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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 25, NO.

12, DECEMBER 2010 2919


Development of Hardware In-the-Loop Simulation
System for Testing Operation and Control
Functions of Microgrid
Jin-Hong Jeon, Member, IEEE, Jong-Yul Kim, Member, IEEE, Hak-Man Kim, Member, IEEE,
Seul-Ki Kim, Member, IEEE, Changhee Cho, Member, IEEE, Jang-Mok Kim, Member, IEEE,
Jong-Bo Ahn, and Kee-Young Nam, Member, IEEE
AbstractThis paper proposes a hardware in-the-loop simula-
tion (HILS) system as a new method to develop and test control
algorithms and operation strategies for a microgrid. The HILS
system is composed of a real-time digital simulator (RTDS) for
real-time simulation of the microgrid, a prototype microgrid man-
agement system(MMS) under test, and a communication emulator
for interface between the prototype MMS and the RTDS. The pro-
totype MMS is designed to operate microsources of microgrid and
to control power owat the point of common coupling (PCC) in the
grid-connected mode, and voltages and frequency in the islanded
mode of the microgrid. The MMS is tested in the grid-connected
mode and in the islanded mode, respectively, to showthe validation
of the proposed HILS system.
Index TermsHardware in-the-loop simulation (HILS) system,
microgrid, microgrid management system (MMS), real-time digi-
tal simulator (RTDS).
I. INTRODUCTION
A
MICROGRID is a small-scale power grid composed of
distributed generation (DG), distributed storage (DS), and
loads. Recently, attention on the microgrid has been growing
in many countries because it is closely related to environmen-
tal friendliness, the diverse needs of the end user for higher
power quality, the restructuring of the electric power industry,
and restrictions on the extension of power transmission and
distribution facilities [1][3].
The microgrid is operated by two modes: the grid-connected
mode and the islanded mode. In normal conditions, the micro-
grid is connected to a utility grid, operates in parallel with the
Manuscript received June 28, 2010; revised August 13, 2010 and September
3, 2010; accepted September 12, 2010. Date of current version December 27,
2010. Recommended for publication by Associate Editor J. M. Guerrero.
J.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Kim, S.-K. Kim, C. Cho, and J.-B. Ahn are with the
New and Renewable Energy System Research Center, Korea Electrotechnol-
ogy Research Institute, Changwon 437-808, Korea (e-mail: jhjeon@keri.re.kr;
jykim@keri.re.kr; blksheep@keri.re.kr; chcho@keri.re.kr; jbahn@keri.re.kr).
H.-M. Kim is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of
Incheon, Incheon 406-772, Korea (e-mail: hmkim@incheon.ac.kr).
J.-M. Kim is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National
University, Busan 609-735, Korea (e-mail: jmok@pusan.ac.kr).
K.-Y. Nam is with the R&D Center, Halla Energy and Environment, Seoul
138-811, Korea (e-mail: kynam@hallasanup.co.kr).
Color versions of one or more of the gures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.
Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TPEL.2010.2078518
utility gird, and exchanges power according to a power balance
between supply and demand in the microgrid. However, the mi-
crogrid disconnects the utility grid and transfers into the islanded
operation when a fault occurs in the upstream power grid. In the
islanded mode, the microgrid is operated like an isolated island.
The balance between supply and demand of power is one of
the most important requirements of microgrid management in
the both operation modes. In the grid-connected mode, the mi-
crogrid exchanges power to an interconnected grid to meet the
balance. On the other hand, in the islanded mode, the microgrid
should meet the balance using the decrease in generation or load
shedding [4], [5].
Many microgrid technologies, such as management, control,
protection, power quality, pilot plants, and eld tests, have been
studied. A distributed intelligent energy management system
was implemented to optimize operating costs [5], [6]. An energy
management system for a droop-controlled standalone micro-
grid was proposed, and it was focused on droop stability analy-
sis and selection, and generator dispatch optimization [7][14].
Protection schemes for microgrid during voltage sags have been
developed and tested using an emulated laboratory microgrid
system [15]. Pilot plants for microgrid have been developed for
the demonstration and testing of microgrid [16][22]. Field tests
have been performed for frequency and voltage control algo-
rithms, and for utility interconnection devices [16][18]. Experi-
mental results for the autonomous operation of an inverter-based
microgrid have been discussed [19]. Test beds for a microgrid
with multienergy generators have been built in the laboratory
to study optimal structures, unbalance problems, and control
strategies for microgrid [20].
The hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) is a technique
used to develop and test complex, real-time embedded systems
and includes the electrical emulation of sensors and actuators.
These electrical emulations act as the interface between the
plant simulation and the embedded systemunder test. The HILS
technique has merits such as test environment, build-up time,
and development cost for developing and testing an embedded
system. For this reason, the HILS technique has been used in
various engineering areas such as robotics, power electronics,
and automotive systems [23][25].
In particular, the real-time digital simulator (RTDS) is a spe-
cial purpose computer designed to study electromagnetic tran-
sient phenomena in real time. The RTDS is comprised of both
specially designed hardware and software. RTDS hardware is
0885-8993/$26.00 2010 IEEE
2920 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 25, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2010
digital signal processor based and utilizes advanced parallel
processing techniques. RTDS software includes accurate power
system component models required to represent many of the
complex elements which make up physical power and con-
trol systems [25]. Electric power utilities have used the RTDS
simulator for closed-loop testing of controllers for high volt-
age direct current (HVDC) system, static var compensators and
generators, protective relays, and large scale real-time simula-
tion [26][32]. Reliability of the real-time simulation with the
control and protection system of an actual power device such
as HVDC system was assessed and proved in both qualitative
and quantitative ways [33]. These days, it has been used for
real-time tests for power conditioning systems (PCSs) of DGs
and controllers [34][37].
This paper proposes an HILS system as a new method to
test functions of control and operation of microgrid. In par-
ticular, a developed prototype microgrid management system
(MMS) is tested on the environment of the proposed HILS sys-
tem to show the validation of the HILS system. The proposed
HILS system consists of the RTDS, the MMS under test and
a developed communication emulator. The RTDS performs the
real-time simulation of a specic microgrid which is designed
based on a small-scale microgrid pilot plant in the Korea Elec-
trotechnology Research Institute (KERI). The communication
module emulates communication functions between the MMS
and components in the microgrid. The MMS is designed to
control power ow at the point of common coupling (PCC),
voltages and frequency of the microgrid.
In Section II, the microgrid, an overview of an MMS, and
HILS technology are described briey as the background of this
paper. We describe functions, a cooperative control scheme,
conguration, and implementation of the developed MMS in
Section III. In Section IV, we explain the total conguration
and the detail of each part of the developed HILS system. We
carry out tests of control algorithms of the MMS to verify the
feasibility of the proposed HILS system in Section V. Finally,
we conclude in Section VI.
II. BACKGROUND
A. Microgrid
Fig. 1 shows a microgrid schematic diagram. It includes dis-
tributed energy resource (DER) units and loads of electricity
and/or heat. DER units include both DG and DS units. The
microgrid provides electricity and/or heat to customers such as
residential buildings, commercial entities, and industrial com-
pounds [38]. The microgrid is connected to a utility grid and
operates in parallel with the utility grid in normal conditions.
The microgrid disconnects the utility grid and transfers into the
islanded operation mode when a fault occurs in the upstream
grid. In the two modes, meeting the balance between power
supply and demand is a very important requirement.
B. Microgrid Management System
An MMS, as a central controller of the microgrid, supervises
the entire microgrid components for operations, such as discon-
Fig. 1. Typical microgrid structure, including loads and DER units serviced
by a distribution system [38].
nection, resynchronization, and load shedding of the microgrid.
Using gathered local information, the MMS generates set points
of power output and provides themto DERunits. The MMScon-
trols and operates the microgrid in the grid-connected or in the
islanded mode according to systemconditions. For example, the
MMS controls power ow at the PCC to maintain the microgrid
as a constant power generator or as a constant power load in
the utility grid and performs load shedding in the case of the
shortage of power supply in the islanded mode.
C. Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation
Hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) is a technique used
to develop and test complex, real-time embedded systems, and
includes the electrical emulation of sensors and actuators. These
electrical emulations act as the interface between the plant sim-
ulation and the embedded system under test. The value of each
electrically emulated sensor is controlled by the plant simula-
tion and is read by the embedded system under test. Likewise,
under testing, the embedded system implements its control al-
gorithms by outputting actuator control signals. Changes in the
control signals result in changes to variable values in the plant
simulation [39].
III. PROTOTYPE MMS
A. Requirements
A prototype MMS is developed to control and operate a 50-
kVA microgrid pilot plant located at KERI in grid-connected
mode and in the islanded mode according to its operating con-
ditions. Fig. 2 shows the schematic diagram of the 50kVA mi-
crogrid. This pilot plant is composed of a static switch (STS),
DER units, a BESS, and communication modules.
In the grid-connected mode, the MMS controls power ow
at the PCC. For power ow control, the MMS dispatches power
outputs of a diesel generator, a PV/wind hybrid system, and
a BESS. On the other hand, in the islanded mode, the MMS
controls frequency and voltages of the microgrid. To control
JEON et al.: DEVELOPMENT OF HARDWARE IN-THE-LOOP SIMULATION SYSTEM 2921
Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of the 50-kVA microgrid pilot plant installed in
KERI.
Fig. 3. Cooperative control structure.
frequency and voltages, the prototype MMS dispatches power
outputs of microsources and manages loads.
B. Cooperative Control Scheme
Acooperative control scheme is used to control power owat
the PCCin the grid-connected mode, and frequency and voltages
in the islanded mode. The scheme is composed of two steps, as
shown in Fig. 3. The BESS regulates power ow at the PCC or
frequency and voltage in primary, and the MMS then calculates
the proper power outputs of each microsource to make the power
output of the BESS the preplanned value by an operation plan.
The secondary regulation of the prototype MMS is in charge of
returning the current power output of the BESS to a preplanned
value, which is usually set at zero. The calculation procedure of
the MMS is as follows [40].
1) Calculate the Power Deviation of the BESS:
P
BESS
= P
BESS mea
P
BESS sch
(1)
where P
BESS
is the power deviation, P
BESS mea
is the mea-
sured real power output, and P
BESS sch
is the preplanned power
output.
2) Calculate the Change of the Power Set Point:
P
ref i
= pf P
i
P
BESS
(2)
where P
ref i
is the variation of the power set-point for the
ith microsource, and pf_P
i
is the participant factor for the ith
microsource.
In (2), the participant factor of ith microsource is a prede-
termined constant value and is decided by the inertia of the
microsource. The nal real power set point of the ith mi-
crosource (P
ref i
) is determined by the summation of the current
power output value (P
out i
) and change of the power set point
(P
ref i
), as shown in Fig. 3. This secondary regulation algo-
rithm is executed every second by the MMS. The nal reactive
power set point produced can also be calculated in the same way
as real power.
C. Conguration and Implementation
The developed MMS is PC-based and is composed of a man
machine interface (MMI) module and a management algorithm
module. The MMI module gives the operating status of the
microgrid. The management algorithmis implemented by C++
language. Fig. 4 shows the MMI of the MMS.
The MMS has three RS-485 serial communication ports. The
rst one is connected to the diesel generator, the PV/wind hybrid
system, and the BESS. It is driven by the twisted pair multidrop
serial network with a communication protocol. The second one
is connected to a digital multimeter by the same manner with
the Modbus protocol. The last one is reserved for a redundancy.
Table I shows major specications of the developed MMS.
Table II shows the list of input signals to monitor the pilot plant,
and Table III shows the list of output command signal to control
microgrid components.
IV. PROPOSED HILS SYSTEM
A. Concept and Conguration
HILSis a technique used in developing and testing of complex
real-time embedded systems. The HILS system is a simulation
system including a real device. HILS has been mainly used to
test for vehicle systems and aircraft systems. The HILS system
consists of a device under test, a real-time simulator and its
interface. A device under test is a real device to be developed
or tested. A real-time simulator supplies the test environment
based on software modes to test a real device under development
or test [39]. Fig. 5 shows a conceptual structure of the HILS
system. In this paper, the device under test is a prototype MMS,
the real-time simulator is the real-time digital simulator for the
50-kVA microgrid pilot plant.
As mentioned in Section I, existing studies relating to algo-
rithms for microgrid control and management have been per-
formed using the ofine simulation and eld tests [4][22]. In
this paper, we propose the HILS system as an effective method.
Table IV shows the pros and cons among test methods.
The proposed HILSsystemis aimed at the test and verication
of control algorithms and operation strategies for a microgrid.
The HILS system is composed of the RTDS for real-time sim-
ulation of a microgrid, the prototype MMS under test, and a
communication emulator for interface between the MMS and
the RTDS, as shown in Fig. 6.
2922 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 25, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2010
Fig. 4. MMI of the developed MMS.
TABLE I
SPECIFICATIONS OF PROTOTYPE MMS
As seen in Fig. 6, the microgrid has a hierarchical control
structure. It has two control layers: the MMS and local con-
trollers (LCs). Each LC regulates the power outputs of mi-
crosources according to commands from the MMS. Here, each
LC is a power conditioner or a governor of microsources.
To monitor and control the MMS and components of the
microgrid, a communication emulator that links the MMS and
the RTDS is essentially required for the HILS system. The de-
veloped communication emulator transmits system variables of
the simulated microgrid in the RTDS to the prototype MMS and
control commands from the MMS to the RTDS. Furthermore,
the communication emulator is able to test communication func-
tions of the MMS, such as protocols.
TABLE II
INPUT SIGNAL LIST OF PROTOTYPE MMS
B. Conguration of Real-Time Digital Simulator
1) Hardware Part: There are three types of hardwired in-
terface cards utilized: an analog output card, an analog input
card, and a digital input and output card. Two 16-bit digital-to-
JEON et al.: DEVELOPMENT OF HARDWARE IN-THE-LOOP SIMULATION SYSTEM 2923
TABLE III
OUTPUT SIGNAL LIST OF PROTOTYPE MMS
analog converter (DAC) cards and two 16-bit analog-to-digital
converter (ACD) cards are used for the analog output interface
and the analog input interface, respectively. Figs. 7 and 8 show
the analog input/output interface and the digital input/output
interface between the RTDS and the communication emulator,
respectively.
2) Software Part: As shown in Fig. 2, the PV/wind hybrid
system and the diesel generator are connected to a 380-V low-
voltage line through a line impedance, Z
Line
. A BESS is located
near the PCC. Two loads are close to the hybrid generation
system and the diesel generator, respectively. The microgrid is
connected to the upstream 22.9 kV distribution feeder through
a step-up transformer. Major parameters of the test system are,
as shown in Table V.
The RTDS used in this HILS system has a maximum op-
eration frequency of 20 kHz. In particular, power electronic
devices used for power conversion and control in the microgrid
are operated by the pulsewidth modulation (PWM) technique
with the switching frequency of 10 kHz. Since the PWM car-
rier frequency of 10 kHz of the power electronic devices is too
high for the RTDS and the RTDS cannot therefore simulate the
power conversion model with the PWM technique in real time,
we use an equivalent current source model controlled by a dq-
based proportionalintegral (PI) regulator for the power electric
converters and its low-level controllers.
A typical synchronous generator model in the RTDS library
has been used for the 20 kVA diesel engine generator. The up-
stream grid is modeled by an equivalent voltage source with a
short-circuit impedance, Z
source
. A constant impedance model
is used for loads, and lines are modeled by resistance and in-
ductance. The parameters of lines and loads are obtained from a
line impedance simulator and real and reactive load banks in the
KERI microgrid pilot plant, respectively. Figs. 9 and 10 show
the RTDS models developed for the 50-kVA microgrid pilot
plant and the BESS, respectively.
C. Communication Emulator
Akey issue in the design of the developed communication em-
ulator is how precisely the HILS system imitates the microgrid
pilot plant. For this, the communication emulator is designed to
emulate the real system as closely as possible. Furthermore, we
use a high-speed DSP to read real-time simulation data from the
RTDS and to transmit them to the MMS in real time and vice
versa.
Recently, IEC 61850 has been successfully implemented to
the RTDS for the real-time closed-loop test of protective devices
[42]. However, it is still a challenge for power engineers because
of the acquisition of a lot of knowledge related to network
characteristics, such as latency, delay, nondeterministic features,
etc. For these reasons, we consider the twisted pair multidrop
serial network with a communication protocol (KERI protocol),
as well as the Modbus protocol for communications between
the RTDS and the MMS.
The KERI protocol supports deterministic data transmissions
with short data frames and the multimaster/multislave feature. In
addition, it supports a exible network conguration via a plug
and play function. The Modbus protocol is added to support the
standard data exchange with commercial products.
The developed communication emulator is the communica-
tion interface between the RTDS and the MMS. Fig. 11 shows
the developed communication emulator. Inside this module, a
TMS320VC33 as a microcontroller is used for data transmission
to analog/digital hardwire ports in real time and vice versa. The
information exchange is based on a predened mapping table
that describes sources, destinations, data types, transfer periods,
etc. The major specications of the communication emulator
are listed in Table VI. Fig. 12 shows the block diagram of con-
guration and the interface of the communication emulator.
V. TEST RESULTS
Constant power ow control in the grid-connected mode, and
frequency and voltage control in the islanded mode are tested to
show validation of the proposed HILS system.
A. Constant Power Flow Control in the Grid-Connected Mode
As mentioned in Section III, in grid-connected mode, the
BESS controls power ow at the PCC in primary, and then the
secondary regulation action of the MMS is executed to return
the power output of BESS to a preplanned value, which is set at
zero in this test. Fig. 13 shows the result of the test as appeared
on the MMI of the MMS.
The initial condition is characterized as follows: each load
is 12.5 kW + j6 kVar; the PV/wind hybrid system generates
10 kW + j6 kVar; and the diesel generator generates 10 kW +
j6 kVar. The graph of real and reactive Power at PCC shows
that 5 kW of real power comes from the upstream grid. The
area before the point a shows the simulation result of the initial
condition.
After the total load increases from25 kW+j12 kVar to 30 kW
+ j12 kVar at the point a , the power output of the BESS
increases from zero to near 5 kW very fast, and it returns to zero
by secondary regulation performed by the MMS. The power
output of microsources changes from initial constant values to
new set points calculated by the MMS. The area after the point
a shows simulation results after a sudden load change.
2924 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 25, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2010
Fig. 5. Conceptual structure of HILS system.
TABLE IV
COMPARISON BETWEEN TEST METHODS
Fig. 6. Hierarchical control structure of the microgrid and a schematic diagram
of the proposed HILS test system.
B. Frequency and Voltage Control in the Islanded Mode
In the islanded mode, as mentioned in Section III, the BESS
controls frequency and voltages in primary, and then the sec-
ondary regulation action of the prototype MMS is executed to
return the power output of BESS to a preplanned value, which
is set at zero in this test. Fig. 14 shows the result of the test as
appeared on the MMI of MMS.
The initial condition is characterized as follows: the total load
is 30 kW + j12 kVar, the PV/wind hybrid system generates 10
kW + j6 kVar, and the diesel generator generates 15 kW + j6
Fig. 7. Analog input/output interface between RTDS and communication em-
ulator.
Fig. 8. Digital input/output interface between RTDS and communication em-
ulator.
kVar. Imported power from the upstream grid is 5 kW. The area
before the point a shows the simulation result of the initial
condition.
In this case, two consecutive events are applied. The rst one
is that the microgrid is disconnected from the upstream grid due
to fault at the point b . The second one is that the total load
JEON et al.: DEVELOPMENT OF HARDWARE IN-THE-LOOP SIMULATION SYSTEM 2925
TABLE V
MAJOR PARAMETERS OF IMPLEMENTED MICROGRID FOR HILS TEST
Fig. 9. RTDS model of 50-kVA microgrid pilot plant.
Fig. 10. RTDS model of the BESS.
Fig. 11. Developed communication emulator.
TABLE VI
SPECIFICATIONS OF DEVELOPED COMMUNICATION EMULATOR
decreases from 30 kW + j12 kVar to 25 kW + j12 kVar at the
point c .
At the point b , the control mode of the BESS changes from
constant power ow control to frequency and voltage control
as soon as the disconnection of the upstream grid is detected.
During the disturbance, the power output of the BESS changes
from zero to a certain value to control the frequency and the
voltage as soon as the disturbance occurs, and it returns to zero
by the secondary regulation action of the MMS.
The area from the point a to the point b shows simulation
results after a sudden load change in the grid-connected mode.
The area after the point b shows simulation results in the
islanded mode. The area after the point c shows simulation
results after a sudden load change in the islanded mode.
C. Evaluation and Discussion
The test results show that the proposed HILS system is useful
and effective to test control algorithms and operation strategies
2926 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 25, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2010
Fig. 12. Conguration and interface of communication emulator.
Fig. 13. Results of constant power ow control in the grid-connected operation.
for a microgrid in real time. Further, the developed communi-
cation emulator can be used to test and develop communication
protocols for the microgrid.
Various devices and functions of the microgrid require exten-
sive eld tests before real applications into the real microgrid.
The construction of a eld test site will require tremendous time
and cost. The use of the proposed HILS system may reduce
trials and errors considerably with a low cost.
In spite of good performances, the HILS system has some in-
herent limitations based on simulation and technical constraints,
such as real-time processing. To obtain reliable test results, users
should consider more details, including the system bandwidth,
JEON et al.: DEVELOPMENT OF HARDWARE IN-THE-LOOP SIMULATION SYSTEM 2927
Fig. 14. Results of frequency and voltage control in the islanded operation.
the detailed models, hardware interface methods, simulation
time steps, and simulation capabilities.
VI. CONCLUSION
This paper proposed an HILS system as a new method to
develop and test control algorithms and operation strategies for
microgrid. The proposed HILS test system was composed of
the RTDS, a prototype MMS under test, and a communication
emulator. The RTDS performed real-time simulation of compo-
nent models of the microgrid and the communication emulator
simulated communication functions of components of the mi-
crogrid.
The prototype MMS was designed to manage a 50-kVA mi-
crogrid pilot plant with a PV/wind hybrid system, a diesel gen-
erator, and a BESS. Constant power ow control in the grid-
connected mode, and frequency and voltage control in the is-
landed mode by a cooperative control scheme were tested to
validate the proposed HILS system.
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Jin-Hong Jeon (M09) received the B.S. and
M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from
Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Korea.
He is currently a Senior Research Engineer with
the New and Renewable Energy System Research
Center, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute,
Changwon, Korea. His research interests include the
design of control algorithm and the implementation
of power conversion systems in the elds of exi-
ble AC transmission system (FACTS) and microgrid
with renewable energy resources.
Jong-Yul Kim(M09) received the B.S. and M.S. de-
grees in electrical engineering from Pusan National
University, Busan, Korea.
Since 2001, he has been with the Korea Elec-
trotechnology Research Institute (KERI), Changwon,
Korea, where he is currently a Senior Research En-
gineer with the New and Renewable Energy System
Research Center. His research interests include the
power system analysis, and design and operation of
microgrid and smart grid.
Hak-Man Kim (M02) received the B.S., M.S.,
and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from
Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Korea, in 1991,
1993, and 1998, respectively.
From October 1996 to February 2008, he was a
Senior Researcher of the Korea Electrotechnology
Research Institute (KERI). He is currently a Pro-
fessor in the Department of Electrical Engineering,
University of Incheon, Incheon, Korea. His research
interests include power-system analysis, agent-based
autonomous power grids, and articial intelligent ap-
plications in power system engineering.
Dr. Kim is a Senior Member of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
(KIEE) and a member of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Commu-
nication Engineers (IEICE).
JEON et al.: DEVELOPMENT OF HARDWARE IN-THE-LOOP SIMULATION SYSTEM 2929
Seul-Ki Kim (M09) received the B.S., M.S., and
Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Korea
University, Seoul, Korea, in 1998, 2000, and 2010,
respectively.
Since 2000, he has been with Korea Electrotech-
nology Research Institute (KERI), Changwon, Korea.
He is currently a Senior Research Engineer with the
Newand Renewable Energy SystemResearch Center,
KERI. His research interests include grid interface of
distributed generators, and modeling and analysis of
distributed generation resources.
Changhee Cho (M09) received the B.S. and M.S.
degrees in electrical engineering fromSeoul National
University, Seoul, Korea.
Currently, he works as a Senior Researcher in
the New and Renewable Energy System Research
Center, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute
(KERI), Changwon, Korea. His research interests in-
clude control and management of the dispersed en-
ergy resources, network communication, and energy
optimization of microgrids.
Jang-Mok Kim (M09) was born in Busan, Korea,
in August 1961. He received the B.S. degree from
Pusan National University (PNU), Busan, in 1988,
and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Seoul National
University, Seoul, Korea, in 1991 and 1996, respec-
tively, in the department of Electrical Engineering.
From 1997 to 2000, he was a Senior Research
Engineer with the Korea Electrical Power Research
Institute (KEPRI). Since 2001, he has been with the
School of Electrical Engineering, PNU, where he is
currently a faculty member and a Research Member
of the Research Institute of Computer Information and Communication. His
current research interests include the control of electric machines, electric ve-
hicle propulsion, and power quality.
Jong-Bo Ahn received the B.S. degree in electrical
engineering from Seoul National University, Seoul,
Korea, the M.S. degree in electrical engineering and
computer science from Korea Advanced Institute of
Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea, and the
Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Pusan
National University, Busan, Korea.
He has been a Group Director in the power
conversion and system for RES Research Group,
Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI),
Changwon, Korea. His current research interests in-
clude grid interface of distributed generation and control and design of power
electronics controllers.
Kee-Young Nam (M07) received the B.S. and M.S.
degrees in the Department of Electrical Engineering,
Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Korea, in 1982 and
1984, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree from Ibaraki
University, Hitachi, Japan, in 1998.
From 1984 to 2009, he was a Principal Researcher
with the Power System Division, Korea Electrotech-
nology Research Institute (KERI). He is currently the
Head of the R&D Center, Halla Energy and Environ-
ment Company, Seoul. His current research interests
include optimization of operating distribution system
and automation, power quality analysis and diagnosis, renewable energy sys-
tem, micro- and smart grid system design and operation.