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THEORY:

Balancing is an essential technique applied to mechanical parts of rotational functionality


(wheels, shafts, flywheels), in order to eliminate the detected irregularities found causing deviation
of mass center from axis of rotation. Such irregularities may rise due to the inhomogeneous
distribution of material within the part, bending and deflection of rotating shafts, and eccentricity of
mass from the axis of rotation of the rotating disks and rotors.
These irregularities lead to small eccentric masses that disturb mass distribution of the part, and
the generate centrifugal forces when the part is in rotation; the magnitude of these forces increases
rapidly with speed of rotation, and enhances vibrations level during operation, and cause serious
problems.
Balancing is the process of designing or modifying machinery so that the unbalance is reduced
to an accepted level & if possible is eliminated entirely.

STATIC BALANCING:

A system of rotating masses is said to be in Static Balance, if the combined mass center of the
system lies on the axis of rotation. For a given system, masses can be assumed to reside in the same
plane of rotation (for instance, discs and turbine rotors) or can be rotating in different planes, parallel
to each other and on the same axis of rotation (for instance, multiple rotors mounted on the same
shaft).
For the former system, static balancing is performed considering a component with its axis of
rotation oriented horizontally, and rotating it several times. At the end of each run, mark the lower
part of the disc once it stabilizes. If the different marks are distributed randomly over the
circumference of the disk, then the disk is of good mass distribution and considered balanced; but in
the case that they accumulate in a small region, it is realised that there is a mass concentration in that
part of the disk, and this can be treated either by taking small mass from there, or by adding mass to
the opposite position of the disk.
For the later system, oscillation free stability of rotor is observed in only one of the preferred
condition than, system can be said to be statically balanced.
Assume a system of masses m
i
, each with mass centre at r
i
from axis of rotation and revolving with a
constant angular velocity rad/s. These masses are not expected to be in the same plane, but in
different locations along the axial direction; in addition, each mass will produce a centrifugal force
making an angle
i
with the reference horizontal direction in its own plane. The system described is
shown schematically in Figure below.
The rotor is said to be statically balanced if 0
i
F