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1.

0 INTRODUCTION
Training makes employees to keep pace with the current management and technical change in the
organization and development help them to be ready for any kind of situation which they might face at
present and in the future while at their work. After recruiting and selection of new employees training
and development for them is very important and also for the present employees in the organization. It
is not possible for any employee to forecast what kind of skill they need in any company. They might
not even know what kind of problems they might face in their work. So, most companies introduce
some training and development techniques to improvise their employees, not just employees but also
employers to gain a lot about their perspective work. The company should also provide equal
employment opportunities and recognizes the talents and energy of its employees. It should recognize
the need for continuous improvement of their employees at all levels. Company training policy should
supports employee training which is directly linked to individuals specific jobs and his or her future
development. The training programs are expected to enhance job-related knowledge as well as
develop functional skills and or/managerial skills. That is, training should ensure functional
improvement specific to individuals job development of managerial competencies as deemed by the
company.

2.0 TRAINING
Training refers to the process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their
jobs. In other words, Training is the process of acquiring specific skills to perform a job better
(Jucious, 1963). It helps people to become qualified and proficient in doing some jobs (Dahama, 1979).
Usually an organization facilitates the employees' learning through training so that their modified
behaviour contributes to the attainment of the organization's goals and objectives. Van Dersal (1962)
defined training as the process of teaching, informing, or educating people so that (1) they may
become as well qualified as possible to do their job, and (2) they become qualified to perform in
positions of greater difficulty and responsibility.

Training is an important activity for enhancing job-related knowledge and skills of an employee. An
employee may need training on specific areas in order to perform a job satisfactorily. Training also
plays an important role in the future career development of an employee.
2.0.1 TYPICAL REASONS FOR EMPLOYEE TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT
Training and development can be initiated for a variety of reasons for an employee or group of
employees, e.g.:

When a performance appraisal indicates performance improvement is needed
To "benchmark" the status of improvement so far in a performance improvement effort
As part of an overall professional development program
As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a planned change in role in the
organization
To "pilot", or test, the operation of a new performance management system
To train about a specific topic

2.0.2 TYPICAL TOPICS OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING
Communications: The increasing diversity of today's workforce brings a wide variety of languages and
customs.
Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting administrative and office
tasks.
Customer service: Increased competition in today's global marketplace makes it critical that
employees understand and meet the needs of customers.
Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have different perspectives
and views, and includes techniques to value diversity
Ethics: Today's society has increasing expectations about corporate social responsibility. Also, today's
diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and morals to the workplace.
Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include misunderstandings and
conflict. Training can people to get along in the workplace.
Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Quality Circles, benchmarking, etc.,
require basic training about quality concepts, guidelines and standards for quality, etc.
Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment , hazardous chemicals,
repetitive activities, etc., but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults, etc.
Sexual harassment: Sexual harassment training usually includes careful description of the
organization's policies about sexual harassment, especially about what are inappropriate behaviors.

2.0.3 GENERAL BENEFITS FROM EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
There are numerous sources of online information about training and development. Several of these
sites (they're listed later on in this library) suggest reasons for supervisors to conduct training among
employees. These reasons include:

Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees
Increased employee motivation
Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain
Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods
Increased innovation in strategies and products
Reduced employee turnover
Enhanced company image, e.g., conducting ethics training (not a good reason for ethics training!)
Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity training

2.1 THE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
Training programs consist of five steps. These are stated below:
Needs analysis
Identify job performance skills needed, assess prospective trainees skills, and develop objectives.
Instructional design
Produce the training program content, including workbooks, exercises, and activities.
Validation
Presenting (trying out) the training to a small representative audience.
Implement the program
Actually training the targeted employee group.
Evaluation
Assesses the programs successes or failures.

2.2 TRAINING AND LEARNING
Training is essentially a learning process, and studies show there are several things we can do to
improve learning. Those are:

Make the Learning Meaningful
At the start of training, provide a birds-eye view of the material to be presented to facilitate
learning.
Use a variety of familiar examples.
Organize the information so you can present it logically, and in meaningful units.
Use terms and concepts that are already familiar to trainees.
Use as many visual aids as possible.

Make Skills Transfer Easy
Maximize the similarity between the training situation and the work situation.
Provide adequate practice.
Label or identify each feature of the machine and/or step in the process.
Direct the trainees attention to important aspects of the job.
Provide heads-up preparatory information that lets trainees know they might happen back on the
job.

Motivate the Learner
People learn best by doing so provide as much realistic practice as possible.
Trainees learn best when the trainers immediately reinforce correct responses
Trainees learn best at their own pace.
Create a perceived training need in the trainees minds.
The schedule is important too: The learning curve goes down late in the day, less than full day
training is most effective.

2.3 TRAINING APPROACH
There are three approaches to training: (1) the traditional approach, (2) the experiential approach,
and (3) the performance-based approach (Rama, Etling, & Bowen, 1993). In the traditional approach,
the training staff designs the objectives, contents, teaching techniques, assignments, lesson plans,
motivation, tests, and evaluation. The focus in this model is intervention by the training staff. In the
experiential approach, the trainer incorporates experiences where in the learner becomes active and
influences the training process. Unlike the academic approach inherent in the traditional model,
experiential training emphasizes real or simulated situations in which the trainees will eventually
operate. In this model, the objectives and other elements of training are jointly determined by the
trainers and trainees. Trainers primarily serve as facilitators, catalysts, or resource persons. In the
performance-based approach to training, goals are measured through attainment of a given level of
proficiency instead of passing grades of the trainees. Emphasis is given to acquiring specific observable
skills for a task. This performance-based teacher education (PBTE) model, developed by Elam (1971), is
mostly task or skill centered and is also applicable to non-formal educational organizations such as
extension.

2.4 ANALYZING TRAINING NEEDS
How we analyze training needs depends on whether we are training new or current employees. The
main task in analyzing new employees training needs is to determine what the job entails and to break
it down into subtask, each of which we then teach to the new employee.

The following are the two main ways to identify training needs:
Task analysis
A detailed study of a job to identify the specific skills required, especially for new employees.
Job descriptions and job specifications are helpful here.
Especially suitable for determining the needs of employees who are new to their jobs.

Performance analysis
The process of verifying that there is a performance deficiency and determining whether that
deficiency should be corrected through training or through some other means (such as transferring the
employee).

2.5 TRAINING METHODS
There are various training methods companies use to actually deliver the training. Here we have tried
to discuss some of the most popular training methods. These are:

2.5.1 On-the-Job Training
On-the-job training (OJT) means having a person learn a job by actually doing the job.

OJT methods
Coaching or understudy
Job rotation
Special assignments

Advantages
Inexpensive
Immediate feedback

Steps in OJT

Step 1: Prepare the learner
Put the learner at easerelieve the tension.
Explain why he or she is being taught.
Create interest, encourage questions, find out what the learner already knows about this or other
jobs.
Explain the whole job and relate it to some job the worker already knows.
Place the learner as close to the normal working position as possible.
Familiarize the worker with equipment, materials, tools, and trade terms.


Step 2: Present the operation
Explain quantity and quality requirements.
Go through the job at the normal work pace.
Go through the job at a slow pace several times, explaining each step. Between operations, explain
the difficult parts, or those in which errors are likely to be made.
Again go through the job at a slow pace several times; explain the key points.
Have the learner explain the steps as you go through the job at a slow pace.

Step 3: Do a tryout
Have the learner go through the job several times, slowly, explaining each step to you.
Correct mistakes and, if necessary, do some of the complicated steps the first few times.
Run the job at the normal pace.
Have the learner do the job, gradually building up skill and speed.
As soon as the learner demonstrates ability to do the job, let the work begin, but dont abandon him
or her.

Step 4: Follow up
Designate to whom the learner should go for help.
Gradually decrease supervision, checking work from time to time against quality and quantity
standards.
Correct faulty work patterns before they become a habit. Show why the learned method is superior.
Compliment good work; encourage the worker until he or she is able to meet the quality and quantity
standards.


2.5.2 Apprenticeship training
A structured process by which people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom
instruction and on-the-job training.

2.5.3 Informal learning
The majority of what employees learn on the job they learn through informal means of performing
their jobs on a daily basis.

2.5.4 Job instruction training (JIT)
Listing each jobs basic tasks, along with key points, in order to provide step-by-step training for
employees.


2.5.5 Effective lectures
Use signals to help listeners follow your ideas.
Dont start out on the wrong foot.
Keep your conclusions short.
Be alert to your audience.
Maintain eye contact with the trainees.
Make sure everyone in the room can hear.
Control your hands.
Talk from notes rather than from a script.
Break a long talk into a series of five-minute talks.

2.5.6 Programmed Learning
A systematic method for teaching job skills involving:
Presenting questions or facts
Allowing the person to respond
Giving the learner immediate feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers

Advantages
Reduced training time
Self-paced learning
Immediate feedback
Reduced risk of error for learner

2.5.7 Audiovisual-based training
To illustrate following a sequence over time.
To expose trainees to events not easily demonstrable in live lectures.
To meet the need for organization wide training and it is too costly to move the trainers from place
to place.

2.5.8 Simulated training (occasionally called vestibule training)
Training employees on special off-the-job equipment so training costs and hazards can be reduced.
Computer-based training (CBT)
Electronic performance support systems (EPSS)
Learning portals

2.5.9 Computer-based training
Advantages
Reduced learning time
Cost-effectiveness
Instructional consistency

Types of CBT
Intelligent Tutoring systems
Interactive multimedia training
Virtual reality training

2.5.10 Distance and Internet-Based Training
Tele training
A trainer in a central location teaches groups of employees at remote locations via TV hookups.

Videoconferencing
Interactively training employees who are geographically separated from each otheror from the
trainervia a combination of audio and visual equipment.

Training via the Internet
Using the Internet or proprietary internal intranets to facilitate computer-based training.

2.6 MANAGERIAL DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING
Managers, like other employees, have to be trained, and many of the methods are available to apply
equally well to them. Training for managers is often different, in several ways: It tends to be more
future oriented, more complex force.

2.6.1 WHAT IS MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT?
Management development is any attempt to improve current or future management performance by
imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills.


The general management development process consists of
(1) Assessing the companys strategic needs (for instance, to fill future executive openings, or to boost
competitiveness),
(2) Appraising the managers performance, and then
(3) Developing the managers (future managers)

2.6.2 MANAGERIAL ON-THE-JOB TRAINING
Job rotation
Moving a trainee from department to department to broaden his or her experience and identify strong
and weak points.
Coaching/Understudy approach
The trainee works directly with a senior manager or with the person he or she is to replace; the latter
is responsible for the trainees coaching.
Action learning
Management trainees are allowed to work full-time analyzing and solving problems in other
departments.

2.6.3 OFF-THE-JOB MANAGEMENT TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT TECHNIQUES

Case study method
Managers are presented with a description of an organizational problem to diagnose and solve.

Management game
Teams of managers compete by making computerized decisions regarding realistic but simulated
situations.

Outside seminars
Many companies and universities offer Web-based and traditional management development seminars
and conferences.

Role playing
Creating a realistic situation in which trainees assume the roles of persons in that situation.

Behavior modeling
Modeling: showing trainees the right (or model) way of doing something.
Role playing: having trainees practice that way
Social reinforcement: giving feedback on the trainees performance.
Transfer of learning: Encouraging trainees apply their skills on the job.

Corporate universities
Provides a means for conveniently coordinating all the companys training efforts and delivering Web-
based modules that cover topics from strategic management to mentoring.

In-house development centers
A company-based method for exposing prospective managers to realistic exercises to develop
improved management skills.

Executive coaches
An outside consultant who questions the executives boss, peers, subordinates, and (sometimes)
family in order to identify the executives strengths and weaknesses.
Counsels the executive so he or she can capitalize on those strengths and overcome the weaknesses.

2.7 EVALUATING THE TRAINING EFFORT
Evaluation is a process to determine the relevance, effectiveness, and impact of activities in light of
their objectives. In evaluating an extension training program, one needs to consider that most training
activities exist in a larger context of projects, programs, and plans. Thus Raab et al. (1987, p. 5) define
training evaluation as "a systematic process of collecting information for and about a training activity
which can then be used for guiding decision making and for assessing the relevance and effectiveness
of various training components."

Kirkpatrick (1976) suggested four criteria to evaluate training programs: (1) reaction, (2) learning, (3)
behavior, and (4) results. Each criterion is used to measure the different aspects of a training program.
Reaction measures how the trainees liked the program in terms of content, methods, duration,
trainers, facilities, and management. Learning measures the trainees' skills and knowledge which they
were able to absorb at the time of training. Behavior is concerned with the extent to which the
trainees were able to apply their knowledge to real field situations. Results are concerned with the
tangible impact of the training program on individuals, their job environment, or the organization as a
whole.

There are two basic issues to address when evaluating training programs. These are stated below:
Designing the study
Controlled experimentation is the evaluation

Training effects to measure
Reaction of trainees to the program
Learning that actually took place
Behavior that changed on the job
Results that were achieved as a result of the training

3.0 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AT GRAMEEN PHONE
Grameenphone, the largest mobile phone company in Bangladesh has achieved tremendous success in
the telecommunication sector over the last few years. After its inception till January 2006 they have
more than 6 million subscribers. When the CEO of Grameenphone was asked about what strikes him
most about Grameenphone during his more than one year stay here, in an impromptu interview, Erik
Aas said "the ability of GP employees to execute and execute fast has impressed me the most. The
remark from the current CEO surely proves that GP employees are the most valuable asset for the
company. All the employees are young, dedicated and energetic. They are well educated from home or
abroad, with an even distribution of males and females and social groups in Bangladesh. They know in
their hearts that Grameenphone is more than phones. This sense of purpose gives them the dedication
and the drive, producing the biggest coverage and subscriber-base in the country. Grameenphone
provides equal employment opportunities and recognizes the talents and energy of its employees. It
recognizes the need for continuous improvement of their employees at all levels. Therefore,
Grameenphones training policy supports employee training which is directly linked to individuals
specific jobs and his or her future development. The training programs are expected to enhance job-
related knowledge as well as develop functional skills and or/managerial skills. That is, training should
ensure functional improvement specific to individuals job development of managerial competencies as
deemed by the company.

3.1 TYPES OF TRAINING
Grameenphone HR Development categorizes training into two broad categories. Both of them are
described below:

3.1.1 FUNCTIONAL TRAININGS
These are trainings that are purely related to an employees job for instance, day to day functions and
is required to enhance an employees job related competencies. Functional trainings are initiated by
respective divisions or departments, HR Development is responsible for processing the training forms,
and also plays an active role by providing them with training brochures of local or overseas training
institutes offering relevant functional trainings.

3.1.2 MANAGEMENT TRAININGS
These trainings fall under the responsibility of HR Development. They are responsible for ensuring
effective training programs by investing in training. HR plays the role of a facilitator in career
development. They conduct in-house training programs and also coordinate such trainings at local
institutions.

The above mentioned training programs are again subdivided into four different forms. They are stated
below:

3.1.3 OVERSEAS TRAINING
GP provides need-based training to the employees through the usage of appropriate external training
institutes, which are very often conducted overseas. For example, most of the technical people go for
foreign trainings as the up-to-date resource and technology is not available in Bangladesh. Most of the
functional trainings are foreign trainings; however, management trainings for high officials are also
carried out in renowned training institute of different foreign countries. In the case of overseas
training, finance has to be given 60 days time training fee has to be reimbursed by the organization. HR
Development carries out the following tasks regarding the overseas training:

Receives nomination from departments in the prescribed form with the approval from divisional head
Obtains approval from Managing Director
Checks with Finance regarding budget approval and other expenses
Contacts with the overseas training institute when required
Confirms GP' s participation with the institute
Receives the surety bond signed by the participants if and when required.


3.1.4 LOCAL TRAININGS
These trainings are carried out within the country by reputed training institutions like British Council
and many others. Sometimes, consultants from foreign training institutes are invited to conduct
trainings. These trainings usually take place at a different venue other than the office. HR
Development carries out the following tasks related to the Local Training:

Receives nomination from departments in the prescribed form with approval
Contacts with the concerned training institute
Confirms participation from GP on behalf of the participant/division
Sends Invitation letter to the participant
Receives training bill/invoice
Processes payment

3.1.5 IN-HOUSE TRAINING
These trainings are basically held within the office premises and usually get conducted by the senior
managers who are specialists in different fields. For example, a marketing senior official can conduct
training on Marketing for non-marketers. Sometimes the members of the HR Development team also
give trainings on certain skills, for instance Leadership Skills and other courses. Apart from the training
they also carry out the following activities related to the In-house Trainings:

Designs Need based Program/module design in house
Invites nominations from different divisions or target participants
Receives nomination/name of the participants, for instance receives the filled up in-house nomination
form (Appendix) within the deadline
Sends invitation letter to each participation
Arranges and conducts training
Submits Training evaluation report to the Management

Other than these trainings, HR Development also conducts Employee Orientation program for new
employees. The details are given below:



3.1.6 EMPLOYEE ORIENTATION PROGRAMS
HR Development also conducts New Employee Orientation Programs for newly joined employees. When
a new employee joins the company, he needs to be introduced to his job as well as to the company.
The objectives of the orientation program are to welcome the new employee, orient him about the
companys vision, purpose, values, shareholders, subscribers, service rules, divisional activities etc.
This is arranged to make a new recruit feel that he is part of the company.

There are two versions of the New Employee Orientation Program, a two-day long version and a half-
day short version. Most of the time, it is a two-day-long program where a representative from each
division makes the divisional presentation. Erik Aas the CEO makes it a point to attend the orientation
program whenever he can and meet with the new employees. In case of the half-day session, it is
rarely done as per divisional requests. For example, the technical employees are always very busy and
posted in the remote locations; as a result they cant afford to attend the longer session. During the
Orientation program, each employee must attend the next available orientation program from the date
of his joining.

3.2 TRAINING RESPONSIBILITIES
Training is a shared responsibility of the individuals and of the organization. Every person involved in
the process needs to do their portion of work. The responsibilities for training are divided as follows:

3.2.1 TRAINING COORDINATION TEAM (TCT)
Training Coordination Team members are the designated individuals who represent one or more
divisions and coordinate and monitor all training programs of their respected divisions, ensuring that
HR and other divisions jointly co-ordinate all training programs. They ensure optimum coordination of
all training activities and increase the derived value of the training programs. TCT members may also
play an active role in expediting the TNA actualization process.



3.2.2 THE EMPLOYEE
The employee himself needs to show initiative and take the responsibility for his own career
development. They should know about the trainings that they were advised during their performance
appraisal dialogue and be prepared according to the training calendar.

3.2.3 HR DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT
HR Development department is responsible for skill identification, establishing network with external
training resources, disseminating training information, planning and implementing the management
development and other non-technical employee development and training activities. It is also
responsible for coordinating local and foreign training for GP employees according to the requirements
of the divisions. In addition, HR is also responsible for planning, coordinating and implementing in-
house management development training programs.

3.2.4 RESPECTIVE DIVISIONS/DEPARTMENTS
The individual divisions are primarily responsible for the functional training needs of the individual
employees. They are also responsible for the selection of participants for particular external or internal
training course. For instance, IT based training needs are identified and implemented by the
Information Technology as it is functional training.


3.3 TRAINING NEED ASSESSMENT (TNA)
A training need assessment is done on the basis of the information received from performance
appraisal report form at the end of each year. Training Need is assessed based on Job Descriptions and
Job Specifications of a particular employee. In the performance appraisal format, there are specified
spaces where employee can indicate the field/area in which they feel they need training, whereas in
another space, the supervisor can identify the training need of the particular employee. More
specifically, the appraiser after discussing with the appraisee identifies the areas of improvement and
also narrows down the actions that are required to improve those areas. Based on the action plan, two
training programs are prioritized by the supervisor; tentative time for completing the program is also
set during that time.

The training need is assessed on the following basis:

Training need as identified by the employee in the specified section of his/her performance appraisal
sheet.
Training need as identified by the employees Supervisor/Manager/Director in the specified section of
the employees performance appraisal format
Training need identified from the employees job specification

Primarily Divisions and Departments are responsible for assessing the training needs of the employees.
HR Operations help the Divisions to conduct this assessment and HR Development assess the training
needs of the company if required and carries implements the suggestions given.

HR Development is responsible for preparing TNA report and actualizing TNA for the entire
organization. They are the ones who co-ordinate, monitor and facilitate both functional and
management development programs. However, as mentioned before, functional trainings are
completely divisional responsibility as HR Development is unable to assess any such training due to lack
of properly trained resources. Training unfortunately is still regarded as a secondary duty and not a job
necessity. As a consequence, high absenteeism still exists in the attendance of in-house management
development programs.

Previously, nominations for any in-house management development-training program were
divisional/departmental responsibility. HR Development would conduct a training need assessment,
prepare a TNA report but when it came to selecting participants they would be highly dependent on
divisional training co-ordination team (TCT) members. TCT members in turn would be communicating
with department heads or supervisors who would nominate participants mostly based on availability
and not based on TNA recommendation. Thereby, only a minor percentage of TNA had been actualized
till 2004 as people who needed the training were not actually receiving it. To counter this problem,
existing training schemes were evaluated and when it was found that it did not fulfill the real
requirements of the organizations development plan, the HR Development department was
empowered to devise a totally new set of training procedures which would ensure that each individual
would be trained as per Training need assessment which was based on Individual Performance Appraisal
& Job description & Specification.

The first step in this process was to define the scope of work of TCT members. It was decided that at
the end of each quarter, when the training calendar was published, a meeting would be called to share
the calendar and receive inputs from TCT members to change the training schedule and programs as
per divisional requirements. The training calendar is completely based on TNA analysis, which in turn is
based on individual job/task analysis. Second, an in-house nomination form was designed (Appendix) to
ensure transparency in the system of selecting participants for any in-house management training
programs. When a new program is announced, a formal introductory letter is sent to participants,
attached also is the TNA list that includes the name of employees whose name was recommended by
their supervisors during the performance appraisal. Interested participants will fill up the in-house
nomination form and get approval from their supervisor and department head before submitting it to
HR Development. Incase, the training is TNA recommended, their participation would be considered
mandatory and it is purely their responsibility to ensure that TNA recommended employees participate
in the relevant training program. Incase it is not, the supervisor or department head will post a
comment explaining why the employee in need of such training. While making the final selection, TNA
recommendation would be first considered, for instance participants with TNA recommendation would
be given the highest priority. Moreover, divisional diversity, gender and regional diversity would also be
considered.

Furthermore, in the in-house nomination form, there is separate check box that indicates whether the
interested participant was TNA recommended for any particular training course. If the training was TNA
recommended, its fine, however, if not then the supervisor posts a comment explaining why he needs
the training. HR Development keeps track of these nomination forms and updates the TNA actualization
report accordingly enabling them to assess the TNA actualization rate at the end of the year.

On the other hand, there is no such option for overseas/local travel training form. Therefore, HR
Development is unable to keep track of the actualization status for both functional and management
development programs conducted in local or overseas institutions by external facilitators. Since, HR is
given responsibility to assess management development programs and recommend the same as per
individual needs; they should have at least one option of checking TNA recommendation for
local/overseas management development training forms.

There is no separate evaluation form designed for evaluating external resources who conduct training
in local or overseas training institute. HR Development does not have any mechanism to objectively
assess local /overseas institutes and external resources. Furthermore, they also do not have a system
to ensure transfer of learning in their jobs after employees participate.

HR Development is currently only responsible for organizing, conducting and facilitating training
programs be it local or overseas institutions or in-house. As a company wide learning catalyst, it still
has a long way to go. Career Development is an area where HR Development is still not concentrating
on which is a primary requirement for achieving strategic business goals of the organization.

3.4 TRAINING CALENDAR
HR Development prepares a quarterly training calendar based on the identified needs of the
employees. Based on individual annual performance appraisal or identified needs, respective
responsible managers select participants for any training course. Then finally, depending on the
number of interested participants, HR Development selects the final participants. This is done as most
of the resource persons do not feel comfortable training more than 24 participants at one go. However,
some of the listed trainings, for instance Communication Skills Course are repeated 4 5 times within
one year so that all the specified people can attend the training sessions.

3.5 PROCEDURE FOR APPLYING FOR TRAINING
3.5.1 TRAINING/TRAVEL INFORMATION FORM
Before going for a designated training, a specific Training/Travel Form needs to be filled in with all the
involved costs. Then the required materials for short-term courses, seminar and conference (at both
local and overseas institutes) are sent to HR Development after necessary approvals from the line
manager/divisional head and Managing Director (When the amount is quite high). Finance approves the
forms after checking budgetary provisions and gives the clearance of budget in the application.
Training/Travel Information form is attached in the Appendix.

3.5.2 SIGNING OF SURETY BOND
A bond must be signed up by the employee for attending trainings with very high cost. Upon signing of
the bond, HR Development gives necessary clearance for accounts to disburse the advance and MDs
secretariat to hand over the ticket to the employee. The policy is that an employee that served GP for
less than three years will be required to sign a two years bond if the training expenditure goes over Tk.
2 lacs. However, if an employee is with GP for more than 3 years they would need to sign one year
bond if the training expenditure goes beyond Tk. 2.5 lacs. When an employee participates further in
training programs within surety bond period, the aggregate surety bond period does not exceed the
given time limit. This time count takes place from the first surety bond period. When the time duration
of 2 years surety bond ends and the employee participates in a new training program, the employee
has to sign another surety bond according to the above policy. If any of these employees want to leave
the company in the middle of the mentioned time period they would actually have to pay the company
the actual training expense and then leave.

3.6 TRAINING METHODOLOGY
The methodology used in GPs internal training programs/ workshops is highly participatory and is
primarily based on the non-formal adult experiential and participatory learning concepts and
principles. The approach is basically a self-discovery process of learning. Participants learn through
their active involvement in:

Discussion
Brainstorming
Role play
Group reading
Small group discussion
Case study
Power point presentation

3.7 EVALUATION OF TRAINING PROGRAM
The evaluation form (Appendix) has been devised to assess the participants satisfaction level of the
training program and obtain feedback in the form of recommendations to improve the overall quality of
the training program.

To obtain feedback on the overall training program, a questionnaire has been devised to receive
participants view on the following aspects of the training:

Specific Expectations
Strengths
Weaknesses
To measure the impact of the topics presented by individual presenters a rating method has been
developed which will give an overall idea on how individual presenters rate, the following aspects of
the training program has been considered:

Maintenance of Timeliness of sessions
Setting ground rules for discussions
Trainers tone of conversation
Trainers listening skills
Neutrality
Trainers ability to provide assistance in group discussions
Trainers familiarity with discussion materials
Trainers ability to keep discussions on track
Trainers ability to handle intense situations

To measure the satisfaction level of the participants, the following criteria relating to the training
program is considered:

Relevance of the course with respect to need
Location & quality of training facilities
Quality of training materials
Overall with the training program

The measuring scale of rating ranges from 0 to 4. The higher the rate, the higher the effectiveness of
the program and inversely the lower the rate, the lower the effectiveness of the training program.
Accumulated ratings of all the above measuring criteria will be compared to the total number of
participants who filled up the evaluation form which will give us a percentage figure of how many
topics/presenters were rated high by majority of the participants and how many topics/presenters
were rated low as per majority of the participants.

3.8 METHODOLOGY OF TNA
A TNA process could be of two ways. The triggering event will determine which of two approaches to
needs analysis will be taken. These two approaches are called:

1. Proactive TNA, and
2. Reactive TNA
3.8.1 PROACTIVE TNA
A Proactive TNA focuses on an anticipated performance problem in the future. A proactive TNA is
conducted when the expectation is that a deficiency might occur based on changes planned in the
organization.

3.8.2 REACTIVE TNA
A Reactive TNA focuses on a perceived performance problem in the present. It is triggered by a current
discrepancy.

3.9 TRAINING EXECUTION PLAN
The training execution plan is made through very beginning of the year in Grameenphone. The major
decisions in this regard is all the management training will be administer by the HR Development and
all the functional training will be administer from the divisional end as recommended in HR manual.

3.10 TELENOR DEVELOPMENT PROCESS (TDP) AND TRAINING NEED ASSESSMENT (TNA)
In the very beginning of the year 2006 Telenor implement Telenor Development Process (TDP) through
which HR Development ensures proper development process through the various activities of HR
Development of the organization. One of the main tasks of this TDP is to design, implement, monitor
and evaluate the various training programs held in Grameenphone. In this sense, GP is always running
with the concept that efficient and effective employees are the most valuable assets of an
organization.

4.0 EMPLOYEE TRAINING ISSUE IN BANGLADESH
4.0.1 WHY IS TRAINING OFTEN NEGLECTED?

1. Urgency of need
2. No emphasis by employees
3. Training time
4. Costs
5. Employee turnover
6. Short-term worker
7. Diversity of worker
8. Kinds of jobs (simple-complex)
9. Not knowing exactly what you want your people to do and how

4.0.2 WHY DOES TRAINING FAIL?
There is nothing more valuable or productive than highly trained employees. Yet training has
historically failed to produce the desired results. The question may be raised - how can that be? To
transform employees into highly trained employees, we insert training, right? That, in a nutshell, is
why training fails.

Research studies show the training fails because of some of the following reasons:
1) Most organizations use their training investments about as strategically as they deploy their office
supplies spending. And the impact on customer satisfaction, cost containment or quality improvement
is just as useless.

2) One of the biggest causes of wasted training money is ineffective methods. Too often, companies
rely on lectures, inspirational speeches or videos, discussion groups and simulation exercises.

3) The training methods may get high marks from participants, research (ignored by many training
professionals) shows they rarely change behavior on the job.

4) Failing to link training with organizational strategies and day-to-day management behavior. What
happens in the classroom and what happens back on the job are often worlds apart.

5) The training does not solve the problems the employees deal with every day. Most training is
designed for the instructor to teach efficiently. However, the objective of training should not be for
the instructor to teach, but for the participants to learn. Thats a whole different ballgame.

6) Most training initiatives do not meet the useful criterion simply because they do not solve the
employees problem.

7) "Trained" individuals using the most basic of understanding learnt in a class room to make decisions,
implement projects and manage their people have a false sense of competence which impacts far
beyond the class room.

8) The fact that training fails so often because of a lack of clearly understanding the changes we want
to develop and developing a broader training intervention beyond the class room is bad.

9) When training is not related to the organizations objectives, strategies and management's day to
day behavior, training is ineffective in delivering the desired results.

10) Most of the time training fails because the methods trainers use to train which are not designed to
achieve the change in behavior, skills or knowledge that is desired.

11) The most significant waste of training moneys however, rests with the lack of thought in
determining what training is needed.

12) Trainers inability to teach employees and on the other hand, employees lacking in understanding
what trainer is saying.
13) Failure to measure training effectives related to organizations goals, policies, strategies and
objectives.

4.1 TRAINING SELECTION CRITERIA
A training programme has a better chance of success when its training methods are carefully selected.
A training method is a strategy or tactic that a trainer uses to deliver the content so that the trainees
achieve the objective (Wentling, 1992). Selecting an appropriate training method is perhaps the most
important step in training activity once the training contents are identified. There are many training
methods, but not all of these are equally suitable for all topics and in all situations. To achieve the
training objective, a trainer should select the most appropriate training method for the content to
involve the trainees in the learning process. Four major factors are considered when selecting a
training method: the learning objective, the content, the trainees, and the practical requirements
(Wentling, 1992). According to Bass and Vaughan (1966), training methods should be selected on the
basis of the degree to which they do the following:

1. Allow active participation of the learners.
2. Help the learners transfer learning experiences from training to the job situation.
3. Provide the learners with knowledge of results about their attempts to improve.
4. Provide some means for the learners to be reinforced for the appropriate behaviour.
5. Provide the learners with an opportunity to practise and to repeat when needed.
6. Motivate the learners to improve their own performance.
7. Help learners increase their willingness to change.

These criteria indicate that a single training method will not satisfy the objectives of a training
programme. A variety of training methods are available to a trainer. The most commonly used methods
include:

1. Instructor presentation. The trainer orally presents new information to the trainees, usually through
lecture. Instructor presentation may include classroom lecture, seminar, workshop, and the like.
2. Group discussion. The trainer leads the group of trainees in discussing a topic.
3. Demonstration. The trainer shows the correct steps for completing a task, or shows an example of a
correctly completed task.
4. Assigned reading. The trainer gives the trainees reading assignments that provide new information.
5. Exercise. The trainer assigns problems to be solved either on paper or in real situations related to
the topic of the training activity.
6. Case study. The trainer gives the trainees information about a situation and directs them to come to
a decision or solve a problem concerning the situation.
7. Role play. Trainees act out a real-life situation in an instructional setting.
8. Field visit and study tour. Trainees are given the opportunity to observe and interact with the
problem being solved or skill being learned.

5.0 CONCLUSION
Employees are like wealth for a company. They are one kind of seedlings that if we row them in proper
time and with proper care then they might one day proof worthy for the company. Proper care means
here proper training techniques and development ways. In Bangladesh, few companies give emphasis
on proper training techniques. Few other thinks as wasting of their money because if some feels that if
employees get trained then they will leave the organization and join others. Thats why, most of the
companies in Bangladesh can not achieve their targeted successes because of fear of loosing
employees. We must also add here that lack of proper training and development program arranged also
causes weak employees. But the situation is changing now-a-days. It is improving now because some
companies are applying different combination of training techniques and with the help of professionals,
the result showing tremendous success in their sector. So, every company should understand the theory
of training and development and implement new training and development techniques, policies like
Grameen Phone Ltd. that makes them so desirable company for the employees.