated for a two-dimensional
grid with uniform vertical average concentration for the first 15 feet (4.6 m). The spatial
moments used in calculating the center of mass were as follows:
M

j
( t ) = nC(x, y, z, t )x i y z k dxdydz
ijk

Eq. H-1

and the center of mass coordinates were calculated by:

Xcenter of mass

Ycenter of mass

M100
=
M 000

nC(x, y, z, t )xdxdydz = nC (x, y, t )xdxdy


nC(x, y, z, t)dxdydz nC (x, y, t )dxdy

M 010
=
M 000

nC(x, y, z, t )ydxdydz = nC (x, y, t )ydxdy


nC(x, y, z, t )dxdydz nC (x, y, t )dxdy

Eq. H-2

Eq. H-3

The center of mass calculations were performed using analytical results for groundwater samples
obtained at water table depths, which does not provide an accurate representation of the
three-dimensional nature of the plume. However, the limited vertical data near the site indicate
a uniform vertical concentration in the first 10 to 15 feet (3 to 4.6 m) and then a sharp decline
in the next 10 feet (3 m) or so (Chapter 2, Figure 2-11). As a conservative approach, a uniform
concentration in the first 15 feet of the aquifer was considered in the calculations. Figure H-1
shows the center of mass movement for the shallow total cyanide plume at the MGP site for the
time period of July 1996 to November 1997. From Figure H-1, it is observed that there was
not any appreciable movement in the center of mass over the 1.5 years of monitoring. With
a continuing cyanide source at the MGP site, the total amount of cyanide mass in the aquifer
increased over the monitoring period, keeping most of the solute mass near the source and
resulting in little change in the location of the center of mass. Evaluation of change in center
of mass location is most useful for a fixed mass of solute in the ground, (i.e., when the
contaminant is introduced into the aquifer in the form of a pulse input or instantaneous point
source) (Freeze and Cherry, 1979; Freyberg, 1986). The presence of a constant source of cyanide
around well location 423A made the interpretation of the plume center of mass movement
difficult in this case. Also, the flow field in the aquifer at the MGP site was subjected
H-1

Appendix H Methods Employed for the Center of Mass Calculations

to interrupted pumping from the municipal well. This made the center of mass movement
difficult to compare against the average linear velocity obtained during the flow period.
Therefore, center of mass analysis was not performed for the remainder of the monitoring events.

450
MW 423A

400

MW 419

350
direction to CW#7
S-N Coordinate (ft)

300
250
MW 414
200

MW423A

MW414

MW419

150

CM-July' 96

CM-Sept.' 96

CM-Feb.' 97

CM-Apr.' 97

CM-Sept.' 97

CM-Nov.' 97

100
50
0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

W-E Coordinate (ft)

Figure H-1
Center of Mass Movement for the Midwest Total Cyanide Plume (1 ft = 0.3048m)

References
Freeze, R. A., and Cherry, J. A. (1979), Groundwater, Prentice-Hall, Inc., NY.
Freyberg, D.L. (1986), A Natural Gradient Experiment on Solute Transport in a
Sandy Aquifer 2. Spatial Moments and the Advection and Dispersion of Nonreactive Tracers,
Water Resources Research, Vol. 22, No. 13, pp. 2031-204.

H-2

1000

I
APPENDIX I FATE AND TRANSPORT MODEL FOR
CYANIDE IN GROUNDWATER

The Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS-V2.1) [Brigham Young


University, 1998] is a comprehensive state-of-the-art three-dimensional groundwater modeling
software package. The software package consists of a graphical user interface which is linked to
various modules for performing flow, transport, and groundwater-soil interaction calculations.
The GMS interface was developed by the Engineering Computer Graphics Laboratory of
Brigham Young University in partnership with the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment
Station. In the research associated with this report, two modules were used, namely, the USGS
MODFLOW module to generate groundwater head distributions and the MT3D particle tracking
module to perform solute transport.

Flow Model
To account for the heterogeneities in the subsurface and the vertical gradient in cyanide
concentration, the entire saturated thickness was divided into four saturated layers. Each
saturated layer is identified by an average hydraulic conductivity value that was calculated for
the entire depth of that layer. Average horizontal hydraulic conductivity values were calculated
for each of the four depth intervals in which the wells were screened. In the absence of vertical
hydraulic conductivity data, each layer was assumed to be isotropic. Further discussions about
the properties of the saturated layers are provided in main body of the report. Figure I-1 shows a
conceptualization of the vertical section across the entire saturated thickness.
G r ou n d S u rfa c e

0 ft

F T A M SL

805
W a te r T ab le

2 0 ft
3 0 ft

L ayer 1

775

L ayer 2
6 0 ft

745
L ayer 3
715

9 0 ft
L ayer 4
1 30 ft

M u nic ip a l W e ll S c re e n e d In te r va l : 9 0 -1 3 0 f t

675

Figure I-1
Model Conceptualization of Saturated Thickness of the Portage Aquifer (1 ft = 0.3048 m)

I-1

Appendix I Fate and Transport Model for Cyanide in Groundwater

The flow domain was finitely surrounded by specified head boundaries as described in the main
body of the report. A finite difference grid was constructed across the flow domain as is shown
in Figure I-2.

Municipal
Well No. 7

Portage MGP
Site

Note:

Orange lines represent specified head boundaries. Green outlined areas indicate approximate extent of Alliant Energy property.

Figure I-2
Model Finite Difference Grid (1 ft = 0.3048 m)

Two steady state flow models were used in the simulation, one model incorporating the effects of
pumping of the municipal well (1986 to present), and the other operating for forty years under
the natural hydraulic gradient when the municipal pump was not operative (pre-1986). The
three-dimensional flow equations were solved using a block-centered finite difference approach.
Complete details about the numerical scheme involved in solving the hydraulic equations for the
unconfined aquifer is presented in the MODFLOW manual (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988).
Figure I-3 shows the Layer 1 potentiometric surface map under non pumping gradient. Figure I-4
shows the Layer 1 potentiometric map under the pumping action. Figure I-5 shows a typical
Layer 1 horizontal (two-dimensional) flow vector map for the steady state model when the pump
is not in operation. Figure I-6 shows a typical Layer 1 horizontal (two-dimensional) flow vector
map for the steady state model when the pump is in operation. Figure I-7 shows the vertical flow
vector cross-section location AA/ in the plan view for the steady state model under pumping,
while Figure I-8 shows the vertical flow vector distribution across the entire saturated thickness
along section AA.

I-2

Appendix I Fate and Transport Model for Cyanide in Groundwater

780 ft amsl

781

783

782

784
785

788.5 ft amsl
786

782

787
788

783 ft amsl

Portage MGP
Site
785

787
788
787

783
784

786

786

786 ft amsl
783 ft amsl

785 ft amsl
Note:

Orange lines represent specified head boundaries. Elevations of nodes along the specified head boundaries are denoted with a bla
and the associated elevation. Green outlined areas indicate approximate extent of Alliant Energy property.

arrow

Figure I-3
Model Potentiometric Surface Map Under Pre-Pumping Conditions (prior to 1986)

780 ft amsl
780
781
783

782

784
785

788.5 ft amsl

Municipal
Well No. 7

788
787

786

788

Portage MGP
Site

783 ft amsl
785

787

783

784
782
781
780
779
783 783

786

786 ft amsl
785 ft amsl
Note:

783 ft amsl

Orange lines represent specified head boundaries. Elevations of nodes along the specified head boundaries are denoted with a bla
and the associated elevation. Green outlined areas indicate approximate extent of Alliant Energy property.

arrow

Figure I-4
Model Potentiometric Surface Map Under Pumping Conditions

I-3

Appendix I Fate and Transport Model for Cyanide in Groundwater

Portage MGP
Site

Note:

Green outlined areas indicate approximate extent of Alliant Energy property.

Figure I-5
Two-Dimensional Flow Vectors During Non-Pumping Conditions

Portage MGP
Site

Municipal
Well No. 7

Note:

Green outlined areas indicate approximate extent of Alliant Energy property.

Figure I-6
Two-Dimensional Flow Vectors During Pumping Conditions

I-4

Appendix I Fate and Transport Model for Cyanide in Groundwater

A'

Figure I-7
Vertical flow Vector Cross-Sector Locations Steady State Flow Model Under Pumping
Conditions

A'

Vertical Axis Not to Scale

Figure I-8
Vertical Flow Vector Cross-Section A-A Steady State Flow Model Under Pumping
Conditions

I-5

Appendix I Fate and Transport Model for Cyanide in Groundwater

MT3D Transport Model


Once the head distribution was generated, discrete flow velocities at each grid node were
calculated by using the hydraulic gradient and hydraulic conductivity values in the Darcys Law
expression. A piecewise linear interpolation scheme was then used to calculate a continuous
Constant cyanide input to Layers 1 and 2 occurred at two locations in the flow domain. For
Layer 1, inputs occurred in the vicinity of two groundwater monitoring wells, MW-423A and
MW-419 (refer to Figure 2-7 in the main body of the report), while for Layer 2, inputs occurred
around MW-423B and around MW-419. These sources can be referred as constant concentration
boundaries in the transport model. Cyanide inputs occurred in the form of particles, with each
particle bearing some mass. As such, the total particle mass per grid volume was used to
calculate the respective cyanide concentration in that grid volume. Once these particles were
introduced in the simulation domain, the advective-dispersive-reaction solver was used to advect
and disperse each particle until it reached a sink (the municipal well), at which time the particle
was removed from the simulation. The MT3D transport model used a mixed
Eulerian-Lagrangian approach to solve the three-dimensional advective-dispersive-reactive
equation. Three basic options were used in the advective-dispersive-reaction solver: the method
of characteristics (MOC), the modified method of characteristics (MMOC), and a hybrid of these
two methods (HMOC). In the present simulations, the HMOC method was used since it
eliminates any numerical dispersion and increases the computational efficiency.
The Lagrangian part of the method, used for solving the advection term, includes the HMOC
method that combines the strengths of both MOC and MMOC techniques by using an automatic
adaptive scheme based on the concentration profiles. It includes the forward tracking MOC
scheme for sharp concentration fronts (higher advection) and the backward-tracking MMOC for
smooth fronts. The Eulerian part used for solving the dispersion term utilizes the conventional
block-centered finite difference method. More details about the particle tracking solution scheme
is provided in the MT3D manual (Zheng, 1990).

References
McDonald, M.G., and Harbaugh, A.W. (1988) A Modular Three-Dimensional Finite-Difference
Groundwater Flow Model, Book 6, Chapter A1, U.S. Geological Survey.
Zheng, C. (1990) A Modular Three-Dimensional Transport Model for Simulation of Advection,
Dispersion and Chemical Reactions of Contaminants in Groundwater Systems, Figure 1
S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD.

I-6

J
APPENDIX J PUMPING DATA FROM THE MUNICIPAL
WELL

Daily pumping data from the municipal well were obtained from the municipal water authority
operating the well. The well is operated on an interrupted pumping schedule, and the data are
reported here as monthly arithmetic averages based on the number of days the pump was in
operation for each month. For each year since 1986, the average monthly pumping rates are
presented in a tabular fashion for all the months of the year.

Table J-1
Municipal Well Pumping Data 1986
3

MONTH

PUMPING RATE (10 GPD)

NO. OF DAYS PUMP OPERATED

January

727

11

February

867

17

March

959

23

April

1030

24

May

1145

21

June

984

22

July

1284

24

August

1185

26

September

895

11

October

1055

15

November

973

26

December

1001

20

Yearly Avg. = 961

Yearly Total = 240

J-1

Appendix J Pumping Data from the Municipal Well


Table J-2
Municipal Well Pumping Data 1987
3

MONTH

PUMPING RATE (10 GPD)

NO. OF DAYS PUMP OPERATED

January

783

17

February

927

10

March

1083

April

977

22

May

1045

21

June

1230

22

July

802

28

August

973

26

September

906

24

October

909

24

November

881

18

December

919

12

Yearly Avg. = 946

Yearly Total = 228

J-2

Appendix J Pumping Data from the Municipal Well


Table J-3
Municipal Well Pumping Data 1988
3

MONTH

PUMPING RATE (10 GPD)

NO. OF DAYS PUMP OPERATED

January

921

25

February

1003

19

March

615

25

April

873

23

May

981

22

June

1154

24

July

1284

21

August

1297

25

September

768

16

October

1134

17

November

956

20

December

867

15

Yearly Avg. = 977

Yearly Total = 252

J-3

Appendix J Pumping Data from the Municipal Well


Table J-4
Municipal Well Pumping Data 1989
3

MONTH

PUMPING RATE (10 GPD)

NO. OF DAYS PUMP OPERATED

January

669

21

February

688

22

March

769

18

April

1110

19

May

999

17

June

860

21

July

1283

21

August

956

17

September

890

13

October

1065

19

November

1003

14

December

748

23

Yearly Avg. = 908

Yearly Total = 225

J-4

Appendix J Pumping Data from the Municipal Well


Table J-5
Municipal Well Pumping Data 1990
3

MONTH

PUMPING RATE (10 GPD)

NO. OF DAYS PUMP OPERATED

January

721

24

February

825

25

March

630

25

April

841

22

May

1201

12

June

699

13

July

1010

26

August

987

15

September

1031

18

October

997

21

November

703

December

803

18

Yearly Avg. = 865

Yearly Total = 227

J-5

Appendix J Pumping Data from the Municipal Well


Table J-6
Municipal Well Pumping Data 1991
3

MONTH

PUMPING RATE (10 GPD)

NO. OF DAYS PUMP OPERATED

January

796

20

February

855

19

March

842

20

April

1072

16

May

910

15

June

896

21

July

1100

19

August

783

17

September

829

20

October

1052

15

November

845

14

December

689

17

Yearly Avg. = 886

Yearly Total = 213

J-6

Appendix J Pumping Data from the Municipal Well


Table J-7
Municipal Well Pumping Data 1992
3

MONTH

PUMPING RATE (10 GPD)

NO. OF DAYS PUMP OPERATED

January

800

13

February

Not Available

(1)

17

March

Not Available

(1)

11

April

Not Available

(1)

19

May

Not Available

(1)

20

June

26

July

833

24

August

1086

25

September

815

26

October

936

18

November

94

16

December

780

14

Yearly Avg. = 836


(1)

979

Yearly Total = 229

Pumping data was not available since flowmeter was replaced and calibrated.

J-7

Appendix J Pumping Data from the Municipal Well


Table J-8
Municipal Well Pumping Data 1993
3

MONTH

PUMPING RATE (10 GPD)

NO. OF DAYS PUMP OPERATED

January

807

23

February

727

26

March

757

22

April

775

22

May

779

23

June

686

15

July

788

18

August

752

18

September

900

12

October

729

14

November

360

12

December

960

15

Yearly Avg. = 762

Yearly Total = 220

J-8

Appendix J Pumping Data from the Municipal Well


Table J-9
Municipal Well Pumping Data 1994
3

MONTH

PUMPING RATE (10 GPD)

NO. OF DAYS PUMP OPERATED

January

852

22

February

684

10

March

753

13

April

76

May

758

18

June

851

23

July

625

22

August

728

22

September

855

21

October

919

November

1132

12

December

663

19

Yearly Avg. = 767

Yearly Total = 198

J-9

Appendix J Pumping Data from the Municipal Well


Table J-10
Municipal Well Pumping Data 1995
3

MONTH

PUMPING RATE (10 GPD)

NO. OF DAYS PUMP OPERATED

January

872

17

February

904

14

March

816

13

April

925

23

May

891

21

June

862

25

July

821

22

August

1058

23

September

1130

19

October

1105

24

November

838

23

December

709

24

Yearly Avg. = 917

Yearly Total = 248

J-10

Appendix J Pumping Data from the Municipal Well


Table J-11
Municipal Well Pumping Data 1996
3

MONTH

PUMPING RATE (10 GPD)

NO. OF DAYS PUMP OPERATED

January

858

19

February

892

22

March

559

14

April

502

20

May

270

12

June

407

July

330

12

August

387

15

September

406

10

October

668

15

November

571

21

December

931

Yearly Avg. = 596

Yearly Total = 174

J-11

Appendix J Pumping Data from the Municipal Well


Table J-12
(1)
Municipal Well Pumping Data 1997
3

MONTH

NO. OF DAYS PUMP OPERATED

January

769

16

February

816

15

March

746

19

Avg. = 774
(1)

PUMPING RATE (10 GPD)

Total = 50

Only three months of data were available from the municipality.

The average pumping rate and the number of days the pump operated in each year between 1986
and 1996 were then used to calculate an average yearly pumping volume. This average yearly
pumping volume was then used in conjunction with the calibrated model flow rate to calculate
the number of days the pump can operate per year in the model at the model flow rate and still
maintain the water balance.
Table J-13 presents the calculation of average yearly pumping volume and the yearly pumping
schedule used in the three-dimensional flow simulations.

J-12

Appendix J Pumping Data from the Municipal Well


Table J-13
Model Calculation of Average Daily Pumping Volume and Daily Pumping Rate
Calculation of Average Yearly Pumping Volume

Year

Average Daily Pumping


Rate (Gallons Per Day)

Yearly Total Number of


Days Pump Operated

Yearly Total Gallons


Pumped (Avg. Daily
Pump Rate times No of
Days Operated)

1986

961000

240

230640000

1987

946000

228

215688000

1988

977000

252

246204000

1989

908000

225

204300000

1990

865000

227

196355000

1991

886000

213

188718000

1992

836000

229

191444000

1993

762000

220

167640000

1994

767000

198

151866000

1995

917000

248

227416000

1996

596000

174

103704000

Average Daily Pumping Rate (gal/day)

856454.5455

3241.680455

Average Daily Pumping Rate (ft /day)

114466.1177

Average Days Pumping per Year

223.0909091

Average Daily Pumping Rate (m /day)

Average Yearly Pumping Volume (ft )

25536350.27

Calculation of Daily Pumping Rate


Average Daily Pumping Rate Assuming
365 Days of Pumping

69962.60347 ft /day (363.44 gpm)

J-13

K
APPENDIX K DISSOCIATION OF COMPLEX IRON
CYANIDE SPECIES IN THE DARK

Free cyanide concentrations were measured as a function of time in solutions prepared with
potassium ferrocyanide. For each experiment, the complex cyanide data were plotted versus time
and a kinetic model was used fit the data. Two long-term batch experiments were done at neutral
pH conditions using 15.03 and 15.5 mg/L of potassium ferrocyanide solution made in deionized
deaerated water. Experimental details are presented in Section 2. For both the experiments, the
dissociation of the iron cyanide complexes proceeded towards equilibrium condition as indicated
in the figures.

0.2

15.05

estimated equilibrium free cyanide concentration=0.48 mg/L


0.18

estimated equilibrium complex cyanide concentration=14.54 mg/L


average pH = 6.7

0.16

average pE = 6.2

complex cyanide conc., mg/L

0.14
0.12

14.95

0.1
0.08

14.90

free cyanide concentration, mg/L

15.00

0.06
0.04

14.85

complex cyanide conc., mg/L

0.02

free cyanide conc., mg/L

14.80
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

10000

time, hours

Figure K-1
Kinetic dissociation data for the first set of batch experiments, with an average initial pH of
6.7 and an initial total cyanide concentration of 15.03 mg/L

K-1

Appendix K Dissociation of Complex Iron Cyanide Species in the Dark

0.2

16

0.18

15.9
Estimated equilibrium free cyanide concentration=0.6 mg/L

0.16

Estimated equilibrium complex cyanide concentration=14.9 mg/L


0.14

15.7
average pH = 6.5
15.6

0.12

average pE = 6.41

15.5

0.1

15.4

0.08

15.3

0.06

free cyanide concentration, mg/L

complex cyanide concentration, mg/L

15.8

0.04

15.2
complex cyanide conc., mg/L

free cyanide conc., mg/L


0.02

15.1
15
0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

0
5000

time, hours

Figure K-2
Kinetic dissociation data for the second set of batch experiments, with an average initial
pH of 6.5 and an initial total cyanide concentration of 15.5 mg/L

K-2

Target:
MGP Site Management

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