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Root Locus Method
Root Locus Method
446
446
-
-
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Prof. Neil A.
Prof. Neil A.
Duffie
Duffie
University of Wisconsin
University of Wisconsin
-
-
Madison
Madison
Neil A. Neil A. Duffie Duffie, 1996 , 1996
All rights reserved All rights reserved
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Importance of Pole Location
Importance of Pole Location

Performance is a function of pole location


Performance is a function of pole location
-
-
transient response
transient response
-
-
absolute stability (stable or not?)
absolute stability (stable or not?)
-
-
relative stability (how stable?)
relative stability (how stable?)

Poles migrate as control parameters vary


Poles migrate as control parameters vary
-
-
function of controller gains, zeros, poles
function of controller gains, zeros, poles
-
-
what values produce good locations?
what values produce good locations?
-
-
design (place poles) using root locus
design (place poles) using root locus
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Transient Response
Transient Response
Re
Im
0
0
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4
Absolute Stability
Absolute Stability
0
0
Stable region
Stable region
(negative real parts)
(negative real parts)
Unstable region
Unstable region
(non
(non
-
-
negative
negative
real parts)
real parts)
Im
Im
Re
Re
left 1/2
left 1/2
-
-
plane
plane
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5
Routh
Routh
-
-
Hurwitz Stability Criterion
Hurwitz Stability Criterion

Rouths
Rouths
criterion is a method for
criterion is a method for
assessing stability without finding roots.
assessing stability without finding roots.

The method is tabular, finds the number


The method is tabular, finds the number
of roots with positive real parts, and is
of roots with positive real parts, and is
described in most controls textbooks.
described in most controls textbooks.

The method was developed in the late


The method was developed in the late
1800s when finding roots was difficult.
1800s when finding roots was difficult.

Powerful calculation tools on the desktop


Powerful calculation tools on the desktop
have made the method less useful.
have made the method less useful.

Review it at a high level at this point.


Review it at a high level at this point.
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Characteristic Equation
Characteristic Equation
Process
Process
Control
Control
+
+
-
-
R(s)
R(s)
C(s)
C(s)
E(s)
E(s)
M(s)
M(s)
G
G
c c
(s)
(s)
C(s)
C(s)
G
G
p p
(s)
(s)
System transfer function:
System transfer function:
Characteristic equation:
Characteristic equation:
D(z) =
1 +G
c
(s)G
p
(s) = 0
C(s)
R(s)
=
G
c
(s)G
p
(s)
1+ G
c
(s)G
p
(s)
=
N(s)
D(s)
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Signs in Characteristic Equation
Signs in Characteristic Equation
All coefficients of characteristic equation:
All coefficients of characteristic equation:
-
-
must have the same sign
must have the same sign
-
-
must be non
must be non
-
-
zero
zero
Necessary (but not sufficient) condition for
Necessary (but not sufficient) condition for
absolute stability (from Rouths Criterion)
absolute stability (from Rouths Criterion)
Examples:
Examples:
s
s
3 3
+ 2s
+ 2s
2 2
+ s + 5 = 0
+ s + 5 = 0
(may be stable)
(may be stable)
s
s
3 3
+ 2s
+ 2s
2 2
-
-
s + 5 = 0
s + 5 = 0
(unstable)
(unstable)
s
s
3 3
+ 2s
+ 2s
2 2
+ 5 = 0
+ 5 = 0
(unstable)
(unstable)
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Relative Stability
Relative Stability
How stable is a system?
How stable is a system?
-
-
compared to another system
compared to another system
-
-
distance to the border of instability
distance to the border of instability
Measures of relative stability
Measures of relative stability
-
-
damping associated with each root
damping associated with each root
-
-
real parts of roots
real parts of roots
-
-
gain and phase margins
gain and phase margins
(frequency response concept:
(frequency response concept:
study later)
study later)
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Relative Stability
Relative Stability
Re
Re
Im
Im
0
0
Re
Re
Im
Im
0
0

1 1

2 2
d
d
2 2
System
System
#2
#2
d
d
1 1
System
System
#1
#1

1 1
<
<

2 2
(
(

1 1
>
>

2 2
)
)
d
d
1 1
< d
< d
2 2
System #2 is relatively more
System #2 is relatively more
stable than System #1!
stable than System #1!
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Step Response of Systems #1 and #2
Step Response of Systems #1 and #2
System #2
System #2
System #1
System #1
System #1:
System #1:
-
-
is relatively less stable than System #2
is relatively less stable than System #2
-
-
has more oscillatory step response
has more oscillatory step response
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Root Locus
Root Locus
Definition: The root locus is the path of the
Definition: The root locus is the path of the
roots of the characteristic equation
roots of the characteristic equation
plotted in the s
plotted in the s
-
-
plane as a system
plane as a system
parameter is changed.
parameter is changed.
Design: Choose a parameter value for
Design: Choose a parameter value for
which the locus lies in a good area of
which the locus lies in a good area of
the s
the s
-
-
plane (where dynamics meet specs).
plane (where dynamics meet specs).
Iteration: If no part of the root locus lies in
Iteration: If no part of the root locus lies in
a good area of the s
a good area of the s
-
-
plane, then change
plane, then change
the structure of the controller to modify
the structure of the controller to modify
the locus. Then choose parameter value.
the locus. Then choose parameter value.
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Root Locus of 3
Root Locus of 3
rd
rd
-
-
Order System
Order System
k < 2:
k < 2:

> 1
> 1
k > 2:
k > 2:

< 1
< 1
k < 30: stable
k < 30: stable
k > 30: unstable
k > 30: unstable
- -6 6 - -4 4 - -2 2 0 0 4 4 6 6
- -6 6
- -4 4
- -2 2
2 2
4 4
6 6
Re Re
Im Im
0 0
2 2
G(s) =
k
s s + 3 ( ) s + 2 ( )
C(s)
R(s)
=
k
s s + 3 ( ) s + 2 ( ) + k
0 0 0 0 0 0
30 30
30 30
30 30 2 2 2 2
300 300
300 300
300 300
3.5 3.5
3.5 3.5
3.5 3.5



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Choice of k for
Choice of k for

= 0.707
= 0.707
- -6 6 - -4 4 - -2 2 0 0 4 4 6 6
- -6 6
- -4 4
- -2 2
2 2
4 4
6 6
Re Re
Im Im
0 0
2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0
30 30
30 30
30 30 2 2 2 2
For
For

= 0.707:
= 0.707:
k 3.5
k 3.5
300 300
300 300
300 300
3.5 3.5
3.5 3.5
3.5 3.5



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G(s) =
k
s s + 3 ( ) s + 2 ( )
C(s)
R(s)
=
k
s s + 3 ( ) s + 2 ( ) + k
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Unit Step Response for k = 3.5
Unit Step Response for k = 3.5
0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10
0 0
0.2 0.2
0.4 0.4
0.6 0.6
0.8 0.8
1 1
1.2 1.2
t
t

0.707
0.707
c(t)
c(t)