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A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!

e"
CFD simulation of a fin-and-tube heat exchanger:
Heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence model analysis using 3D open-source CFD code
Master of Science Thesis
Com#utational Cemical En!inee"in!
Group for Chemical Fluid Flow Processes
alborg !ni"ersit# $sb%erg
$eils %o"s &e' (
DK-)*00 Esb'e"!
Abstract
Student:
Anna Ma"!"ete Hansen
Pro%ect Period:
Ma+ , $o-embe" .00(
!$ Super"isors:
%'/"n H. H'e"ta!e"
T"on Solbe"!
&estas ircoil 'S
Super"isor:
Claus 0bsen
(ssues: )
Pages: (1
$nclosed: CD-23M
i
T"ee-dimensional CFD simulations a"e ca""ied out to
in-esti!ate eat t"ansfe" and fluid flo4 ca"acte"istics of a
t4o-"o4 #lain fin-and-tube eat excan!e" usin! 3#en
F3AM5 an o#en-sou"ce CFD code. Heat t"ansfe" and #"essu"e
d"o# ca"acte"istics of te eat excan!e" a"e in-esti!ated fo"
2e+nolds numbe"s "an!in! f"om 660 to *000. Model
!eomet"+ is c"eated5 mesed5 calculated5 and #ost-#"ocessed
usin! o#en sou"ce soft4a"e. Fluid flo4 and eat t"ansfe" a"e
simulated and "esults com#a"ed usin! bot lamina" and
tu"bulent flo4 models 7k-epsilon5 and Mente" SST k-omega),
4it stead+-state sol-e"s to calculate #"essu"e d"o#5 flo45 and
tem#e"atu"e fields. Model -alidation is ca""ied out b+
com#a"in! te simulated case f"iction facto" f and Colbu"n
facto" j to ex#e"imental "esults f"om te lite"atu"e. Fo" f"iction
facto" dete"mination5 little diffe"ence is found bet4een te
flo4 models simulatin! lamina" flo45 4ile in t"ansitional
flo45 te lamina" flo4 model #"oduced te most accu"ate
"esults and te k-ome!a SST tu"bulence model 4as mo"e
accu"ate in tu"bulent flo4 "e!imes. Te most accu"ate
simulations fo" eat t"ansfe" in lamina" flo4 a"e found usin!
te lamina" flo4 model5 4ile eat t"ansfe" in t"ansitional
flo4 is best "e#"esented 4it te SST k-omega tu"bulence
model5 and eat t"ansfe" in tu"bulent flo4 is mo"e accu"atel+
simulated 4it te k-epsilon tu"bulence model. 2easonable
a!"eement is found bet4een te simulations and ex#e"imental
data5 and te o#en-sou"ce soft4a"e as been sufficient fo"
simulatin! te flo4 fields in tube-fin eat excan!e"s.
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
ii
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
Preface
Tis Maste" Tesis #"o'ect 4as ca""ied out at Aalbo"! 8ni-e"sit+ , Esb'e"! 7AA8E9 to fulfill te
10
t
semeste" "e:ui"ements leadin! u# to te Maste";s De!"ee in Cemical En!inee"in! 4it a
s#ecialisation of Com#utational Cemical En!inee"in!. Te #u"#ose of tis "e#o"t is to document
4o"k #e"fo"med du"in! te #"o'ect #e"iod5 and to demonst"ate an unde"standin! and com#etence in
usin! mate"ial co-e"ed in "ele-ant cou"ses.
Tis "e#o"t desc"ibes te use of Com#utational Fluid D+namics 7CFD9 to simulate ai" flo4 and eat
t"ansfe" occu""in! in a t4o-"o4 tube-and-fin eat excan!e". A finite -olume model 4as c"eated
and used fo" CFD simulations. Ex#e"imental 4o"k found in te lite"atu"e -alidated te CFD "esults.
CFD conce#ts and simulation metods a"e b"iefl+ desc"ibed to co-e" basic teo"+ and #"actical use
as "elated to tis #"o'ect.
Te #"o'ect "e#o"t includes t"ee #a"ts< 19 te main "e#o"t5 .9 an a##endix5 and 69 a CD-23M. Te
"e#o"t consists of<
$omenclatu"e and 0nt"oduction
CFD and eat excan!e"s
Summa"+ of CFD simulations ca""ied out.
Desc"i#tion of matematical teo"+ and nume"ical solutions.
Summa"+ of "esults.

Te final summa"+ includes discussion and conclusion sections. 2efe"ences conclude te "e#o"t5
and a"e listed 4it s:ua"e b"ackets #laced afte" a section 7"efe"s to te enti"e section9 o" 4en
a##licable5 di"ectl+ afte" a s#ecific section o" illust"ation. Te A##endix follo4s and includes
details of CFD com#utations and te Excel files c"eated fo" te flo4 and eat t"ansfe" calculations
in tis #"o'ect. Te CD-23M includes all CFD simulations5 MS Excel calculations5 and data files
c"eated fo" tis #"o'ect and a co#+ of te "e#o"t and a##endix.
0 4ould like to tank ="ofesso" %'/"n H'e"ta!e" fo" is entusiasm in teacin! te "elated cou"ses5
as 4ell as ="ofesso" T"on Solbe"! and =.D. student 2olf Hansen fo" tei" el# and !uidance 4it
tis #"o'ect. 0 4ould also like to tank ="ofesso" %i"!it Sto"m fo" e" su##o"t and encou"a!ement
t"ou!out m+ time as a maste";s de!"ee student at AA8E.
Esb'e"!5 te .
nd
of Decembe"5 .00(

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
Anna Ma"!"ete Hansen
iii
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
i-
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
Table of Contents
)ST*CT++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++(
P*$FC$+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++(((
, (-T*.D!CT(.- ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++,
1.1 =2E&038S 2ESEA2CH A$D E?=E20ME$TS...................................................................................................................
1.. =23%@EM F32M8@AT03$...........................................................................................................................................A
1.6 =23BECT 38T@0$E......................................................................................................................................................C
/ M.D$0 D$SC*(PT(.- ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++1
..1 D3&E2$0$D EE8AT03$S A$D $8ME20CA@ SCHEMES.................................................................................................(
... C3M=8TAT03$A@ D3MA0$ A$D %38$DA2F C3$D0T03$S........................................................................................1
..6 $8ME20CA@ MESH....................................................................................................................................................11
..A =E2F32MA$CE =A2AMETE2S...................................................................................................................................1A
2!" Dimensionless #roups"!
2!2 Heat $ransfer and %fficiency"&
2!3 'ressure Drop2(
2 C.MP!TT(.-0 F0!(D D3-M(CS++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++/2
6.1 CFD C3M=8TAT03$A@ T33@S..................................................................................................................................A
6.. CFD D3&E2$0$D EE8AT03$S..................................................................................................................................C
6.6 T82%8@E$CE M3DE@@0$D........................................................................................................................................)
33" k-)psilon $urbulence *odel2+
332 ,,$ k-omega $urbulence *odel33
6.A F0$0TE &3@8ME METH3D A$D D0FFE2E$C0$D SCHEMES.......................................................................................6)
6.C S3@8T03$ A@D320THMS .........................................................................................................................................6*
4 P*$0(M(-*3 *$S!0TS -D .)S$*&T(.-S++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++4,
A.1 2ES8@TS 3F D20D 0$DE=E$DE$CE TEST..................................................................................................................A.
A.. =2ESS82E T2ACE2 0$ T2A$S0E$T CASE..................................................................................................................A6
A.. CHA2ACTE20ST0CS 3F F@3G....................................................................................................................................AA
A.6 CHA2ACTE20ST0CS 3F HEAT T2A$SFE2...................................................................................................................A*
A.A S8MMA2F 3F =2E@0M0$A2F 3%SE2&AT03$S..........................................................................................................A1
5 -!M$*(C0 *$S!0TS -D D(SC!SS(.-++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++56
C.1 F20CT03$ FACT32....................................................................................................................................................C0
C.. C3@%82$ B-FACT32.................................................................................................................................................C.
C.6 S8MMA2F 3F 2ES8@TS............................................................................................................................................C6
7 D(SC!SS(.-+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++54
1 C.-C0!S(.-++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++57
8 *$F$*$-C$S++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++58
PP$-D(9++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++7/
A1 CFD C3M=8TAT03$S...............................................................................................................................................)A
-"" CFD #o.erning %/uations&!
-"2 0eynold1s -.eraged 2a.ier ,tokes 30-2,) %/uations &+
-"3 Finite 4olume *et5od and Finite Differences62
A. =2ESS82E D23= A$D F20CT03$ FACT32 CA@C8@AT03$S.........................................................................................*)
A6 F0$ EFF0C0E$CF CA@C8@AT03$S...............................................................................................................................(.
AA 0$S0DE T8%E 7GATE2 F@3G9 HEAT T2A$SFE2 C3EFF0C0E$T....................................................................................(A
AC C3@%82$ B-FACT32 CA@C8@AT03$S........................................................................................................................()
) C.-T$-TS .F $-C0.S$D !S) M$M.*3 ST(C:++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++;6
-
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
Nomenclature
-i
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
- A"ea Hm
.
I Greek Letters
-o Total su"face a"ea Hm
.
I Tube 4all tickness HmI
-to Exte"nal tube su"face a"ea Hm
.
I ) HE effecti-eness
C Heat ca#acit+ "ate HGJKI Fin efficienc+
Cp S#ecific eat HBJk! KI
o Su"face effecti-eness
Dc Fin colla" outside diamete" HmI D+namic -iscosit+ Hk!JmsI
Di 0nside tube diamete" HmI Densit+ Hk!Jm
6
I
Do Tube outside diamete" HmI
Cont"action "atio of
c"oss-sectional a"ea
D5 H+d"aulic diamete" HmI
f F"iction facto"
#c
Mass flux of ai" based on
minimum flo4 a"ea
Hk! m
.
JsI
Subscripts
H Fin s#acin! HmI 1 Ai" side inlet
5 Heat-t"ansfe" coefficient HGJm
.
KI 2 Ai" side outlet
j Colbu"n facto"< 2u70e'r
"73
air Ai" side
k Te"mal conducti-it+ HGJm
.
KI a.e A-e"a!e -alue
8c
Ab"u#t cont"action
#"essu"e-loss coefficient
b %ase su"face
8e
Ab"u#t ex#ansion
#"essu"e-loss coefficient
i Tube side
9
De#t of eat excan!e"
in ai"flo4 di"ection
HmI in 0nlet
2 $umbe" of tube "o4 f Fin su"face
m& Mass flo4 "ate 7massK-elocit+9 Hk!JsI m Mean -alue
2$: $umbe" of t"ansfe" units< :-7Cmin min Minimum -alue
2u $usselt numbe"< 573k7D5 ) ma; Maximum -alue
p ="essu"e d"o# H=aI o Total su"face
Fp Fin #itc HmI out 3utlet
'l @on!itudinal #itc HmI water Gate" side
'r ="andtl numbe"< < Cp7k w Gall of tube
't T"ans-e"se #itc HmI
=
&
Heat-t"ansfe" "ate HGI
max
=
&
Max. #ossible =
&
< Cmin3$w,in-$air,in) HGI
rc Tube outside "adius HmI
0e 2e+nolds numbe"< 3>?4?D)7<
0e/ E:ui-. "adius fo" ci"cula" fin HmI
r Tube inside "adius HmI
t Fin tickness HmI
$ Tem#e"atu"e HCI
: 3-e"all eat-t"ansfe" coefficient HGJm
.
KI
@@
. .
7 J .9 J .
t t
' ' +
HmI
@M 't J. HmI
-ii
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
-iii
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
1 Introduction
&estas Ai"coil AJS #"oduces com#act tube-and-fin eat excan!e"s fo" si# moto"s5 as 4ell as ote"
t+#es of eat excan!e"s and coolin! to4e"s 7Fi!u"e 19. Te eat excan!e" cools eated5
com#"essed ai" f"om te moto" 4it coolin! 4ate". Fins a"e used to inc"ease eat t"ansfe" a"ea on
te ai" side5 since te ai" as te la"!est influence on te o-e"all eat t"ansfe" "esistance.
A test "i! as #"e-iousl+ utiliLed &estas Ai"coil AJS in o"de" to em#i"icall+ dete"mine eat t"ansfe"
and #"essu"e d"o# co""elations and te"eb+ dete"mine "ele-ant eat t"ansfe" #a"amete"s fo" te eat
excan!e"s. %uildin! and testin! #"otot+#e eat excan!e"s a"e #"ocesses 4ic a"e bot ex#ensi-e
and time-intensi-e5 and te"efo"e CFD is an att"acti-e 4a+ to de-elo# ne4 eat excan!e"s in te
futu"e.
&estas Ai"coil AJS is in-esti!atin! te #ossibilities fo" de-elo#in! ne4 eat excan!e"s based on
CFD5 since it is less ex#ensi-e tan ex#e"imental tests and can !i-e bette" insi!t into te local flo4
and eat t"ansfe" ca"acte"istics occu""in! 4itin te eat excan!e".
3#en-sou"ce CFD code 3#enF3AM is used fo" tis #"o'ect5 since ote" comme"cial codes suc as
Fluent and Ans+s CF? "e:ui"e ex#ensi-e license fees 4ic a"e so i! as to be #"oibiti-e fo"
most small- and medium-siLed com#anies to 'ustif+ te cost. Git o#en-sou"ce code5 te onl+ costs
a"e te com#ute" a"d4a"e and te en!inee";s time used fo" settin! u# te case.
Tis #"o'ect in-ol-es buildin! a model of a fin-and-tube eat excan!e" !eomet"+ usin! o#en-
sou"ce soft4a"e5 c"eatin! a suitable mes5 settin! u# te cases 7coosin! sol-e"s5 nume"ical solution
metods5 etc.95 makin! te CFD calculations 4it 3#enF3AM5 and com#a"in! "esults to kno4n
ex#e"imental data. Since te data a-ailable f"om #"e-ious &estas Ai"coil AJS testin! is confidential
and not necessa"il+ com#"eensi-e enou! fo" CFD -alidation5 ex#e"iments done on fin-and-tube
eat excan!e"s and "e#o"ted in te lite"atu"e a"e used fo" -alidation.
Te follo4in! subsections desc"ibe te #"o'ect in mo"e detail. Fi"st5 a summa"+ of ote" "esea"c in
te eat-t"ansfe" field "elated to tube-and-fin eat excan!e"s is #"esented to #ut tis stud+ into
#e"s#ecti-e 4it te ote" 4o"k a-ailable in te o#en lite"atu"e. Section 1.1 also includes a
desc"i#tion of te ex#e"imental "esea"c used as a basis and -alidation fo" tis stud+ HGan! et al.5
.00)I. Te #"oblem fo"mulation #"esents te actual eat excan!e" confi!u"ation simulated fo" tis
1


Figure ,+ &estas ircoil 'S heat exchanger and close-up of fin-and-tube arrangement+
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
#"o'ect. Finall+5 te #"o'ect outline #"esents s#ecific acti-ities du"in! te #"o'ect #e"iod and an
outline of tis "e#o"t.
1.1 Previous Research and Experiments
Tis stud+ is a CFD simulation of te eat t"ansfe" and fluid flo4 of a t4o-"o4 eat excan!e"
#"e-iousl+ tested ex#e"imentall+ and "e#o"ted in te lite"atu"e. Te "esea"c a"ticle cosen fo" tis
#u"#ose HGan! et al.5 .00)I desc"ibes ex#e"imental "esults f"om 1C eat excan!e"s of diffe"ent
!eomet"ical #a"amete"s suc as numbe" of tube "o4s5 fin s#acin! and fin tickness. 0n te
ex#e"iments5 eat excan!e"s 4e"e tested 4it an induced flo4 o#en 4ind tunnel5 and "esults
#"esented in !"a#s of f"iction facto" and Colbu"n '-facto" a!ainst 2e+nolds numbe"s. Te next
sections desc"ibe ote" "elated "esea"c done in te #ast5 follo4ed b+ a mo"e detailed desc"i#tion of
te ex#e"imental 4o"k ca""ied out b+ Gan! et al. 7111)9.
Pre"ious *esearch
Te"e as been a -a"iet+ of 4o"k ca""ied out to stud+ tube-and-fin eat excan!e"s. ="e-iousl+5
muc of te "esea"c 4as ex#e"imental5 as teo"etical #"ediction of eat-t"ansfe" coefficients is
com#lex due to te ai"flo4 #atte"n occu""in! in te excan!e"s. Ho4e-e"5 mo"e "ecentl+ te"e a-e
also been mo"e nume"ical studies ca""ied out5 as te use of CFD is becomin! mo"e 4ides#"ead.
="e-ious ex#e"imental 4o"k as focused on obtainin! data fo" anal+sis5 futu"e desi!n5 o" to c"eate o"
-e"if+ em#i"ical co""elations. Gan! et al. 7.00)9 ca""ied out ex#e"iments to test te de#endence of
eat t"ansfe" and #"essu"e d"o# on te !eomet"ical #a"amete"s of 1C diffe"ent tube-and-fin eat
excan!e" sam#les5 to dete"mine o4 fin s#acin!5 fin tickness and numbe" of tube "o4s affect te
Colbu"n j-facto" and f"iction facto". Tis is te stud+ used fo" -alidation in tis #"o'ect 74it
ex#e"imental details desc"ibed late" in tis section9. Ka+ansa+an 7111A9 ca"acte"iLed eat-t"ansfe"
in tube-and-fin eat excan!e"s fo" 10 confi!u"ations fo" 2e+nolds numbe"s "an!in! f"om 100 to
6050005 4it te 2e+nolds numbe" ca"acte"istic dimension bein! te tube colla" tickness5 and
studied in #a"ticula" te effect of fins on eat t"ansfe". Fan and Seen 711119 made a stud+ to
com#a"e #late5 4a-+5 and lou-e"ed fin-and-tube eat t"ansfe" and #"essu"e d"o# ca"acte"istics usin!
diffe"ent e-aluation metods fo" te ai" side #e"fo"mance. 0nf"a"ed te"mo!"a#ic ex#e"iments a-e
been ca""ied out to ca"acte"iLe te tem#e"atu"e dist"ibution on te fins and calculate fin local
con-ecti-e eat t"ansfe" coefficients of sta!!e"ed and in-line tube-and-fin eat excan!e"
a""an!ements HA+ et al5 .00.I. Co""elations fo" bot sta!!e"ed and in-line eat excan!e"s a-e
been de-elo#ed to #"edict te f"iction facto" and Colbu"n '-facto"s HD"a+ and Gebb5 11()I
HMcEuiston5 11*(I
$ume"ical studies a-e included simulations based on finite diffe"ences and CFD. A .D second-
o"de" finite diffe"encin! anal+sis on one-and t4o-"o4 tube-and-fin eat excan!e"s as been ca""ied
out to com#a"e eat t"ansfe" and #"essu"e d"o# bet4een excan!e"s containin! ci"cula" and elli#tical
tubes H2oca et al.I. Anal+tical metods fo" dete"minin! fin efficienc+ a-e been com#a"ed usin!
.D SimTe"mM soft4a"e fo" nume"icall+ sol-in! te eat conduction e:uation. Tis stud+ b+
=e""otin and Clodic 7.0069 included com#a"isons bet4een te commonl+ "e#o"ted metod fo"
dete"minin! fin efficienc+ 74ic utiliLes modified %essel functions of te fi"st and second kind9
and te mo"e sim#lified -e"sions fo" te same calculation< te e:ui-alent ci"cula" fin and secto"
metods. Finite diffe"encin! as been used fo" estimatin! te eat t"ansfe" coefficient on te fins
HCen et al. .00)I. Tao et al. 7.00*9 de-elo#ed a 6-D code to stud+ fin-and-tube eat excan!e"s5
usin! a bod+-fitted coo"dinate s+stem based on te =oisson e:uation.
.
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
T"ee studies 4e"e found in te lite"atu"e sea"c 4ic used CFD to simulate flo4 and eat t"ansfe"
in tube-and-fin eat excan!e"s. All of tem used te Fluent CFD #"o!"am and 4e"e di"ected at
com#a"in! te eat t"ansfe" and #"essu"e d"o# of eat excan!e"s 4it diffe"ent !eomet"ical
ca"acte"istics HE"ek et al.5 .00CI HSain et al.5 .00*I HTuta" and Akkoca5 .00.I. Te"e 4e"e no
a"ticles in te lite"atu"e found "e!a"din! te use of o#en-sou"ce CFD soft4a"e 3#enF3AM to
simulate tube-and-fin eat excan!e"s. Ho4e-e"5 te"e as been 4o"k done b+ Man!ani et al.
7.00*9 to stud+ te de-elo#ment and -alidation of te CFD com#utational code used in te
3#enF3AM soft4a"e. 0t 4as dete"mined in tis stud+ tat te 3#enF3AM lib"a"ies accu"atel+
"e#"oduced flo4 conditions5 a conclusion 4ic 4as -e"ified 4it bot ex#e"imental data and
commonl+ used comme"cial soft4a"e.
Te lite"atu"e "e-ie4 as so4n tat -i"tuall+ no CFD simulations on tube-and-fin eat excan!e"s
usin! 3#enF3AM a-e been #ublised in te o#en lite"atu"e. Fu"te"mo"e5 te CFD studies found
all dealt 4it te effect of !eomet"ical #a"amete"s on te eat t"ansfe" and #"essu"e d"o#
ca"acte"istics. 0n tis stud+ of tube-and-fin eat excan!e"s5 te simulation "esults f"om 'ust one
eat excan!e" !eomet"ical confi!u"ation< a t4o-"o45 sta!!e"ed tube-and-fin a""an!ement5
simulatin! #"essu"e d"o# and eat flo4 fo" a "an!e of 2e+nolds numbe"s f"om a##"oximatel+ 660 to
*000. Ho4e-e"5 fo" tis stud+5 te CFD simulations a"e ca""ied out usin! te o#en-sou"ce CFD
soft4a"e 3#enF3AM5 and diffe"ent flo4 models a"e used fo" simulations< a lamina" flo4 model
and tu"bulence models k-epsilon and SST k-omega.
$xperimental <or=
Te ex#e"iments ca""ied out b+ Gan! et al. 7111)9 4e"e conducted usin! a fo"ced d"aft 4ind tunnel
7Fi!u"e .9. An ai" st"ai!tene" 4as used to kee# flo4 mo-in! in te ;-di"ection5 an (-te"mocou#le
mes 4as #laced in te inlet and a1)-te"mocou#le mes in te outlet 7locations of 4ic
dete"mined b+ ASH2AE "ecommendations HASH2AE5 1116I. All e:ui#ment fo" data ac:uisition
7te"mocou#les5 #"essu"e t"ansduce"5 ai"flo4 measu"ement station5 and flo4 mete" 4e"e cecked fo"
accu"ac+ #"io" to "unnin! te ex#e"iments.
Gate" at te inlet 4as eld at )0NC5 ai" flo4 -elocities 4e"e tested in te "an!e f"om 0.6 mJs to )..
mJs. Ene"!+ balances 4e"e monito"ed du"in! te ex#e"iment fo" bot te ot- and cold-side and
"e#o"ted to be 4itin . O. Te unce"tainties fo" te #"ima"+ measu"ements 7mass flo4 "ate fo" ai"
and 4ate"5 #"essu"e d"o#5 and tem#e"atu"e of te 4ate" and ai"9 4e"e -e"+ small and te"efo"e tese
measu"ements can be assumed to be accu"ate.
Calculated -alues fo" te f"iction facto" f and te Colbu"n j-facto"5 o4e-e"5 a-e i!e" estimated
unce"tainties at te lo4e" 2e+nolds numbe"s. Te calculated f"iction facto" f as an unce"taint+ of
P 1*.* O at 2e+nolds numbe" )00 7P 1.6 O at 2e+nolds numbe" *0009. Te Colbu"n j-facto" as an
estimated unce"taint+ of P 1.A O at 2e+nolds numbe" )00 7P 6.1 O at 2e+nolds numbe" *0009.
6
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
1) inlet
2) honey cone straightener
3) developing section
4) T/C inlet teperature easuring station
!) pressure tap "inlet)
#) test unit
$) pressure tap "outlet)
%) T/C outlet teperature easuring station
&) code tester 'or easureent o' air 'lo( rate
1)) setting eans
11) no**le pressure tap "inlet)
12) no**le pressure tap "outlet)
13) ultiple no**les plate
14) setting eans
1!) variable e+haust 'an syste
1#) discharge
1$) (ater pup
Figure /+ (llustration of experimental set-up for heat exchanger testing ><ang et al+? ,;;7@+
1.2 Problem Formulation
Fo" tis #"o'ect5 te !eomet"ical #a"amete"s fo" a t4o-"o4 eat excan!e" based on ex#e"imental
"esea"c HGan! et al.5 .00)I a"e used to build a CFD model5 and "esults "ead f"om te !"a#s 7f"iction
facto" and Colbu"n j-facto" a!ainst 2e+nolds numbe"9 in te a"ticle a"e used to -alidate te "esults of
te CFD simulations. Te #a"amete"s of inte"est< f"iction facto" f and Colbu"n j-facto" a"e 4idel+
used in indust"+ to ca"acte"iLe #"essu"e d"o# and eat t"ansfe"5 "es#ecti-el+5 and te"eb+ dete"mine
eat excan!e" #e"fo"mance and suitabilit+ fo" s#ecific duties. Dete"minin! and usin! tese
#a"amete"s fo" #e"fo"mance #"ediction is #a"t of te eat excan!e" desi!n #"ocess. Mo"e detailed
desc"i#tions of te #e"fo"mance #a"amete"s a"e !i-en Section ..A< =e"fo"mance =a"amete"s.
A
ot 4ate"
te"mostat
"ese"-oi"
H+b"id
"eco"de"
=C
1
. 6
A
C
)
*
(
1 10
11
1.
16 1A
1C
1)
1*
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
Te t4o-"o4 fin-and-tube eat excan!e" studied as a sta!!e"ed tube a""an!ement5 as illust"ated in
Fi!u"e 6. Anal+Lin! flo4 and eat t"ansfe" usin! CFD can make calculations to #"edict eat
excan!e" #e"fo"mance. Ho4e-e"5 it is not #ossible to #e"fo"m CFD simulation on te enti"e eat
excan!e"5 due to te la"!e numbe" of -olumes and calculations "e:ui"ed. Te"efo"e5 a small section
of a eat excan!e" consistin! of one cannel of ai" bet4een t4o fins5 4it te ai" flo4in! b+ t4o
tubes is modelled fo" tis #"o'ect 7illust"ated and desc"ibed in Sections ... and ..69. Simulations of
te ai" flo4 t"ou! tis #assa!e a"e ca""ied out5 4ile "ele-ant ca"acte"istics of te ai" flo4 a"e
sam#led and a-e"a!ed at te inflo45 minimum f"ee-flo4 a"ea7s95 and outflo4. Te ca"acte"istics
sam#led a"e< flo4 -elocit+ 7in all t"ee di"ections< x5 +5 and L95 tem#e"atu"e5 #"essu"e5 and tu"bulence
model #a"amete"s k5 epsilon5 and omega. Tese measu"ements a"e ten used fo" calculatin! "ele-ant
#e"fo"mance #a"amete"s suc as #"essu"e d"o#5 f"iction and Colbu"n facto"s5 eat t"ansfe" "ate5
2e+nold;s numbe"5 etc.5 7desc"ibed in Section ..A< =e"fo"mance =a"amete"s9.
1.3 Project Outline
Fo" com#a"ison to te !"a#s in te -alidation "esea"c a"ticle HGan! et al.5 .00)I5 flo4s of ten
diffe"ent 2e+nolds numbe"s 7based on tube colla" diamete" and minimum f"ee-flo4 -elocit+9 a"e
simulated "an!in! f"om a##"oximatel+ 660 to *000 4it inlet f"ontal ai" -elocities "an!in! f"om 0.6
to ).. mJs. Gate" flo4s at )0N C t"ou! te tubes and cold ai" t"ou! te fins.
Fo" dete"minin! 4ic tu"bulence model most accu"atel+ "e#"esents eat excan!e" flo4 and eat
t"ansfe" at te diffe"ent flo4 "e!imes 7lamina"5 t"ansitional5 and tu"bulent95 t"ee flo4 models 4e"e
cosen fo" te simulations. Te+ a"e< lamina"5 k-e#silon tu"bulence model5 and Mente" SST k-
ome!a tu"bulence model. T4o stead+-state 3#enF3AM sol-e"s 4e"e used fo" te 76 simulations A/
sol"ers B ,6 "elocities B 2 turbulence modelsC< Qsim#leFoam; 7flo4 calculations onl+95 and
Q"oSim#leFoam; 7bot flo4 and tem#e"atu"e simulations9. Finall+5 to in-esti!ate te #ossibilit+ of
t"ansient #atte"ns occu""in! in te flo45 one t"ansient simulation in "oTu"bFoam 4as ca""ied out.
All com#utational 4o"k is ca""ied out usin! o#en sou"ce soft4a"e< #"e-#"ocessin! soft4a"e SalomR
fo" !eomet"+ and mesin!5 3#enF3AM CFD sol-e"5 and =a"a&ie4 #ost-#"ocessin! fo" -isualiLation.
C


Figure 2: T#pical fin-and-tube heat exchanger section with
staggered tube arrangement+ >Song and -ishino? /668@
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
="essu"e d"o# and eat t"ansfe" "esults and com#a"isons of te diffe"ent tu"bulence models and
sol-e"s a"e "e#o"ted and discussed.
Afte" tis int"oduction section5 te usual "ele-ant to#ics a"e co-e"ed< a model desc"i#tion of te eat
excan!e" to include !o-e"nin! e:uations5 com#utational domain5 and mes. Ten te #e"fo"mance
#a"amete"s "elated to #"essu"e d"o# and f"iction facto" a"e #"esented5 4ic is follo4ed b+ a section
on com#utational fluid d+namics 7CFD95 includin! e:uations5 tu"bulence models5 and solution
al!o"itms. Finall+5 te "esults a"e #"esented in t4o sections< ="elimina"+ obse"-ations and ten final
"esults. Te #a#e" concludes 4it discussion and conclusion sections.
)
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
2 Model Description
Tis section desc"ibes te eat excan!e" model and #e"fo"mance #a"amete"s used in ca"acte"iLin!
eat t"ansfe" and #"essu"e. Te model eat excan!e" fo" tis #"o'ect is #"esented5 and info"mation
about te eat excan!e"5 fin-and-tube efficienc+5 #"essu"e d"o#5 and te dimensionless !"ou#s used
in te calculation #"ocess a"e #"esented.
Heat excan!e"s a"e used fo" t"ansfe""in! te"mal ene"!+ bet4een fluids5 su"faces5 o" combinations of
tese5 4en te+ a"e at diffe"in! tem#e"atu"es and in te"mal contact. T+#ical a##lications include
eat "eco-e"+5 #asteu"iLation5 distillation5 and eatin! o" coolin! of a #a"ticula" fluid st"eam. Te
fluids can be se#a"ated b+ a 4all o" in di"ect contact. 0f te"e is a 4all actin! as te eat t"ansfe"
su"face se#a"atin! fluids5 a##enda!es5 o" fins5 can be connected to it in o"de" to inc"ease te eat
t"ansfe" su"face a"ea.
Classification
Heat excan!e"s can be classified acco"din! to const"uction t+#e5 flo4 a""an!ement5 o" su"face
com#actness5 amon! ote" t+#es #ossible. 0f te classification is b+ const"uction5 te t+#es of eat
excan!e"s a"e< #late5 tubula"5 extended su"face5 o" "e!ene"ati-e. 0f classification is b+ flo4
a""an!ement5 te t+#es can include sin!le-#ass o" multi-#ass of counte"-flo45 #a"allel-flo45 c"oss-
flo45 o" combinations of flo4.
Fin-and-Tube Deat $xchangers
Te fin-and-tube eat excan!e" 7HE9 studied in tis #"o'ect is classified as extended su"face5 sin!le-
#ass 4it c"oss-flo4 7sim#lif+in! te eade" desi!n at te ent"ance and exit9. Tis t+#e of eat
excan!e" is 4idel+ used in -a"ious te"mal en!inee"in! a##lications5 includin! cemical #lants5
food indust"ies5 H&AC5 automoti-e5 ai"c"aft5 and mo"e. Te+ consist of a block of #a"allel
continuous fins 4it "ound tubes mecanicall+ o" +d"aulicall+ ex#anded into te fins5 a #o#ula" eat
excan!e" desi!ned fo" fluid to flo4 in te tubes and !as bet4een te fins 7see Fi!u"e 69.
Te ad-anta!es to usin! mo"e com#act eat excan!e"s suc as te fin-and-tube a"e man+. Te
extended su"faces 7fins9 a"e desi!ned to inc"ease te eat t"ansfe" a"ea #e" unit -olume5 "esultin! in
com#act units of "educed s#ace and 4ei!t 7u# to 10 times !"eate" su"face a"ea #e" unit -olume 4en
com#a"ed to sell-and-tube excan!e"s95 4it i!e" eat t"ansfe" coefficients tan ote" less
com#act eat excan!e" t+#es. Te"e is also flexibilit+ 4en desi!nin! te su"face a"ea dist"ibution
bet4een te ot and cold sides. Substantial cost sa-in!s a"e ex#ected. Fo" sensiti-e mate"ials5 ti!te"
tem#e"atu"e cont"ol is an ad-anta!e5 im#"o-in! #"oduct :ualit+. Multi#le fluid st"eams can be
accommodated.
Te"e a"e also limitations to usin! fin-and-tube eat excan!e"s. $o"mall+ one side must be a !as o"
li:uid 4it a lo4 coefficient of con-ection5 5. Te+ a"e difficult to mecanicall+ clean5 "e:ui"in!
non-co""osi-e clean fluids. Tem#e"atu"e and #"essu"e limits a"e lo4e" tan some ote" t+#es due to
b"aLin! o" mecanical ex#ansion 4en 'oinin! te fins to te tubes 7tou! #"essu"e can be i! on
te tube side9.
H2oseno4 et. al5 111(I
T#pical Materials and Geometr#: Fin-and-tube D$
Fins a"e commonl+ made of aluminium5 4ile tubes a"e made of co##e". T+#ical !eomet"+< fin
tickness 0.11 to 0.16 mm5 tubes 4it outside diamete" 10 mm5 t"ans-e"se #itc .C mm5 lon!itudinal
*
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
#itc .. mm5 and fin densit+ of ) to 1) fins #e" inc. 7Ho4e-e"5 smalle" tube s#acin! and tube
diamete"s a"e becomin! mo"e 4ides#"ead9. Te !eomet"+ of te eat excan!e" in tis #"o'ect is
close to te t+#ical !eomet"ical "an!es listed abo-e5 4it te details found in Section ...<
Com#utational Domain and %ounda"+ Conditions.
H%a!!io and Fo"nasie"i5 111AI
2.1 Governing euations and numerical schemes.
Te !o-e"nin! e:uations fo" tis #"o'ect a"e te t"ee-dimensional continuit+5 $a-ie"-Stokes fo"
momentum5 ene"!+5 and scala" t"ans#o"t e:uations fo" stead+-state flo45 and can be 4"itten
7!ene"all+9 as follo4s<
Continuity e/uationA
$Euation ,
7 9
0.
i
i
u
;

*omentum e/uationA
$Euation / 7 9 .
j
i j
i i i j
u
p
u u
; ; ; ;

_



,
%nergy e/uationA
$Euation 2 7 9 .
j
i
i i p i
u
k
u $
; ; C ;




,
#eneral transport e/uation 3for scalars)A
$Euation 4
7 9
i
i i i
u
,
; ; ;

1
+
1

]
Te !ene"al e:uations 1-6 a"e used in te CFD com#utations to calculate te flo4 field fo" bot
te"mal and fluid 7ai"9 d+namics5 sol-in! fo" eat t"ansfe" and #"essu"e d"o#. Te+ a"e disc"etised
and sol-ed b+ te finite -olume metod usin! 3#enF3AM5 an o#en-sou"ce CFD code. 0t is sol-ed
on a sta!!e"ed !"id usin! sol-e"s fo" lamina" and tu"bulent flo45 4it te latte" solution sol-ed usin!
te 2e+nolds A-e"a!ed $a-ie"-Stokes e:uations 72A$S9 4it bot k-epsilon and SST k-omega
tu"bulence models. To ensu"e cou#lin! bet4een -elocit+ and #"essu"e5 te S0M=@E al!o"itm is
used. Mo"e "e!a"din! te details of te !o-e"nin! e:uations5 nume"ical scemes5 tu"bulence
modellin!5 and solution al!o"itms used fo" tis #"o'ect a"e "e-ie4ed in Section 6< Com#utational
Fluid D+namics5 4it a summa"+ of com#utation #"ocedu"es in A##endix A1< CFD Com#utations.
(
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
2.2 !omputational "omain and #oundar$ !onditions
Te #"e-#"ocessin! o#en-sou"ce soft4a"e SalomR is used to c"eate and mes te com#utational
model. A dia!"am of te studied model is so4n in Fi!u"e A5 and consists of te ai" flo4 a"ea
bet4een t4o fins of #lain fin !eomet"+ and a"ound te su"faces of t4o "o4s of tubes5 and a scematic
of te model 4it dimensions is so4n in Fi!u"e C5 4it te !eomet"ical -alues listed in Table 1.
Table ,+ Geometric dimensions of heat exchanger model
Deomet"ic =a"amete"
Fin tickness t ("3( mm
Fin #itc F
p
22!( mm
Fin colla" outside diamete" D
c
"(23 mm
T"ans-e"se #itc
'
t
2B!( mm
@on!itudinal =itc '
l
22(( mm
Tube 4all tickness S (33& mm
$umbe" of tube "o4s 2

Te com#utational domain is actuall+ ( times te o"i!inal eat t"ansfe" a"ea 7as illust"ated in Fi!u"e
C95 and is defined b+ 0 T x T ('
l
5 0 T + T '
t
J.5 and 0 T C T F
p
.5 4ile te actual modelled eat
excan!e" len!t is e:ual to t4ice te lon!itudinal #itc '
l
. Te -olume "e#"esentin! te ai" 4ic
#asses t"ou! te !a# bet4een te t4o fins is extended u#st"eam f"om te inlet and do4nst"eam
f"om te outlet in o"de" to "educe oscillations and ensu"e a "e#"esentati-e flo4 in te com#utational
domain of te actual eat excan!e". Te eat excan!e" model 4it its extended -olume is
illust"ated in Fi!u"e C5 4ile te actual a"ea of inte"est fo" te eat excan!e" simulation is so4n
late" in Fi!u"e 1 7and te middle section of Fi!u"e C9.
1
D
c
D"(23 mm
"" mm 3'
l
72)
'
l
D 22 mm
!! mm 32 ; '
l
)
"
2

6

m
m

3
'
t
7
2
)
Figure 4+ (llustration of the main computational domain and geometric parameters of
the heat exchanger model studied A*-direction not shownC+
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
Figure 5+ Computational domain? including boundar# conditions A)CC and extended flow "olumes+
Te com#utational domain as contains bounda"+ conditions as so4n in Fi!u"e C 4it te follo4in!
conditions<
Tube su"faces5 Di"iclet %C<
$ D $
w
5
Ai" -elocit+< u D . D w D (
Fins5 Di"iclet %C<
$ D $
fw

Ai" -elocit+< u D . D w D (
0nlet5 Di"iclet %C<
8nifo"m -elocit+ u D u
in
5
. D w D (
$ U C NC.
3utlet5 $euman %C<
Ve"o !"adients5 u, ., w5 #"essu"e5 and tem#e"atu"e. 73ne-4a+95
F"ee st"eam #lanes< 7to# and bottom #lanes of te extended su"face a"eas9<
Qsli#; conditionsW< 7Eu7EC)D(, 7E.7EC) D (, w D (, 7E$7EC) D (
Side #lanes< s+mmet"+ #lanes
7Eu7Ey)D(, . D (, 7Ew7Ey) D (, 7E$7Ey) D (
Te enti"e com#utational domain 4as made u# of C056*C finite -olumes5 4it a st"uctu"ed !"id
t"ou!out most of te domain5 4ile te a"eas a"ound te tubes a"e mo"e unst"uctu"ed. Te cell
numbe" 4as cosen based on te "esults of a !"id inde#endence test 7mo"e info"mation about te
10
Tube
74all %C9
fin
74all %C9
0nlet
7inlet %C)
3utlet
73utlet %C9
Side #lane
7s+mmet"ic #lane %C9
F"ee st"eam #lane
7sli# %C9
F"ee st"eam #lane
7sli# %C9
x
F
#
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
mes and !"id inde#endence test is found in te next section5 Section ..6< $ume"ical Mes5 4ile
"esults of te !"id inde#endence test a"e #"esented in Section A.1< 2esults of D"id 0nde#endence Test9.
2.3 %umerical mesh
Te !eomet"+ and com#utational domain 4e"e c"eated usin! te o#en-sou"ce !eomet"+ c"eation and
mesin! soft4a"e SalomR. Te 3#enF3AM -e"sion 1.A.1 used fo" tis #"o'ect did not a-e
so#isticated !eomet"+ and mesin! ca#abilities 7tou! te -e"+ latest -e"sion is im#"o-ed 4it te
Qsna##+ exmes;95 and te"efo"e anote" mesin! #"o!"am 4as "e:ui"ed. Fo" tis #u"#ose5 SalomR
4as cosen since it is also o#en-sou"ce. %ot tet"aed"al and exa!onal meses 4e"e c"eated and
used fo" a !"id inde#endence stud+ fo" dete"minin! te ideal numbe" of cells to use in te mes. Tis
section desc"ibes te !ene"al #"ocess of c"eatin! te !eomet"+ and meses made fo" tis #"o'ect.

Tetrahedral meshes Fi"st te eat excan!e" !eomet"+ 4as c"eated in te !eomet"+ module of
SalomR. Ten te mes module 4as used to c"eate eite" tet"aed"al o" exaed"al cells. Fi!u"e )
illust"ates a mes 4it (A)C tet"aed"al cells. Te #"o!"am !i-es coices fo" -a"ious cell #"o#e"ties
suc as a-e"a!e len!t5 but it 4as not #ossible to "efine te mes in a #a"ticula" manne" 4itout
makin! se-e"al #a"titions 74ic 4as difficult in SalomR9X te #"o!"am c"eates te mes based on
-a!ue in#ut #a"amete"s. As can be seen in Fi!u"e )5 te tet"aed"al mes is unst"uctu"ed5
Figure 7+ mesh made up of 8475 tetrahedral cells+

4it fine" mes a"ound te cu"-ed a"eas of te tubes 7SalomR automaticall+ c"eated a fine" mes in
ce"tain a"eas of te mes9. Te extended -olume as la"!e" cells5 te"eb+ sa-in! com#utations fo"
te a"eas of te most can!e. 0t 4as not #ossible to make mo"e tan t"ee la+e"s of cells t"ou! te
tickness of te !eomet"+ 7C-di"ection9 o" "efine te mes in a s#ecific manne".
An exam#le of one of te #"oblems encounte"ed 4ile makin! te mes is illust"ated in Fi!u"e *5
4ic is te ote" side of te mes in Fi!u"e ) 7Fi!. ) is Qfli##ed o-e";9. 0t can be seen tat instead of
makin! a com#lete 6-dimensional mes5 some of it 4as .-D5 4ile #a"ts of it 4e"e 6-D.
11
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
Figure 1+ (llustration of a meshing problem: the underside of the mesh shown in Figure 7+
Tet"aed"al meses 4e"e c"eated 4it cell numbe"s "an!in! f"om a##"oximatel+ (5000 to 1C05000
cells to be used fo" te !"id inde#endence test 7desc"ibed late" in tis section9. 3nce te mes is
c"eated in SalomR5 it could be con-e"ted into te 3#enF3AM #"o!"am usin! te Qideas8n-ToFoam;
command. Tis command fo" mes con-e"sion5 o4e-e"5 does not 4o"k #"o#e"l+ in 3#enF3AM
1.A.1 due to a bu!5 and a ne4 CYY file containin! te co""ection ad be #laced into te sou"ce code
and com#iled. Te fix 4as found on a discussion !"ou# in te 3#enF3AM 4ebsite H3#enF3AM5
.00(I.
Gen te CFD simulations 4e"e fi"st attem#ted5 ote" #"oblems 4it te calculations a"ose due to
!eomet"ical #a"amete"s. Te #"oblems 4e"e disco-e"ed afte" im#o"tin! te mes into 3#enF3AM
and t"+in! to "un te files. Te cases could not make calculations5 and it 4as necessa"+ to in-esti!ate
te #"oblems. Te QceckMes; command in te 3#enF3AM console 4indo4 is used to in-esti!ate
info"mation about te !eomet"+ and mes 74ic sould al4a+s be "un afte" c"eatin! a mes in
3#enF3AM to -e"if+ te mes is oka+9.
Te fi"st #"oblem disco-e"ed 4as due to te scala" units of te mes c"eated in SalomR. Te
!eomet"+ and mes 4e"e o"i!inall+ c"eated usin! mete"s as te unit of len!t 7i.e. fin #itc ...A mm
4as c"eated as 0.00..A m9. Altou! tis is te co""ect scale5 te"e 4as a #"oblem 4it te
com#utations in 3#enF3AM. To sol-e tis #"oblem5 te !eomet"+ 4as "e-c"eated and te mes
calculated in SalomR usin! millimet"es as te len!t unit5 and ten u#on con-e"sion into
3#enF3AM5 te Qt"ansfo"m=oints; command is used to scale te !eomet"+ into te co""ect
dimensions in mete"s.
3te" #"oblems a"ose 4it te com#utations due to te non-o"to!onalit+ and ske4ness of te cells
in te mes. 3"to!onal meses contain #e"#endicula" !"idlines at inte"sections5 unlike non-
o"to!onal meses 4e"e !"id lines do not inte"sect one anote" at 10N an!les. Anote" #"oblem
"elated to te !eomet"+ 4as te ske4ness bet4een cells. 0f te non-o"to!onalit+ is belo4 60N o"
ske4ness is less tan 105 s#ecific in#uts into te #"o!"am a"e used5 4ic in tis case te+ a"e
necessa"+5 as te QceckMes; command so4ed te a-e"a!e non-o"to!onalit+ to be ..AN5 and
maximum ske4ness to be 0.*A. 0n te Qf-Solution; file5 te non-o"to!onalit+ co""ection loo#s 4e"e
set to QLe"o;5 and te QsnD"adSceme; 7su"face no"mal !"adient9 in te f-Scemes file set to
Qunco""ected;.
1.
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
Figure 8+ CFD computational domain for heat exchanger illustrating partitions+
HH'e"ta!e"5 .00(I H&e"stee! and Malalaseke"a5 .00*I
Dexagonal Meshes Afte" c"eatin! te tet"aed"al meses5 it 4as dete"mined tat a mo"e
st"uctu"ed !"id 4ould be bette" to use5 since tat is te t+#e most commonl+ used and kno4n to
#"o-ide accu"ate calculations. 0t 4as also dete"mined im#o"tant to a-e te ca#abilit+ of makin!
diffe"ent bounda"+ conditions fo" te extended -olumes5 as com#a"ed 4it te actual eat excan!e"
co"e to be simulated. 0n tis 4a+5 te f"ee-flo4 ai" comin! into te inlet 7and outlet9 of te co"e as
te co""ect bounda"+ conditions 7i.e. tem#e"atu"e and ;-di"ection -elocit+9 and a"e not fo"ced to a-e
te same conditions as te eat excan!e"5 4ic 4ould cause te simulations to be less accu"ate.
Te SalomR -e"sion used fo" c"eatin! te tet"aed"al mes desc"ibed #"e-iousl+ could not make te
mo"e st"uctu"ed o"to!onal mes desi"ed5 and it 4as necessa"+ to do4nload and install te ne4est
-e"sion< SalomR 6...1. Ten5 to be ca#able of c"eatin! diffe"ent bounda"+ conditions fo" te Qto#; and
Qbottom; of te model5 it 4as necessa"+ to di-ide te !eomet"+ u# into #a"titions in SalomR. To do
tis5 a ne4 !eomet"+ 4as c"eated a!ain5 and a ne4 mes 4it #a"titions built into te mes
const"uction. Tis mes can be seen in Fi!u"e (5 4e"e te #a"titions a"e -isible. As 4it te
tet"aed"al meses5 te"e 4as a "an!e of meses c"eated fo" use in te !"id inde#endence stud+X
exa!onal mes cell numbe"s "an!ed f"om a##"oximatel+ 65000 to 11*5000 cells. Afte" te !"id
inde#endence stud+5 te mes of a##"oximatel+ C05000 cells 4as cosen5 and is so4n in Fi!u"e 1.
Figure ;: CFD computational domain for heat exchanger simulation in this pro%ect+
0t can be seen f"om Fi!u"e 15 tat tis mes is muc mo"e st"uctu"ed tan te tet"aed"al cell mes.
Ho4e-e"5 te"e a"e still some unst"uctu"ed a"eas a"ound te tube 4alls. 0t 4as attem#ted to make a
fine" mes in te cent"al eat excan!e" co"e5 and coa"se mes in te extended -olume a"eas5 but te
16
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
#"ocess 4as not successfulX te calculations could not connect te sections of te !eomet"+ t"ou!
te #a"titions. Te"efo"e5 te final mes is as so4n in Fi!u"e 1.
Grid (ndependence Testing
0n all5 te"e 4e"e 11 diffe"ent !"id s+stems in-esti!ated to dete"mine o4 fine te !"id must be and to
-alidate te solution inde#endenc+ of te !"id. Te tet"aed"al meses contained te follo4in!
numbe" of fluid elements 7a##"oximatel+9< (50005 .C50005 C050005 *C50005 10050005 and 1C050005
4ile te exa!onal meses contained a##"oximatel+ 650005 6050005 C050005 )*50005 and 11*5000
cells. Simulations 4e"e "un on all cases usin! sim#leFoam 7mo"e info"mation on tis in section 6<
CFD and 3#enF3AM9. Te #"essu"e d"o# bet4een inlet and outlet 4as found fo" eac simulation5
and te "esults com#a"ed to dete"mine 4en te !"id is conside"ed inde#endent. Te "esults of tis
test a"e so4n and discussed in Section A.1< 2esults of D"id 0nde#endence Test.
Summar# of Meshing Process
%ot tet"aed"al and exa!onal meses a-e been c"eated fo" tis #"o'ect. Te o#en-sou"ce soft4a"e
SalomR 4as utiliLed fo" c"eatin! bot te !eomet"+ and te mes5 4ic could be con-e"ted to an
3#enF3AM usin! te Qideas8n-ToFoam; command. Cell numbe"s fo" te meses "an!e f"om
a##"oximatel+ 65000 to 1C05000 cells. A !"id inde#endence test 4as ca""ied out to dete"mine te
o#timal numbe" of cells to use fo" te CFD simulations.
2.& Per'ormance parameters
Tis section desc"ibes o4 eat t"ansfe" and #"essu"e d"o# a"e ca"acte"iLed. 0ncluded a"e
dimensionless !"ou#s5 e:uations fo" eat t"ansfe" and efficienc+ calculations5 and e:uations fo"
makin! #"essu"e d"o# calculations. Follo4in! te desc"i#tions of te #e"fo"mance #a"amete"s5 te
-alues as "ead f"om te !"a#s in te "esea"c done b+ Gan! et al. 7111)9 fo" f"iction facto" f and
Colbu"n j-facto" -s. 2e+nolds numbe" a"e tabulated and !"a#ed.
2.4.1 Dimensionless Groups
Accu"ate ca"acte"isation of te flo4 f"iction and eat t"ansfe" is -e"+ im#o"tant in "atin! and siLin!
eat excan!e"s. Dimensional !"ou#s a"e used fo" tis ca"acte"isation< eat t"ansfe" defined 4it
te Colbu"n facto" j and #"essu"e d"o# defined b+ f"iction facto" f. %elo4 is a summa"+ of te
dimensionless !"ou#s used in tis #"o'ect5 te e:uation to calculate it5 and a b"ief desc"i#tion.
*e#nolds number ,e
Te 2e+nold;s numbe" 0e "e#"esents te "atio of flo4 ine"tial
fo"ces to -iscous fo"ces. Te 2e+nold;s numbe" ca"acte"istic
dimension fo" tis stud+ is te tube colla" diamete" D
c
.

$Euation 5
2e
c
4 D


4e"e 4 is te minimum f"ee-flo4 ai" -elocit+ 7in te minimum
flo4 c"oss-section of te tube "o495 and is calculated<
1A
$Euation 1
. .
.
.
7 1 9 . 1 71 9
c m in in in
c e
o in out out
- p
f 8 8
- #



1
_
+ +
1
, ]
-for tube-and-fin 5eat e;c5angers
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
$Euation 7
7 9
t p
t p c p t c
' F
4 4
' F D F t ' D



' ;



Fanning friction factor '
Te Fannin! f"iction facto" is te "atio of 4all sea" st"ess to te
flo4 kinetic ene"!+. 0t is "elated to #"essu"e d"o# in tube-and-fin
eat excan!e"s as<
Colburn --factor
Te Colbu"n j-facto" is te "atio of con-ection eat t"ansfe" 7#e"
unit duct su"face a"ea9 to te amount -i"tuall+ t"ansfe"able 7#e"
unit of c"oss-sectional flo4 a"ea9<
$Euation 8
1J6
c
D
2u
j
0e 'r


-usselt number .u
Te $usselt numbe" is te "atio of con-ecti-e conductance 5 to
molecula" te"mal conductance k7D
5
.
$Euation ;
J
5
5
2u
k D

Te $usselt numbe" is based on te +d"aulic diamete" D


5
.
Te"e a"e diffe"ent calculations fo" tis a-ailable in te lite"atu"e.
Te +d"aulic diamete" in tis stud+ is te "atio of te A times te
minimum f"ee flo4 ai"-side a"ea to te 4etted #e"imete" 7"atio of
1C
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
ai"-side su"face a"ea to eat excan!e" len!t95 and is !i-en b+
te follo4in! ex#"ession HFo"nasie"i and Matta"olo5 1111I<
$Euation ,6
.
A7 97 9
.7 J A9 7 9
p t c l
5
l t c c p
F t ' D '
D
'' D D F t

+
Prandtl number /r
Te ="andtl numbe" 'r is te "atio of a fluid;s momentum
diffusi-it+ to te"mal diffusi-it+.
$Euation ,,
="
p
C
k


H2oseno4 et. al5 111(I HGan! et al.5 .00)I
2.&.2 (eat )rans'er and E''icienc$
Te eat t"ansfe" #a"amete" Colbu"n j-facto" can be dete"mined f"om ex#e"imental data and is
im#o"tant in dete"minin! eat excan!e" #e"fo"mance. To dete"mine te -alue of j f"om te
simulations5 a se"ies of e:uations "elated to eat t"ansfe"5 efficienc+5 and te $usselt and 2e+nolds
numbe"s a"e 4o"ked t"ou!. Tese e:uations fo" dete"minin! te Colbu"n j-facto" a"e #"o-ided in
tis section.
Te o-e"all eat t"ansfe" "ate =
&
can be found in te"ms of te eat ca#acit+ "ates 7
p
mC &
9 and
tem#e"atu"e diffe"ences bet4een te inflo4 and outflo4 tem#e"atu"es of te ot o" cold side<
$Euation ,/
5 5 5 5
7 9 7 9 7 9 7 9
p 5 5 in 5 out p c c out c in
= mC $ $ mC $ $
&
& &
and
$Euation ,2
m
= :- $
&
4e"e
m
$
"efe"s to te t"ue mean tem#e"atu"e diffe"ence.
Efficienc+ dete"minations a"e used to find te eat t"ansfe" coefficient : fo" desi!n and anal+sis of
eat excan!e"s. Te t"ee metods most used fo" dete"minin! tis a"e< Z-$T85 =-$T85 and
@MTD. Te+ a"e b"iefl+ desc"ibed belo4. Te Z-$T8 metod is desc"ibed in mo"e detail5 since tis
is te metod used fo" calculatin! efficienc+ in tis #"o'ect.
G--T! Method< Te efficienc+ facto" G is a function of $T85 CK 7"atio of minimum
eat ca#acit+ "ate to maximum eat ca#acit+ "ate9 5 and flo4 a""an!ement.
P--T! Method< Te efficienc+ facto" = is a function of $T85 2 7"atio of tem#e"atu"e
diffe"ence on one side to tem#e"atu"e diffe"ence on te ote"95 and flo4 a""an!ement.
Tis is simila" to te Z-$T8 metod5 but uses 2 instead of CK.
1)
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
0MTD Method< Te efficienc+ facto" F is a function of =5 25 and flo4 a""an!ement5
and is a "atio of actual mean tem#e"atu"e diffe"ence to te lo!-mean tem#e"atu"e
diffe"ence 7@MTD9.
Te Z-$T8 metod is te one used in te "esea"c a"ticle fo" -alidation. Te calculations 4e"e based
on unmixed-unmixed c"oss-flo4 confi!u"ation5 and ex#"essed as HKa+s and @ondon5 111(I HGan! et
al.5 .00)I<
$Euation ,4
0...
0.*(
1 ex#
KHex#7 K 9 1I
2$:
C C 2$:


w5ere
$Euation ,5
min
max
7 9
K
7 9
p air
p water
mC
C
C
C mC

&
&
$Euation ,7
<7 9J .
max 5 5 5
7 9
wtr air
a.g = = a.g
wtr p wtr wtr in air in
=
=
= m C $ $

& &
&
&
&
&
$Euation ,1
min
J 2$: :- C
2$:5 o" [$umbe" of T"ansfe" 8nits\? is te "atio of :- 7o-e"all conductance9 to min. eat ca#acit+
"ate C
min
. 2$: dete"mines te Qte"mal siLe; of a eat excan!e". Te o-e"all eat t"ansfe" "esistance
is dete"mined 4it te follo4in! e:uation<
$Euation ,8
0
1 1 1
w
o o w w i i
:- 5 - k - 5 -

+ +
0n te case of foulin!5 E:uation 1C 4ill also include "esistance te"ms "ele-ant to foulin!. Te"e ma+
also be some te"mal "esistance due to te bond bet4een te fin and tube , tis "esistance 4ould be
added to te lo4e" "i!t side of E:uation 1(.
To find te 4ate"-side eat t"ansfe" coefficient 5
i
5 E:uation 11 fo" full+ de-elo#ed tu"bulent fo"ced
con-ection t"ou! a duct5 te Dnielinski co""elation is used HDnielinski5 11*)I HGan! et al.5 .00)I<
$Euation ,;
.J6
72e 10009 ="7 J .9
1 1..* J .7=" 19
i i
i
i
i
f k
5
D f


+ ,
4e"e
$Euation /6
.
71.C(ln72e 9 6..(9
i
i D
f


Te fin su"face effecti-eness
0

is te "atio of actual eat t"ansfe" to te maximum #ossible eat


t"ansfe" 4ic could occu" if te base and fin a"e bot at te same tem#e"atu"e. Tis is desc"ibed in
te follo4in! e:uation set5 4e"e -
(
D -
fin
F -
base
and te actual fin efficienc+

is calculated usin!
te Scmidt a##"oximation fo" sta!!e"ed #late-fin !eomet"+ HScmidt5 11A1I HGan! et al.5 .00)I<
1*
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"

$Euation /, 1 71 9
f
o
o
-
-

$Euation //
tan7 9 mr
mr

w5ere
$Euation /2
.
o
f
5
m
k t

$Euation /4 1 0.6Cln7 J 9
e/
e/
0
0 r
r

_
1 +

]
,
$Euation /5
1J .
1..* 0.6
e/
* 9
*
0
@ @
r r @
_


,
Gen te e:uations a"e sol-ed and te ai"-side eat-t"ansfe" coefficient 5
o
as been calculated5 te
Colbu"n j-facto" can be calculated b+ fi"st sol-in! fo" te $usselt and 2e+nolds numbe"s5 ten usin!
te calculated -alues in te final calculation fo" te j-facto". As so4n #"e-iousl+ in e:uations C5 (5
and 15 te $usselt numbe"5 2e+nolds numbe"5 and j-facto" a"e calculated<
J
o
5
5
2u
k D

max
2e
c
4 D

1J6
c
D
2u
j
0e 'r

H2oseno4 et. al5 111(I HGan! et al.5 .00)I


$xperimental "alues for Colburn %-factor
To -alidate te simulations in tis #"o'ect5 te e:uations #"e-iousl+ mentioned 71.-.C9 a"e used to
calculate Colbu"n '-facto"s f"om simulation "esults and com#a"ed 4it te ex#e"imentall+ dete"mined
"esults of Gan! et al. 7111)9 fo" te #a"ticula" eat excan!e" !eomet"+ a"e used. Te -alues of te
2e+nolds numbe" and j-facto" as "ead f"om te !"a# in te a"ticle fo" te s#ecific eat excan!e"
!eomet"+ studied in tis #"o'ect a"e listed in Table . and #"esented in te !"a# in Fi!u"e 10.
Table /+ Colburn --factor "s+ ,e?
experimentall# determined+
j Re
0,0420 330
0,0270 600
0,0230 790
0,0170 1300
0,0140 1700
0,0120 2900
0,0094 4300
0,0090 5200
0,0084 6200
0,0081 7200
><ang et al+? ,;;7@
1(
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
0t can be seen in Table . and Fi!u"e 10 tat te Colbu"n '-facto" dec"eases 4it inc"easin! 2e+nolds
numbe". 0t "an!es f"om 0.0A. at te lo4est 2e+nolds numbe" to 0.00(1 at te i! 2e+nolds numbe".
A #lot of tis t+#e 7j -s. 0e9 fo" a t+#ical ci"cula" tube no"mall+ a-e a mo"e distinct di# in te
t"ansition "e!ion tan in tis !"a# fo" ai" flo4 t"ou! a eat excan!e". Ho4e-e"5 a sli!t can!e
is seen at 2e+nolds numbe" 16005 and te !"a# a##ea"s to le-el off a!ain at 2e+nolds numbe" .100.
0t can te"efo"e be dete"mined f"om tis !"a# tat te lamina" flo4 "e!ion !oes u# to a"ound
2e+nolds numbe" 1600 7it is difficult to dete"mine exactl+ 4itout mo"e data #oints95 4it a
t"ansition "e!ion afte" tat5 and te tu"bulent flo4 be!ins at a #oint a"ound 2e+nolds numbe" .100.
&alues fo" te Colbu"n '-facto" dete"mined f"om simulations5 and follo4ed b+ te a##"o#"iate
calculations fo" tis #"o'ect a"e com#a"ed to tese ex#e"imental -alues. Du"in! te com#a"isons5 it is
ke#t in mind tat te unce"tainties in te Colbu"n '-facto" -alues 7ex#e"imentall+ dete"mined -alues9
can be i! fo" te lo4e" 2e+nolds numbe"s 7unce"taint+ is P 1.A O at 2e+nolds numbe" )005 and
ma+ be e-en i!e" at 2e+nolds numbe" 6605 te -alue of 4ic 4as not #"o-ided in te a"ticle.9
H2oseno4 et. al5 111(IHGan! et al.5 .00)I
Colburn j-factor s. !e"nolds number
%;perimentally determinedHGan! et al.5 111)I
0,0010
0,0100
0,1000
100 1000 10000
Re
C
o
l
b
u
r
n

j
-
f
a
c
t
o
r
Figure ,6+ Plot of Colburn %-factor "s+ *e#nolds number? determined experimentall# ><ang et al+? ,;;7@
11
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
2.4.# Pressure Drop
Te #"essu"e d"o# dete"mines te amount of #um#in! #o4e" needed to "un a eat excan!e". 0t is
te"efo"e im#o"tant to ca"acte"iLe te #"essu"e d"o# fo" desi!n. Tis section desc"ibes o4 te
#"essu"e d"o# "elates to te #um#in! #o4e"5 follo4ed b+ a desc"i#tion of 4at causes te #"essu"e
d"o# and finall+ te #"essu"e d"o# e:uations fo" tube-and-fin eat excan!e"s a"e #"esented.
=um#in! #o4e" = is often seen as an im#o"tant desi!n const"aint because te #"essu"e d"o# in a eat
excan!e" 7alon! 4it associated #"essu"e d"o#s in te inletJoutlet eade"s5 noLLles5 ducts5 etc.9 is
#"o#o"tional to te amount of fluid #um#in! #o4e" needed fo" te eat excan!e" to function5 as
!i-en b+ te follo4in! ex#"ession<
$Euation /7 =um#in! #o4e"
m p
'

&
Te o-e"all #"essu"e d"o# consists of t4o #a"ts< 719 te #"essu"e d"o# in te eat excan!e" co"e5 and
7.9 te #"essu"e d"o# f"om associated de-ices te fluid flo4s t"ou! befo"e and afte" te eat
excan!e" co"e 7i.e. inletJoutlet manifolds5 noLLles5 -al-es5 fittin!s5 ducts5 etc.9.
Te co"e #"essu"e d"o# is due to te follo4in!<
1. F"iction f"om te fluid flo4in! ac"oss te eat t"ansfe" su"face 7i.e. skin f"action5
fo"m d"a!5 inte"nal cont"actions and ex#ansions9.
.. Momentum effect 7fluid densit+ can!es causin! a #"essu"e d"o#9.
6. Sudden cont"action o" ex#ansion at inlet andJo" outlet.
A. D"a-it+ effects 7if te"e is a can!e in ele-ation bet4een te inlet and outlet of te
excan!e" , no"mall+ ne!li!ible 4it !ases9 causin! a #"essu"e d"o# 7static ead9
f"om te can!e in ele-ation. Tis #"essu"e d"o# is !i-en b+ te follo4in!
ex#"ession< ]#U P 7>mg9J!
c
95 4it te [Y\ used in te case of -e"tical u#-flo45
4ile te [-\ is used fo" -e"tical do4n-flo4.
Te actual calculation fo" #"essu"e d"o# de#ends on te s#ecific t+#e of eat excan!e" bein! studied.
Fo" fin-and-tube eat excan!e"s5 te #"essu"e d"o# e:uation is !i-en in E:uation .* HGan! et al.5
.00)I<
$Euation /1
Ho4e-e"5 te ent"ance and exit loss effects 8
c
and 8
e
become Le"o 4en flo4 is no"mal to te tube
banks o" t"ou! 4i"e mat"ix su"faces5 "esultin! in te follo4in! e:uation<
.0
ent"ance effect
Flo4 accele"ation
due to densit+
diffe"ences
co"e
f"iction
exit effect
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
$Euation /8
.
. 1 .
1 1
71 9 1
.
m
in c in c
p # -
f
p g p -


1
_
+ +
1
, ]
Te definitions fo" te s#ecific -a"iables a"e ex#anded f"om te $omenclatu"e section<
D< u?>. D is te mass -elocit+ ente"in! te co"e based on minimum f"ee-flo4 a"ea.
!
c
< A !"a-itational constant 7e:uals 1 4en 4o"kin! 4it S0 units9.
1

< Tis is te s#ecific -olume 71J^9 at inlet tem#e"atu"e.


.

< Tis is te s#ecific -olume 71J^9 at outlet tem#e"atu"e.


m

< Tis is te a-e"a!e s#ecific -olume 7


1

Y
.

9J..
G < Si!ma "e#"esents te "atio of minimum f"ee-flo4 a"ea to f"ontal a"ea.
c
-
< Flo4 c"oss-sectional a"ea.
0n tis #"o'ect5 E:uation .( is used to calculate te f"iction facto" fo" te CFD simulations5 since te
#"essu"e measu"ements a"e taken at te inflo4 and outflo4 of te com#utational domain5 and te
ent"ance and exit loss effects 4ould occu" #"io" to and afte" te inflo4 and outflo45 "es#ecti-el+.
$xperimental "alues for Fanning friction factor '
F"om te #"essu"e d"o# data dete"mined f"om te simulations5 f"iction facto"s can be calculated usin!
te #"essu"e d"o# e:uation 7sol-in! fo" f"iction facto" f9. To -alidate te #"essu"e-loss simulations in
tis #"o'ect5 te Fannin! f"iction facto" f dete"mined ex#e"imentall+ f"om Gan! et al. 7111)9 a"e
used. Te -alues fo" 2e+nolds numbe" and f"iction facto" f as "ead f"om te !"a# in te a"ticle fo"
te s#ecific eat excan!e" !eomet"+ studied in tis #"o'ect a"e listed in Table 6 and #"esented in te
!"a# in Fi!u"e 11.
Table 2+ Friction factor ' "s+ ,e?
experimentall# determined+
' Re
0,1100 330
0,0730 600
0,0630 790
0,0460 1300
0,0420 1700
0,0330 2900
0,0270 4300
0,0240 5200
0,0220 6200
0,0210 7200
><ang et al+? ,;;7@
0t can be seen in Table 6 and Fi!u"e 11 tat like te Colbu"n j-facto"5 te Fannin! f"iction facto" f also
dec"eases as te 2e+nolds numbe" inc"eases. 0t "an!es f"om 0.11 at te lo4est 2e+nolds numbe" to
050.1 at te i! 2e+nolds numbe". A sli!t can!e can be seen at 2e+nolds numbe" 16005 and te
.1
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
!"a# le-els off a!ain bet4een 2e+nolds numbe" 1600 and 1*00. 0t can te"efo"e be dete"mined
f"om tis !"a# tat te lamina" flo4 "e!ion !oes u# a"ound 2e+nolds numbe" 16005 4it a t"ansition
"e!ion te"eafte"5 and f"om te sli!t can!e in !"a# a!ain5 te tu"bulent flo4 "e!ime seems to be!in
at a"ound 2e+nolds numbe" 1*00 7o" #ossibl+ it is close" to .100 since tat is 4at 4as found on te
j-facto" !"a#9. Ho4e-e"5 mo"e data #oints 4ould be necessa"+ to accu"atel+ dete"mine te c"itical
2e+nolds -alues fo" te diffe"ent flo4 "e!imes. &alues fo" te f"iction facto" f as calculated f"om te
#"essu"e d"o# -alues of te simulations a"e com#a"ed to te ex#e"imental -alues f"om Gan! et al.
7.00)9. Du"in! te com#a"isons5 it is ke#t in mind tat te unce"tainties in te Fannin! f"iction facto"
f -alues 7ex#e"imentall+ dete"mined -alues9 can be i! fo" te lo4e" 2e+nolds numbe"s 7te
unce"taint+ is !i-en as P 1*.* O at 2e+nolds numbe" )005 and ma+ be e-en i!e" at 2e+nolds
numbe" 6605 te -alue of 4ic 4as not #"o-ided in te a"ticle.9
H2oseno4 et. al5 111(IHGan! et al.5 .00)I
$annin% friction factor f s. !e"nolds number
%;perimentally determined HGan! et al.5 111)I
0,01
0,10
1,00
100 1000 10000
Re
F
a
n
n
i
n
g

f
r
i
c
t
i
o
n

f
a
c
t
o
r

f
Figure ,,+ Plot of friction factor ' "s+ *e#nolds number? determined experimentall# ><ang et al+? ,;;7@
..
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
# Computational $luid D"namics
Te #u"#ose of tis #"o'ect is to use o#en-sou"ce CFD soft4a"e to simulate #"essu"e loss and eat
t"ansfe" in a eat excan!e" and -alidate te simulation 4it an actual ex#e"imental "esults f"om te
lite"atu"e. Diffe"ent sol-e"s and tu"bulence models a"e used to t"+ to dete"mine te most accu"ate
CFD metod fo" #"edictin! #"essu"e loss and eat t"ansfe" in tis t+#e of com#act fin-and-tube eat
excan!e".
Com#utational fluid d+namics 7CFD9 is a com#ute"-based simulation metod fo" anal+sin! fluid
flo45 eat t"ansfe"5 and "elated #enomena suc as cemical "eactions. Tis #"o'ect uses CFD fo"
anal+sis of flo4 and eat t"ansfe" 7not fo" anal+sis of cemical "eactions9. Some exam#les of
a##lication a"eas a"e< ae"od+namic lift and d"a! 7i.e. ai"#lanes o" 4indmill 4in!s95 #o4e" #lant
combustion5 cemical #"ocesses5 eatin!J-entilation5 and e-en biomedical en!inee"in! 7simulatin!
blood flo4 t"ou! a"te"ies and -eins9. CFD anal+ses ca""ied out in te -a"ious indust"ies a"e used in
2_D and manufactu"e of ai"c"aft5 combustion en!ines5 as 4ell as man+ ote" indust"ial #"oducts.
0t can be ad-anta!eous to use CFD o-e" t"aditional ex#e"imental-based anal+ses5 since ex#e"iments
a-e a cost di"ectl+ #"o#o"tional to te numbe" of confi!u"ations desi"ed fo" testin!5 unlike 4it
CFD5 4e"e la"!e amounts of "esults can be #"oduced at #"acticall+ no added ex#ense. 0n tis 4a+5
#a"amet"ic studies to o#timise e:ui#ment a"e -e"+ inex#ensi-e 4it CFD 4en com#a"ed to
ex#e"iments.
Tis section b"iefl+ desc"ibes te !ene"al conce#ts and teo"+ "elated to usin! CFD to anal+se fluid
flo4 and eat t"ansfe"5 as "ele-ant to tis #"o'ect. 0t be!ins 4it a "e-ie4 of te tools needed fo"
ca""+in! out te CFD anal+ses and te #"ocesses "e:ui"ed5 follo4ed b+ a summa"+ of te !o-e"nin!
e:uations and tu"bulence models 74it details !i-en in A##endix A1< CFD Com#utations9 and finall+
a discussion of te disc"etisation scemes 7details in A##endix A1< CFD Com#utations9 and solution
al!o"itms is #"esented.
H&e"stee! and Malalaseke"a5 .00*I
.6
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
3.1 !F" !omputational )ools
Tis section desc"ibes te CFD tools "e:ui"ed fo" ca""+in! out a simulation and te #"ocess one
follo4s in o"de" to sol-e a #"oblem usin! CFD. Te a"d4a"e "e:ui"ed and te t"ee main elements
of #"ocessin! CFD simulations< te #"e-#"ocesso"5 #"ocesso"5 and #ost-#"ocesso" a"e desc"ibed.
Te"e is a -a"iet+ of comme"cial CFD soft4a"e a-ailable suc as Fluent5 Ans+s CF?5 ACE5 as 4ell
as a 4ide "an!e of suitable a"d4a"e and associated costs5 de#endin! on te com#lexit+ of te mes
and siLe of te calculations. Comme"cial CFD #acka!es can cost u# to about `.0000 78S Dolla"s9
#e" +ea" fo" licenses5 maintenance5 and su##o"t. Com#licated t"ansient cases 4it fine meses 4ill
"e:ui"e mo"e #o4e"ful com#ute" #"ocesso"s and 2AM tan sim#le" cases 4it "ou! meses. A
t+#ical en!inee"in! 4o"kstation 7i.e. 6. D% #"ocessin! 2AM 4it :uad #"ocesso"s9 at a cost of
a##"oximatel+ `6000-`C000 78S Dolla"s95 o" a combination of se-e"al #"ocesso"s "unnin! in #a"allel5
is #"obabl+ te minimum in-estment needed to !et sta"ted.
Te 4o"k fo" tis #"o'ect 4as ca""ied out on a H= =a-ilion la#to# 4it dual #"ocesso"s totallin! .
DHL 2AM5 "unnin! on @inux 3#e"atin! S+stem do4nloaded f"ee f"om Caelinux. Te do4nload
f"om Caelinux included o#en-sou"ce soft4a"e SalomR fo" !eomet"+ const"uction and mesin!5
3#enF3AM fo" te CFD calculations5 #a"a&ie4 fo" -isualiLation of "esults5 alon! 4it ote" useful
scientific and matematics "elated soft4a"e. Calculations fo" tis #"o'ect 4e"e ca""ied out fo"
a##"oximatel+ C05000 cells 7CFD calculations a"e often made fo" 1-. million cells , o" mo"e9. 3n
m+ s+stem5 te stead+-state sol-e"s took bet4een 1-6 ou"s to finis calculations5 4ile te t"ansient
simulation took .-6 da+s "unnin! in #a"allel on bot #"ocesso"s.
3ne of te #u"#oses of tis #"o'ect is to use all o#en-sou"ce CFD soft4a"e instead of comme"cial
soft4a"e fo" te simulations. Tis t+#e of soft4a"e is ad-anta!eous fo" smalle" com#anies to use5 as
te cost of comme"cial CFD #acka!e licenses can be #"oibiti-e.
To "un a simulation5 t"ee main elements a"e needed<
1. Pre-processor: A #"e-#"ocesso" is used to define te !eomet"+ fo" te com#utational domain
of inte"est and !ene"ate te mes of cont"ol -olumes 7fo" calculations9. Dene"all+5 te fine"
te mes in te a"eas of la"!e can!es5 te mo"e accu"ate te solution. Fineness of te !"id
also dete"mines te com#ute" a"d4a"e and calculation time needed. Te o#en-sou"ce #"e-
#"ocesso" used fo" tis #"o'ect is called SalomR.

.. Sol"er: Te sol-e" makes te calculations usin! a nume"ical solution tecni:ue5 4ic can
use finite diffe"ence5 finite element5 o" s#ect"al metods. Most CFD codes use finite -olumes5
4ic is a s#ecial finite diffe"ence metod. Fi"st te fluid flo4 e:uations a"e inte!"ated o-e"
te cont"ol -olumes 7"esultin! in te exact conse"-ation of "ele-ant #"o#e"ties fo" eac finite
-olume95 ten tese inte!"al e:uations a"e disc"etised 7#"oducin! al!eb"aic e:uations t"ou!
con-e"tin! of te inte!"al fluid flo4 e:uations95 and finall+ an ite"ati-e metod is used to
sol-e te al!eb"aic e:uations. 7Te finite -olume metod and disc"etisation tecni:ues a"e
desc"ibed mo"e in te next sections. 3#enF3AM CFD code is used fo" sol-in! te
simulations in tis #"o'ect.
6. Post-Processor< Te #ost-#"ocesso" #"o-ides fo" -isualisation of te "esults5 and includes te
ca#abilit+ to dis#la+ te !eomet"+Jmes5 c"eate -ecto"5 contou"5 and .D and 6D su"face #lots.
=a"ticles can be t"acked t"ou!out a simulation5 and te model can be mani#ulated 7i.e.
.A
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
can!ed b+ scalin!5 "otatin!5 etc.95 and all in full colou" animated !"a#ics. =a"a&ie4 is te
o#en-sou"ce #ost-#"ocesso" used fo" tis #"o'ect.
Problem-Sol"ing with CFD
Te"e a"e man+ decisions to be made befo"e settin! u# te #"oblem in te CFD code. Some of te
decisions to be made can include< 4ete" te #"oblem sould be .D o" 6D5 4ic t+#e of bounda"+
conditions to use5 4ete" o" not to calculate #"essu"eJtem#e"atu"e -a"iations based on te ai" flo4
densit+5 4ic tu"bulence model to use5 etc. Te assum#tions made sould be "educed to a le-el as
sim#le as #ossible5 +et still "etainin! te most im#o"tant featu"es of te #"oblem to be sol-ed in o"de"
to "eac an accu"ate solution.
Afte" te abo-e decisions a"e made5 te !eomet"+ and mes can be c"eated. Te !"id sould be made
as fine as "e:ui"ed to make te simulation Q!"id inde#endent;. To dete"mine te fineness "e:ui"ed5 a
!"id de#endence stud+ is no"mall+ ca""ied out b+ makin! a se"ies of "efinements on an initiall+
cou"se !"id5 and ca""+in! out simulations on eac to dete"mine 4en te ke+ "esults of inte"est do not
can!e5 at 4ic #oint te !"id is conside"ed inde#endent. 0n tis #"o'ect5 a !"id 4it a##"oximatel+
C05000 cells 4as cosen afte" ca""+in! out suc a stud+ 7desc"ibed in te next section9. To "eac a
con-e"!ed solution5 "elaxation facto"s and accele"ation de-ices can be cosen. 0n tis #"o'ect5
"elaxation facto"s fo" all te #a"amete"s to be sol-ed and te DAMD smoot-sol-e" fo" #"essu"e 4e"e
used to assist in con-e"!ence and s#eed o#timisation.
Finall+5 to ensu"e accu"ac+ of te simulations5 te+ sould be -alidated a!ainst ex#e"imental data.
Tis #"o'ect;s simulation "esults a"e com#a"ed to an ex#e"imental stud+ "e#o"ted in te lite"atu"e
HGan! et al.5 111)I. Details of te eat excan!e" !eomet"+5 initial bounda"+ conditions "elated to
flo4 and tem#e"atu"e 4e"e follo4ed as closel+ as #ossible 4en buildin! tis CFD model.
H&e"stee! and Malalaseke"a5 .00*I
.penF.M Sol"ers
T"ee sol-e"s 4e"e used fo" simulatin! te ten cases "e#"esentin! eac of te 2e+nolds numbe"s. Te
sim#leFoam sol-e" sol-es onl+ fo" flo4 fields5 4ile "oSim#leFoam sol-es fo" flo4 and
tem#e"atu"e unde" stead+-state conditions5 and "oTu"bFoam also sol-es flo4 and tem#e"atu"e5 but
fo" t"ansient cases.
3.2 !F" Governing Euations
Tis section is a summa"+ of te !o-e"nin! e:uations used in CFD to matematicall+ sol-e fo" fluid
flo4 and eat t"ansfe"5 based on te #"inci#les of conse"-ation of mass5 momentum5 and ene"!+.
Details of o4 te+ a"e actuall+ used in te CFD com#utations a"e desc"ibed in A##endix A1< CFD
Com#utations.
Conser"ation $Euations
Te conse"-ation la4s of #+sics fo"m te basis fo" fluid flo4 !o-e"nin! e:uations 7#"e-iousl+ listed
as E:uations 1-6 in Section ..1< Do-e"nin! E:uations and $ume"ical Scemes9. Te la4s a"e<
@a4 of Conse"-ation of Mass< Fluid mass is al4a+s conse"-ed. 7E:uation 19
7 9
0.
i
i
u
;

.C
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
$e4ton;s .
nd
@a4< Te sum of te fo"ces on a fluid #a"ticle is e:ual to te "ate
of can!e of momentum. 7E:uation .9
7 9 .
j
i j
i i i j
u
p
u u
; ; ; ;

_



,
Fi"st @a4 of Te"mod+namics< Te "ate of ead added to a s+stem #lus te "ate
of 4o"k done on a fluid #a"ticle e:uals te total "ate of can!e in ene"!+.
7E:uation 69
7 9 .
j
i
i i p i
u
k
u $
; ; C ;




,
Te fluid bea-iou" can be ca"acte"ised in te"ms of te fluid #"o#e"ties -elocit+ -ecto" u 74it
com#onents u5 .5 and w in te ;5 y5 and C di"ections95 #"essu"e p5 densit+ >5 -iscosit+ <5 eat
conducti-it+ k5 and tem#e"atu"e $. Te can!es in tese fluid #"o#e"ties can occu" o-e" s#ace and
time. 8sin! CFD5 tese can!es a"e calculated fo" small elements of te fluid5 follo4in! te
conse"-ation la4s of #+sics listed abo-e. Te can!es a"e due to fluid flo4in! ac"oss te
bounda"ies of te fluid element and can also be due to sou"ces 4itin te element #"oducin! can!es
in fluid #"o#e"ties. Tis is called te Eule" metod 7t"ackin! can!es in a stationa"+ mass 4ile
#a"ticles t"a-el t"ou! it9 in cont"ast 4it te @a!"an!ian metod 74ic follo4s te mo-ement of a
sin!le #a"ticle as it flo4s t"ou! a se"ies of elements9.
A "e-ie4 of te !o-e"nin! e:uations 719-769 and o4 te+ a"e used in CFD modellin! is !i-en in
A##endix A1< CFD e:uations.
HH'e"ta!e"5 .00*IH&e"stee! and Malalaseke"a5 .00*I
3.3 )urbulence *odelling
Te 2e+nolds numbe" studied fo" te eat excan!e" flo4 in tis #"o'ect "an!e f"om a##"oximatel+
660 to *0005 4ic means tat te flo4s can be lamina"5 t"ansitional5 o" tu"bulent at te diffe"ent
flo4 -elocities. %ecause tese flo4 "e!imes bea-e diffe"entl+5 it can be necessa"+ to model te flo4
in diffe"ent 4a+s. 0n tis #"o'ect5 t4o tu"bulence models 7k -epsilon and Mente" SST k-omega9 a"e
utiliLed in o"de" to in-esti!ate 4ic is best to use fo" te diffe"ent t+#es of flo4. Tis section
desc"ibes some of te commonl+ used tu"bulence models5 and ten #"esents "ele-ant details "e!a"din!
te s#ecific tu"bulence models used in tis #"o'ect. A lamina" flo4 model is also used fo"
com#a"ison 4it te tu"bulence models.
Table A lists commonl+ used tu"bulence models and a so"t desc"i#tion of te model. Follo4in! te
table is a b"ief discussion of te ote" metods 4ic can be used to #"edict tu"bulence 7besides usin!
2A$S tu"bulence models9. Afte" tis5 a mo"e detailed desc"i#tion of te tu"bulence models used in
tis #"o'ect is #"esented.
As can be seen in Table A5 te"e a"e a la"!e numbe" of diffe"ent tu"bulence models. Te tu"bulence
models listed a"e all based on -a"iances of te 2e+nolds a-e"a!ed $a-ie"-Stokes 72A$S9 e:uations5
.)
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
in 4ic a-e"a!e -alues fo" tu"bulent fluctuations a"e used fo" modellin! te tu"bulence 7desc"ibed in
A##endix A19.
Te"e a"e tu"bulence models fo" com#"essible and incom#"essible flo4s5 and most of te listed
models a-e been built into 3#enF3AM sou"ce code. Se-e"al -a"iations of te k-epsilon model a-e
been made5 as 4ell as lo4-2e+nolds numbe"s modifications of it. Te i! 2e+nold;s numbe"
models listed use lo!-la4 t+#e 4all functions 7i.e. Mente" SST k-omega9. Te lo4 2e+nolds numbe"
models calculate flo4 to te 4all5 and 4it tese models5 it is im#o"tant fo" te +Y -alue to be
a##"oximatel+ 15 4e"eas 4it i!-2e+nolds models5 +Y sould "an!e f"om a##"oximatel+ 60-)0 to
600-A00 in te lo! la+e".
Table 4+ Commonl# used turbulence models+ >D%ertager? /665 H /668@ >&ersteeg and Malalase=era? /661@
BFlow code a"ailabilit# in .penF.M: CIcompressible? (Iincompressible? n'a I not a"ailable
BB-umber of extra transport eEuations to be sol"ed along with the *-S eEuations+
Te"e a"e also ote" metods tat can be used to #"edict te tu"bulence 7besides te 2A$S models
listed in Table A9. Em#i"ical co""elations 7i.e. usin! f"iction facto"5 $usselt numbe"5 o" Se"4ood
.*
Turbulence Model FlowB Model
T#peBB
Description
="andtl mixin!
len!t
Ve"o-e:uation 2ele-ant fo" sim#le .D5 slo4-to-can!e
flo4s
S#ala"t-Allma"as C5 0 3ne-e:uation Mixin!-len!t model fo" exte"nal flo4
k- ) C5 0 T4o-e:uation Standa"d k- )psilon model
T4o-la+e" k-) T4o-e:uation &iscous and tu"bulent flo4 "e!ions k-)
model
2$D k-) C5 0 T4o-e:uation 2eno"malisation !"ou# k-)psilon model
Gilcox k-H nJa T4o-e:uation Tu"bulence f"e:uenc+ H U ) Jk as .
nd
-a"iable
Mente" SST k- H C5 0 T4o-e:uation Hi! 2e sea" st"ess t"ans#o"t k-omega
model
2ealiLable k-) C5 0 $on-linea" Edd+ -iscosit+ model fo" i! 2e flo4s
@22 0- ) C5 0 2SM 0- ) 2e+nold;s st"ess 72SM9 model
@aunde"-Dibson 0-
)
C5 0
2SM
2SM 0- )psilon model Y 4all "eflection
te"ms
Al!eb"aic st"ess T4o-e:uation Anisot"o#+ of st"esses 72SM9 in sim#le"
fo"m
@am %"emo"st k-) 0 @o4 2e k-)psilon model
=-C 0 Dibson Dafa;Alla;s =-Ceta model fo" lo4 2e
@ien k-) 0 Cubic Cubic non-linea" k-)psilon model
@ien lo4 2e k-) 0 Cubic Cubic non-linea" lo4 2e k-)psilon model
@ien @escLine" k-) 0 @o4 2e k-)psilon model
@aunde" Sa"ma k-
)
C @o4 2e k-)psilon model5 combustin! flo4s
Si k-) 0 Euad"atic Si;s :uad"atic non-linea" k-)psilon model

*ore
'5ysics
D
Hig5er -ccuracy
D
Increasing
Computational Cost
per Iteration
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
numbe"9 can #"edict sim#le tu"bulent flo4 4itout "e:ui"in! CFD calculations o" la"!e com#ute"s.
@ES 7la"!e edd+ simulation9 sol-es fo" motion of te la"!e" eddies 4ile D$S 7di"ect nume"ical
simulation5 te most accu"ate and time-consumin!Jcom#utationall+ ex#ensi-e metod of all fo"
calculatin! tu"bulence9 sol-es fo" all motion usin! te $a-ie"-Stokes e:uations. @ES and
D$S a"e com#utationall+ -e"+ ex#ensi-e due to "e:ui"ements includin! -e"+ fine 6D mes5 t"ansient
t"ansient bea-iou". Due to a"d4a"e "e:ui"ements5 @ES and D$S 4e"e not used fo" tis #"o'ect.
0n tis #"o'ect5 te k-epsilon and Mente" k-omega SST models5 bot of 4ic utiliLe 2A$S
e:uations5 a"e used as tu"bulence models. Te 2A$S e:uations a"e desc"ibed some detail in
A##endix A1< CFD Com#utations. Fi"st5 a so"t ex#lanation fo" 4+ ote" tu"bulence models 4e"e
"uled out fo" tis #"o'ect is !i-en5 and ten te basic tu"bulence conce#ts5 k-epsilon and k-omega SST
models a"e ex#lained.
To decide 4ic tu"bulence models to use fo" tis #"o'ect5 conside"ations 4e"e taken "e!a"din!
"ele-ance to te #a"ticula" t+#e of flo4 in-ol-ed 7a##licabilit+95 com#lexit+ of te #+sics and time
fo" com#utin!5 4ete" te model is fo" com#"essible o" incom#"essible flo4 and a-ailabilit+ in
3#enF3AM5 and o4 4ell-kno4n te model is 7fo" accu"ac+9. Kee#in! tese conside"ations in
mind5 te ( tu"bulence models a-ailable fo" com#"essible flo4 7com#"essible flo4 modellin! is
necessa"+5 since ai" is flo4in! t"ou! te eat excan!e"9 in 3#enF3AM 4e"e conside"ed<
S#alla"t-Allma"as5
standa"d k-epsilon5
2$D k-epsilon,
Mente" SST k-omega5
2ealiLable k- )psilon,
@22 0- )psilon5
@aunde"-Dibson 0- )psilon, and
@aunde"-Sa"ma k- )psilon.
Te S#alla"t-Allma"as is a fai"l+ ne4 one-e:uation mixin! len!t model 4ic sol-es fo" te
tu"bulent kinematic -iscosit+ usin! a modelled t"ans#o"t e:uation. 0t s#ecifies te edd+ len!t scale
4it an al!eb"aic fo"mula5 is desi!ned fo" exte"nal ae"od+namic bounda"+ la+e" economical
com#utations5 but cannot accu"atel+ desc"ibe flo4s in-ol-in! se#a"ation and "eci"culation. Tis
#"o'ect in-ol-es inte"nal flo4 4it bot se#a"ation and "eci"culation5 makin! tis model i""ele-ant fo"
tis #"o'ect.
Te 2$D 7"eno"maliLation !"ou#9 k-epsilon model uses Qi!l+ abt"use; matematics to extend te
edd+ -iscosit+ tu"bulence model and can!es te !o-e"nin! e:uations b+ "emo-in! smalle" scales of
motion5 "e#lacin! tem 4it la"!e motions and modif+in! te -iscosit+ te"m. 2esults a-e been !ood
fo" back4a"d-facin! ste#s5 4ile ote" "esults a-e been mixed. Te 2$D model is not -e"+
commonl+ used5 as a i! com#utational o-e"ead5 and te"efo"e not used fo" tis #"o'ect.
Te Q"ealiLable; k-epsilon model is a non-linea" -e"sion of te k-epsilon model. 0t "etains te t4o-
e:uation k-epsilon e:uations5 but ex#ands te model b+ includin! additional effects to account fo"
2e+nold;s st"ess anisot"o#+ 4itout actuall+ usin! te se-en ext"a e:uations used in te 2SM
7desc"ibed in te next #a"a!"a#9 to exactl+ model te 2e+nolds st"esses. Te tu"bulent -iscosit+
.(
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
ex#"ession and te "ate of dissi#ation of kinetic ene"!+ e:uation of te standa"d k-epsilon model a"e
bot can!ed in te "ealiLable k-epsilon model to take into account tat tu"bulence does not al4a+s
ad'ust itself instantaneousl+ 4ile mo-in! t"ou! te flo4 domain5 meanin! tat te 2e+nolds st"ess
is #a"tiall+ de#endent on te mean st"ain "ate itself. Tis means tat te non-linea" "ealiLable k-
epsilon model allo4s fo" te #enomena of te state of tu"bulence la!!in! beind te can!es
distu"bin! te tu"bulence #"oduction and dissi#ation balance. Tis tu"bulence model 4as not used on
te #"o'ect5 but like te 2SM5 could be conside"ed fo" futu"e 4o"k 4it tis t+#e of eat excan!e"s
to account fo" anisot"o#ic 2e+nold;s st"esses in te flo4.
Te 2e+nold;s St"ess E:uation Models 72SM9< @22 0-epsilon and @aunde"-Dibson 0-epsilon
models5 calculates te anisot"o#ic 2e+nolds st"esses #"esent in t+#ical flo4s of com#lex st"ain fields
o" si!nificant bod+ fo"ces. 2SM is te most com#lex of te tu"bulence models5 and 4as desi!ned to
add"ess te #"oblems of te k-e model 74ic cannot #"edict flo4s in lon! non-ci"cula" duct because
of te isot"o#ic modellin! of te 2e+nold;s st"esses9. Te 2SM can te"efo"e accu"atel+ account fo"
te 2e+nold;s st"ess field di"ectional effects. %ecause of te man+ 2e+nold;s st"esses to model5 te"e
a"e se-en ext"a #a"tial diffe"ential e:uations to sol-e5 makin! com#utin! costs -e"+ i!. Te 2SM
is not as 4idel+ -alidated as te k-epsilon model and not used fo" tis #"o'ect due to te com#utin!
"e:ui"ements5 altou! it could be an inte"estin! continuation to te #"o'ect in te futu"e5 since te
lon! tin cannels bet4een te eat excan!e" fins #"obabl+ means te 2e+nold;s st"esses in te eat
excan!e" a"e anisot"o#ic.
Te @aunde"-Sa"ma k-epsilon model is desi!ned fo" com#"essible and combustin! lo4-2e+nold;s
numbe" flo4. $ot muc info"mation "e!a"din! tis model 4as found.
Afte" conside"in! te tu"bulence models a-ailable in 3#enF3AM5 it 4as decided to use te k-epsilon
and Mente" SST k-omega tu"bulence models. Tese include t4o e:uations fo" ex#"essin! tu"bulence
in tese models< 719 fo" te tu"bulent kinetic ene"!+ k 7to ex#"ess te tu"bulence -elocit+95 and 7.9 fo"
te "ate of dissi#ation of te tu"bulent kinetic ene"!+ e 7to ex#"ess te tu"bulence len!t scale9 in te
k-epsilon model o" of te s#ecific dissi#ation "ate a in te k-omega model. Te k-epsilon model is te
sim#lest and most 4idel+ -alidated tu"bulence model5 4it onl+ initial o" bounda"+ conditions
"e:ui"ed to be su##lied5 and as ad !ood #e"fo"mance in te #ast 4it ce"tain t+#es of flo4s5
altou! #e"fo"mance as not been te best fo" flo4s 4it cu"-ed bounda"+ la+e"s5 s4i"lin! o"
anisot"o#ic flo4s. Te Mente" SST k-omega model im#"o-es te k-) model at te nea"-4all b+ usin!
a k-4 model at te nea"-4all "e!ion 4ile "etainin! te k-epsilon model fo" te f"ee-st"eam tu"bulent
"e!ion fa" a4a+ f"om te 4all. 0t is also 4ell-kno4n and used in indust"+. Fo" tis #"o'ect5 tese t4o
models< "esults f"om usin! te k-) and k-H models a"e com#a"ed5 alon! 4it te lamina" model. Fo"
futu"e 4o"k 4it tis t+#e of flo45 te Q"ealiLable; k-epsilon and 2SM models 4ould be of inte"est to
test in o"de" to stud+ te effect of anisot"o#ic 2e+nold;s st"esses on te flo4 and simulation "esults.
Te 2A$S e:uations a"e desc"ibed in A##endix A15 4ile te tu"bulence models used in tis #"o'ect
7based on te 2A$S e:uations9< te k-epsilon and SST k-omega models5 a"e desc"ibed in te next
sections.
HH'e"ta!e"5 .00CI H&e"stee! and Malalaseke"a5 .00*I
#.#.1 +,-psilon &urbulence Model
Tu"bulence models a"e "e:ui"ed to #"edict te 2e+nolds st"esses and scala" t"ans#o"t te"ms 7desc"ibed
matematicall+ in A##endix A19 in o"de" to close te s+stem of ex#anded time-a-e"a!ed 2A$S
.1
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
e:uations 7continuit+5 momentum5 and scala" t"ans#o"t e:uations95 !i-en in E:uations C65 CA5 and C)
in A##endix A1. Exam#les of establised tu"bulence models a"e !i-en in Table A. 0n tis section5
te k-)psilon tu"bulence model is desc"ibed5 sta"tin! 4it a desc"i#tion of te te"ms used fo" tu"bulent
-iscosit+5 tu"bulent -elocit+5 and tu"bulent len!t scales5 follo4ed b+ a summa"+ of te e:uations
used in te actual tu"bulence model flo4 calculations5 and finall+ a list of te "e:ui"ed constants and
tei" -alues is #"esented.
Turbulent edd# "iscosit#? "elocit#? and length scale
Te k-)psilon model #"esumes tat te a-e"a!e flo4 is affected b+ te -iscous and 2e+nolds st"esses
7 b b
ij i j
u u 9 actin! on it. 0n te time-a-e"a!ed 2A$S momentum e:uations5 bot st"esses a"e !i-en on te
"i!t side to "eflect tei" function as ext"a tu"bulent st"esses on mean -elocit+ com#onents :5 45 and
J. As -iscosit+ is te cent"al conce#t fo" modellin! te st"esses5 it sould be noted tat te tu"bulent
-iscosit+
t

is ex#"essed as<
$Euation /;a
t t
u l $Euation /;b
( )
. . .
. 1
b b b
6 6
t
u k u . w + +

F"om E:uation .1a5 it can be seen tat te tu"bulent -iscosit+ is a #"oduct of densit+ and t4o ne4
-a"iables "e#"esentin! tu"bulent -elocit+
t
u
and tu"bulent len!t scalel . Tu"bulent -elocit+ can be
desc"ibed as te t+#ical -elocit+ occu""in! in te la"!est eddies and can also be "elated to te
tu"bulent kinetic ene"!+ acco"din! to E:uation .1b. Te tu"bulent len!t scale is te a-e"a!e len!t
of te same eddies.
Te ne4 -a"iables5
t
u
and l fo"m te basis fo" te Qt4o-e:uation; k-) tu"bulence model5 meanin! tat
in addition to te 2A$S e:uations5 t4o mo"e e:uations a"e "e:ui"ed to sol-e fo" tu"bulent -elocit+
and tu"bulent len!t usin! te model.
Te len!t scale l 7fo" la"!e eddies9 is used in te k-) model to define te len!t scale ) 7fo" small
eddies95 fo" 4ic a t"ans#o"t e:uation is used in te model5 and "e#"esents te dissi#ation of te
tu"bulent kinetic ene"!+. Te dissi#ation is ex#"essed as<
$Euation 26
.J6
k
l
or as related to "iscosit#
b
b
j
t i
k k
u
u
; ;




As seen in te second ex#"ession of E:uation 60 fo" ), dissi#ation of te tu"bulent kinetic ene"!+ is
#"o#o"tional to te "ate of defo"mation of te eddies.
2e+nolds st"esses b b
ij i j
u u inc"ease 4it defo"mation "ate5 and a"e "elated to -iscosit+5 mean "ate of
defo"mation5 and tu"bulent kinetic ene"!+ 4it %oussines:;s #"o#osal ex#"essed as<
$Euation 2,
.
b b
6
j
i
ij i j t ij
j i
:
:
u u k
; ;

_

+



,
E:uation 61 can be used to calculate 2e+nold;s st"esses in te final ste# of tu"bulence modellin!. 0t
is seen f"om tis e:uation tat te 2e+nold;s st"esses a"e conside"ed #"o#o"tional to te dissi#ation
60
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
"ate "educed b+ te edd+ tu"bulent kinetic ene"!+. 7Te K"onecke" delta
ij

7e:ual to 0 4en i c '5


e:ual to 1 4en i U '9 ensu"es tat te no"mal 2e+nolds st"esses a"e eac a##"o#"iatel+ accounted
fo".9 0t can also be seen f"om E:uation C* 7in te A##endix A19 fo" kinetic ene"!+5 tat te kinetic
ene"!+ allocates an e:ual ti"d fo" eac no"mal st"ess com#onent 7isot"o#ic assum#tion9. Tis is te
"eason fo" te ine"ent inaccu"ac+ of te k-epsilon model5 makin! it inca#able of desc"ibin!
anisot"o#ic flo4.
3te" scala" flo4 #"o#e"ties suc as mass and eat can also be modelled usin! time-a-e"a!ed -alues.
Simila" to te tu"bulent momentum t"ans#o"t;s #"o#o"tionalit+ to a-e"a!e -elocit+ !"adients5
tu"bulent scala" t"ans#o"t is #"o#o"tional to mean scala" -alue !"adients and can be ex#"essed as<
$Euation 2/ b b
i t
i
u
;

4e"e
t

"efe"s to tu"bulent 7edd+9 diffusi-it+.


As can be seen f"om E:uation 6.5 te tu"bulent scala" #"o#e"t+ t"ans#o"t occu"s 4it te same
mecanism as in t"ans#o"t of momentum 7mixin! of eddies5 "e#"esented b+
t

9. Fo" tis "eason5 it can


be assumed b+ Q2e+nold;s analo!+; tat te -alue of
t

is simila" to
t

5 te tu"bulent -iscosit+. Te
"atio of
t

to
t

is defined as te ="andtlJScmidt numbe" G


t
5 and as a -alue 4ic is no"mall+
constant 4it a -alue a"ound unit+.
Te next section #"esents te k-epsilon model and te t4o ext"a k and ) t"ans#o"t e:uations 7=DEs9
fo" closin! te s+stem of time-a-e"a!ed 2A$S e:uations. Te model is based on te mecanisms
causin! can!es to tu"bulent kinetic ene"!+ 7i.e. tu"bulent -iscosit+ and -elocit+ fluctuations9.
Turbulence $Euations
Te 2e+nolds A-e"a!ed $a-ie"-Stokes e:uations a"e used fo" deducin! te t"ans#o"t e:uation fo" te
tu"bulent kinetic ene"!+ k and tu"bulent dissi#ation "ate ). Te t4o ne4 t"ans#o"t e:uations and
dimensionless constant dete"mination fo" te calculations a"e #"esented e"e. 72A$S e:uations a"e
desc"ibed in A##endix A19.
$ransport %/uation for k
To obtain te e:uation fo" tu"bulent kinetic ene"!+ k5 com#licated al!eb"a and "ea""an!ements a"e
made to te time-a-e"a!ed continuit+ e:uation and te time-a-e"a!ed $a-ie"-Stokes e:uations fo"
momentum. Te matematical mani#ulations a"e -e"+ extensi-e5 and te"efo"e onl+ a so"t
desc"i#tion of 4at is done5 follo4ed b+ te "esultin! e:uations is #"esented.
Te 6 continuit+ e:uations a"e eac multi#lied b+ te "es#ecti-e fluctuatin! -elocit+ com#onent and
ten added to!ete". Te same #"ocess is ca""ied out fo" te 2e+nolds e:uations fo" momentum. Te
t4o "esultin! e:uations a"e subt"acted and "ea""an!ed extensi-el+. Te"ms fo" -iscous dissi#ation of
tu"bulent kinetic ene"!+ 7E:uation 609 and te %oussines: assum#tion 7E:uation 619 "elated to
2e+nold;s st"ess and tu"bulent -iscosit+ a"e #lu!!ed in to te s+stem. Tis "esults in te tu"bulent
kinetic ene"!+ e:uation5 as so4n belo4 in E:uation 66. HTennekes and @umle+5 11*.I
61
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
$Euation 22 ( )
b b
b b
b b b b
. b b
i j
i i i
i i i j
i i j j j
u u
: u u k
: k u p u u
t ; ; ; ; ;


1 _
+ +
1

, ]
Te"ms 7(((9 and 7&9 a"e "e#laced usin! scala" diffusion t"ans#o"t te"ms fo"
A(((C and te time-a-e"a!ed te"m fo" A&C to "esult in te follo4in!<
( ) b b
t i
i i j
i i k i j
: k k
: k u u
t ; ; ; ;

1
+
1

]
4e"e
k

is a constant tu"bulent Scmidt numbe" fo" k


Te te"ms 7(C-A&9 in E:uation 665 te tu"bulent kinetic ene"!+ k t"ans#o"t e:uation5 can be inte"#"eted
as te follo4in!<
A(C T"ansient te"m Accumulation of k 7"ate of can!e of k9
A((C Con-ecti-e t"ans#o"t T"ans#o"t of k b+ con-ection
A(((C Diffusi-e t"ans#o"t Difffusi-e t"ans#o"t of k b+ #"essu"e5 -iscous
st"esses5 and 2e+nolds st"esses 7must be modelled9
A(&C ="oduction te"m 2ate of #"oduction of k due f"om te mean flo4
A&C &iscous dissi#ation 2ate of -iscous dissi#ation of k 7must be modelled9

k

is a constant 7tu"bulent Scmidt numbe"9 of te k e:uation


Te abo-e e:uation fo" t"ans#o"t of k5 alon! 4it te e:uation fo" t"ans#o"t of )5 constitute te t4o
additional t"ans#o"t e:uations to be sol-ed in addition to te 2A$S e:uations in te k-e#silon
tu"bulence model. Te next section #"esents te e:uation fo" t"ans#o"t of ).
$ransport %/uation for )
$Euation 24 ( )
1 .
b b
t i
i i j
i i i j
:
: C u u C
t ; ; ; k ; k

_
1
+ +

1


]
,
Simila" to te t"ans#o"t e:uation fo" k5 te t"ans#o"t e:uation fo" ) includes te te"ms 0-&<
A(C Accumulation5 o" "ate of can!e5 of )5
6.
A(C A((C A(((C A(&C A&C
A(C A((C A(((C A(&C A&C
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
A((C 2ate of dest"uction of ).
A(((C Diffusi-e t"ans#o"t of )5
A(&C 2ate of #"oduction of )5 and
A&C T"ans#o"t of ) b+ con-ection5

?
1
C
? and
.
C a"e constants of te ) e:uation.
$urbulent 4iscosity
Anote" #a"amete" to find befo"e calculatin! te 2e+nolds st"esses is te tu"bulent -iscosit+
t

. To
dete"mine tis5 E:uations .1a5 .1b5 and 60 7as #"e-iousl+ #"esented9 a"e utiliLed. Te+ a"e<

t t
u l

( )
. . .
. 1
b b b
6 6
t
u k u . w + +
.J6
k
l
5 7o"
.J6
k
l
f"om a dimensional stand#oint9
8sin! dimensional anal+sis of te abo-e e:uations5 edd+ -iscosit+
t

is found to be<
$Euation 25
.
t u
k
C

4e"e
u
C is a constant.
0eynold1s ,tresses
Finall+5 te 2e+nold;s st"esses can be calculated usin! te %oussines: assum#tion 7E:uation 619<
.
b b
6
j
i
ij i j t ij
j i
:
:
u u k
; ;

_

+



,
Te e:uations fo" te k-e#silon tu"bulence model a-e been #"esented in tis section. Te+ a"e te
e:uations fo" tu"bulent kinetic ene"!+ k5 dissi#ation of tu"bulent kinetic ene"!+ e5 tu"bulent -iscosit+
t

5 and 2e+nold;s st"esses. Finall+5 te e:uations contain fi-e constants5 te -alues of 4ic a"e
listed belo4 in Table ).
Table 7+ Constant "alues for k0epsilon turbulence model eEuations+
u
C
1
C
.
C
k

0.01 1.AA 1.1. 1.0 1.6


Te next section ex#lains SST k-ome!a tu"bulence model in cont"ast to te k-e#silon model5 lists te
e:uation and -alues of te constants.
HH'e"ta!e"5 .00CI H&e"stee! and Malalaseke"a5 .00*I
#.#.2 ''& +,omega &urbulence Model
Te sea"-st"ess t"ans#o"t 7SST9 k-ome!a tu"bulence model is a t+#e of +b"id model5 combinin! t4o
models in o"de" to bette" calculate flo4 in te nea"-4all "e!ion. 0t 4as desi!ned in "es#onse to te
#"oblem of te k-epsilon model;s unsatisfacto"+ nea"-4all #e"fo"mance fo" bounda"+ la+e"s 4it
ad-e"se #"essu"e !"adients. 0t utiliLes a standa"d k-epsilon model to calculate flo4 #"o#e"ties in te
66
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
f"ee-st"eam 7tu"bulent9 flo4 "e!ion fa" f"om te 4all5 4ile usin! a modified k-) model nea" te 4all
usin! te tu"bulence f"e:uenc+ a as a second -a"iable instead of tu"bulent kinetic ene"!+ dissi#ation
te"m ). Since te ai" in tis #"o'ect;s eat excan!e" is flo4in! bet4een t4o flat fins -e"+ close to
eac ote"5 it is ex#ected tat te bounda"+ la+e" flo4 as a st"on! influence on te "esults5 and
#"o#e"l+ modellin! tis nea"-4all flo4 could be im#o"tant fo" accu"ac+ of te calculations.
Te"efo"e te SST k-omega tu"bulence model as also been cosen fo" CFD simulations in tis
#"o'ect.
Tis SST k-omega model is simila" to te k-epsilon tu"bulence model5 but instead of ) as te second
-a"iable5 it uses a tu"bulence f"e:uenc+ -a"iable ome!a5 4ic is ex#"essed as H D )Jk Hs
-1
I. Te
SST k-omega model com#utes 2e+nolds st"esses in te same 4a+ as in te k-epsilon model5 usin!
E:uation A(.
Te t"ans#o"t e:uation fo" tu"bulent kinetic ene"!+ k fo" te k-H model is<
$Euation 27 ( )
7 9
7 9 K
t
i k
i i k
k
: k grad k ' k
t ; ;

1
_
+ + +
1

, ]
.
.
6
i i i
k t ij
j j j
: : :
w5ere ' k
; ; ;

_





,

Te te"ms 7(C-A&9 in E:uation 6)5 te tu"bulent kinetic ene"!+ k t"ans#o"t e:uation fo" te SST k-
omega tu"bulence model5 can be inte"#"eted as te follo4in!<
A(C T"ansient te"m Accumulation of k 7"ate of can!e of k9
A((C Con-ecti-e t"ans#o"t T"ans#o"t of k b+ con-ection
A(((C Diffusi-e t"ans#o"t Tu"bulent diffusion t"ans#o"t of k
A(&C ="oduction te"m 2ate of #"oduction of k
A&C Dissi#ation 2ate of dissi#ation of k

k

and
K
a"e e:uation constants.
Te t"ans#o"t e:uation fo" tu"bulent f"e:uenc+ H fo" te k-H model is<
$Euation 21
( )
.
. .
51 5.
.
7 9 . .
6
t i i i
i ij
i i j j j k k
: : : k
: grad
t ; ; ; ; ; ; ;




1 _ _

+ + + +
1


1
, , ]
Te !ene"al desc"i#tion fo" eac of te te"ms in E:uation 6* 709 to 7&9 a"e te usual te"ms fo"
accumulation5 con-ection5 diffusion5 #"oduction5 and dissi#ation of a. Te last te"m 7&09 is called a
Qc"oss-diffusion; te"m5 an additional sou"ce te"m5 and as a "ole in te t"ansition of te modellin!
f"om ) to H.
6A
A(C A((C A(((C A(&C A&C
A(C A((C A(((C A(&C A&C A&(C
4e"e 51

1
.

1 .

1 and 5.

a"e constants2)
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
Te constants fo" te SST k-omega tu"bulence model a"e listed in Table *.
Table 1+ Constant "alues for SST k0oega turbulence model eEuations+
K
.

51

5.

0.01 0.0(6 1.0 ..0 1.1* 0.AA


Additional modifications a-e been made to te model fo" #e"fo"mance o#timisation. Te"e a"e
blendin! functions added to im#"o-e te nume"ical stabilit+ and make a smoote" t"ansition bet4een
te t4o models. Te"e a-e also been limitin! functions made to cont"ol te edd+ -iscosit+ in 4ake
"e!ion and ad-e"se #"essu"e flo4s.
H&e"stee! and Malalaseke"a5 .00*I
Summar# of Turbulence Models
Te"e 4e"e man+ tu"bulence models to coose f"om to model te eat excan!e". Afte" conside"in!
te a-ailabilit+ of models in 3#enF3AM5 te a##licabilit+5 4ete" it 4as com#utationall+
economical5 and accu"ac+ based on #ast -alidation5 te k-epsilon and k-omega models 4e"e cosen to
ca""+ out simulations to com#a"ison 4it te lamina" flo4 model. Te k-epsilon model is a 4ell-
kno4n model and te most -alidated5 and is also com#utationall+ economical5 4ile te SST k-
omega model is mo"e accu"ate fo" bounda"+ la+e" flo4. Due to te tin cannel and influence of te
fin 4alls on te flo4 of ai" in te eat excan!e"5 it 4as decided to also ca""+ out simulations usin!
te SST k-omega model. Te calculated -alues fo" tu"bulent intensit+ I5 Jtu"bulent kinetic ene"!+ k5
tu"bulent dissi#ation 5 and ome!a H5 4ic a"e used fo" te simulations in tis #"o'ect a"e listed in Table C.

Table 5+ &alues used in this pro%ect for turbulence intensit# (? =inetic energ# =? dissipation e? and freEuenc# w+
B >CFD .nline? /668@ BB >.penFoam PG? /661@
Te metod of modellin! te 2e+nolds st"esses 4as desc"ibed5 and ex#lains 4+ te k-epsilon and k-
omega e:uations a"e unable to #"o#e"l+ simulate anisot"o#ic flo4 conditions. Te k-epsilon and k-
omega model e:uations 7t4o ne4 e:uations fo" k and )5 o" H5 a"e sol-ed in addition to te 2A$S
e:uations9 4e"e desc"ibed5 alon! 4it te com#a"in! and cont"astin! te diffe"ences bet4een te t4o
6C
.I U 0.1) K 0e
-"7K
k U 6J.7I?:9d
7E:n. A*9
(( U
7C"eKkfe9
J70.1K0.0.CA9 = / k
:
Lm7sM
2e+nolds numbe"
30e)
0ntensit+
3 I)
kinetic ene"!+
3k)
dissi#ation
79
f"e:uenc+
7a9
0,3 330 0,0775 0,0008 0,0015 1,8424
0,5 600 0,0719 0,0019 0,0055 2,8495
0,7 790 0,0695 0,0035 0,0137 3,8545
1,1 1300 0,0653 0,0077 0,0440 5,6914
1,5 1700 0,0631 0,0135 0,1010 7,5051
2,5 2900 0,0591 0,0327 0,3827 11,7007
3,7 4300 0,0562 0,0649 1,0702 16,4850
4,5 5200 0,0549 0,0916 1,7928 19,5786
5,4 6200 0,0537 0,1262 2,9003 22,9834
6,2 7200 0,0527 0,1602 4,1503 25,8997
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
tu"bulence models. &alues of te "ele-ant constants "e:ui"ed fo" tu"bulence modellin! 4e"e also
#"o-ided fo" bot tu"bulence models.
Te final t4o sections desc"ibe te "emainde" of to#ics in tis section co-e"in! com#utational fluid
d+namics5 and include desc"i#tions of te finite -olume metod5 nume"ical scemes5 and solution
al!o"itms5 as "ele-ant to tis #"o'ect5 4it details #"o-ided in A##endix A1< CFD Com#utations.
3.& Finite /olume *ethod and "i''erencing 0chemes
Te mass5 momentum5 and scala" t"ans#o"t e:uations a"e inte!"ated o-e" all te fluid elements in a
com#utational domain usin! CFD. Te finite -olume metod is a #a"ticula" finite diffe"encin!
nume"ical tecni:ue5 and is te most common metod fo" calculatin! flo4 in CFD codes. Tis
section desc"ibes te basic #"ocedu"es in-ol-ed in finite -olume calculations. Te com#utations a"e
desc"ibed in detail in A##endix A1< CFD Com#utations.
Te finite -olume metod in-ol-es fi"st c"eatin! a s+stem of al!eb"aic e:uations t"ou! te #"ocess
of disc"etisin! te !o-e"nin! e:uations fo" mass5 momentum5 and scala" t"ans#o"t. To account fo"
flo4 fluctuations due to tu"bulence in tis #"o'ect5 te 2A$S e:uations 7desc"ibed in A##endix A19
a"e disc"etised instead 4en te cases a"e "un usin! te k-epsilon o" k-omega tu"bulence models.
Gen te e:uations a-e been disc"etised usin! te a##"o#"iate diffe"encin! sceme fo" ex#"essin!
te diffe"ential ex#"essions in te inte!"al e:uation 7i.e. cent"al5 u#4ind5 +b"id5 o" #o4e"-la45 o"
ote" i!e"-o"de" diffe"encin! scemes95 te "esultin! al!eb"aic e:uations a"e sol-ed at eac node of
eac cell.
Te disc"etisation #"ocedu"e is !i-en in A##endix A15 4ile diffe"encin! scemes5 nume"ical
tecni:ues5 and te decisions made fo" nume"ical scemes used in tis #"o'ect a"e !i-en in tis next
section. Solution al!o"itms and o4 -elocit+ and #"essu"e a"e cou#led in o"de" to com#ute te
enti"e flo4 field a"e also desc"ibed.
Differencing Schemes
Te accu"ac+ of te solutions de#ends on te diffe"encin! scemes used in te disc"etisation #"ocess.
Te"e a"e diffe"ent diffe"encin! scemes a-ailable< cent"al5 u#4ind5 +b"id5 #o4e" la45 and -a"ious
i!e"-o"de" diffe"encin! scemes. Te cent"al diffe"encin! sceme is desc"ibed in some detail in
A##endix A1. Te u#4ind diffe"encin! sceme is te sceme used in te 3#enF3AM simulations
fo" tis #"o'ect.
Central Differencing ,c5eme
Te cent"al diffe"encin! metod can be ca"acte"ised as conse"-ati-e5 bounded at lo4e" =eclet
numbe"s5 but neite" bounded no" t"ans#o"ti-e at i!e" =eclet numbe"s. Since a di"ect linea" a-e"a!e
f"om te t4o faces is used fo" te #"o#e"t+5 te "esult of te diffe"encin! calculation 4ill be inco""ect
since te flo4 is mainl+ in a sin!le di"ection 7as is te case 4it te ai" flo4 in te eat excan!e" in
tis #"o'ect95 and te"efo"e i!l+ influenced b+ te #"o#e"t+ -alue 'ust u#st"eam f"om te node5 and
te #"o#e"t+ -alue sould be close" to tis -alue5 "ate" tan a sim#le a-e"a!e of te u#st"eam and
do4nst"eam -alue. 0n te case of cent"al diffe"encin!5 u must be -e"+ lo45 o" te =eclet numbe" must
be less tan . fo" te sceme to be conside"ed bounded. Kee#in! tis and te ote" mentioned
conside"ations in mind5 te cent"al diffe"encin! metod is not a##"o#"iate fo" tis #"o'ect.
:pwind Differencing ,c5eme
6)
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
Te u#4ind diffe"encin! sceme is desi!ned to be ca#able of accountin! fo" di"ectionalit+ of flo4. 0t
is used often in CFD codes fo" flo4 #"oblems5 4ic cannot be calculated 4it te cent"al
diffe"encin! sceme. 0f te flo4 is in one di"ection5 fo" exam#le te #ositi-e ;-di"ection 74it ' node
bet4een Jest and %ast nodes95 te #"o#e"t+ -alue at te ;
w
face is taken to be te same as te -alue at
te Jest node.
Te u#4ind diffe"encin! sceme is conse"-ati-e5 bounded5 and t"ans#o"ti-e. 0t contains a fi"st-o"de"
Ta+lo" se"ies t"uncation e""o"5 4ic can "esult in a t+#e of nume"ical e""o" called false diffusion
7o-e"-estimation of diffusion9 if te flo4 is not di"ectl+ ali!ned 4it te !"id5 causin! a diffusion-like
t"ans#o"ted #"o#e"t+ dist"ibution5 e-en 4e"e no diffusion is actuall+ occu""in!. Makin! a fine" !"id
im#"o-es te accu"ac+5 but it is still not com#letel+ co""ect. Fo" "esults of accu"ate flo4 calculations5
te u#4ind diffe"encin! sceme is not al4a+s te best5 and a i!e" o"de" sceme fo" "educin!
disc"etisation e""o"s can be cosen instead.
Fo" tis #"o'ect5 te u#4ind o" +b"id sceme 7desc"ibed belo45 but not a-ailable in 3#enF3AM9
4ould be #"efe""ed to use. 0n 3#enF3AM man+ scemes a"e a-ailable5 and te u#4ind diffe"encin!
sceme as desc"ibed abo-e is used. Fo" continuation of tis #"o'ect5 a i!e"-o"de" u#4ind o" +b"id
sceme could be cosen.
Diffe"encin! sceme calculations a"e descibed in A##endix A1.
Solution TechniEue
Gen disc"etised e:uations a"e c"eated fo" eac node in te com#utational domain5 usin! te "ele-ant
diffe"encin! sceme and modif+in! te fi"st and last node to inco"#o"ate bounda"+ conditions5 te
#"oblem is "ead+ to be sol-ed usin! a mat"ix solution tecni:ue. Te TDMA 7t"i-dia!onal mat"ix
al!o"itm9 is based on fo"4a"d eliminations follo4ed b+ back4a"d substitution and -a"iations of tis
7i.e. ite"ati-e line-b+-line metods fo" mo"e com#licated t4o- and t"ee-dimensional #"oblems9 a"e
used to!ete" 4it a S0M=@E 7o" -a"iation9 al!o"itm fo" linkin! #"essu"e to -elocit+. Dauss-Seidel
#oint ite"ati-e tecni:ues a"e also a-ailable. Te scala" #"o#e"t+ of inte"est is found b+ sol-in! tis
s+stem of linea" al!eb"aic e:uations.
Te solution al!o"itm S0M=@E 7semi-im#licit metod fo" #"essu"e-linked e:uations95 used to sol-e
fo" te -elocit+ field in all t"ee di"ections and te #"essu"e5 is desc"ibed in te next section.

HH'e"ta!e"5 .00*I H&e"stee! and Malalaseke"a5 .00*I
3.1 0olution 2lgorithms
Te -alue of te scala" #"o#e"ties of inte"est 7i.e. tem#e"atu"e9 at a #a"ticula" location in te
com#utational domain de#ends on te flo4;s di"ection and -elocit+5 4ic must also be sol-ed fo" in
te calculation #"ocess. To Te"e a"e man+ al!o"itms a-ailable fo" tis #u"#ose5 te most #o#ula"
a"e te S0M=@E and =0S3 metods. Tis section desc"ibes te S0M=@E al!o"itm and com#a"es it
to te =0S3 al!o"itm. A so"t o-e"-ie4 of te Qsta!!e"ed !"id; is also !i-en.
0n o"de" to calculate te enti"e flo4 field5 te momentum e:uations in all t"ee di"ections and te
continuit+ e:uation must be sol-ed5 4ic include te"ms fo" eac -elocit+ com#onent and te
#"essu"e !"adient. Te"e is te"efo"e a cou#lin! bet4een #"essu"e and te t"ee -elocit+ com#onents.
6*
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
0n cases 4e"e te #"essu"e !"adient is kno4n5 te usual disc"etisation tecni:ues can be used to
obtain disc"etised e:uations fo" -elocit+5 since #"essu"e can be calculated as an+ ote" scala".
Ho4e-e"5 te"e is no t"ans#o"t e:uation fo" #"essu"e alone5 and te"efo"e #"essu"e must be found
usin! anote" metod 4en te #"essu"e !"adient is not kno4n. 0f te flo4 is com#"essible5 te
t"ans#o"t of densit+ is found usin! te continuit+ e:uation and a scala" #"o#e"t+ suc as tem#e"atu"e
is found b+ te combination of te momentum e:uations and ene"!+ e:uation. Ten te solutions fo"
densit+ and tem#e"atu"e a"e used fo" findin! te #"essu"e usin! te e:uation of state. Gen fluid is
incom#"essible te densit+ is not linked to #"essu"e5 a !uess-and-ceck tecni:ue suc as S0M=@E is
"e:ui"ed in o"de" to sol-e te enti"e flo4 field.
The Staggered Grid
Te flo4 and "elati-e t"ans#o"t e:uations a"e disc"etised. Ten it must be decided 4e"e te -elocit+
com#onent -alues 4ill be sto"ed. 0f te+ a"e sto"ed at te same nodes as #"essu"e and ote" scala"
-a"iables5 a #a"ticula" #"oblem of a Qcecke"-boa"d; #"essu"e field a"ises due to linea" inte"#olation of
#"essu"e du"in! te #"ocess of disc"etisin! te e:uations. 0t "esults in te #"essu"e a-in! disc"etised
!"adients of Le"o at all nodal #oints5 and te disc"etised momentum e:uations a"e not #"o#e"l+
"e#"esentin! te #"essu"e.
To sol-e te Qcecke"boa"d; #"oblem5 te -elocit+ com#onents can be defined at te faces5 4ile
scala" -a"iables 7i.e. #"essu"e5 densit+5 tem#e"atu"e9 a"e sto"ed at te usual nodal #oints. Tis "esults
in te scala" -a"iable cont"ol -olumes 7sometimes called te #"essu"e cont"ol -olume9 bein! diffe"ent
f"om te -elocit+ cont"ol -olumes5 and "ealistic #"essu"e !"adient "esults.
The S(MP0$ lgorithm
Te S0M=@E al!o"itm is a !uess-and-co""ect tecni:ue to dete"mine te -alues fo" #"essu"e on a
sta!!e"ed !"id. 0t is ite"ati-e and must be done in te s#ecific o"de" 4en ote" scala"s a"e also
calculated. Te !ene"al #"ocedu"e fo" te tecni:ue is so4n in Fi!u"e 1.5 4ic is follo4ed b+ a
desc"i#tion of te ste#s in te al!o"itm.
6(
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
Te ste#s in te S0M=@E al!o"itm5 as so4n in Fi!u"e 1.5 a"e summa"iLed as<
ST*T
Estimate a sta"tin! !uess fo" te #"essu"e field p?.
ST$P ,
61
0nitial !uesses fo" p?5 -elocit+ com#onents u?, .?,
w?5 and ote" scala" #"o#e"ties N? 7i.e. $9.
ST3=
STA2T
STE= 1< Sol-e disc"etised
momentum e:uations
STE= .< Sol-e fo" #"essu"e
co""ection e:uation
STE= 6< Co""ect
#"essu"e and -elocities
STE= A< Sol-e te ote"
disc"etised t"ans#o"t e:uations
Con-e"!enceW
Fes
$o
Set sol-ed -alues e:ual
to ne4 initial !uesses.
#KU#5 uKUu5 -KU-5
4KU45 ND N?
Figure ,/. The S(MP0$ lgorithm >&ersteeg and Malalase=era? /661@
p1
p, u, ., w, N?
N
u?, .?, w?
>D%ertager? /661@
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
Sol-e te disc"etised momentum e:uations fo" te -elocit+ com#onents5 usin! te line-
TDMA metod5 and based on te #"essu"e !uess #K. Fo" a t"ee-dimensional case as
te one in tis #"o'ect5 ) disc"etised momentum balances a"e sol-ed fo" eac of te six
nei!bo"s fo" node = 7G5 E5 S5 $5 %5 and T9. Tis ste# "esults in findin! -alues fo" u?,
.?, w?5 based on pK.
ST$P /
Sol-e fo" #"essu"e co""ection e:uation to find te #"essu"e co""ection #;. Tis is done
4it te disc"etised continuit+ e:uation b+ findin! te mass imbalance b
'
and bet4een
total mass flo4 inflo4 and te total mass outflo4 of te six Q!uessed; -elocities
7calculated based on te !uessed #"essu"e p?9.
ST$P 2
Co""ect te #"essu"e and -elocit+ com#onents usin! te #"essu"e co""ection5 4e"e te
co""ection 7#;9 is added to te initial !uess 7#K95 to !et te ne4 #"essu"e field #5 o"<
$Euation 28 K b p p p +

Tis ste# of te S0M=@E al!o"itm "esults in calculated -alues fo" -elocit+ com#onents
and #"essu"e< p, u, ., w, N?5 afte" co""ectin! te !uesses5 4ic satisf+ te continuit+
e:uation.
ST$P 4
Sol-e te ote" disc"etised t"ans#o"t e:uations usin! te line-TDMA metod to !et
calculated -alues fo" te "emainin! scala" -a"iables N
C.-&$*G$-C$
Afte" ste# A5 te out#uts a"e tested fo" con-e"!ence 7meanin! tat te mass imbalance
is -e"+ close to Le"o95 and if tis is not 4itin te -alue "e:ui"ed fo" con-e"!ence5 te
#"o!"am loo#s back to te be!innin!5 usin! te ne4l+ calculated #"essu"e5 -elocit+5 and
ote" scala" -alues as te next sta"tin! !uess. Te #"ocess continues until con-e"!ence
occu"s 7ite"ation9.
*elaxation Factors
3ften te #"essu"e co""ection is too la"!e5 causin! unstable calculations and di-e"!ence "ate" tan
con-e"!ence. Due to tis #"oblem5 te ite"ation #"ocedu"e must be slo4ed do4n to unde"-"elax te
#"essu"e co""ections. Tis is done b+ utiliLin! an unde"-"elaxation facto"

of bet4een 0 and 15
4ic is multi#lied b+ te co""ection facto" so tat onl+ a f"action of te o"i!inall+ calculated
co""ection facto" is actuall+ used in te calculation5 7fo" exam#le 4it te #"essu"e co""ection9<
$Euation 2;
K b
p
p p p +
8nde"-"elaxation facto"s a"e also used fo" te -elocit+ com#onents. 3scillato"+ o" di-e"!ent
solutions a"e a "esult of too la"!e -alues fo"

5 4ile -e"+ slo4 con-e"!ence "esults f"om too small


of -alues fo" te unde"-"elaxation facto". Te"efo"e5 te co""ect unde"-"elaxation facto" is im#o"tant
fo" a con-e"!ed solution5 but cannot be dete"mined in !ene"al and must be dete"mined fo" eac
s#ecific CFD case. 0n 3#enF3AM5 te default -alues a"e 0.6 fo"
p

7fo" #"essu"e95 and 0.* fo" te


A0
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
-elocit+. Tese 4e"e used fo" te cases sol-ed usin! te sim#leFoam sol-e"5 4ile fo" te
"oSim#leFoam cases 7and te sin!le "oTu"bFoam95 it 4as necessa"+ to "eset tese -alues to 0.. fo"
#"essu"e
p

and 0.C fo" -elocit+5 and in "oTu"bFoam to 0.1 and 0.6 fo" #"essu"e and -elocit+
co""ection facto"s5 "es#ecti-el+.
Te"e a"e also ote" -e"sions of te S0M=@E metod a-ailable< S0M=@E2 7S0M=@E-2e-ised9 and
S0M=@EC 7S0M=@E-Consistent9. Te S0M=@E2 -e"sion in-ol-es usin! a disc"etised #"essu"e
e:uation "ate" tan te S0M=@E co""ection e:uation used fo" #"essu"e5 4ile te -elocit+ field is
still calculated usin! co""ections. Te S0M=@EC -e"sion omits te"ms f"om te -elocit+ co""ection
e:uation.
HH'e"ta!e"5 .00*I H&e"stee! and Malalaseke"a5 .00*I
The P(S. lgorithm
Te =0S3 7="essu"e 0m#licit 4it S#littin! of 3#e"ato"s9 al!o"itm can be conside"ed a continuation
of te S0M=@E al!o"itm. =0S3 also in-ol-es makin! a !uess fo" #"essu"e5 p?5 and calculatin! te
-elocit+ com#onents u?, .?, and w? based on tis p?. Te"e is a co""ection ste# to #"essu"e and
-elocit+ fields5 'ust as 4it te S0M=@E metod. Ho4e-e"5 a second5 additional5 co""ecto" ste# usin!
te "esults f"om te fi"st co""ection is ca""ied out 'ust afte" calculatin! te fi"st co""ection. Gen te
-alues fo" co""ected #"essu"e and -elocit+ fields 7no4 co""ected t4ice9 a"e dete"mined5 te ote"
scala" t"ans#o"t e:uations a"e sol-ed. Te =0S3 al!o"itm "e:ui"es mo"e sto"a!e fo" te ext"a
co""ection ste#5 "esultin! in mo"e com#utational "esou"ces needed.
HH'e"ta!e"5 .00*I H&e"stee! and Malalaseke"a5 .00*I
Summar# of Solution lgorithms
Te S0M=@E al!o"itm is used fo" tis #"o'ect5 in te sol-e"s sim#leFoam and "oSim#leFoam. 0t is
a kno4n al!o"itm and used in man+ CFD codes. S0M=@E2 can be used to mo"e efficientl+ use
com#ute" #"ocessin! time 7e-en tou! te"e a"e mo"e calculations9 since it uses te co""ect -alue fo"
#"essu"e. Fo" ce"tain t+#es of flo45 S0M=@EC and =0S3 can be 'ust as efficient as S0M=@E2.
Gic al!o"itm to use de#ends on te s#ecific case bein! studied< te flo4 conditions5 de!"ee of
de#endence of momentum and scala"s5 and te s#ecific nume"ical scemes used.
0t is assumed tat te ai" flo4 in te eat excan!e" "eaces a stead+-state and does not contain
fluctuations in time. Te"efo"e stead+-state calculations 7"ate" tan t"ansient9 a"e te focus.
Ho4e-e"5 to in-esti!ate te #ossibilit+ of tis5 one simulation 4as ca""ied out and "esults looked as
tou! te+ 4e"e stead+-state. To calculate tis situation5 te solution al!o"itms can be calculated
o-e" time5 in 4ic case =0S3 is #"obabl+ #"efe""ed5 4ile S0M=@E can be con-e"ted to "un t"ansient
calculations5 and te continuit+ imbalance 4ill contain an ext"a t"ansient te"m to account fo" te time
inte!"als of te -a"iables5 and an ite"ation #"ocess is used so tat te solution con-e"!es fo" eac time
ste# 7com#utationall+ ex#ensi-e9. 0n te case of tis #"o'ect5 since stead+-state bea-iou" is studied5
te t"ansient solution #"ocedu"es a"e not desc"ibed in detail.
4 Preliminar" !esults and )bserations
Tis section #"esents some #"elimina"+ "esults and obse"-ations f"om te simulations ca""ied out in
tis #"o'ect. Te simulations included ten diffe"ent 2e+nolds numbe"s 7based on ten inlet ai"flo4
-elocities95 all simulated in t"ee flo4 models< lamina"5 k-epsilon tu"bulence model5 and SST k-
A1
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
omega tu"bulence model. Fi"st te "esults of te !"id inde#endence test a"e #"esented. Ten a
desc"i#tion of te sin!le t"ansient case 4ic 4as ca""ied out in o"de" to in-esti!ate if te ai" flo4
bea-iou" in tis eat excan!e" can be conside"ed stead+-state. Finall+5 some initial obse"-ations of
te flo4 and tem#e"atu"e fields fo" cases f"om lo4 and i! 2e+nolds numbe"s a"e com#a"ed and
cont"asted. Te next section 7Section C< 2esults9 "e-ie4s te final "esults of te #"o'ect.
&.1 Results o' Grid 3ndependence )est
Te"e 4e"e a total of 11 diffe"ent !"id s+stems in-esti!ated to dete"mine o4 fine te !"id sould be
and to -alidate te solution inde#endenc+ of te !"id. Te mes s+stems 4e"e de-elo#ed usin!
SalomR5 as desc"ibed in Section ..6< $ume"ical mes. Fi"st5 unst"uctu"ed tet"aed"al !"ids 4e"e
made5 and ten a mo"e st"uctu"ed exa!onal mes 4as c"eated containin! some unst"uctu"ed a"eas
a"ound te tube 4alls 7as seen in Fi!u"e 69. Te meses contained te follo4in! numbe" of fluid
elements 7a##"oximatel+9< (0005 .C0005 C00005 *C0005 and 1005000. Te #"edicted a-e"a!ed #"essu"e
d"o#s fo" te fi-e !"ids a"e listed in Table * and illust"ated in Fi!u"e 11.
Figure ,/+ Grid independence test for both tetrahedral and hexagonal meshes? with pol#nomial trend line
illustrating hexagonal mesh trendK *e I 7/66+
Te 11 cases 4e"e "un usin! te sim#leFoam sol-e" usin! te k-epsilon tu"bulence model and
illust"ated in Fi!u"e 165 4it a t"end-line c"eated fo" te exa!onal mes #oints. 0t can be seen in
Fi!u"e 16 tat te simulated #"essu"e d"o# sta"ts at a lo4e" -alue5 ten stabiliLes f"om total numbe" of
finite -olumes f"om .C5000 to about *C50005 afte" 4ic te #"essu"e d"o# a##ea"s to inc"ease a!ain.
Te i!e" #"essu"e d"o# calculated 4it te 1C05000 cells ma+ not be a stable -alue5 since te
k-epsilon model cannot accu"atel+ #"edict te flo4 on fine !"ids nea" 4alls5 since it is built to model
f"ee-st"eam flo4. Tis ma+ be te "eason fo" a #ossible unstable #"essu"e d"o# -alue f"om te
simulation 4it a fine" mes. Had te mes been sufficientl+ "efined in te local a"eas a"ound te
tube 4alls and a!ainst te fins5 and te a##"o#"iate tu"bulence model utiliLed 7ca#able of calculatin!
te 4all effects95 a !"id inde#endence test 4ould not so4 an a##"eciable diffe"ence in te "esults
A.
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
74it "es#ect to te total cell numbe"9 since te !"id sensiti-e a"eas 4ould a-e been taken into
account HSon! and $isino5 .00(I.
As desc"ibed #"e-iousl+5 it #"o-ed difficult to use SalomR to "efine te mes onl+ in te eat
excan!e" co"e model 7locall+ "efined mes9 4itout a-in! com#utation #"oblems due to te
#a"titions in 3#enF3AM5 tou! tis 4ould a-e been a bette" use of com#utational "esou"ces 7i.e.
"efine te mes in te co"e and a"ound te tubes5 4ile makin! a coa"se" mes fo" te extended
-olumes9. Te com#ute" used fo" simulations in tis stud+ 4as not ca#able of efficientl+ c"eatin! in
SalomR te meses containin! 1C05000 o" mo"e cells eite"5 and fo" tese "easons5 it 4as necessa"+ to
use a coa"se" !"id 4itout locall+ "efinin! it95 and te mes of a##"oximatel+ C05000 cells 4as
cosen. Tis "esults of tis !"id lies in bet4een te lo4e" and u##e" bounds of te QstabiliLed;
#"essu"e d"o# data 7bet4een !"ids 4it .C5000 -olumes and *C5000 -olumes9.
Table 8+ Grid independence test results+
tetra*edral mes* *e+a%onal mes*
number of cells P drop number of cells P drop
8465 33 3000 33
25000 37 30000 37
50000 40 50000 38
75000 38 67000 38
100000 40 117000 42
150000 49

&.2 Pressure )racer in )ransient !ase
To confi"m tat te flo4 in te eat excan!e" can be conside"ed stead+-state and te stead+-state
sol-e"s can be accu"atel+ used fo" tis #"o'ect5 a t"ansient case 4as "un usin! te Q"oTu"bFoam;
sol-e" in 3#enF3AM 74it inlet ai"flo4 -elocit+ of ).. mJs9. Tis 4as done in o"de" to find out if
te"e a"e fluctuation #atte"ns in te ai"flo45 makin! it an unstead+ flo4. 0n tis case5 a #"essu"e
t"ace" 4as 4"itten into te #"o!"am to follo4 te can!es occu""in! in #"essu"e in Q"eal-time;5 and see
if it is #ossible te"e is a #atte"n of fluctuations.
Te fi"st second of ai"flo4 t"ou! te eat excan!e" is simulated o-e" -e"+ small time-ste#s. To
"eac a solution mo"e :uickl+5 te final "esults fo" all fields f"om a stead+-state k-epsilon case 74it
te same inlet ai"flo4 -elocit+9 4as used as te sta"tin! -alues fo" tis t"ansient case. Te simulation
is "un fo" 1 second5 and #"essu"e t"ace"s 4e"e 4"itten into te #"o!"am at te inlet and outlet of te
eat excan!e" co"e model in o"de" to t"ack an+ #ossible fluctuations occu""in! in te so"t #e"iod of
time. Te -alues fo" te measu"ements "eco"ded fo" #"essu"e du"in! te fi"st 0.1 s. a"e illust"ated in
Fi!u"e .0. Te"e a"e some fluctuations in te -e"+ be!innin!5 but -alues :uickl+ stabiliLe and -e"+
little fluctuation5 if an+5 is detected at te 0.1 second ma"k. An animation 4as also ca""ied out in
=a"aFoam5 4ic also so4ed a stead+-state 4as "eaced. Te"efo"e it 4as dete"mined te stead+-
state sol-e"s could be used fo" sol-in! tis case.
A6
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
Figure ,2+ Pressure tracer measurements at inlet and outlet for the first 6+, s+ of a transient case+
&.2 !haracteristics o' Flo4
Tis section desc"ibes te initial obse"-ations found usin! #a"a&ie4 afte" "unnin! te CFD
simulations in 3#enF3AM. Te ca"acte"istics of lo4-2e+nolds flo4 and i!-2e+nolds flo4 a"e
com#a"ed 4it contou" #lots of -elocit+ 4it -ecto"s 7Fi!u"es 1C and 1)95 and contou" #lot of
tu"bulent kinetic ene"!+ k 7Fi!u"es 1* and 1(9.
6+66 6+//, 6+44/ 6+778 6+884
Figure ,4+ Contours and "ector plot for 3 "elocit# field? SST k0oega flow model? inlet air flow 6+2 m's+
&elocit# .bser"ations
Te flo4 #atte"ns of te t4o cases at lo4 and i!-2e+nolds numbe"s 7inlet ai" -elocit+ 0.6 mJs -s.
).. mJs9 a"e simila". Te ai" ente"s at te inlet on te left and flo4s in te di"ection of te a""o4s5 and
exits at te outlet on te "i!t-and side.
0n bot cases5 as te ai" flo4s a"ound te fi"st tube5 it be!ins to s#eed u# and ten te ai" -elocit+
inc"eases a!ain as it !oes a"ound te second tube. Tis is -e"ified b+ te sam#les taken in te case
files fo" a-e"a!e -elocities at te minimum f"ee-flo4 a"eas5 4ic so4ed tat te -elocit+ !oin!
a"ound te second tube is faste" tan tat !oin! a"ound te fi"st tube. 7Data is in A##endix A.9. Te
AA
0.0000000 0.0100000 0.0200000 0.0300000 0.0400000 0.0500000 0.0600000 0.0700000 0.0800000 0.0900000 0.1000000
99800
99850
99900
99950
100000
100050
100100
100150
100200
re!!ure "n
re!!ure #ut
time 3s)
=
"
e
s
s
u
"
e

H
'
a
I
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
minimum f"ee-flo4 a"ea is te a"ea of te eat excan!e" bet4een t4o t"ans-e"se tubes5 so te a"ea
'ust abo-e tube one o" 'ust belo4 te second tube a"e te minimum f"ee-flo4 a"eas. Te flo4 is
fo"ced to s#eed u#5 as te tubes act as a t+#e of #i#e cont"action in te ai" flo4 cannel.
Te i!est -elocit+ a"eas a"e 'ust off te st"eamlines flo4in! di"ectl+ a"ound te tubes5 and located
at te a"ea of minimum f"ee-flo4. 0n te case of te case 4it inlet -elocit+ of 0.6 mJs5 te to#
-elocit+ at te second tube is 0.(( mJs5 nea"l+ 6 times te inlet -elocit+. Fo" te ).. mJs inlet flo4
case5 te to# -elocit+ "eaces 1C mJs5 mo"e tan t4ice te inlet -elocit+.
0t is obse"-ed at te siLe of te tubes im#act te 2e+nolds numbe" of te ai" flo4in! a"ound tem5
since 4it la"!e" tubes 7at te same distance f"om eac ote"95 te"e 4ould be an e-en smalle"
minimum f"ee-flo4 a"ea if te t"ans-e"se #itc "emained te same. 0n tis stud+5 te ca"acte"istic
len!t fo" te 2e+nolds numbe" is te tube colla" diamete"5 and it can be seen e"e5 tat inc"eases in
tis #a"amete" 74ile kee#in! t"ans-e"se #itc te same9 can induce i!e" -elocities and 4it it a
i!e" tu"bulence and 2e+nolds numbe".
0n te case of i!e" ai" flo45 te "eci"culation Lones beind eac tube contain small backflo4 a"eas5
7tou! difficult to see in Fi!u"e 1)9. Te second "eci"culation Lone a##ea"s la"!e". 0n te case 4it
0.6 mJs inlet -elocit+5 o4e-e"5 a "eci"culation Lone 4as not noticeable as it 4as fo" te case 4it
inlet -elocit+ of ).. mJs.
:inetic $nerg# k distribution
Te kinetic ene"!+ contou" #lots can be seen to -e"if+ #"e-ious obse"-ations made "e!a"din! flo4. 0t
is seen in Fi!u"e 1*5 4ic illust"ates te kinetic ene"!+ k dist"ibution fo" te lo4 2e+nolds numbe"
case. Te"e is no kinetic ene"!+ inc"ease in te a"eas beind te tubes fo" tis case. Te kinetic
ene"!+ inc"eases 7sli!tl+9 in a diffe"ent a"ea co""es#ondin! to te inc"ease in -elocit+ as te ai" flo4s
a"ound te second tube. Te ote" a"ea of Fi!u"e 1*5 te #lot of lo4e" 2e+nolds numbe"5 4ic is
exibitin! i!e" kinetic ene"!+ is in te a"ea of i!e" tem#e"atu"es5 4ic can be seen f"om te
!"a# in Fi!u"e A.6. Ho4e-e"5 tis illust"ates tat e-en at -e"+ lo4 flo4 "ates5 some tu"bulent kinetic
ene"!+ could still be #"esent.
AC
)2)) 32$! $2!) 1122 1!2)
Figure ,5+ Contours and "ector plot for 3 "elocit# field? SST k0oega flow model? inlet air flow 7+/ m's+
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
)2))!&$ )2%%1 12$# 22#% 32!)
Figure ,1+ Contours of turbulent =inetic energ# = distribution? SST k0oega model? inlet air "elocit# 7+/ m's+
Fo" kinetic ene"!+ in te i!e"-2e+nolds numbe" case5 an inc"ease in kinetic ene"!+ is found clea"l+
afte" te fi"st tube5 in te same a"ea as te "eci"culation Lones obse"-ed in te i!e" 2e+nolds -alues.
Acco"din! to tis #lot5 ten5 te second "eci"culation Lone is not as tu"bulent as te fi"st "eci"culation
Lone. Tis makes sense because te di"ection of flo4 as can!ed as te ai" mo-es bet4een te t4o
tubes5 and is di"ected mo"e Qdo4n4a"d; at an an!le 7as so4n b+ te -ecto"s in Fi!u"e 1C. Te flo4
"ounds te tube at an an!le makin! less of an im#act 4it te tube and Qmissin!; te "eci"culation
Lone.
Flo4 and kinetic ene"!+ #lots a-e been com#a"ed and illust"ated te effect flo4 as on kinetic
ene"!+. Te next section desc"ibes te eat flo4 ca"acte"istics5 as -isualised in #a"aFoam fo" te
same cases as fo" flo4 and kinetic ene"!+. 0t is found tat te tem#e"atu"e can!es5 flo45 and kinetic
ene"!+ can be so4n to be connected.
A)
%22!e0)! )2))1)& )2))21$ )2))32! )2))433
Figure ,7+ Contours of turbulent =inetic energ# k distribution? SST k0oega model? inlet air "elocit# 6+2 m's+
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
&.3 !haracteristics o' (eat )rans'er
Te contou"s illust"atin! te local tem#e"atu"e dist"ibutions fo" te same cases as in te #"e-ious
section a"e illust"ated in Fi!u"es 115 .05 and .15 4it te latte" bein! a c"oss-section of te ai" flo4
cannel t"ou! te tickness 7L-di"ection9 in te middle of te cannel 7it 4as Qcut; at + U ).6C mm5
f"om L U o to L U ...A mm5 4it te cut "unnin! alon! te x-axis f"om 0 to AA mm , te len!t of te
eat excan!e"9.
Te fi"st most noticeable diffe"ence bet4een te t4o 2e+nolds numbe" eat t"ansfe" ca"acte"istics is
tat once stead+-state is "eaced5 te slo4e"-mo-in! ai" 70.6 mJs9 is eated u# muc mo"e in te fi"st
t4o "o4s tan in te case of i!e" 2e+nolds numbe" flo4s. Tis must be due to te fact tat te ai"
flo4s so slo4l+5 tat te"e is muc mo"e time to abso"b te eat 7lon!e" Q"esidence time;9. Had te
initial inlet conditions been made c+clical5 ten com#a"isons could be made dee#e" into te eat
excan!e" 7fo" exam#le afte" 10 o" 1. "o4s9 and see o4 te eat t"ansfe" com#a"es.
2$% 2&2 3)# 31& 333
Figure ,8+ Contours of temperature field? SST k0oega flow model? 6+2 m's inlet air "elocit#+
Altou! st"eamlines a"e not #+sicall+ d"a4n onto Fi!u"es 11 and .05 te+ can be seen fai"l+ clea"l+
4it te colo" cont"ast lines. 0t is seen tat te tem#e"atu"e st"eamlines "un #"acticall+ #e"#endicula"
to te -elocit+ st"eamlines in te be!innin! of te ai"flo4 cannel5 4it te isote"mal st"eamlines
"unnin! -e"tical and te -elocit+ of te flo4 o"iLontal. Tis acts as a c"oss-flo4 eat excan!e5 4it
te flo4 di"ectl+ b"in!in! te eat 4it it. 0t can ten be seen tat afte" te ai" as flo4ed t"ou! te
initial section of te eat excan!e"5 tis Qs+ne"!+; bet4een flo4 and eat t"ansfe" is no lon!e" as
effecti-e. Tis means tat te eat t"ansfe" coefficient is can!in! acco"din! to te st"eamline te
flo4 is in at te time. Tao et al. 7.00)9 as studied tis Qfield s+ne"!+ #"inci#le; effect and "e#o"ts
tat te inte"section an!le bet4een te tem#e"atu"e !"adient and te flo4;s -elocit+ is te main
mecanism b+ 4ic to inc"ease te eat t"ansfe".
A*
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
0t can be seen in Fi!u"e .0 tat te i!e" 2e+nolds numbe" flo4 as not onl+ a lo4e" tem#e"atu"e
can!e tan te #"e-ious exam#le5 but also a diffe"ent #atte"n 7diffe"ent kinds of isote"mal
st"eamlines9. Te la"!est tem#e"atu"e can!es fo" tis case a"e occu""in! in te "eci"culation and
Qslo4 -elocit+; Lones 7so4n #"e-iousl+ in te -ecto" and -elocit+ contou" #lot9 'ust afte" eac of te
tubes. As in te slo4-mo-in! flo4 in te case 4it 0.6 mJs -elocit+5 te slo4-mo-in! a"eas of te
eat excan!e" a"e also bette" able to abso"b eat. Te sta!!e"ed tube a""an!ement is desi!ned to
a-e tese slo4e"-mo-in! and "eci"culation a"eas to kee# te eat flo4in! to te ai"5 but at te same
time5 not allo4in! "eci"culation Lones to Qsta!nate; as can occu" in inline a""an!ements 4e"e tese
Lones do not kee# flo4in! HBan! et al.5 111CI.
Fi!u"e .0 illust"ate te contou"s ac"oss te L-di"ection in te middle of te ai"flo4 cannel 74ic
flo4s di"ectl+ bet4een te t4o tubes9. 0t can be seen tat te fins on te to# and bottom a"e eated5
and onl+ a -e"+ tin Qbounda"+; la+e" of ai" as time to be eated afte" fi"st ente"in! te cannel. 0t
can be seen 4e"e te flo4 4it eat f"om te fi"st tube 4a"ms u# te ai"5 but ten flo4s a4a+ a!ain
as all te ai" flo4 as to !o a"ound te second tube.
A(
2$% 2&2 3)# 31& 333
Figure /6+ Contours of temperature Field SST k0oega flow model? *-direction? 7+/ m's inlet air "elocit#+
2$% 2&2 3)# 31& 333
Figure ,;+ Contours of temperature field? SST k0oega flow model? 7+/ m's inlet air "elocit#+
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
&.& 0ummar$ o' Preliminar$ Observations
F"om te initial :ualitati-e obse"-ations of te !"a#s fo" flo4 -elocit+ and di"ection5 kinetic ene"!+5
and tem#e"atu"e fields5 it is clea" all a"e inte"connected. Te di"ection of flo4 st"eamlines com#a"ed
to eat t"ansfe" isote"mals dete"mines o4 4ell eat is t"ansfe""ed5 as illust"ated in te !"a+scales
fo" com#a"ison in Fi!u"e ... Kinetic ene"!+ is dete"mined bot b+ te flo4 -elocit+ and
tem#e"atu"e5 and #ockets of slo4e"-mo-in! and "e-ci"culatin! ai" afte" flo4in! b+ tubes t"ansfe"s te
bulk of te eat in faste"-mo-in! flo4.
A1
Figure /,+ Comparison of Figures ,5 and ,; to illustrate s#nerg#
between flow direction and temperature streamlines+ AFlow "elocit#
streamlines shown in top picture? and isothermal pattern shown in the
lower pictureC+
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
, Numerical !esults and Discussion
Tis section concludes te #"o'ect 4it te final "esults #"esented fo" te simulations ca""ied out on
te t4o-"o4 fin-and-tube eat excan!e". 0nt"oducto"+ simulations 4e"e ca""ied out in te
Qsim#leFoam; sol-e" 4itout tem#e"atu"e can!es calculate to !et an idea of o4 te SalomR and
3#enF3AM soft4a"e 4o"k to!ete" and to see if te calculations 4e"e in a Qball#a"k; "an!e of te
ex#e"imental -alues fo" diffe"ent 2e+nold;s numbe"s befo"e sta"tin! a "eal simulation #lan. Tese
initial simulation "esults 4e"e not ex#ected to be accu"ate since te densit+ diffe"ences in te cold
and eated ai" a"e not accounted fo" in te Qsim#leFoam; sol-e". Ten simulations 4it
Q"oSim#leFoam; 4e"e ca""ied out usin! a lamina" flo4 model and t4o tu"bulence models< k-epsilon
and SST k-omega. Te "esults of tese simulations 4e"e used to calculate te Fannin! f"iction facto"
f and Colbu"n j-facto" to ca"acte"iLe te ca#abilit+ of eac model to accu"atel+ #"edict #"essu"e d"o#
and eat t"ansfe" in te eat excan!e". Fi"st te "esults fo" f"iction facto" a"e !i-en 7bot fo" te
initial studies and tose modellin! tem#e"atu"e as 4ell95 follo4ed b+ Colbu"n '-facto" "esults and
discussion.
1.1 Friction Factor
(nitial Simulation with LsimpleFoamL Sol"er+
Te fi"st simulations 4e"e ca""ied out to find out o4 to !et te SalomR mesin! #"o!"am and
3#enF3AM CFD #"o!"am to 4o"k and lea"n to use te files as "elated to tis #"o'ect. Tem#e"atu"e
4as not modelled in tese5 and te"efo"e "esults 4e"e not ex#ected to be -e"+ accu"ate. Fo" tese
simulations5 onl+ te f"iction facto" 4as calculated and com#a"ed 4it ex#e"imental data.
Ho4e-e"5 as can be seen in Fi!u"e .65 it 4as found tat te #atte"ns in te !"a# 4e"e some4at
simila" fo" te ex#e"imental and simulated -alues5 and tat te flo4 models follo4ed te same
#atte"n5 4it a !"aduall+ dec"easin! f"iction facto" as 2e+nolds numbe" inc"eases. Also5 te diffe"ent
flo4 models acie-ed nea"l+ te same "esults. Te simulations 4it tem#e"atu"e included in te
calculations 4e"e ten "un to see o4 te simulations actuall+ com#a"ed 4it te ex#e"iments.
!i$%leFoa$ !i$ulation! &!. e'%eri$ent
0,0100
0,1000
1,0000
0 2000 4000 6000 8000
Re
f

(
l
o
g

!
c
a
l
e
)
e'%eri$ental &alue! *+ang an, C-ang, 1995.
/0%!ilon
/-o$ega 112
la$inar
Figure //+ (nitial LtrialL simulations in .penF.M using MsimpleFoamL sol"er+
C0
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
Simulations with LrhoSimpleFoamL Sol"er: Fanning friction factor results
Te -alues fo" te f"iction facto" f fo" te 10 test sam#les a"e #lotted a!ainst 2e+nolds $umbe" 70e
Dc
9
in Fi!u"e .A.
r-o1i$%leFoa$ !i$ulation! &!. e'%eri$ent
0,0100
0,1000
1,0000
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
Re
f

(
l
o
g

!
c
a
l
e
)
e'%eri$ental &alue! *+ang an, C-ang, 1995.
/0%!ilon
/-o$ega 112
la$inar
r-o2urbFoa$
Figure /2+ Fanning friction factor ' against *e#nolds number ,e for different inlet airflow "elocities and
flow models Alaminar? and turbulence models k0epsilon and k0oegaC with the same geometrical parameters+
0t can be seen f"om Fi!u"e .A5 tat in all cases te f"iction facto" 4as dec"easin! 4it inc"easin!
2e+nolds numbe". All of te models unde"estimated te f"iction facto"5 includin! te t"ansient
"oTu"bFoam case. At te lo4e" lamina" flo4s 7te fi"st fou" #oints at te lo4e" 2e+nolds numbe"95
of 2e+nolds numbe" f"om 660 to 16005 all te models found nea"l+ identical "esults. As te flo4
mo-ed into t"ansition5 it a##ea"s te lamina" flo4 model came muc close" to te ex#e"imental
-alues. At te t"ansition #oint f"om t"ansition to tu"bulent5 4ic a##ea"s to a-e a c"itical 2e+nold;s
-alue of bet4een 1*00 and .100 7te exact -alue is not kno4n5 since te"e 4e"en;t enou! data
#oints !i-en to be su"e95 once a!ain5 none of te models 4e"e bette" tan anote". Afte" mo-in! into
tu"bulent flo45 o4e-e"5 te k-Omega SST ad te best accu"ac+5 and te lamina" flo4 model able to
model te f"iction facto" com#a"ed to te k-%psilon model.
C1
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
-rror s. !e
-5,00
0,00
5,00
10,00
15,00
20,00
25,00
30,00
35,00
40,00
45,00
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
!e
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

-
r
r
o
r
la$inar error
/-e error
/-3 error

Figure /4b+ Fanning friction factor ': $rror b# flow model "s+ *e+
Te "esults fit "easonabl+ 4it 4at o4 te diffe"ent models calculate te flo4. %ot te k-omega
and k-epsilon a"e t4o-e:uation models c"eated fo" calculate tu"bulence5 tu"bulent kinetic ene"!+5 etc.5
and te"efo"e in lamina" flo4 te additional tu"bulence te"ms do not inc"ease te accu"ac+ since te"e
is no tu"bulence to model in lamina" flo4 an+4a+. Te k-epsilon model 4as te least accu"ate flo4
model of tem all5 and tis is #"obabl+ due to tat te e:uations onl+ model kinetic ene"!+ and
dissi#ation and a"e accu"ate fo" f"ee-flo4in! fluids5 and te"efo"e te f"iction facto" a!ainst te 4all
is not ca#able of bein! accu"atel+ calculated.
1.2 !olburn j,Factor
Te eat t"ansfe" ca"acte"isation #a"amete" Colbu"n j-facto" as been calculated f"om te simulation
"esults fo" te diffe"ent flo4 models. Te e""o" is so4n in Fi!u"e .Cb. Te flo4 models so4ed -e"+
clea" diffe"ences in abilities to simulate eat t"ansfe" at te diffe"ent 2e+nol ds numbe"s. 0n lamina"
flo45 te lamina" flo4 model 4as te best fo" #"edictin! te j-facto"5 as 4ould be ex#ected. Te
t"ansition eat flo4 4as best ca"acte"iLed 4it te k-omega tu"bulence model5 4ile tu"bulent eat
flo4 4as best calculated usin! te k-e#silon model5 altou! at te -e"+ i!est 2e+nolds numbe"5
*0005 none of te models 4e"e accu"ate.
Colburn j-f actor &!. Re4nol,! nu$ber
0,0010
0,0100
0,1000
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
Re
j
-
f
a
c
t
o
r
e'%er.
la$inar
/-e
/-3
Figure /4+ Colburn --factor against *e#nolds number ,e for different inlet airflow "elocities and
flow models Alaminar? and turbulence models k0epsilon and k0oegaC with the same geometrical parameters
C.
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
-rror s. !e"nolds number
-5
15
35
55
75
95
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
!e
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

-
r
r
o
r
la$inar error
/-e error
/-3 error
Figure /5b+ Colburn %-factor error: $rror b# flow model "s+ *e+
1.3 0ummar$ o' Results
="elimina"+ simulations 4e"e "un to see o4 te simulations a"e "un5 and if te "esults a"e in ball#a"k
"an!e of te ex#e"imental -alues. 0t 4as found te f"iction facto" 4as not ext"emel+ fa" f"om te
ex#e"imental -alues. Ho4e-e"5 as te"e a"e no eat flo4 in te simulations 74ile te"e 4as eat flo4
in te ex#e"iments95 te solutions 4e"e not ex#ected to matc -e"+ closel+ an+4a+s.
Simulations 4e"e ten "un to dete"mine f"iction facto" f and Colbu"n j-facto". Te "esults found tat
diffe"ent flo4 models #e"fo"med best acco"din! to 2e+nolds numbe" and 4ete" accu"ate solutions
4e"e desi"ed fo" #"essu"e d"o# o" eat t"ansfe".
Te o#timal conditions fo" simulatin! te t4o-"o4 fin-and-tube eat excan!e" a"e summa"iLed
belo4. Fi"st5 te o#timal simulation conditions fo" dete"minin! te f"iction facto" a"e so4n5 and
ten Colbu"n j-facto" afte" tat. Te e""o" as found fo" flo4 model -s. 2e+nolds numbe" is also
so4n.
Simulation conditions fo" dete"minin! Fanning friction factor '+
Flow regime Flow model Percent $rror A"s+ *eC
@amina" 2e 660-1600 $o o#timal model found nJa
T"ansitional 2e 1600-.100 @amina" flo4 model -0.C O
Tu"bulent 2e .100-).00 SST k-ome!a tu"bulence model A O - 11.C O
Flow regime Flow model Percent $rror A"s+ *eC
@amina" 2e 660-1600 $o o#timal model found nJa
T"ansitional 2e 1600-.100 SST k-omega tu"bulence model ..A , 1*.( O
Tu"bulent 2e .100-).00 k-epsilon tu"bulence model 1.1 O - 1.A O
C6
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
. Discussion
Simulations fo" tis #"o'ect 4e"e ca""ied out follo4in! as closel+ as #ossible te same o#e"atin!
conditions and !eomet"ical confi!u"ations of te t4o-"o4 tube-fin eat excan!e"5 4it tube colla"
diamete" of 10..6 mm and fin #itc ...6 mm5 as #"esented in te #a#e" b+ Gan! et al. 7111)9. Te
2e+nolds numbe" "an!es f"om 660 to *0005 4ic co""es#ond to te f"ontal ai" -elocit+ at te inlet
"an!in! f"om 0.6 to ).. mJs.
Te 4o"k done fo" tis #"o'ect as so4n tat it is #ossible to make #"actical simulations of eat flo4
and #"essu"e d"o# fo" a tube-and-fin eat excan!e" usin! o#en sou"ce CFD soft4a"e5 and -alidate
te "esults a!ainst ex#e"imental data. Data "esultin! f"om te simulations sould be as accu"ate as
#ossible5 and te"efo"e some conside"ations can be taken in futu"e 4o"k to attem#t to fu"te" im#"o-e
te simulation conditionsJcalculations and te accu"ac+ of te "esults. Tese im#"o-ements could
include can!es to te follo4in! a"eas of CFD simulation<
A mo"e com#"eensi-e !"id inde#endence test.
Can!es to te fin tem#e"atu"e based on fin effecti-eness calculations. Te efficienc+
e:uation !i-en in %a!!io and Fo"nasie"i 7111A9 assumes a unifo"m ai" and fin
tem#e"atu"e5 4ic is not te case in tis #"o'ect. As so4n b+ A+ et al. 7.0019 and
"esults f"om inf"a"ed te"mo!"a#+ measu"ements5 te local con-ecti-e eat t"ansfe"
coefficient can!es ac"oss te fin acco"din! to -a"ious #a"amete"s. 0t 4as so4n tat te"e
is a lo4e" tem#e"atu"e at te leadin! ed!e of te #late-fin5 and a sa"#e" tem#e"atu"e
!"adient on te fin su"face 4e"e te bounda"+ la+e" inc"eases and dest"o+ed as te fluid
flo4s a"ound te tubes 7fo" te fi"st t4o "o4s of tubes9. 3nce te flo4 as !one a"ound
te tubes5 te tem#e"atu"e !"adient dec"eases f"om ai"flo4 bein! s4e#t into te 4ake.
Ho4e-e"5 b+ te ti"d "o4 of tubes5 te 4ake #atte"n can!es a!ain5 and fu"te"
-a"iations of te eat t"ansfe" coefficient can be seen t"ou!out te eat excan!e"5 4it
s#ecific #atte"ns de#endin! on te 2e+nolds numbe" 7amon! ote" #a"amete"s9. Te
a"ticle included studies of sta!!e"ed and in-line fin-and-tube eat excan!e"s. Te
tem#e"atu"e !"adients can also be studied in "elation to te s+ne"!+ #"inci#le #"esented b+
Tao et al. 7.00*95 4e"e te eat t"ansfe" coefficient is so4n 7:ualitati-el+9 to can!e
acco"din! to te an!le of local isote"mal st"eamlines to te tem#e"atu"e field. Te
!ene"al #atte"n of eat t"ansfe" coefficient in tis #a#e" is simila" to tat desc"ibed in te
%a!!io and Fo"nasie"i 7111A9 #a#e".
Cla"ification of te ai" tem#e"atu"e at inlet and te ot 4ate" flo4 "ate t"ou! te tubes5
as tis info"mation 4as not #"o-ided in te Gan! et al. 7111)9 a"ticle.
0m#"o-e te final mes to be used 7st"uctu"ed -s. unst"uctu"ed o" +b"id5 dete"mine a"eas
of !eomet"+ "e:ui"in! fine" mes5 etc.9. &e"stee! and Malalaseke"a 7.00*9 su!!est tat
non-st"uctu"ed !"ids can be mo"e accu"ate and efficient tan st"uctu"ed !"ids.
8se a sol-e" fo" con'u!ated eat t"ansfe" anal+sis to include te inte"actions bet4een te
ai"5 tube 4all5 and 4ate"5 4ic as "ecentl+ become a-ailable in te 3#enF3AM -e"sion
1.C.1.
8se c+clic bounda"+ conditions fo" inlet flo4 to in-esti!ate #"essu"e d"o# and eat flo4
ca"acte"istics dee#e" into te eat excan!e".
CA
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
8se te ne4 !eomet"+ and mes c"eation #"o!"am sna##+HexMes a-ailable no4 in
3#enF3AM 7instead of SalomR5 4ic #"o-ed difficult to use at times5 and no tecnical
su##o"t 4as a-ailable9.
8se a lo4 2e+nolds numbe" tu"bulence model to bette" simulate te tu"bulence at te
lo4e" 2e+nolds numbe"s not accu"atel+ modelled b+ an+ of te flo4 models.
Make mo"e use of te o#enF3AM discussion boa"ds and online info"mation5 since no
tecnical su##o"t is a-ailable. 7@ea"n te 3#enF3AM mo"e to"ou!l+9.
=ossible can!es to te tu"bulence model in 3#enF3AM5 o" sol-in! #"ocedu"es , 4ic
is #ossible since it is o#en sou"ce CYY5 and can!es onl+ "e:ui"e basic #"o!"ammin! skills
in ob'ect-o"iented #"o!"ammin!5 makin! it "elati-el+ sim#le to im#lement ne4 tu"bulence
models5 sol-e" al!o"itms5 bounda"+ condition t+#es5 and #+sical models. Tis is an
ad-anta!e o-e" comme"cial soft4a"e5 4e"e access to te code is una-ailable.
Finall+5 as discussed in te book b+ Ka+s and @ondon 7111(95 te #"o#e"ties of ai" a"e
i!l+ tem#e"atu"e-de#endent5 and man+ of te calculations do not account fo" tese
can!es5 but instead use an a-e"a!e -alue5 4ic can substantiall+ affect te flo4 at a
#a"ticula" c"oss section acco"din! to te tem#e"atu"e #"ofile 7fo" exam#le in tis case5
flo4 ca"acte"istics 4e"e dete"mined usin! a-e"a!e tem#e"atu"es taken at te inlet and
outlet9.
2un te stead+-state -e"sions of k-omega tu"bulence models fu"te" to see if te+ can
con-e"!e bette"5 since te cu"-e of Colbu"n '-facto" -s. 2e+nolds numbe" seems to be
unstable 4it a noticeable fluctuation at te inlet flo4 -elocit+ of 6.* mJs 7co""es#ondin!
to 2e+nolds numbe" A6009.
0m#lementation of anisot"o#ic tu"bulence models to co""ect fo" te diffe"ences in flo4
acco"din! to te di"ection5 i.e. use te "ealiLable k-epsilon tu"bulence model o" use of te
2SM 72e+nolds st"ess e:uation model9 tu"bulence models.
As can be seen f"om te #"ecedin! list5 4ic does not conside" all te #ossible as#ects5 te"e is
muc to be conside"ed fo" ensu"in! accu"ate simulations of te fin-and-tube eat excan!e"s. To
summa"iLe5 conside"ations sould be taken fo"< eat excan!e" !eomet"+ and mes5 fin tem#e"atu"e5
bounda"+ conditions 7ai" and 4ate" tem#e"atu"es5 and c+clic inlet95 tu"bulence model -a"iations5
3#enF3AM use and #"o!"ammin!5 con-e"!ence5 and tem#e"atu"e-de#endent #"o#e"ties of ai". All of
tese conside"ations a"e sub'ects of inte"est 4ic can be studied in te o#en lite"atu"e as desc"ibed in
tis #a#e" and listed in te "efe"ences.
CC
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
/ Conclusion
Te ob'ecti-e of tis #"o'ect 4as to make CFD simulations usin! o#en sou"ce soft4a"e5 and -alidate
te "esults a!ainst ex#e"imental data. Te s+stem to stud+ 4as a fin-and-tube eat excan!e". Te
#u"#ose of te 4o"k 4as to in-esti!ate te #ossibilities of e-entuall+ usin! CFD calculations fo"
desi!n of eat excan!e"s instead of ex#ensi-e ex#e"imental testin! and #"otot+#e #"oduction.
To anal+se te flo4 and eat t"ansfe" ca"acte"istics of te eat excan!e"5 a model of a t4o-"o4 fin-
and-tube eat excan!e" 4as c"eated usin! o#en sou"ce SalomR soft4a"e to c"eate te !eomet"+ and
mes. Te "esultin! mes 7afte" a !"id inde#endence test 4as ca""ied out9 4as used fo" "unnin! a
-a"iet+ of simulations usin! a lamina" flo4 model and t4o tu"bulence models fo" com#a"ison of
"esults. Ten diffe"ent inlet flo4 -elocities "an!in! f"om 0.6 mJs to ).. mJs and co""es#ondin! to
2e+nolds numbe"s "an!in! f"om 660 to *000 4e"e simulated in te t"ee diffe"ent flo4 models
7lamina"5 k-epsilon tu"bulence model5 and SST k-omega tu"bulence model9. A sam#lin! dictiona"+
4as 4"itten into te CFD model to "eco"d #"essu"e and tem#e"atu"e measu"ements at te inlet and
outlet of te eat excan!e" model. 8sin! te simulation "esults and some s#ecific non-dimensional
numbe"s5 calculations "elated to eat flo4 and #"essu"e loss can be ca""ied out to dete"mine te
Fannnin! f"iction facto" and Colbu"n j-facto" fo" com#a"ison 4it te lite"atu"e -alues used fo" te
-alidation.
0t 4as found tat te flo4 model accu"ac+ de#ended on te flo4 "e!ime and 4ete" te f"iction
facto" f o" j-facto" 4as bein! dete"mined. F"om te ex#e"imental -alues !i-en in te lite"atu"e5 te
lamina" flo4 "e!ion fo" tis #a"ticula" !eomet"+ of eat excan!e" s4itced to t"ansitional at a"ound
2e+nolds numbe" 16005 and mo-in! to t"ansitional a"ound 2e+nolds numbe" .100. Te 2e+nolds
numbe" as a ca"acte"istic dimension of te tube colla" outside diamete".
Fo" f"iction facto" dete"mination5 little diffe"ence is found bet4een te flo4 models simulatin!
lamina" flo45 4ile in t"ansitional flo45 te lamina" flo4 model #"oduced te most accu"ate "esults
7fo" f"iction facto"9 and te SST k-ome!a tu"bulence model 4as mo"e accu"ate in tu"bulent flo4
"e!imes. Fo" eat t"ansfe"5 te lamina" flo4 model calculated te most accu"ate j-facto"5 4ile fo"
t"ansitional flo4 te SST k-omega tu"bulence model 4as mo"e accu"ate and te k-epsilon tu"bulence
model 4as best fo" eat t"ansfe" simulations of tu"bulent flo4.
Te flo4 model can be cosen based on 4at is bein! studied 7eat flo4 o" #"essu"e d"o#9 and te
flo4 "e!ime. 0n conclusion5 it is found tat te #"essu"e d"o# and eat t"ansfe" ca"acte"istics of a
fin-and-tube eat excan!e" can be dete"mined to 4itin a "easonable accu"ac+ 4it CFD
com#utations ca""ied out in o#en sou"ce soft4a"e5 and tat 3#enF3AM can be used to ca""+ out
#"actical 4o"k in te desi!n #"ocess of eat excan!e"s.
C)
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
C*
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
0 !eferences
SD*$+ NHandbook Fundamentals\5 S0 Edition 711169.
#? DerchangK Oang? Oiin 3uhK 3eh? Oer--an+ [@ocal eat t"ansfe" measu"ements of #late finned-tube eat
excan!e"s b+ inf"a"ed te"mo!"a#+\5 0nte"national Bou"nal of Heat and Mass T"ansfe"5 &ol. AC 7.00.95 ##. A0)1-
A0*(.
)aggio? P+K Fornasieri? $+ NAi"-side eat t"ansfe" and flo4 f"iction< teo"etical as#ects\, in 0ecent de.elopments in
finned tube 5eat e;c5angers Ene"!+ Tecnolo!+ 7111A9 ##. 11-1C1
CFDonline+ 444.cfd-online.comJ4ikiJTu"bulence>intensit+5 accessed Bune .00(.
Chen? Dan-TawK Chou? Ouei-CheK <ang? Dung-Chih+ [Estimation of eat t"ansfe" coefficient on te -e"tical #late
fin of finned-tube eat excan!e"s fo" -a"ious ai" s#eeds and fin s#acin!s\5 International Pournal of Heat and *ass
$ransfer5 &ol. C0 7.00)9 ##. AC-C*.
$re=? #tuncK PFerdem? )arisK )ilir? 0e"entK (l=en? Qafer+ \Effect of !eomet"ical #a"amete"s on eat t"ansfe"
and #"essu"e d"o# ca"acte"istics of #late fin and tube eat excan!e"s\5 -pplied $5ermal %ngineering5 &ol. .C
7.00C9 ##. .A.1-.A61.
Fornasieri? $+K Mattarolo? 0+ [Ai"-side eat t"ansfe" and #"essu"e loss in finned tube eat excan!e"s< state of a"t\5
'roceedings of t5e %uropean Conference on Finned $ube Heat %;c5angers5 @+on5 F"ance5 7A#"il 11119.
Gnielins=i? &+ [$e4 E:uation fo" eat and mass t"ansfe" in tu"bulent #i#e and cannel flo4\5 International
C5emical %ngineering5 711*)9 6C1-6)(.
Gra#? D+ 0+K <ebb? *+0+ [Heat t"ansfe" and f"iction co""elations fo" #late fin-and-tube eat excan!e"s a-in! #lain
fins\5 'roceedings of t5e 2int5 International Heat $ransfer Conference5 San F"ancisco 711()9.
D%ertager? )%Rrn D+ NTu"bulence Teo"+ and Modellin!\? 9ecture 2otes5 Aalbo"! 8ni-e"sit+ Esb'e"!5 Denma"k
7.00C9.
D%ertager? )%Rrn D+ NCom#utational Anal+sis of Fluid Flo4 ="ocesses\? 9ecture 2otes5 Aalbo"! 8ni-e"sit+
Esb'e"!5 Denma"k 7.00*9.
D%ertager? )%Rrn D+ N0nt"oduktion til 3#en Sou"ce CFD be"e!nin!e" 0 3#enF3AM\? Course 2otes5 Aalbo"!
8ni-e"sit+ Esb'e"!5 Denma"k 7.00(9.
Oang? Oiin-3uhK <u? Mu-ChengK Chang? <en-%eng+ [$ume"ical and ex#e"imental studies of t"ee-dimensional
#late-fin and tube eat excan!e"s\5 0nte"national Bou"nal of Heat and Mass T"ansfe"5 &ol. 615 $o. 1A 7111)9 ##.
60C*-60)).
:a#ansa#an? -. [Heat t"ansfe" ca"acte"iLation of #late fin-tube eat excan!e"s\5 International Pournal of
0efrigeration5 &ol. 1*5 $o. 1 7111A9 ##. A1-C*.
:a#s? <+M+K 0ondon? +0+ NCom#act Heat Excan!e"s\, Sub-edition 65 K"ie!e" =ublisin! Com#an+5 $e4 Fo"k
7111(9.
Mangani? 0+K )ianchini? C+K ndreini? +K &acchini? )+ \De-elo#ment and -alidation of a CYY ob'ect o"iented
CFD code fo" eat t"ansfe" anal+sis\5 -,*%-P,*% 2((6 $5ermal %ngineering and ,ummer Heat $ransfer
Con.erence5&ancou-e"5 Canada 7Bul+ .00*9.
McSuiston? F+ C+ [Co""elation fo" eat5 mass and momentum t"ans#o"t coefficients fo" #late-fin-tube eat t"ansfe"
su"faces 4it sta!!e"ed tube\5 -,H0-% $rans 4ol K! 711*(95 ##. .1A-601.
.penF.M discussion board+ 5ttpA77openfoamcfd-onlinecom7cgi-bin7forum7discuscgi 5 accessed Bul+ .00(.
C(
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
.penF.M documentation+ [="o!"amme";s Duide - =D\ and [8se";s Duide - 8D\5 3#enCFD @imited 7.00*9.
Perrotin? Thomas+ [Fin efficienc+ calculation in enanced fin-and-tube eat excan!e"s in d"+ conditions\5
International Congress of 0efrigeration5 0C200.) 7.0069.
*ocha? 0+ + .+K Sabo#a? F+ $+ M+K &argas? O+ &+ C+ [A com#a"ati-e stud+ of elli#tical and ci"cula" sections in one-
and t4o-"o4 tubes and #late fin eat excan!e"s\5 International Pouernal of Heat and Fluid Flow5 &ol. 1( 7111*95
##. .A*-.C..
*ohsenow? <arrenK Dartnett? Oames P+K Cho? 3oung (+ NHandbook of Heat T"ansfe"\5 6
"d
Edition5 McD"a4-Hill
Com#anies5 0nc.5 $e4 Fo"k 7111(9.
Song? Gil-DalK -ishino? :oichi. [$ume"ical 0n-esti!ation fo" $et Enancement in Te"mal-H+d"aulic =e"fo"mance
of Com#act Fin-Tube Heat Excan!e"s 4it &o"tex Dene"ato"s\5 Pournal of $5ermal ,cience and $ec5nology5 &ol.
65 $o. . 7.00(9 ##. 6)(-6(0.
Sahin? Daci MehmetK Dal? li *iFaK )a#sal? $sref+ [6-D $ume"ical stud+ on te co""elation bet4een -a"iable
inclined fin an!les and te"mal bea-iou" in #late fin-tube eat excan!e"\5 -pplied $5ermal %ngineering5 &ol. .*
7.00*9 ##. 1(0)-1(1).
Schmidt? Th+ $+ [Heat t"ansfe" calculations fo" extended su"faces\5 0efrigeration %ngineering5 A#"il 711A19 ##. 6C1-
6C*.
Tao? 3+ )+K De? 3+ 0+K Duang? O+K <u? Q+ G+K Tao? <+ S+ [T"ee-dimensional nume"ical stud+ of 4a-+ fin-and-
tube eat excan!e"s and field s+ne"!+ #"inci#le anal+sis\5 0nte"national Bou"nal of Heat and Mass T"ansfe"5 &ol. C0
7.00*95 ##. 11)6-11*C.
Tenne=es? D+K 0umle#? O+ 0+ [A Fi"st Cou"se in Tu"bulence\5 M0T ="ess5 Camb"id!e5 MA 711*.9.
&ersteeg? D :K Malalase=era? <+\An 0nt"oduction to Com#utational Fluid D+namics5 Te Finite &olume Metod\5
Second edition5 =ea"son Education @imited5 Essex5 En!land 7.00*9.
Tutar? MustafaK ==oca? FiFe+ [A com#utational stud+ of effects of diffe"ent !eomet"ical #a"amete"s on eat
t"ansfe" and fluid flo4 in a 4a-+ and #lain fin and tube eat excan!e"\5 'roceedings of %,D-2((2A &
t5
Qiennial
Conference on %ngineering ,ystems Design and -nalysis5 0nstanbul5 Tu"ke+ 7Bul+ .00.9.
3an? <ei-MonK Sheen? Pa#-Oen+ [Heat t"ansfe" and f"iction ca"acte"istics of fin-and-tube eat excan!e"s\5
&olume A6 7.00095 ##. 1)C1-1)C1.
<ang? Chi-ChuanK Chang? 3u-OueiK Dsieh? 3i-ChungK 0in? 3ur-Tsai+ [Sensible eat and f"iction ca"acte"istics
of #late fin-and-tube eat excan!e"s a-in! #lane fins\5 International Pournal of 0efrigeration5 &ol. 115 $o. A
7111)9 ##. ..6-.60.

C1
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
)0
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
)1
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
Appendi+
).
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
)6
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
21 !F" !omputations
A1.1 C$D Goernin% -1uations
An illust"ation of a fluid element fo" CFD calculations is so4n in Fi!u"e ... Te element as
dimensions R;, Ry, and RC, 4it te cente" #oint at 3;, y, C) and six faces $5 S5 E5 G5 T and % 7$o"t5
Sout5 East5 Gest5 To#5 %ottom9. Eac fluid #"o#e"t+ 7-elocit+5 #"essu"e5 densit+5 -iscosit+5 te"mal
conducti-it+5 and tem#e"atu"e9 te"efo"e can be "e#"esented as a function of s#ace and time 4it< u
v
3;,
y, C, t)5 #3;, y, C, t)5 >3;, y, C, t)5 S3;, y, C, t)5 k3;, y, C, t)5 and T3;, y, C, t)
As summa"iLed abo-e5 te fluid #"o#e"ties to be calculated usin! CFD a"e te 6 -elocit+ com#onents5
#"essu"e5 densit+5 -iscosit+5 te"mal conducti-it+5 and tem#e"atu"e. 0n all5 te"e a"e ( -a"iables. Te (
e:uations te"efo"e needed fo" sol-in! tese a"e< 719 mass balance5 7.9-7A9 momentum balance in 6
di"ections5 7C9 ene"!+ e:uation5 7)9 e:uation of state5 7*9-7(9 em#i"ical "elations desc"ibin! -iscosit+
and te"mal conducti-it+. Eac e:uation is #"esented e"e.
719 Mass balance AContinuit# eEuationC: TFluid mass is conser.edU
$Euation 46 also 4"itten as 7 9 0 di. u
t

r
o"
in out
dm m m

& & &
4ic can be summa"ised as<
Hmass accumulation o-e" timeI U Hsum of all inflo4sI , Hsum of all outflo4sI
4e"e S "e#"esents a"ea5 and can be illust"ated in te follo4in! dia!"am 7Fi!u"e (9 of
an element "e#"esentin! te one illust"ated in Fi!u"e *.
)A

Figure /7+ CFD Fluid element for calculating changes in fluid propert#? coordinate s#stems in three
dimensions +1 y1 *? and according to faces .1 S1 41 51 T and 6+ >D%ertager?
/661@ >&ersteeg and Malalase=era?
/661@
-
<
T
)
$
S
"+1 y1 *)
7 9 7 9 7 9
0
7 u9 0
u . w
t ; y C
di.
t


+ + +

v
mass accumulation
o-e" time
Sum of all inflo4s sum of all outflo4s
>D%ertager? /661@ Figure /1+ Change of mass in fluid element+
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
%efo"e #"esentin! te "emainin! * e:uations5 a b"ief illust"ation of o4 e:uation A0 4as de"i-ed is
!i-en e"e. Te momentum and ene"!+ balances a"e de"i-ed simila"l+ fo" a fluid element. Te"efo"e
instead of 4"itin! tem out in detail5 onl+ te summa"+ of e:uations J ex#"essions 4ill be !i-en5 and
fo" details of te de"i-ation5 simila"ities can be assumed 4it te follo4in! mass balance illust"ation
so4n e"e.
Conside" an element simila" to tat so4n in Fi!u"e (. Te fluid element;s "ate of mass inc"ease is<
$Euation 4, ( ) ( ) ; y C ; y C
t t


E:uation .( "e#"esents te "ate of inc"ease of mass o-e" time 4itin te fluid element5 4e"e QR;
"e#"esents te distance bet4een faces fo" te s#ecific ;, y, or C di"ection. Te mass flo4 "ate ac"oss te
cont"ol -olume faces must no4 also be accounted fo".
Te net "ate of flo4 is te sum of mass inflo4 subt"acted b+ te sum of mass outflo4. Te fi"st t4o
te"ms of a Ta+lo" se"ies ex#ansion can accu"atel+ ex#"ess fluid #"o#e"ties at te faces. Te"efo"e5 te
mass flo4 in te x-di"ection t"ou! te G and E faces 7at a distance of 71J.9K7R;) f"om te cente" of
te element9 is ex#"essed as<
7 9 1
.
u
u ;
;

fo" te 4est face G5 and


7 9 1
.
u
u ;
;

fo" te east face E.


Te mass flo4 in te +-di"ection t"ou! te S and $ faces5 and in te L-di"ection t"ou! te % and T
faces can be simila"l+ ex#"essed. All of tese a"e illust"ated in Fi!u"e .A and summa"iLed afte" te
illust"ation usin! E:uation A..
Figure /5+ Fluid element illustrating flows of inflows and outflows of mass on all six faces+
>&ersteeg and Malalase=era? /661@
)C
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
As can be seen in Fi!u"e .A5 te o-e"all mass flo4 "ate ac"oss te element;s faces is "e#"esented b+ te
follo4in! ex#"ession5 in 4ic te enti"e cont"ol -olume is taken into account b+ multi#l+in! te mass
"ate in a #a"ticula" di"ection b+ te t4o "emainin! dimensions<
$et mass flo4 U
$Euation 4/
7 9 1 7 9 1
. .
7 9 1 7 9 1

. .
7 9 1 7 9 1

. .
u u
u ; y C u ; y C
; ;
. .
. ; ; C . ; ; C
y y
u u
w ; ; y w ; ; y
C C






_ _
+


, ,
_ _
+


, ,
_ _
+


, ,
E:uation A1 7"ate of inc"ease of mass inside te element9 is e:uated to E:uation A. 7net mass flo4 "ate
into te cont"ol -olume ac"oss its faces9. Te te"ms a"e a""an!ed on te left side of te e:uation5 and
di-ided b+ te cont"ol -olume( ) ; y C
to !et te continuit+ e:uation fo" com#"essible fluids
7E:uation .*9<

0f te fluid is
incom#"essible5 te densit+ is constant and e:uation becomes di- u
r
U 0.
A/-4C -ewtonLs /
nd
0aw: Momentum balances A2 eEuations for each directionC
T$5e rate of increase in momentum is e/ual to t5e sum of t5e forces acting on t5e bodyU
Te"e a"e t"ee e:uations fo" te momentum "ates of inc"ease in eac of te t"ee ;, y, and C di"ections.
Te"e a"e su"face fo"ces 7#"essu"e and -iscous9 and bod+ fo"ces 7!"a-it+5 cent"ifu!al5 Co"iolis5 and
elect"oma!netic9 included in te momentum e:uations. Te su"face fo"ces a"e stated ex#licitl+5 4ile
"ele-ant bod+ fo"ces a"e "e#"esented in te F te"m of eac e:uation. Te use of te total de"i-ati-e
sould be noted5 "e#"esentin! con-ecti-e diffe"entiation on te left side of te e:uations abo-e5 i.e.<
7 J 9 7 J 9 7 J 9 7 J 9 7 J 9 Du Dt u u t u u ; . u y w u C + + +
.
A/C +-component momentum eEuation
$Euation 42
7 9
y; ;; C;
;
p Du
F
Dt ; y C


+
+ + +

A2C y-component momentum eEuation
$Euation 44
7 9
;y yy Cy
y
p
D.
F
Dt ; y C

+
+ + +

))
7 9 7 9 7 9
0
7 u9 0
u . w
t ; y C
di.
t


+ + +

v
7 u9 0 di.
t

r
o"
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
A4C *-component momentum eEuation
$Euation 45
7 9
yC
;C CC
C
p Dw
F
Dt ; y C


+
+ + +

A5C $nerg# balance: First 0aw of Thermod#namics
T$5e energy c5ange of rate in a fluid element e/uals t5e 5eat addition rate
in t5e fluid element added wit5 t5e rate of work done on t5e elementU
Te ene"!+ e:uation fo" net ene"!+ 7e) flo4 includes te"ms to account fo" ene"!+ flux f"om
conduction5 4o"k done b+ su"face fo"ces 7i.e. sea" st"ess causin! f"iction and eat loss , i""e-e"sible5
o" can!e in -olume due to #"essu"e95 and finall+ a sou"ce te"m to account fo" cemical "eactions o"
"adiation 7eite" an ene"!+ sou"ce o" sink9.
$Euation 47
7 9
7 9
j j
i i
ij
j j i j
e /
u u e
p ,
t ; ; ; ;



+ + +

&
A7C $Euation of state
Fluids a"e nea"l+ al4a+s in te"mod+namic e:uilib"ium. Gen t4o state -a"iables of a substance a"e
kno4n5 an e:uation of state can be used to desc"ibe te ote" te"mod+namic -a"iables 7tese a"e
#"essu"e p5 densit+ >5 s#ecific inte"nal ene"!+ i5 and tem#e"atu"e T. Te 7sim#lified9 #e"fect !as
e:uation of state is<
$Euation 41 p 0$

Densit+ can!es as a "esult of tem#e"atu"e 7o" #"essu"e9 -a"iations in te flo4 field of com#"essible
fluids. Tis e:uation links te mass conse"-ation and momentum e:uations to te ene"!+ e:uation5
makin! it #ossible to calculate tem#e"atu"e can!es5 fo" exam#le5 f"om can!es in densit+ 4en t4o of
te state -a"iables a"e kno4n 7i.e. densit+ and #"essu"e9.
0n te case of incom#"essible fluids5 te ene"!+ and massJmomentum e:uations cannot be linked5 and
te mass and momentum e:uations must be used to sol-e fo" te flo4 field5 and it is not necessa"+ to
sol-e fo" te ene"!+ e:uation.
0n tis #"o'ect5 te sim#leFoam sol-e" onl+ sol-es te flo4 field5 4ile "oSim#leFoam sol-es fo" flo4
and tem#e"atu"e. Te e:uation of state is used in te calculations to sol-e fo" te tem#e"atu"e field fo"
te "oSim#leFoam cases5 but not used in sim#leFoam calculations.

A1C -ewtonLs law of "iscosit# Aempirical relation for "iscosit# 7C
$Euation 48
.
6
j
i i
ij ij
j i i
u
u u
; ; u;

_

+



,
E:uation A( can ten be inse"ted into te momentum balance to sol-e fo" -iscosit+.
)*
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
A8C FourierLs second law of thermod#namics Aempirical relation for thermal conducti"it# k
$Euation 4;
i
i
$
/ k
;

E:uation A1 can ten be inse"ted into te ene"!+ e:uation 7E:n. 669 to sol-e fo" -iscosit+.
General Transport $Euation
F"om te inse"tions into te momentum and ene"!+ balances5 te !ene"al t"ans#o"t e:uation fo"
#"o#e"t+

is<
$Euation 56
7 9 7 9
i
i i i
u
,
t ; ; ;

1
+ +
1

]
4ic also can be ex#"essed as<
7 9
7 9 7 9 di. u di. grad ,
t

+ +

r
Te fi"st te"m A(C on te left side of E:uation C0 "e#"esents te "ate of can!e of #"o#e"t+

in te
cont"ol -olume o-e" time HaccumulationI. Te second te"m A((C on te left side is te con-ecti-e te"m
Hcon-ectionI5 o" te net "ate of can!e in

in te cont"ol -olume due to flo4 of

ac"oss te
bounda"ies of te -olume. Te fi"st te"m A(((C on te "i!t side "e#"esents a diffusi-e te"m 4e"e is
te diffusion coefficient 7i.e. k o" <9 HdiffusionI. Te final te"m A(&C is te sou"ce te"m fo" te net "ate
of #"oduction of te #"o#e"t+

7i.e. in te case of eat-#"oducin! cemical "eactions9 inside te


cont"ol -olume Hinte"nal #"oduction sou"ceI.
Te !ene"al t"ans#o"t e:uation is te basis fo" te CFD finite -olume calculations. Te #"o#e"t+ of
inte"est 7i.e. u, ., w5 o" $9 is inse"ted into te e:uation as

5 te a##"o#"iate diffusion coefficient


selected fo" te -a"iable 5 and "ele-ant sou"ce te"ms a"e included. Ten eac of te mass5
momentum5 and ene"!+ conse"-ation e:uations a"e t"ansfo"med into e:uations 4ic can be used in
te finite -olume metod to make te CFD com#utations. Te e:uations a"e inte!"ated o-e" all te
cont"ol -olumes in te !eomet"+ of inte"est5 takin! te solution f"om one fluid element and usin! it as
a sta"t -alue fo" te next element.
HH'e"ta!e"5 .00*IH&e"stee! and Malalaseke"a5 .00*I
)(
A(C A((C A(((C A(&C
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
A1.2 !e"nold2s Aera%ed Naier 'to3es 4!AN'5 -1uations
Tis section desc"ibes te 2A$S e:uations5 4ic fo"m te basis fo" tu"bulence modellin!.
Time-"eraged Properties
Te -a"iation in te -elocit+ u in te x-di"ection as a function of time 7t"ansient flo49 at a #a"ticula"
#oint in a fluid element in tu"bulent flo4 ma+ be illust"ated as in Fi!u"e * belo4.
Figure /7+ Transient "ariations of "elocit# u in turbulent flow+ >D%ertager? /665@

As seen in Fi!u"e .C5 te"e a"e man+ small fluctuations occu""in! in tu"bulent flo4. Te fluctuations
a"e due to -e"tical edd+ motions 4ic c"eate st"on! mixin! and a momentum excan!e tat causes
accele"ation of slo4e" mo-in! la+e"s and decele"ation of faste" mo-in! la+e"s. %ecause of tis
momentum excan!e5 te"e a"e sea" st"esses5 4ic a"e kno4n as 2e+nolds st"esses5 f"om te
tu"bulence. 0n addition to -elocit+ fluctuations5 concent"ation o" eat fluxes can also occu" o-e" te
fluid element faces.
Most en!inee"in! #u"#oses do not "e:ui"e sol-in! fo" all of te details of te #"o#e"t+ fluctuations due
to edd+ motion. Te"efo"e time-a-e"a!ed #"o#e"ties of te flo4 a"e no"mall+ used fo" makin!
calculations. 0n tis case 7Fi!u"e .C95 -elocit+ is ca"acte"iLed usin! te time-a-e"a!ed -alue fo"
-elocit+ u5 ex#"essed as Q u ;5 4ile te indi-idual measu"ed -a"iations f"om te mean a"e ex#"essed as
Q b u ;. Ho4e-e"5 in tu"bulent flo4 te ote" flo4 #"o#e"ties5 desi!nated as N 7i.e. #"essu"e5 tem#e"atu"e5
densit+5 ote" -elocit+ com#onents5 etc.9 also a-e fluctuations. Te"efo"e5 te -a"iables can be
!ene"aliLed as a stead+ mean com#onent

7i.e.5 "e#"esentin! u 95 4ic can be defined 4it te


follo4in! ex#"essions<
E:n C1 a
b +
E:n C1b
.
.
1
$
t
$
t
dt
$

+

E:n C1c b 0 E:n C1d


.
b 0
E:uation C1a desc"ibes te actual -alue fo" #"o#e"t+ N to be te sum of te stead+ mean
com#onent of N 7

9 and te fluctuatin! time -a"+in! com#onent


b
.
E:uation C1b desc"ibes te mean #"o#e"t+

as te time a-e"a!e of N
)1
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
E:uations C1c and C1d illust"ate tat te time a-e"a!e of te fluctuations e:uals 05 4ile te
-a"iances of te #"o#e"t+ fluctuations does not e:ual Le"o 7also second moments made f"om
#ai"s of diffe"ent -a"iables 7i.e.
b b u .
9 a"e not e:ual to Le"o eite".
HH'e"ta!e"5 .00CI H&e"stee! and Malalaseke"a5 .00*I
Time-"eraged -a"ier-Sto=es $Euations
Te $a-ie"-Stokes e:uations fo" mass 7E:uation .*9 and momentum 7E:uations 60-6.9 a"e ex#anded
to include te time-a-e"a!ed #"o#e"ties affected b+ te tu"bulence. As an exam#le5 te #"ocess fo"
obtainin! te time-a-e"a!ed mass balance is desc"ibed in some detail. Te momentum balances and
scala" t"ans#o"t e:uation follo4 a simila" #"ocess 7altou! mo"e com#licated95 and te "esultin! time-
a-e"a!ed e:uation onl+ is #"esented fo" tese e:uations.
$ime--.eraged *ass Qalance
Te continuit+ e:uation is<
Conside"in! te densit+ > and -elocit+ com#onents u5 .5 and w as a sum of stead+ mean com#onent


and fluctuatin! time--a"+in! com#onent
b
5 te -alues can be #lu!!ed into te continuit+ e:uation<

$Euation 5/
( ) ( ) ( ) 7 b 9 7 b 9 7 b 9
7 b9
0
u u . . w w
t ; y C


+ + +
+
+ + +

$o4 "e#lacin! 4it te time-a-e"a!ed te"ms5 E:uation 61 is ten can!ed into te follo4in!<
$Euation 52
7 9 7 9 7 9 7 9
0
u . w
t ; y C

+ + +

w5ic5 can also be e;pressed asA
di- 8 U 0
r
w5en t5e flow .ariables u
r
, 3u, ., and w) are replaced wit5A
u
r
U
8
r
Y u u U : Y u1 . U 4 Y .1 w U J Y w; p U = Y p;
to account for t5e effect of fluctuations on t5e mean flow
$ime--.eraged *omentum %/uations
A #"ocess simila" to tat fo" te continuit+ e:uation abo-e 7"e#lacin! te"ms 4it time-a-e"a!ed te"ms9
is ca""ied out fo" te momentum e:uations 7E:uations 60-6.9. Te "esultin! e:uation fo" te
momentum e:uation in te ;-di"ection is !i-en as<
$Euation 54
.
. . .
.
. . .
7 9 7 9 7 9
7 b 9 7 b b9 7 b b9
u . u w u
; y C
p u u u
u . u w u
; ; y C ; y C



+ +

1
+ + + + + +
1

]
*0
7 9 7 9 7 9
0
7 u9 0
u . w
t ; y C
di.
t


+ + +

v
K K K
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
Te e:uations fo" te ote" di"ections 7y and C9 a"e found usin! te same #"ocess5 but not listed e"e.
Densit+ is assumed constant5 and te ne4 te"ms 7 9 a##ea" as a "esult of te #"ocess of time a-e"a!in!.
Te additional te"ms can be inte"#"eted as ext"a tu"bulent st"esses5 kno4n as te 2e+nolds st"esses5 to
te mean -elocit+ com#onents 785 &5 G95 and a"e due to tu"bulent eddies causin! fluctuatin! -elocities
and con-ecti-e momentum. Te 2e+nolds st"esses a"e defined 4it te st"ess tenso" 7consistin! of 6
no"mal st"esses and 6 sea" st"esses9<
$Euation 55 b b
ij i j
u u 5 and in mat"ix fo"m< U
.
.
.
b b b b b
b b b b b
b b b b b
u . u w u
u . . w .
u w . w w



1
1
1

1
1
]
Te st"ess tenso" b b
ij i j
u u is modelled #"io" to sol-in! E:uation A15 b+ "elatin! te st"esses to te time-
a-e"a!ed -elocit+ usin! tu"bulence models 7desc"ibed in Section 6.A..< k-)psilon Tu"bulence Model9.
$ime--.eraged ,calar $ransport %/uation
Gen de"i-in! te time-a-e"a!ed scala" t"ans#o"t e:uation 7fo" scala" :uantities like tem#e"atu"e95
additional tu"bulent t"ans#o"t te"ms 7 9 also a##ea".
$Euation 57
7 9 b b b b b b
7 9 7 9
u . w
di. u di. grad ,
t ; y C



1
+ + +
1

]
r
Te 2A$S e:uations fo" time-a-e"a!ed mass5 momentum5 and scala" t"ans#o"t e:uations a-e no4
been #"esented. Te+ a"e used in tis #"o'ect;s tu"bulence models to calculate te flo4 #"o#e"ties.
:inetic $nerg#
0n o"de" to make CFD calculations includin! effects of tu"bulence5 te total tu"bulent kinetic ene"!+ k
#e" unit mass at a #a"ticula" #oint in a fluid element5 and te tu"bulence intensit+ I, a"e dete"mined fo"
use in modellin! of te tu"bulence. Tese a"e defined 4it te follo4in! ex#"essions<
$Euation 51
( )
. . .
1
b b b
.
k u . w + + I
( )
1
b b
.
i i
u u
$Euation 58
1J .
.
6
ref
k
I
:
_

,

Fo" te k-epsilon and k-omega tu"bulence models used in tis #"o'ect5 te -elocit+ fluctuations a"e
estimated and k calculated usin! E:uation C*. Tu"bulence intensit+ can ten be found usin! te
calculated k -alue and te "efe"ence mean flo4 -elocit+ :
ref
usin! E:uation C(.
H&e"stee! and Malalaseke"a5 .00*I HH'e"ta!e"5 .00CI
*1
K
K
K
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
A1.# $inite 6olume Met*od and $inite Differences
$Euation (ntegration and Discretisation
A stead+-state one-dimensional eat t"ansfe" t"ou! diffusion is !o-e"ned b+ te !ene"al t"ans#o"t
e:uation 7E:uation C19. Gen te t"ansient and con-ecti-e te"ms a"e deleted5 te e:uation becomes<
$Euation 5; 0 o" 7 9 0
i i
, di. grad ,
; ;

1
+ +
1

]
0nte!"ation of E:uation C1 +ields<
$Euation 76
7 9
. 7 9 0
C4 C4
- C4
di. grad d4 , d4
n grad d- , d4

+
+


r
0n te one-dimensional stead+-state eat t"ansfe" diffusion #"oblem5 te e:uation becomes<
$Euation 7, 0
d d
,
d; d;

1
+
1
]

4e"e ental#+ 5 U N U
( )

ref
$
p pm ref
$
C d$ C $ $

5


7 9
ref
$
p
$
pm
ref
C d$
C
$ $

5 and

J
5 pm
k C
0t can be seen f"om te ex#"essions abo-e5 tat te ental#+ is te scala" #"o#e"t+ to be t"ans#o"ted.
Te t"ans#o"t coefficient fo" ental#+ is te te"mal conducti-it+ k di-ided b+ te s#ecific eat
ca#acit+
pm
C
at te a-e"a!e tem#e"atu"e of te cell. Te "ate of eat t"ansfe" b+ diffusion 7te"m 70009 in
te t"ans#o"t e:uation95 is ten<
7 7 99
pm ref
pm
k
C $ $
; C ;
1

1

1
]
5 and te t"ans#o"t e:uation to use is
$Euation 7/ 7 7 99 0
pm ref
pm
k $
C $ $ , k ,
; C ; ; ;

1

1
+ +
1
1

]
1
]
E:uation ). is te one-dimensional ene"!+ e:uation5 to be disc"etised and sol-ed fo" diffusion.
*.
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
Grid Generation
To disc"etise te ene"!+ e:uation o-e" te fluid elements in a com#utational domain5 te follo4in!
sin!le fluid element is illust"ated<
0n te eat diffusion #"oblem5 eat flo4 in t"ee dimensions 7$,S5 G-E5 T-%9 is ex#lained. Te"efo"e5
one "o4 of fluid elements5 eac 4it a cent"al node like te one abo-e5 is illust"ated.

Figure /1+ .ne-dimensional grid with nodal points+
Discretisation
0n t"ee-dimensional calculations5 a simila" set-u# is made fo" te $5 S5 T5 and % faces and
co""es#ondin! cent"al nodes. Fo" a one-dimensional calculation5 te inte!"ation f"om te 4est and east
faces on eite" side of node = is ca""ied out acco"din! to e:uation )05 "esultin! in E:uation )6<
$Euation 72
. 7 9
0
e e
e w w w
- C4
; ;
; ; ; ;
n grad d- , d4
d d$ d$ d$
k- d; , d4 k- k- , 4
d; d; d; d;

+
1 1 1
+ +
1 1 1
] ] ]


r
w5ere - is t5e cross-sectional area of t5e fluid element,
V4 is t5e .olume and

,
t5e a.erage source in t5e fluid element
*6
G E

Figure 26+ CFD Fluid element for calculating changes in fluid propert#? with two coordinate s#stems in
three dimensions +1 y1 *? and according to faces .1 S1 41 51 T and 6+
>D% ertager? /661@ >&ersteeg and Malalase=era? /661@
-
<
T
)
$
S
"+1 y1 *)
=
3;, y, C)
x
4
x
e
]x
%
C
U
c
o
n
s
t
a
n
t
%
C
U
c
o
n
s
t
a
n
t
Sx
4 Sx
e
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
As seen in E:uation )65 te !o-e"nin! e:uation is inte!"ated ac"oss te fluid element5 4it node =
desc"ibed 4it a disc"etised e:uation.
Tem#e"atu"e !"adients at ;
e
and ;
w
must be kno4n fo" E:uation )6 to be useful. Te tem#e"atu"e $ 7o"
ote" scala" #"o#e"t+ N9 and te"mal conducti-it+ k 7o" diffusion coefficient g9 a"e dete"mined fo" te
nodes5 and te"efo"e te #"o#e"t+ -alue !"adients at te faces ;
e
7alf4a+ bet4een nodes = and E9 and
;
w
7bet4een nodes G and =9 bet4een must be a##"oximated. Te"e a"e diffe"ent t+#es of diffe"encin!
scemes fo" tis #u"#ose.
Central Differencing ,c5eme
Di"ect linea" a-e"a!in! 7assumin! unifo"m !"id9 of te -alues can be used5 4ic is te"med te cent"al
diffe"encin! metod. Te ote" diffe"encin! metods a"e com#a"ed in te next section 7u#4ind
diffe"encin!5 +b"id5 o" #o4e"-la45 and ote" i!e"-o"de" diffe"encin! scemes95 and te coice made
fo" tis #"o'ect !i-en. Gen te diffe"encin! metod is cosen 7in tis case cent"al diffe"encin!95 te
e:uation takes te fo"m<
$Euation 74 0
' J % '
e w
e w
$ $ $ $
k k , 4
; ;
1 1
+
1 1
] ]
Te e:uation is ten "ea""an!ed 4it all = scala" -a"iables on te left side5 and G and E -a"iables on
te ote"5 4it s#ecific te"ms !i-en te names a
'
, a
J
, a
%
5 and b5 as so4n in te follo4in! e:uation<
$Euation 75 0
e w w e
e w ' w J e %
e w w e
k k k k
- - $ - $ - $ , 4
; ; ; ;
1 1 1
+ + +
1 1 1
] ] ]
Te disc"etiLed e:uation 4it te "e#"esentati-e te"ms
'
a
5
J
a
5
%
a
5 and b is ten<
$Euation 77
' ' J J % %
a $ a $ a $ b + +
for a t5ree-dimensional problem, a similar
e;pression is found for t5e 2, ,, $, and Q faces<
' ' J J % % , , 2 2 $ $ Q Q
a $ a $ a $ a $ a $ a $ a $ b + + + + + + +
0f te #"oblem includes con-ection in addition to diffusion5 te coefficients fo" a 4ill include an
additional te"m to account fo" te con-ection. Fo" exam#le5 F could "e#"esent con-ecti-e mass flux
7>u)5 4ile D "e#"esents te diffusion conductance 7k7R;9 "esultin! in
J
a
no4 bein! e:uated to HD
w
Y
7F
w
J.9I.
Te cent"al diffe"encin! sceme does not al4a+s "eac co""ect solutions 4en bot con-ection and
diffusion fo"ces a"e in-ol-ed. To dete"mine o4 "ealistic a diffe"encin! sceme is and abilit+ to "eac
a con-e"!ed solution5 te follo4in! te"ms a"e used<

*A
7
'
a
9 7
J
a
9 7
%
a
9 7 b 9
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
Conser"ati"eness< Te flux of a #"o#e"t+ lea-in! one face in te com#utational domain
sould al4a+s be te same as te flux ente"in! te ad'acent cell 7ac"oss te sa"ed face9.
)oundedness< Te calculated -alues fo" a scala" #"o#e"t+ sould al4a+s lie 4itin te
bounda"+ -alues 7bounded95 and all coefficients a 7i.e.
'
a
5
J
a
5 etc.9 sould be of te same si!n
7tis 4a+ an inc"ease o" dec"ease in te -alue at a #a"ticula" node sould "esult in an inc"ease o"
dec"ease5 "es#ecti-el+5 of te #"o#e"t+ -alue at its nei!bou"in! nodes9.
Transporti"eness< Tis is desc"ibed 4it te =eclet numbe"5 a "atio of te "elati-e st"en!t of
con-ection to tat of diffusion5 as in te follo4in! ex#"ession<
$Euation 71
J
u
'e
;

0f te"e is onl+ con-ecti-e flo4 in-ol-ed5 ten te =eclet numbe" a##"oaces infinit+ and te
-alues of #"o#e"ties at nei!bo"in! nodes a"e st"on!l+ influenced b+ te di"ection of flo4.
Ho4e-e"5 if onl+ diffusion is occu""in!5 te =eclet numbe" a##"oaces Le"o5 and te -alues of
te #"o#e"t+ s#"eads at te same "ate in all di"ections5 "ate" tan in a sin!le di"ection. 0t can be
seen f"om E:uation )*5 tat te =eclet numbe" de#ends on fluid #"o#e"ties densit+ and
diffusi-e coefficient5 flo45 -elocit+5 as 4ell as te !"id itself 7 ; 9.
Hybrid Differencing ,c5eme
Te +b"id diffe"encin! sceme utiliLes te cent"al diffe"encin! sceme fo" small =eclet numbe"s
4ile calculatin! 4it te u#4ind diffe"encin! scemes fo" la"!e" =eclet numbe"s 7h.9. Since it takes
te fa-ou"able #"o#e"ties of bot diffe"encin! scemes5 it is conse"-ati-e5 bounded5 and t"ans#o"ti-e.
0t is stable and used often in CFD codes5 4it te disad-anta!e of containin! a fi"st-o"de" Ta+lo" se"ies
t"uncation e""o". 0t is not a-ailable in 3#enF3AM.
'ower 9aw Differencing ,c5emes
Te #o4e"-la4 sceme is mo"e accu"ate tan te +b"id. Gen te =eclet numbe" is !"eate" tan 105
diffusion is set to Le"o5 4ile if te =eclet numbe" is less tan 105 a #ol+nomial ex#"ession is used to
find te flux5 "esultin! in a mo"e exact solution fo" one-dimensional #"oblems.
Ot5er Differencing ,c5emes
Since te fi"st-o"de" Ta+lo" se"ies t"uncation e""o" can be si!nificant and cause false diffusion5 i!e"-
o"de" diffe"encin! scemes a-e been c"eated to minimise te e""o". Mo"e nei!bou"in! #oints a"e
included to 4iden te influence on te #"o#e"t+ -alue of a #a"ticula" node5 4ile te flo4 di"ection is
also taken into account. An exam#le is te E80CK 7:uad"atic u#4ind inte"#olation fo" con-ecti-e
kinetics9. Anote" diffe"encin! sceme is te T&D 7total -a"iation diminisin!9 sceme5 4ic
"educes oscillations in "esults5 4ic can occu" 4en sol-in! fo" tu"bulent ene"!+ o" "ate of
dissi#ation5 fo" exam#le.
*C
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
22 Pressure drop and 'riction 'actor calculations
simpleFoam
7I&-!A&8!- 6A78-' from -+periments
e+perimental alues 9:an% and C*an%; 1<<,=
air frontal U Reynolds Re j f P drop
0,3 330 0,0420 0,1100 0,32
0,5 600 0,0270 0,0730 0,65
0,7 790 0,0230 0,0630 1,15
1,1 1300 0,0170 0,0460 2,29
1,5 1700 0,0140 0,0420 4,02
2,5 2900 0,0120 0,0330 9,67
3,7 4300 0,0094 0,0270 19,02
4,5 5200 0,0090 0,0240 26,53
5,4 6200 0,0084 0,0220 36,67
6,2 7000 0,0081 0,0210 47,32
!-'87&' from C$D 'imulations
3-psilon
simple$oam
air frontal U Reynolds Re P drop f 5$inFF1 5$inFF2
0,3 330 0,72 0,277 0,64 0,63
0,5 600 1,38 0,183 1,03 1,01
0,7 790 2,14 0,140 1,39 1,38
1,1 1300 3,86 0,095 2,1 2,1
1,5 1700 5,83 0,073 2,8 2,8
2,5 2900 11,69 0,045 4,5 4,6
3,7 4300 20,41 0,031 6,5 6,7
4,5 5200 27,24 0,025 7,8 8,1
5,4 6200 35,87 0,021 9,3 9,6
6,2 7000 44,32 0,018 10,7 11
3-ome%a ''&
simple$oam
air frontal U Reynolds Re P drop f 5$inFF1 5$inFF2
0,3 330 0,70 0,269 0,65 0,65
0,5 600 1,36 0,180 1,04 1,07
0,7 790 2,13 0,139 1,41 1,46
1,1 1300 3,91 0,097 2,12 2,24
1,5 1700 5,97 0,075 2,81 2,99
2,5 2900 11,94 0,047 4,51 4,83
3,7 4300 20,95 0,032 6,52 6,96
4,5 5200 28,10 0,027 7,86 8,36
5,4 6200 37,28 0,023 9,36 9,92
6,2 7000 45,78 0,019 10,8 11,34
*)
.
. 1 .
1 1
71 9 1
.
m
in c in c
p # -
f
p g p -


1
_
+ +
1
, ]
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
laminar
simple$oam
air frontal U Reynolds Re P drop f 5$inFF1 5$inFF2
0,3 330 0,70 0,269 0,65 0,66
0,5 600 1,37 0,182 1,04 1,07
0,7 790 2,13 0,139 1,41 1,47
1,1 1300 3,92 0,097 2,12 2,24
1,5 1700 6,03 0,076 2,81 3,00
2,5 2900 12,07 0,048 4,51 4,83
3,7 4300 21,35 0,033 6,52 6,97
4,5 5200 28,66 0,028 7,86 8,37
5,4 6200 37,93 0,024 9,37 9,94
6,2 7000 47,18 0,021 10,7 11,32
,en!it46 20C 7 1.2
(no 2 c-ange)
**
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
rho0impleFoam
7I&-!A&8!- 6A78-' from ->P-!IM-N&'
e+perimental alues 9:an% and C*an%; 1<<,=
inlet u Reynolds Re j f P drop
0,3 330 0,0420 0,110 0,32
0,5 600 0,0270 0,073 0,65
0,7 790 0,0230 0,063 1,15
1,1 1300 0,0170 0,046 2,29
1,5 1700 0,0140 0,042 4,02
2,5 2900 0,0120 0,033 9,67
3,7 4300 0,0094 0,027 19,02
4,5 5200 0,0090 0,024 26,53
5,4 6200 0,0084 0,022 36,67
6,2 7000 0,0081 0,021 47,32
!-'87&' from C$D 'imulations
density at inflow 0 C: 1!"#
density at outflow $ =#%0&''(1")$*+1&00##%
3-psilon
r*o'mple$oam
P drop f Umin,,1 Umin,,! out $ - at $out
1,050 0,069 0,74 0,77 55 1,079
2,130 0,056 1,16 1,22 53 1,085
3,160 0,046 1,55 1,64 50 1,095
6,070 0,041 2,3 2,46 43 1,120
9,140 0,036 3,02 3,24 39 1,134
17,900 0,028 4,76 5,12 33 1,157
28,980 0,023 6,8 7,33 28 1,176
37,070 0,020 8,15 8,77 25 1,188
46,870 0,018 9,67 10,38 23 1,196
56,440 0,018 11,02 11,01 17 1,221
?-ome%a ''&
r*o'imple$oam
P drop f Umin,,1 Umin,,! out $ - at $out air frontal U
1,05 0,0670 0,75 0,78 55 1,08 0,3
2,20 0,0575 1,17 1,26 52 1,09 0,5
3,40 0,0495 1,57 1,73 47 1,11 0,7
6,07 0,0408 2,3 2,46 44 1,12 1,1
9,26 0,0364 3,05 3,4 35 1,15 1,5
18,30 0,0292 4,79 5,39 30 1,17 2,5
31,85 0,0259 6,84 7,67 21 1,20 3,7
39,66 0,0222 8,19 9,16 21 1,20 4,5
49,02 0,0198 9,69 10,82 18 1,22 5,4
56,52 0,0178 11,05 12,33 15 1,23 6,2
laminar
*(
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
r*o'imple$oam
P drop f Umin,,1 Umin,,!
T
out - at $out air frontal U
1,05 0,0670 0,75 0,79 55 1,08 0,3
2,16 0,0563 1,17 1,27 52 1,09 0,5
3,36 0,0489 1,57 1,73 47 1,11 0,7
6,11 0,0407 2,34 2,61 38 1,14 1,1
10,53 0,0422 3,06 3,45 32 1,16 1,5
18,37 0,0295 4,79 5,46 29 1,17 2,5
30,05 0,0241 6,83 7,77 23 1,20 3,7
38,83 0,0221 8,18 9,25 19 1,21 4,5
48,75 0,0197 9,69 10,91 18 1,22 5,4
56,45 0,0178 11,04 12,35 15 1,23 6,2
r-o2urbFoa$ /#$ega112 file!6 %re!!ure ,ro% ,uring t-e fir!t 0.1 !.
r*o&urb$oam
*1
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
r*o&urb$oam 3)me%a''&@ Pressure trace for t*e first A.1 s.
3)me%a''&
r*o&urb$oam
P drop f Umin,,1 Umin,,!
T
out - at $out air frontal U
58,72 0,0188 11,02 12,3 14,33 1,23 6,2
(0
0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 0.035 0.040 0.045 0.050 0.055 0.060 0.065 0.070 0.075 0.080 0.085 0.090 0.095 0.100
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
re!!ure 8ro%
0.000 0000 0.0100000 0.0200000 0.0300000 0.0400000 0.0500000 0.0600000 0.0700000 0.0800000 0.0900000 0.1000000
99800
99850
99900
99950
100000
100050
100100
100150
100200
re!!ure "n
re!!ure #ut
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
(1
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
23 Fin e''icienc$ calculations
2-e fin !urface effecti&ene!! .o i! ,eter$ine, -ere.
09uation! gi&en in t-e article are 3or/e, :bac/3ar,!: to fin, out 3-at t-e
&alue! for t-e fin !urface effecti&ene!! are at t-e ,ifferent Re4nol,! nu$ber!.
2-e ;u!!elt nu$ber i! foun, u!ing 09uation 7 an, t-e j-factor &alue rea, fro$ t-e gra%-
in t-e article.
2-e -eat tran!fer coefficient / i! foun, u!ing 09uation 86
2-en t-e !erie! of e9uation! for fin,ing !urface effecti&ene!! are 3or/e, t-roug- to fin,6
Re9<r 3it- 09n. 23, 0 3it- 09n. 22, m 3it- 09n. 21, . 3it- 09n. 20an, .owit/ 12n& 1".
7 4,04
3-ere 3m 7 0.0127
34 7 0.0220
r = 0,0048
7 6,01
Re!ult! for t-e &alue! belo3 (an, ot-er /e4 %ara$eter! foun, %re&iou!l4) are li!te, in t-e table.
7 206 (alu$inu$) 7 5f 6 5w = 0,00103$
2
fin -eat t'. area 5f = 0,00095$
2
(.
1J6
c
D
2u
j
0e 'r

J
5
5
2u
k D

1J .
1..* 0.6
e/
* 9
*
0
@ @
r r @
_


,
1 0.6Cln7 J 9
e/
e/
0
0 r
r

_
1 +

]
,
.
o
f
5
m
k t

tan7 9 mr
mr

1 71 9
f
o
o
-
-

f
k
o
-
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
2able of calculation re!ult! to fin, t-e fin !urface effecti&ene!! for eac- Re4nol,! nu$ber.
2-e j-factor! are rea, fro$ t-e gra%- in t-e article.
Re u 7m/s8 j+factor Pr 9u /o kair m . 5o
330 0,3 0,0420 0,708 12,35 110,58 0,0263 90,876 0,3774 A;42,0
600 0,5 0,0270 0,708 14,44 129,25 0,0263 98,248 0,3504 A;4AA<
790 0,7 0,0230 0,709 16,20 143,93 0,0261 103,68 0,3327 A;#04,
1300 1,1 0,0170 0,709 19,71 173,05 0,0258 113,68 0,3041 A;#,01
1700 1,5 0,0140 0,710 21,23 184,28 0,0255 117,31 0,2948 A;#4<.
2900 2,5 0,0120 0,711 31,06 267,47 0,0253 141,33 0,2451 A;#A#0
4300 3,7 0,0094 0,711 36,08 308,21 0,0251 151,72 0,2284 A;200#
5200 4,5 0,0090 0,712 41,79 355,60 0,0250 162,96 0,2127 A;2/#0
6200 5,4 0,0084 0,712 46,50 394,14 0,0249 171,57 0,2020 A;2.4A
7000 6,2 0,0081 0,713 50,65 425,85 0,0247 178,34 0,1944 A;2,.<
(6
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
2& 3nside tube 64ater 'lo47 heat trans'er coe''icient
&*e *eat-transfer coefficient for Bater floBin% t*rou%* t*e tubes.
09uation! 18 an, 17 are u!e,6
2-e calculation! a!!u$e a 3ater flo3 of 0.25 liter! %er !econ,.
7 5008
k = 0,65
Pr = 3,03
fi = 0,00965
hi 8 2A2#
(A
.
71.C(ln72e 9 6..(9
i
i D
f


.J6
72e 10009 ="7 J .9
1 1..* J .7=" 19
i i
i
i
i
f k
5
D
f


+ ,
2e
i
D
i
5
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
(C
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
21 !olburn j,'actor calculations
Re u 7m/s8 $out 7C8 $a:; 7C8 - 7k;/m
#
8 Cp 7</k;=8 k 7>/m=8 Pr
?
7k;/ms8)10
@
330 0,3 55 30 1,16 1007 0,0265 0,707 1,86
600 0,5 53 29 1,17 1006 0,0264 0,708 1,86
790 0,7 50 28 1,17 1006 0,0263 0,708 1,85
1300 1,1 43 24 1,19 1006 0,0260 0,709 1,83
1700 1,5 39 22 1,20 1006 0,0259 0,709 1,82
2900 2,5 33 19 1,21 1006 0,0256 0,710 1,81
4300 3,7 28 17 1,22 1006 0,0255 0,711 1,80
5200 4,5 25 15 1,23 1006 0,0253 0,711 1,79
6200 5,4 23 14 1,23 1006 0,0252 0,711 1,78
7000 6,2 17 11 1,24 1006 0,0250 0,712 1,77
$ind t*e Colburn j-factor@ 09n 7 i! u!e,, 3-ic- re9uire! t-e ;u!!elt nu$ber, foun, in
09n 8, 3-ic- re9uire! t-e -eat coefficient / for t-e air-!i,e.
2o fin, / for t-e !i$ulate, re!ult!, t-e -eat tran!fer rate an, o&erall coefficient 5 i! foun,
u!ing 09n! 10 an, 11, an, t-en / can be foun, 3it- 09n 16. 2-en t-e j-factor can be
calculate, a! ,e!cribe, abo&e.
$ind C (e9n! 10 an, 11)
$ind ho
(e9n 16)
u!e an, fro$ e$%irical re!ult! (1-eet 2)
$ttl& /eat tA& area = 5f 6 5w= 1,030-03 $
2
kw 7 0,0133 fin-eat t'. area 5f 0,00095$
2
377 out!i,e tube -eat t'. area 5w = 7,200-05$
2
(tube a!!u$e, to be co%%er.) in!i,e tube -eat t'. area 5i = 6,690-05$
2
Calculate ;u!!elt nu$ber an, Colburn j-factor! 3it- e9uation! 7 an, 86
()
5 5
7 9 7 9
p c c out c in
= mC $ $
&
&
m
= :- $
&
0

i
5
0
1 1 1
w
o o w w i i
:- 5 - k - 5 -

+ +
o
-
J 7 9
w w w
k -
w
k
J
5
5
2u
k D

1J6
c
D
2u
j
0e 'r

A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"


Re u *$<!. 5= -o ;u j-factor
330 0,3 0,498 0,011 0,426 2023 1,330-02 28,5768 3,16825403 0,01078
600 0,5 0,804 0,018 0,401 2023 1,330-02 49,9211 5,55561349 0,01039
790 0,7 1,055 0,023 0,384 2023 1,330-02 69,8835 7,80675916 0,01109
1300 1,1 1,424 0,029 0,358 2023 1,330-02 100,631 11,3712938 0,00981
1700 1,5 1,751 0,030 0,350 2023 1,330-02 109,559 12,4279533 0,00820
2900 2,5 2,424 0,042 0,304 2023 1,330-02 196,798 22,5856764 0,00873
4300 3,7 2,971 0,052 0,288 2023 1,330-02 283,615 32,6768953 0,00851
5200 4,5 3,168 0,055 0,274 2023 1,330-02 332,299 38,5887118 0,00831
6200 5,4 3,422 0,060 0,264 2023 1,330-02 394,355 45,9767382 0,00831
7000 6,2 2,640 0,046 0,257 2023 1,330-02 264,272 31,0572471 0,00497
+,omega turbulent floB model; & results and properties of air
Re u 7m/s8 $out 7C8 $a:; 7C8 - 7k;/m
#
8 Cp 7</k;=8 k 7>/m=8 Pr
?
7k;/ms8)10
@
330 0,3 55 30 1,16 1007 0,0265 0,707 1,86
600 0,5 52 29 1,17 1006 0,0264 0,708 1,86
790 0,7 47 26 1,18 1006 0,0262 0,708 1,84
1300 1,1 44 25 1,18 1006 0,0261 0,709 1,84
1700 1,5 35 20 1,21 1006 0,0257 0,710 1,81
2900 2,5 30 18 1,21 1006 0,0255 0,710 1,80
4300 3,7 21 13 1,23 1006 0,0251 0,712 1,78
5200 4,5 21 13 1,23 1006 0,0251 0,712 1,78
6200 5,4 18 12 1,24 1006 0,0251 0,712 1,77
7000 6,2 15 10 1,25 1006 0,0249 0,712 1,77
$ind 9 and :2 (e9n! 10, 11) u!e .o an, /i fro$ e'%eri$ental re!ult! (=%%en,ice! =3 an, =4).
(*
=
&
5 5
7 9 7 9
p c c out c in
= mC $ $
&
&
m
= :- $
&
0

i
5
J
w w w
k -
0
1 1 1
w
o o w w i i
:- 5 - k - 5 -

+ +
$ind ho (e9n 16)
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
Re u 7m/s8 U5 /o 9u j+factor
330 0,3 0,498 0,009 0,426 2424 1,330-02 21,1365 2,34336461 0,00797
600 0,5 0,787 0,014 0,401 2424 1,330-02 36,9244 4,10923735 0,00768
790 0,7 0,993 0,017 0,384 2424 1,330-02 50,0662 5,61428813 0,00797
1300 1,1 1,449 0,025 0,358 2424 1,330-02 84,1699 9,47475617 0,00817
1700 1,5 1,558 0,039 0,350 2424 1,330-02 152,689 17,455212 0,01151
2900 2,5 2,164 0,051 0,304 2424 1,330-02 262,913 30,2917161 0,01171
4300 3,7 2,084 0,044 0,288 2424 1,330-02 223,374 26,1463271 0,00681
5200 4,5 2,534 0,054 0,274 2424 1,330-02 320,449 37,5091303 0,00808
6200 5,4 2,491 0,051 0,264 2424 1,330-02 306,75 35,9056355 0,00649
7000 6,2 2,218 0,044 0,257 2424 1,330-02 250,849 29,5982168 0,00474
7aminar floB model; & results and properties of air
Re u 7m/s8 $out 7C8 $a:; 7C8 - 7k;/m
#
8 Cp 7</k;=8 k 7>/m=8 Pr
?
7k;/ms8)10
@
330 0,3 55 30 1,16 1007 0,0265 0,707 1,86
600 0,5 52 29 1,17 1006 0,0264 0,708 1,86
790 0,7 47 26 1,18 1006 0,0262 0,708 1,84
1300 1,1 38 22 1,20 1006 0,0259 0,709 1,82
1700 1,5 32 19 1,21 1006 0,0256 0,710 1,81
2900 2,5 29 17 1,22 1006 0,0255 0,711 1,80
4300 3,7 23 14 1,23 1006 0,0252 0,711 1,78
5200 4,5 19 12 1,24 1006 0,0251 0,712 1,77
6200 5,4 18 12 1,24 1006 0,0251 0,712 1,77
7000 6,2 15 10 1,25 1006 0,0249 0,712 1,77
$ind C (e9n! 10 an, 11)
((
5 5
7 9 7 9
p c c out c in
= mC $ $
&
&
m
= :- $
&
=
&
0

i
5
J
w w w
k -
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
Re u 7m/s8 U5 /o 9u j+factor
330 0,3 0,498 0,017 0,426 2424 1,330-02 43,2615 4,80 0,01631
600 0,5 0,787 0,025 0,401 2424 1,330-02 74,4049 8,28 0,01548
790 0,7 0,993 0,029 0,384 2424 1,330-02 94,3415 10,58 0,01503
1300 1,1 1,247 0,032 0,358 2424 1,330-02 115,843 13,14 0,01134
1700 1,5 1,402 0,034 0,350 2424 1,330-02 125,607 14,42 0,00951
2900 2,5 2,095 0,049 0,304 2424 1,330-02 244,993 28,23 0,01091
4300 3,7 2,344 0,051 0,288 2424 1,330-02 277,326 32,33 0,00842
5200 4,5 2,236 0,047 0,274 2424 1,330-02 253,437 29,67 0,00639
6200 5,4 2,491 0,051 0,264 2424 1,330-02 306,75 35,91 0,00649
7000 6,2 2,218 0,044 0,257 2424 1,330-02 250,849 29,60 0,00474
C#>=R"1#;
Colburn j-factor!
Re e'%er. la$inar /-e /-3
330 0,0420 0,0163 0,0108 0,00797
600 0,0270 0,0155 0,0104 0,00768
790 0,0230 0,0150 0,0111 0,00797
1300 0,0170 0,0113 0,0098 0,00817
1700 0,0140 0,0095 0,0082 0,01151
2900 0,0120 0,0109 0,0087 0,01171
4300 0,0094 0,0084 0,0085 0,00681
5200 0,0090 0,0064 0,0083 0,00808
6200 0,0084 0,0065 0,0083 0,00649
7000 0,0081 0,0047 0,005 0,00474
(1
=
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0

i
5
J
w w w
k -
Colburn j-f actor &!. Re4nol,! nu$ber
0,0010
0,0100
0,1000
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
Re
j
-
f
a
c
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la$inar
/-e
/-3
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
D Contents of -nclosed 8'D Memor" 'tic3
$ame of FileJFolde" Desc"i#tion
tubeFin.doc 2e#o"t 4it a##endix
sim#leFoam
7folde" containin! te files
listed at "i!t9
All 3#enF3AM simulation files "un 4it te ;sim#leFoam; named sol-e" and
named b+ flo4 model 7lamina"5 k-epsilon5 o" k-omega9 and inlet ai"flo4 -elocit+
lamina" k-epsilon k-omega
lamina">0.6 kE#silon>0.6 k3me!a>0.6
lamina">0.C kE#silon>0.C k3me!a>0.C
lamina">0.* kE#silon>0.* k3me!a>0.*
lamina">1.1 kE#silon>1.1 k3me!a>1.1
lamina">1.C kE#silon>1.C k3me!a>1.C
lamina">..C kE#silon>..C k3me!a>..C
lamina">..C kE#silon>6.* k3me!a>6.*
lamina">..C kE#silon>A.C k3me!a>A.C
lamina">..C kE#silon>C.A k3me!a>C.A
lamina">..C kE#silon>).. k3me!a>)..
"oSim#leFoam
7folde" containin! te files
listed at "i!t9
All 3#enF3AM simulation files "un 4it te ;"oSim#leFoam; sol-e" and
named b+ flo4 model 7lamina"5 k-epsilon5 o" k-omega9 and inlet ai"flo4 -elocit+
lamina" k-epsilon k-omega
lamina">0.6 kE#silon>0.6 k3me!a>0.6
lamina">0.C kE#silon>0.C k3me!a>0.C
lamina">0.* kE#silon>0.* k3me!a>0.*
lamina">1.1 kE#silon>1.1 k3me!a>1.1
lamina">1.C kE#silon>1.C k3me!a>1.C
lamina">..C kE#silon>..C k3me!a>..C
lamina">..C kE#silon>6.* k3me!a>6.*
lamina">..C kE#silon>A.C k3me!a>A.C
lamina">..C kE#silon>C.A k3me!a>C.A
lamina">..C kE#silon>).. k3me!a>)..
"oTu"bFoam
3#enF3AM simulation file "un 4it Q"oTu"bFoam; sol-e" and k3me!aSST tu"bulence
model 4it inlet ai"flo4 -elocit+ ).. mJs
#D"o#>f>>'.xls Excel file 4it calculations fo" dete"minin! te f"iction facto" f 7A##endix A.9
Heat>tx>calcs.xls Excel file 4it calculations fo" dete"minin! Colbu"n j-facto" 7A##endix A65 AA5 and AC9
t"ans="essu"e.xls Excel file fo" te t"ansient #"essu"e t"ace
Sam#les
File folde" containin! te text files 7.x+9 fo" te #"essu"e and -elocit+ meau"ements
"eco"ded f"om inflo4 and outflo4 du"in! te simulations. A""an!ed b+ file t+#e as in te
abo-e files.
10
A.M. Hansen K10k CFD Simulation of Fin-and-Tube Heat Excan!e"
11