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The Opportunity of Islamic Microenterprise for Indonesia women workers in overseas to


alleviate poverty and increase Human Development Index
Study Case: Migrant Women Workers from Wonosobo

Rhesa Yogaswara, S.Si
1
and Ir.HM.Nadratuzzaman Hosen, MS. Mec. PhD
2


This paper is submitted for Trisakti University to be presented in The 8
th
International
Conference On Tahwidi Methodology Applied to Microenterprise Development

Abstract

Since 2005 more than 2 million Indonesian migrant workers have been employed in
overseas. A large percentage is women who end up in traditionally female occupations
characterized by low wages, poor work conditions, and lacking employment benefits. The main
factors are their economic and family issues. They have an expectation that migration will lead
to an improvement in their standard of living.
Data compiled by the World Bank show that in 2008 remittance flows (formal and
informal) by migrant workers to developing countries reached USD 305 billion and were higher
than direct assistance and foreign investment. Southeast Asia received USD 32,506 million, with
the Philippines, Vietnam and Indonesia among the top recipient countries (by volume). These
remittances have been a critical means of poverty alleviation. They have led to investment;
technology and skills transfer through return migration and Diasporas.
This paper first explores the magnitude of Indonesian women migrant workers
remittances to Indonesia by doing quantitative and qualitative research methodology. In
quantitative research, 31 women workers respondents are taken from Wonosobo who works in
overseas. In qualitative, 3 practitioners from Indonesian Labor Service Company who have
conducted manpower supply for several years. It will then examine migrant Indonesian women
workers saving patterns and explore the channels used by them to remit money home.
The paper will also address how remittances are utilized by the migrant workers and
their families in Indonesia, paying attention to the following:
The impact of remittances in Indonesia on income distribution; Human Development
Index (HDI) at the household level.
General overview regarding the social impacts that may occur.
The opportunity for Islamic Microenterpise to capture remittance in poverty alleviation.
The results from this study will be useful from a welfare analysis perspective for women
migrant workers.


1
Chartered Islamic Finance Professional Candidate. INCEIF, Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia.
Master Candidate in Islamic Business and Finance. Paramadina Graduate School, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Email: rhesayogaswara@yahoo.com

2
Dean Faculty of Economics, YARSI University in Jakarta.
Email: mhosen@hotmail.com
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A. INTRODUCTION
Islam as a believeness which one of the scope is covering the economic aspect has a
very comprehensive concept in terms of set prosperity, ownership, distribution and social
relations. This is very closely related to the concept of Tawheed that was taught in Islam. Where
one of the definitions of Tawhid, which in this case is under category of Tawheed; is Rububiyah
God in creation, ownership, and management. It means that Allah is the creator of everything
that HE is the one and the only one.
3

Humans can not have anything with ownership perfectly. Therefore, people should not
use it except in a manner which is allowed under the Shariah Rules. So in terms of economic
and financial aspects, the factors associated with affluence, ownership, wealth distribution, and
social impacts should be aligned with the Tawhid. Hence, we as human beings are just trying to
manifest what we want according to the rules given by Allah through the teachings of Islam.
Poverty which is happening right nowadays is closely related to the Human
Development Index (HDI). Whereby HDI will impact the quality of human resources in order to
seek wealth from both the formal and the informal sector, reducing poverty and improving
living standards.
4

The human development index (HDI) is a summary measure of a countrys human
development. It measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions.
First is a long and healthy life, as measured by life expectancy at birth; access to knowledge, as
measured by the adult literacy rate and the combined gross enrolment ratio in education; and a
decent standard of living, as measured by GDP per capita in purchasing power parity (PPP) US
dollars.
5

Economic and financial could be one of the factors that can be developed to reduce
poverty, without ignoring the variables of HDI and also the social aspect. Because, in several
cases; looking for income can be done by ignoring the social impact. Ignoring the social aspect is
very dangerous and can cause social relations of a society is getting worse. This is certainly
against the concept of Tawhid that is taught in Islam. Therefore, the concept of Tawheed can be
applied to reduce poverty by applying the rules of Shariah to seek wealth by considering the
social impacts that might occur.
In this study, will be observed how the concept of Tawhid is implemented to reduce
poverty in a region in Indonesia by using the remittance facilities for migrant women workers,
to improve the HDI and standard of living, by minimizing the adverse effect of social aspects.
Remittance in general is a record of money transfer activities between countries, which
are summarized into a balance of payments. By definition, remittances are the transfer of
resources from individuals in one country to individuals in another - are an Important source of
private funds in developing countries. Unlike foreign investment, which goes to a limited
number of well-established economies or the volatile earnings from trade, Remittances tend to

3
Muhaemin. Al-Quran dan Hadist. Grafindo Media Pratama. Bandung. 2008. Pg 29.
4
Tjiptoherijanto, Projono and Laila Nagib. Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia: di antara Peluang dan
Tantangan. LIPI Press. Jakarta 2008. Pg 91
5
Klugman, Jeni. Human Development Report 2009. United Nations Development Programme. New York. 2009. Pg
11.
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be stable. Thus, remittance is helping to cushion domestic economic shocks through giving
direct benefit to the individuals and households.
6

The paper will address how remittances are utilized by the women migrant workers and
their families in Indonesia, paying attention to several figures. First, the impact of remittances is
in Indonesia on income distribution and Human Development Index (HDI) at the household
level. Second is, the general overview regarding the social impacts that might occurr. And the
last is, the opportunity for Islamic Microenterprise to capture remittance in poverty alleviation.
Area that became targets of this research is Wonosobo, in Central Java province,
targeted to the 31 women who left their children with work outside the country, as the
respondents of this research. In terms of research coverage, HDI parameter taken is gross
enrollment ratio in education, which will see an indication of linkage with the enrollment ratio
of remittance use in education.
Not only in quantitative description, qualitative analysis will help find a comprehensive
social impact through the In-depth interviews with three practitioners from Indonesian Labor
Service Company who have conducted the manpower supply for several years.

B. DISCUSSION
Through survey, we interviewed 31 respondents who are working currently as domestic
migrant workers from Wonosobo, Central Java as follow:

B.1. Age
In terms of age, the majority of respondents are aged from 20 years to 30 years, which
reached 61% of the total respondents. Then the second is the age group of more than 30 years
to 40 years, with 36% from the total respondents. The smallest of group is the respondents
who are in the age group of more than 40%, which is only 3%.

Figure B.1. Respondent Age



6
Wolfenshon, James. World Development Indicators 2005. The World Bank. Washington. 2005. Pg 321
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The relationships between age and job performance are very closely related possibility
in recent decades. There is widespread belief that job performance decline when the age are
getting older. However, many positive things are happening on the old workers, particularly on
the experiences, assessments, strong work ethic, and commitment to quality. However, the
older workers, are tend to have weakness in terms of flexibility and there is a tendency to resist
new technologies.
7

The reason behind that the young migrant women workers are because the high ability
to adapt with new environment, where individual hard skill that are influenced by speed,
ability, and strength. Moreover there are factors that strengthen the case where the employers
do not make requirements based on the experience, assessment, and work ethics as priority
factors. As a consequences, the young migrant workers have to leave their children at very
young age in their home.

B.2. Background and Motivation
The general background which motivates the migrant women workers to work abroad is
that many problems faced by them in their household life. These issues are related to economic
conditions, household, education factor, and understanding of the respondents about Islamic
teaching. Hence, generally; economic factors are their main motivation to work at overseas.
They do not have an enough income to meet their needs of food, clothing, and shelter
as their basic-needs. In terms of motivation, "Looking for a high income" is their main
motivation they seek employment in overseas. 82% of respondents have filled "Looking for a
high income" in first choice, which is the highest motivation.
Meanwhile, for the second priority; "Looking for fixed income" motivation and reason
has been chosen as the most important reason, which reached 51%. This strengthened the
economic background to be the strongest and most important reason for them, to leave their
families to earn a better income.
Ranking 1 Ranking 2 Ranking 3 Ranking 4 Ranking 5 Ranking 6
Looking for a high
income
82.76% 12.90% 9.68% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
Looking for a fixed
income
3.45% 51.61% 25.81% 19.35% 0.00% 0.00%
Looking for a suitable job 0.00% 0.00% 22.58% 25.81% 51.61% 0.00%
Looking for an
environment that
provide appreciation
0.00% 6.45% 9.68% 35.48% 29.03% 19.35%
Looking for experiences
abroad
13.79% 29.03% 32.26% 9.68% 12.90% 0.00%
Others 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 9.68% 6.45% 80.65%
Total 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%
Table B.2. Background and Women workers motivation


7
Robbins, Stephen and Timothy A. Judge. Organizational Behavior. Pearson Education. New Jersey. 2007. Pg 64
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However, there are other motivations which do not answered in this quantitative survey,
namely, the migrant women workers wanted to leave all problems which are raised in their family life.
Almost all the migrant workers had family problems, whether economic problems as well as non-
economic problems such as the conflict with her husband and parents.
The conflict happened in the family inspired them to be economically independent in their life.
For example, a husband who has an affair with woman can cause the family finances become un-
manageable or suffer condition. Hence, they think that looking for her own income for her needs and
her children are the best solution.

B.3. Education
In terms of educational background, the majority of respondents were senior high
school background, which reaches 55% of the total respondents, followed by junior high school,
amounting to 26%, and the last is the Elementary School and Diploma with 16% and 3%
respectively.

Figure B.3. Women workers last education

Generally, they do not continue their studies because of economic pressures. So that,
these economic factors have pushed them to find better jobs. However, economic institutions
or local government in Wonosobo are requiring senior high school graduates for getting jabs
that are extremely rare. Even if they want to create a new business, first investment fund is
becoming an obstacle.

B.4. Cuntry of Destination
From these respondents, they have jobs majority in HongKong, which reached 77%,
followed by Singapore and Taiwan 13% and 10% respectively. Nationally, demand for
Indonesian migrant women workers from Hongkong has increased, compared to migrant
women workers from Philippines. This is because Indonesian migrant workers accept the low
salaries compare to workers from others.
8


8
http://www.vhrmedia.net/home/index.php?id=view&aid=1780&lang= (accessed September 20, 2010)
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Figure B.4. Country of Work Destination

Not only increased demand labour market in Hongkong, but also Indonesia migrant
women workers prefer to choose Hongkong as a country destination. This is because Hongkong
can provide 10 percent greater salary; sometimes could even reach 500 percent higher than
neighboring countries.
9

Based on this survey, respondents are generally motivated to seek greater income,
where 24 respondents, which is 82% choose "to seek higher revenues" as a main reason for
them to leave their homes in order to improve their living standards.

B.5. Type of Jobs
In this study, the type of job will be discussed differences between before and after
migrant women workers working abroad. Previously, most respondents are a housewife, which
reached 45% from the total respondents, followed by store employees amounted to 23%.

Figur B.5.i. Type of Work while sill in Indonesia



9
http://www.antaranews.com/berita/1252921811/gaji-pembantu-indonesia-paling-rendah-di-malaysia (accessed
September 20, 2010)
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Currently, 87% of these respondents have been working as a housemaid (domestic
workers) in abroad, and the rest is as an employee of the store. Working as a housemaid is not
a difficult jobs for them, because they do not need to have special skills as well as work at home
as a housewife. In other countries, jobs available that required senior high school background is
mostly as a housemaid.

Figur B.5.ii. Current Type of Jobs Abroad

B.6. Salary Level
There are 17 respondents who have no income when he was in Indonesia. This is
because; they are as a housewife, student, and un-employment. From them who have worked,
generally have relatively low incomes, which are less than 10 million rupiahs annually. An
average, they got monthly income around 800 thousand rupiahs, where local government
imposed minimum wage incomes at 715 thousand rupiahs in Wonosobo.
10

Obviously, the amount is still under the living standards. However, after they work
abroad, the income received has increased significantly. 36% of the total respondents have
gross income between 30-40 million annually. This means that the average monthly income is
amounted to 2.5-3 million rupiahs per month. Then the next highest range income are 50-60
million rupiahs annually. This means that gross income per month is amounted to 4-5 million
rupiahs.
They have benefit to work as a housemaid; they have small cost and expenses since
their basic living for food and living place are already covered by their employer. Thus, the
majority of his income has been saved for long term needs.


10
http://www.hrcentro.com/umr/jawa_tengah/kabupaten_wonosobo/non_sektor/2010 (accessed September 20,
2010)
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Figure B.6. Current Annual Revenue (after Working Abroad)

Their income that has increased from doubled until fivefold certainly has an effect on
the increasing Indonesia's GNP in macro-economic side.

B.7. Working Hours
Not only changes in income, but also change of working hours is needed to be
compared. Generally, they have spent eight hours a day to work in Indonesia (who work as
employees at the store). But currently, they have to take 12 working hours required a day with
the profession as a housemaid for 71% of the respondents and followed by 10 hours a day for
20% of respondents.

Figure B.7. Current Working Hours (during working abroad)

B.8. Other Income
Beside fixed income, we will look at the other sources of income both before and after
working abroad. Previously, 83% of respondents did not have other sources of income. This is
because small (almost none) spare funds that can be used to invest in business. It is almost
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entirely allocated to the primary needs that include the fulfillment of clothing, food, and
shelter.

Figure B.8.i. Other Income before Working Abroad

However, after they worked as migrant women workers, they have the income or
additional income from another business. Approximately 45% of respondents already have an
average additional income around to Rp. 8,500,000 annually. This is equal to 20% of their
average fixed income.

Figure B.8.ii. Current Other Income after Working Abroad

On an average, their other incomes are from trading, farming, and motor transportation
services (commonly known as motorcycle taxi). The funds used are come from their fixed
income while working abroad. They have this budget because they get high income abroad, and
they are spending their money in Indonesia, which after being converted from dollars to rupiah,
its value becomes extremely large.
11


11
In-Depth Interview with PJTKI
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In generally, they still have not utilized financial institutions to develop their side
business optimally. They tend to rely on the sole income from working abroad to invest in their
business.
12

They can invest by looking for business partner in Indonesia, which mostly one of their
own family members is running their business. In transferring funds, they did not bring his own
money into Indonesia, but they use the remittance transfer or Western Union. It provides
separate facilities for them, because they can use their funds optimally to improve the standard
of life without difficulties to send funds.
The increasing business in Wonosobo certainly has an expectation on the increase of
GDP at the macro level where the real sector has increased. This is certainly considered to be
better in terms of ownership, where the increase in the real sector through remittance for
investment is owned by own citizens.
13

This becomes a special opportunity for Micro-enterprise development to improve the
local economy and living standards in Wonosobo district. Currently, they depend on their fixed
salary as migrant women workers for their business capital. For their business development,
they are still less utilizing Micro-enterprise as an institutions that can help them developing
their business.
Some of them using their income are to invest in property such as buying land for
homes, farms, buying a house, and also for housing renovation. Obviously this becomes an
opportunity where Islamic Micro-finance like Baitul Maal wa Tamwill (BMT) can provide
assistance for those who need the funds in accordance with the appropriate contract and
agreement of shariah principles.

B.9. Childrens Education
From education side, children development in order to improve their living standards is
becoming the parameters that being analyzed here. There is a tendency when they are still in
Indonesia, they allocated their income for children's education. Even though they allocated
funds which is quite small amount. A maximum allocation of their income is amounted only to
20% from their total income.
14

After they get high enough fixed income in overseas, they tend to increase their
allocation for their children's education. Almost 50% of respondents have allocated up to 30%
of their income. In fact, approximately 13% of the respondents allocate some funds up to 50%
from their income. This indicates that they are very concern and caring to their children
education, hopefully their children will have a better living standard than their parents.

12
Ibid.
13
http://www2.bbpp-lembang.info/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=515:kontribusi-sektor-
pertanian-terhadap-pdb&catid=110&Itemid=304 (accessed September 20, 2010)
14
In-Depth Interview with PJTKI
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Figure B.9. Budget Allocation for Childrens Education

Several issues regarding Children's education can be resolved. Previously, they only
provide support education facilities very minimum, e.g. informal education, the support
facilities were not optimally provided for example textbooks, exercise books, etc.
15

After they became migrant women workers, with an allocation for childrens education
which could reach more than 30%, is certainly helping children to acquire more education
support facilities. In addition, Islamic studies and education became part of the parent referrals
for their children.
However, the results are experienced which is not as expected. Their children, who are
generally cared by their grandmother, did not experience significant intellectual development.
This is because their grandmother have tendency to spoil their grandchildren. It affects to their
social and intelligence development.
16

Thus, despite the economic problems seen to be solved, but the educational and social
problems are still a big homework for them. This is due to the role of the mother as a function
of education and the function of mothering ability to give love, do not work properly.
17


B.10. Understanding of Islam
Through in-depth interview, respondents generally come from a family with strong
Islamic understanding and its application in their life; such as a good way of dressing, good
behavior, discipline prayers, fasting, Zakah, and also learning Islamic studies.

There are significant changes to the respondents, especially for migrant women workers
that are currently employed in Hong Kong, especially in dressing behavior. Majority of them
currently tend to dress more ignorant and opposite with Islamic guidance in dressing. This

15
In-Depth Interview with PJTKI
16
Ibid
17
Tjahyani B, M.Syaom Barliana, and Johar Maknun. Perubahan Fungsi Sosial Keluarga di desa asal migran Tenaga
Kerja Wanita. Mimbar Pendidikan Journal. Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. 2004.
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differs from the migrant women workers working in Singapore and Taiwan, where they are
better in dressing.
18

In the case of Prayers and Fasting, they are still doing it routinely given the good
tolerance of the working environment in Hong Kong. But, their frequency has dropped
significantly in learning Islam since Hong Kong's environment has less Moslems communities
In terms of behavior, sexual behavior without marriage was viewed as a common habit
in Hong Kong. Especially, for those who become migrant women workers that are coming from
background family conflict; such as love affair. Consciously or unconsciously, they have left a
husband who is their mahram and live with another person abroad which is not their mahram
(See Indonesian Council of Ulama, MUI issue fatwa in 2000 that married women workers go to
overseas without mahram is forbidden)
This is certainly quite contrary with Tawheed concept, where all the problems should be
rely on God Almighty to carry out all HIS commands and avoid HIS prohibitions as our devotion
to God Almighty.
19


C. ANALYSIS
In this section, we will analyse through Table, the view of women migrant workers as a
whole with determine each variable.
Variabel General Result Positive Impact Negative Impact
Age >20 and <=30 Productive Age Leaving their children at
young age
Motivation Looking for high
income
Economic problem has
been solved
Non-economic problem
has not necessarily solved
yet
Last Education Senior High School Their skill has met with
the requirement
The opportunity to
continue study is being
postponed
Country of
Destination
Hongkong High Income The social lifestyle is
contradict with Islamic
values
Type of Work
While still in
Indonesia
Housewife The usefull hardskill and
keep the role of mother
and wife worked properly
No additional family
income
Current Jobs Housemaid Their experiences are
match with current jobs
Lost of Mother and Wife
roles in their family
Current
Annual
Revenue
> 30 Million and <=
40 Million Rupiahs
High income can solve
their economic problems
-
Current
Working
12 hours per day More productive and less
idle
Less break time

18
In-Depth Interview with PJTKI
19
Muhaemin. Al-Quran dan Hadist. Grafindo Media Pratama. Bandung. 2008. Pg 35.
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Hours
Other Income
in Indonesia
Increase The sector real business
and property has
increased after they send
funds to be invested in
their hometown
-
Childrens
Education
Changes Significantly Budget allocation to
support their childrens
education has been
increased
Childrens social behavior
and intelligent has been
developed less optimal
Understanding
of Islam
Changes significantly Prayer and Fasting are still
keep running because of
tolerance of the
surrounding environment
Changing in dressing
behavior are affected by
the liberal and modern
lifestyle
Table C.i. Impact Analysis for each Variable

By analyzing the above table, we can conclude generally from the macro overview in the
following table as the impacts of migrant women workers are happening nowadays
Parameter General Result Reason
GNP Expected Increase The increment of their fixed income is amounted from
doubled up to fivefold
GDP Expected Increase The sector real business and property has increased after
they send funds to be invested in their hometown
HDI Predicted Decrease Their children, who are generally cared by their
grandmother, did not experience significant intellectual
development. This is because their grandmother have
tendency to spoil their grandchildren. It effect to their
social and intelligence development that had become
less optimal.
Social
Impact
Predicted Increase Family conflict between husband and wife has neo been
resolved yet, and the harmony is less well maintained
due to the loss of wife's role as a biological function, love
function and also education function
Table C.ii. Impact Analysis for each Parameter

Obviously this is still a challenge for Islamic micro-enterprise where economic problems
must be resolved by utilizing the flow of remittance funds for local business development in the
real sector and also property development.
The Islamic Micro-enterprises have substantial responsibility for the welfare of the
region where the economic improvement can be realized without sacrificing the social impact
of family and children's education. If a part of remittance can be allocated to be Tabarru fund,
where this fund can be used to establish Baitul Maal wa Tamwil (BMT) or Islamic micro-finance
14 | P a g e

which will generate business and income for former domestic women workers who already live
in their home town.
There is a purposed model how to optimize the remmitance funds, to alleviate poverty
in their hometown. Islamic Bank can create a new Islamic Remittance product, which allocate
the transferred funds based on the agreed ratio, to be allocated for tabbaru. Then, after the
funds collected are sufficient, Islamic Bank can create Islamic Microfinance or BMT. Finally,
Islamic Microfinance/BMT can provide products which are suitable with members needs.
The following is the flow of Tabarru funds by utilizing the remittance to create Islamic
Microfinance/BMT.

Figure C.iii. Purpose model of Tabarru funds

D. CONSLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The strategies to reduce poverty and improve living standards in the Wonosobo region
by sending migrant women workers abroad have provided a variety of impacts. In economic
terms, migrant women workers have a positive impact on GDP and GNP of Indonesia which is
expected to increase when viewed from the side of the macro economy.
But there are still many negative impacts that must be solved. The implementation of
migrant women workers have reduce the quality of their children, social aspects, and also the
understanding of Islam in their daily life.
Behind all of these impacts, there is an opportunity for Islamic Microenterprise to take
the advantages of remittance flows in order to develop local businesses in real sector and also
the development of property in Wonosobo. However, not only economic problems, the Islamic
Microenterprise also have substantial responsibilities for the welfare, where improvement must
be achieved without compromising the social impact of family and children's education.
This research can still be continued to observe the usage behavior of remittances as well
as usage behavior in fund recipients, to create an innovation-contract which comply with
Shairah based for Microenterprise development, with additional research on the role of
mosques, schools and families to overcome education problems in migrant women workers
family.

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E. REFERENCES
Chami, Ralph and Adolfo Barajas, Thomas Cosimano, Connel Fullenkamp, Michael Gapen, Peter
Montiel. Macroeconomic Consequences of Remittance. International Monetary Fund.
Washington. 2008.
http://www.antaranews.com/berita/1252921811/gaji-pembantu-indonesia-paling-rendah-di-
malaysia (accessed September 20, 2010)
http://www.vhrmedia.net/home/index.php?id=view&aid=1780&lang= (accessed September 20, 2010)
http://www.hrcentro.com/umr/jawa_tengah/kabupaten_wonosobo/non_sektor/2010 (accessed
September 20, 2010)
http://www2.bbpp-lembang.info/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=515:kontribusi-
sektor-pertanian-terhadap-pdb&catid=110&Itemid=304 (accessed September 20, 2010)
Klugman, Jeni. Human Development Report 2009. United Nations Development Programme.
New York. 2009.
Muhaemin. Al-Quran dan Hadist. Grafindo Media Pratama. Bandung. 2008.
Robbins, Stephen and Timothy A. Judge. Organizational Behavior. Pearson Education. New
Jersey. 2007.
Tjahyani B, M.Syaom Barliana, and Johar Maknun. Perubahan Fungsi Sosial Keluarga di desa asal migran
Tenaga Kerja Wanita. Mimbar Pendidikan Journal. Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. 2004.
Tjiptoherijanto, Projono and Laila Nagib. Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia: di antara
Peluang dan Tantangan. LIPI Press. Jakarta 2008.
Wolfenshon, James. World Development Indicators 2005. The World Bank. Washington. 2005.


F. APPENDIX
Age Range Number of Respondent %
> 20 and <=30 19 61.29%
> 30 and <=40 11 35.48%
> 40 and <=50 1 3.23%
Grand Total 31 100.00%

Last Education Number of Respondent %
Diploma 1 3.23%
Elementary School 5 16.13%
Junior High School 8 25.81%
Senior High School 17 54.84%
Grand Total 31 100.00%

Country of Destination Number of Respondent %
Hongkong 24 77.42%
Singapore 4 12.90%
Taiwan 3 9.68%
Grand Total 31 100.00%

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Type of Work While Still In Indonesia Number of Respondent %
Trader 3 9.68%
Gardening and Farming 2 6.45%
Housewife 14 45.16%
Store Employee 7 22.58%
Others 5 16.13%
Grand Total 31 100.00%

Current Type of Work Number of Respondent %
Store Employee 4 12.90%
Housemaid 27 87.10%
Grand Total 31 100.00%


Current Annual Revenue Number of Respondent %
<= 30 Million Rp 5 16.13%
> 30 Million Rp and <= 40 Million Rp 11 35.48%
> 40 Million Rp and <= 50 Million Rp 5 16.13%
> 50 Million Rp and <= 60 Million Rp 9 29.03%
> 60 Million Rp 1 3.23%
Grand Total 31 100.00%

Current Working Hours Number of Respondent %
6 Hours 1 3.23%
10 Hours 6 19.35%
11 Hours 1 3.23%
12 Hours 22 70.97%
16 Hours 1 3.23%
Grand Total 31 100.00%



Ranking 1 Ranking 2 Ranking 3 Ranking 4 Ranking 5 Ranking 6
Looking for a high
income
82.76% 12.90% 9.68% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
Looking for a fixed
income
3.45% 51.61% 25.81% 19.35% 0.00% 0.00%
Looking for a suitable job 0.00% 0.00% 22.58% 25.81% 51.61% 0.00%
Looking for an
environment that
provide appreciation
0.00% 6.45% 9.68% 35.48% 29.03% 19.35%
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Looking for experiences
abroad
13.79% 29.03% 32.26% 9.68% 12.90% 0.00%
Others 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 9.68% 6.45% 80.65%
Total 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%



Did you have any other source of income? Number of Respondent %
Yes I Have 5 16.13%
None 26 83.87%
Grand Total 31 100.00%



Currently, do you have any other source of
income?
Number of Respondent %
Yes I Have 14 45.16%
None 17 54.84%
Grand Total 31 100.00%


Current Allocation for their childerns
education
Number of Respondent %
0% - 10% 6 19.35%
11% - 20% 10 32.26%
21% - 30% 8 25.81%
31% - 40% 2 6.45%
41% - 50% 4 12.90%
> 50% 1 3.23%
Grand Total 31 100.00%