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ICS 93.

040

SR 1911
October 1998
ROMANIAN STANDARD Classification index G 61



Steel bridges for railway
Design Rules


Poduri metalice de cale ferat!
Prescrip"ii de proiectare

Ponts mtalliques pour chemin de fer
Prescriptions en vue de ltablissement des projets


APPROVAL Approved by the General Manager of IRS on the 14
th

of April 1997
Supersedes STAS 1911 75


CORRESPONDENCE On the approval date of this standard, there is no
International or European Standard dealing with the same
subject

La data aprob!rii prezentului standard, nu exist! nici un
standard interna"ional sau european care s! se refere la
acela#i subiect

la date d`approbation de la prsente notme il n`existe pas
de Norme internationale ou europ enne traitant du mme
sujet







TIT DESCRIPTORS Bridge, railway metallic profile, design, design rules


ASOCIA!IA DE STANDARDIZARE DIN ROMNIA (ASRO),
Adresa po#tal!: str. Mendeleev 21-25, 70168, Bucure#ti 1, Direc"ia General!: Tel.: +40 1 211.32.96; Fax: +40 1 210.08.33,
Direc"ia Standardizare: Tel. : +40 1 310.43.08; +40 1 310.43.09, Fax: +40 1 315.58.70,
Direc"ia Publica"ii: Serv. Vnz!ri/Abonamente: Tel: +40 1 212.77.25, +40 1 212.79.20, +40 1 212.77.23, +40 1 312.94.88 ;
Fax : +40 1 210.25.14, +40 1 212.76.20
ASRO
Entire or partial multiplication or use of this standard in any kind of publications and by any means (electronically,
mechanically, photocopy, micromedia etc.) is strictly forbidden without a prior written consent of ASRO

Ref.: SR 1911:1998 6
th
edition



PREAMBLE

The present standard represents the revision of the standard STAS 1911-75, which it supersedes.

The standard was initially drafted in 1950 and it was revised in 1954, 1958, 1965, 1975.

From the previous edition there have been made the following changes:

- verification of the structural elements for protection against the fatigue phenomenon on new bridges;
- verification of the structural elements for protection against stability loss phenomena;
- introduction of criteria in order to establish the quality classes on welded joints;
- evaluation of active widths at structural elements;
- strains limitation of bridge structures depending on the speed of the vehicles;
- new constructive details for structures with welded elements;
- introduction of criteria in order to evaluate the technical condition of the steel bridges in exploitation;
- evaluation of fatigue behavior of the steel bridges in exploitation depending on the traffic.

SR 1911
1


1 GENERAL

1.1 Object and domain of application

1.1.1 The present standard refers to:

- the design of steel structures for new railway bridges, as well as elements of the metallic
structures of the combined bridges affected by the loading from the railway.
- verification and consolidation of metallic structures of existing railway bridges.

1.1.2 The present standard does not apply to the design of the elements specifically for suspended
bridges, braces bridges or to other types of bridges with special composition.

1.1.3 The specifications from the present standard apply to all the metallic structures of the bridges
located on railway lines with a traffic speed of up to 160 km/h.

For railway lines with a traffic speed higher than 160 km/h supplementary regulations shall be
established.

1.1.4 In the calculus there can be used also other methods than the ones established by the standard,
with a supplementary verification character, if their results have been verified by testing and/or if they
have been confirmed by the behaviour in exploitation of structures similar to the one being designed.

1.1.5 If, in order to complete or verify the calculus there is also necessary to be used testing a model,
their program has to be established by mutual agreement between the designer, beneficiary and a
specialized research institute.

1.2 Reference standards

STAS 500/1 89 General use steels for constructions. Quality technical requirements
STAS 500/2 80 General use steels for constructions. Grades
STAS 794 90 Hot-rolled steel. Round steel for connection means. Dimensions
STAS 796 89 Rivets. General technical quality requirements
STAS 797 80 Steel rivets. Buttonhead rivets. Dimensions
STAS 802 80 Steel rivets. Round top countersunk rivet. Dimensions
STAS 880 88 Quality carbon steel for thermal treatment for machines construction.
Grades and technical quality requirements
STAS 922 89 Six-angled bolt nuts. Execution class C
STAS 1257 80 Steel rivets. Small round top countersunk rivet. Dimensions
STAS 1489 78 Railway bridges. Actions
STAS 2242 80 Washers for U and I profiles. Dimensions
STAS 2700/3 89 Screw connection means. Mechanic means and testing methods for
screws and double-ended bolts
STAS 3165 80 Steel rivets. Countersunk rivet head. Dimensions
STAS 3220- 89 Railway bridges. Standard conveys



SR 1911
2

STAS 3221 86 Road bridges. Standard coveys and loading classes
STAS 3461 83 Steel bridges for railway and roads. Riveted superstructures. Design
rules
SR ISO 3755:1994 Non-alloyed steels cast for general use mechanic constructions
SR ISO 4016:1994 Six-angled screws partially screwed. Degree C
SR ISO 4018:1994 Six-angled screws completely screwed. Degree C
STAS 4031 77 Steel bridges for railway and roads. Abutments from cast steel.
Technical and assembling conditions
STAS 4071 89 Six-angle bolt nuts. Execution class A and B
STAS 4272 89 Six-angle screws. Execution class A and B
STAS 4392 84 Normal railway. Gauges
STAS 4531 89 Narrow railway. Gauges
SR ISO 4759-3:1996 Tolerances for assembling elements. Third part: common washers for
screws and bolt nuts with the nominal diameter of the thread from
1 mm up to 150 mm including. Grades A and C
STAS 5200/4 91 Common washers. Normal dimensions series. Execution class A
STAS 5200/5 91 Common washers. Large dimensions series. Execution class A
and C
STAS 5626 92 Bridges. Terminology
STAS 5930 89 Six-angled fitted bolts. Execution class
STAS 6726 85 Welded joints. Forms and dimensions of joints at steel welding under a
flux layer
STAS R8542 79 Choosing the steels for metallic constructions
STAS 8796/1 80 High resistance assembling means used with prestressing at steel
structures joints. IP screws. Dimensions
STAS 8796/2 80 High resistance assembling means used with prestressing at steel
structures joints. IP bolt nuts. Dimensions
STAS 8796/3 89 High resistance assembling means used with prestressing at steel
structures joints. IP washers.
STAS 8796/4 89 High resistance assembling means used with prestressing at steel
structures joints. General technical quality conditions
STAS 8949 82 Steels intended for fabrication of assembling means by hot-plastic
distortion
STAS 9330 - 84 Bridges for railway and road. Joints with high resistance screws.
Design and execution rules





SR 1911
3


STAS 9407 75 Steel bridges for railway and road. Welded superstructures. Execution
rules
STAS 10101/1 78 Actions in constructions. Technical weights and permanent loads
STAS 10101/OB 87 Actions in constructions. Classification and grouping of actions for
bridges for railway and road
STAS 10564/1 81 Cutting with oxygen of metals. Quality classes of cuts
STAS 11417 86 Metal testing. Traction test on the thickness direction
STAS 12187 88 Steel thick plates for main elements of bridges and viaducts
SR EN 29692:1994 Welding with electric cushion with a coated electrode, welding with
electric cushion in protective gas environment and welding with gases
by melting. Preparation of pieces of steel jointing

SR 1911
4


2 MATERIALS

2.1 Steels for construction elements

2.1.1 Steels for the elements of steel bridges are specified in table 1, and their characteristics in
table 2.

Table 1


Table 2


2.1.2 Using of steels unspecified in table 1, can be done if these meet the conditions specified in
standards for steels, regarding:
- the chemical composition,
- mechanical characteristics,
Element type
No.
crt.
Main resistance
elements
Secondary
resistance
elements
Abutments
Welded
Riveted
Welded
Riveted
Balancers
Rollers
Plates
Steel
Nomination
Rolled steel
Rolled steel
Cast carbon
steel
Carbon steel of
quality
Rolled steel
Quality Standard number
No.
crt.
Steel grade and
quality
Breaking
strength
(N/mm
2
)
Standard
number
Common
characteristics
Flow
limit
(N/mm
2
)
- longitudinal modulus
of elasticity:
- transverse modulus
of elasticity:
- coefficient of
transverse shrinkage
- coefficient of thermal
linear dilatation
- specific weight:
SR 1911
5


- welding behavior,
established by testing.

2.1.3 There is allowed to use in the elaboration of the structure of the same bridge, as well as in the
same element, of steels of different grades and classes of quality

2.1.4 Choosing the steels grades is done considering the techno-economical characteristics, and
choosing the quality class and the deoxidization degree, is done in order to assure the elements against
the danger of fragile breaking.

2.2 Steels for rivets, usual screws and high resistance screws.

2.2.1 The characteristics of steels for rivets, usual screws and high resistance screws have to meet the
specifications from table 3.

Table 3



2.2.2 The use for rivets, common screws and high resistance screws of steels with other characteristics
than the one specified in table 3 can be done under the conditions specified in 2.1.2


3 ACTIONS. ACTIONS GROUPING. LOADS REPARTITION

3.1 The actions are considered according to STAS 1489 and STAS 3220.

3.2 Actions grouping is done according to STAS 10101/OB.



Joint type

Riveted
joints
Joints with
usual screws
Joints with
prestressed
high
resistance
screws
Connection means
Standard number Nomination
Grade
Mechanical
characteristic
Standard
number
Grade of steel
from the
elements that
are being
assembled
Material
Rivets
Screws
Bolt nuts
Washers
IP
Screws
IP Bolt
nuts
IP Washers
Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
Hardness
*) In order to rivet the elements from OL52 there can be used rivets made from OL44 steel bars having the following
chemical composition: C = (0.100.18)%; Si = (0.250.50)%; Mn = (0.600.80)%; P = maximum 0.05%;
S = maximum 0.05%; and the following mechanic characteristics; or = (440520) N/mm
2
; o5 >$27%;
tr = (360480) N/mm
2
; specific slump coefficient = 3 : 1.
SR 1911
6


3.3 The present standard uses the method of permitted strength. The actions coefficients (n
a
) and
grouping coefficients (n
g
) from STAS 10101/OB is considered with the maximum value, 1.

3.4 The loads repartition is done according to 3.4.1 and .3.4.2.

3.4.1 The repartition of own weight (of the resistance structure) is considered to be the real one. For
spans under 100 m the loading, from its own weight, can be considered uniformly distributed.

3.4.2 In order to design the elements of the path, the longitudinal runners or the flooring is permitted
that the repartition of the point loads from standard convoys to be according to 3.4.2.1; 3.4.2.2.

3.4.2.1 The load on the wheel can be distributed to three rail supporting points as illustrated in figure 1.

















Figure 1

3.4.2.2 The ballast repartition, in the longitudinal sense of the path, of loads which correspond to the
traverses are generally considered uniformly distributed. For the elements of the planks flooring which
undertake directly the path loads the repartition can be considered as showed in figure 2, if it is
unfavourable.














Figure 2

3.4.2.3 The ballast repartition, in a transverse sense of the path, of vertical and horizontal forces is
considered according to figure 3 a, b, c where :

P
h
Horizontal force
P
v
Vertical force
P
r
Resulting force
h Distance from the weight center of the convoy to the plane tangent the rails crown which is
considered: 2.0 m for normal railway; 1.50 m for tight railway
s Causeway superelevation
e Eccentricity of application of the resulting force at the level of the upper flooring face which
sustains the ballast.
P load on wheel
a distance between two consecutive
rail supporting points,

Load on traverse
Upper face of the blading which
sustains the ballast
SR 1911
7




Figure 3

Upper flooring face which
sustains the ballast
Upper flooring face which
sustains the ballast
Upper flooring face which
sustains the ballast
SR 1911
8


3.5 The eccentricity of the vertical loads from the railway vehicles convoys is considered by the axles
wheel loads ratio 1.25:1.00. The resulting eccentricity is showed in figure 4.

Figure 4

3.6 In the calculus of the elements of the steel bridges structure it is considered the effect of
offsetting with 5.0 cm from the path axis of the (in plan) regarding to its initial position specified in the
project.


4 DYNAMIC COEFFICIENT

4.1 The dynamic coefficient ! with which the load rendered by standard type vehicles convoys are
multiplied, is considered according to STAS 1489.

4.2 The dynamic coefficient is taken into consideration in:

- calculus of all the elements which are part of the supporting structure, including the abutments,
- calculus of metallic piers elements,
- calculus of pressure from under the bearings,
- verification of the ascension from the abutment (negative reactions) of the deck.


5 CALCULUS OF EFFORTS AN DEFORMATIONS

5.1 Calculus principles

5.1.1 In the resistance calculus, for elastic stability and position stability, are taken into consideration
the most unfavourable groups and positions of the actions, considering their compatibility of
simoultaneous apparition. The efforts, which are produced simoultaneously in the sections of the
elements, are all determined for the same position of the load and actions.

5.1.2 The calculus of efforts and deformations in the structural elements of a steel bridge is done in the
following steps:
- the elements are considered as part from plane static systems, distinct (with no cooperation), in the
structure dimensioning stage;
- the elements are considered as part of a spatial static system, in the structure verification stage.

In this case, the calculus can be done as follows:
a) by decomposing the spatial static system in plane static systems stressed by the actions with a effect
determinant in dimensioning the component elements. It is always considered the mutual influence
(cooperation) between the plane static systems where the spatial structure was decomposed,
realizing the superposition of the effects.
b) by considering a spatial calculus model which reflects as accurate as possible the real composition
and behaviour of the structure.


P
1
, P
2
= Loads on wheels
P
0
= P
1
+ P
2
= Load on axis
= track gauge
SR 1911
9


5.1.2.1 For the steel bridge structures with spans s $50 m which have the path sustained on a network of
beams (stringers and struts) the effect of cooperation can be neglected if there does not exist any
connection between the beams of the path and the main bracing except of the ties realized by the braking
taking over and transmitting device located near the middle of the span. In this case there are also
observed the specifications from 5.3.1.3 and 5.6.3 from the present standard.

5.1.2.2 Under all the structure composition situations different from the one specified at 5.1.2.1, the
calculus of the efforts and deformations is done according to 5.1.2.

5.1.2.3 The braking taking over and transmission devices can be realized from rods, washers, struts with
high at horizontal bending rigidity etc.

5.13 The calculus of the efforts and deformations in the elements of the structure is done based on
actions and loads specified in STAS 1489, bearing in mind the grouping of the actions specified in
STAS 10101/OB.

5.1.4 In the realization of the model for the structure calculus there is to be considered the real modality
of elements jointing. In the situation where there exists uncertainties regarding the modality of functioning
of the joint, shall be chosen the model which leads to the most unfavorable effects for the action to be
verified.

5.1.5 If for the calculus are used computer assisted structural analysis programs there shall be
indicated in all cases the name of the program, a relevant description and of its performances from which
to result also the hypothesis that it takes into consideration.

5.1.6 The main results obtained by the help of the computer are presented as tables and graphical
representations for each loading case considered. It is compulsory to verify its result scale by a manual
calculus which is to be included in the notes of calculus, justifying the differences obtained by the two
methods.
As a general rule, there is to be avoided the inclusion in the calculus notes of tables with figures, printed
from the computer. If they contain indispensable values for the verification done, they shall be annexed to
the notes of calculus and shall be clearly defined (nomination, loading cases, units, etc.).

5.1.7 The calculus methods shall contain:
- technical regulations on which the design of the structure is based;
- plans of the structure from which to result the composition and structure dimensions and of
constitutional elements;
- considered actions and their grouping;
- the characteristics of the metallic material from the constitutional elements;
- calculus models used, hypothesis and simplifications in the structure analysis; their argumentation;
- texts and formulas (literally and digitally) which describe the verifications performed.

5.2 Calculus of the stringers

5.2.1 For the stringers dimensioning stage is performed a simplified calculus. In this case the bending
moments are taken from table 4.

Table 4


In table 4, M
0
is the maximum bending moment in the field, for the stringer considered as independent
beam, simply supported with the span equal to the distance between the strut axles.


No.
crt.
Moment designation
Moments in final fields of the
stringers row
Moments in the intermediary fields
Negative moments on abutment
The value of the moment for
SR 1911
10


In case of stringers with different spans, in the evaluation of the negative moment from the shared
support, the arithmetic mean for M
0
of the corresponding maximum moments of the two nearby opening is
considered.

5.2.2 The verification of the stringers is performed based on efforts determined considering the spatial
model of structural analysis, according to 5.1.2.

5.2.3 The direct effect of the transverse actions (meandering, wind, centrifugal force) can be estimated
according to 5.2.3.1 up to 5.2.3.3.

5.2.3.1 The maximum bending moment M
wh
produced by the direct action of the wind on the convoy, path
and stringers, in the stringers from the middle of their bracing panel, can be assessed with:

1
M
wh
=
20
w.a
2


where
w The loading per meter which corresponds to a stringer from the direct action of the
wind on the convoy, path and stringers;
a Span of the bracing panel of the stringers.

5.2.3.2 The maximum bending moment M
sh
produced by the direct meandering action in a stringers can
be assessed with:

M
sh
= 0.25 M
os

where
M
os
The bending moment produced by the meandering force S, entirely, acting over
the upper flange of the stringer, considered as simple supported on the span of a
stringers bracing panel

5.2.3.3 The maximum bending moment M
sh
produced by the direct action of the centrifugal force in a
stringer can be assessed with:

M
Fch
= 0.25 M
oFc

where
M
oFc
The bending moment produced by the direct wind action, considering the simple
supported stringer, with the span equal to the length of a stringers bracing panel

5.2.4 The resulting moment from the direct action of the wind and of the meandering is undertaken only
by the following elements of the upper flange of the stringer:
- metal strips (ribbon iron) and horizontal legs of angle sections, for riveted stringers
- metal strips (ribbon iron) for welded stringers

5.2.5 In the stringers calculus can be neglected the efforts coming from:
- indirect wind action;
- indirect meandering action.

There can be also neglected the axial efforts produced in the stringers by the direct action of the wind,
meandering and braking.

5.2.6 For the dimensioning stage, the fasteners for stringers are established according to 5.2.6.1 and
5.2.6.2.

5.2.6.1 The upper continuity plate of the stringers is calculated with a tension stress H
p
with the relation:

M
r

H
p
=
h



(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
SR 1911
11


where
M
r
The maximum negative moment from the support;
h The lever arm, which is taken:
- at stringers without a seat, the distance from the center of gravity of the plate up to
the inferior edge of the stringer;
- at stringers with a seat, the distance from the center of gravity of the plate, with the
condition that its joint to the base of the stringer to be able to undertake the slipping
between the stringer and the seat.

5.2.6.2 When the stringers are equipped with two continuity plates, the lever arm is equal to the distance
between the center of gravity of the two plates.

R = 1.2 (R
g
+ %R
p
)


where
R Calculated reaction of the stringers;
R
g
Reaction from permanent loads, considering that the stringers are independent beams
simple supported;
R
p
Maximum reaction from the convoy, considering that the stringers are independent
beams simple supported;
% Dynamic coefficient.

5.2.7 Verification of the fastening elements of the stringers is performed based on the efforts
determined considering the spatial structural analysis model, according to 5.1.2.

5.3 Struts calculus

5.3.1 In the dimensioning stage is permitted the simplified calculus of the struts according to 5.3.1.1 up
to 5.3.1.5.

5.3.1.1 The simplified calculus of the struts is performed considering that they are beams simply
supported, having the span equal with the distance between the axis of the main beams. In the struts
which are a part of the frames, there are also considered the efforts corresponding as frame elements.

5.3.1.2 For struts being a part of the decks which are not equipped with special devices in order to
assure the cooperation, the simplified calculus is performed considering at loads, the reactions of the
stringers, admitting that they are beams simply supported and independent.

5.3.1.3 Under the conditions from 5.3.1.2. the bending moments regarding the vertical axis of the struts,
coming from the deformation of the flanges of the main beams, are not considered if the strut which is
being calculated is at a distance equal to or lesser than 30 m from the braking overtaking and
transmission device and if it has the flanges narrower than 260 mm. Other wise, there are also
considered these moments, increasing the admissible strength resistance with 10%.

5.3.1.4 The struts jointed to the main beams by welding are considered, if an exact calculus lacks,
stressed at the end by a negative moment (M
sa
) given by the relation:


1
M
sa
=
4
M
o



where
M
o
Is the maximum field moment of the strut considered as simply supported beam.


5.3.1.5 The joint of the struts to the main beams is calculated, whether or not they are equipped with
devices that ensure the cooperation between the elements of the superstructure, at the calculated
reaction R, given by the relation:

R = 1.2 (R
g
+ %R
p
)


(5)
(6)
(7)
SR 1911
12


where
R
g
Reaction of the strut from permanent load;
R
p
Maximum reaction from convoy load;
% Dynamic coefficient corresponding to the strut span

5.3.2 The verification of the strut is performed based on the efforts determined considering the spatial
structural analysis model, according to 5.1.2.

5.3.3 The struts with a low path, top side opened, have to realize the rigidity corresponding for the
partial frames, which must to ensure the general stability of the compressed flanges of the main beams.
The calculus is performed according to 8.4.5.6.

5.3.4 The verification of the fastening elements of the struts is performed based on the efforts
determined considering the spatial structural analysis model, according to 5.1.2.

5.4 Calculus of the main solid web girders

5.4.1 The theoretical section variation points of the solid web girders are established such as the
envelope curve of the bending moments to be covered by the diagram of the capable moments (M
cap
) of
the section.

These points are established analytically or graphically. In case of the independent beams simply
supported, they can be established by the relation:


where
x Distance from the support to the theoretical point of interruption;
M Beam span;
M
x
The lowest resistance modulus of the beam section, rightly in the section
variation point:
M
max
The highest resistance modulus of the considered beam section.

5.4.1.1 The riveted plates have to exceed the theoretical point established according to 5.4.1 with at least
two rivet pairs (figure 5) from which a pair can be placed in the theoretical point.
The rivets between the extremities of two consecutive plates have to ensure the total stressing of the
plate that they fasten.






Figure 5




Theoretic point
SR 1911
13


5.4.1.2 The welded ribbon iron can be interrupted in the theoretical point, considering also the frontal
corner weld (figure 6). The lateral and frontal welds from the extremity of a plate and up to the theoretical
point of interruption of the next plate have to provide the stressing of the plate which it fastens.


Figure 6


5.5 Calculus of the main trussed beams

5.5.1 For the dimensioning stage is permitted the efforts determination in the bars of the trussed beams
in the hypothesis that they are hinged in the joints.

5.5.2 In the hypothesis of the hinged joints admitted at 5.5.1 the effect of the joints rigidity considered in
the calculus by increasing the axial tension with the coefficient:

l
p = 1.25 0.01
e
> 1.05

where
l The theoretical length of a rod
e The distance in the beam plan between the center of gravity of the rod section and its
extreme fiber (figure 7)


l
10 <
e
< 20

l
for
e
> 20 p = 1.05



Figure 7

(9)
The thickness of the welding belt band a
resulted from the calculus
On the marked length the welding is processed by
grinding in the direction of the action of the
effort, without notches
SR 1911
14


5.5.3 The verification of the rod sections of the trussed beams is performed based on the efforts
determined considering the spatial structural analysis model observing the specifications from 5.1.1 up
to 5.1.4.

5.5.4 The efforts from the direct loading on the rods of the trussed beams are considered under the
following conditions:
- from its sole weight, only if the designed horizontal length of the rod exceeds 6.0 m;
- from the direct action on the flanges, by sleepers, struts, decks, etc.

5.5.5 At the curved bridges the calculus of the rod efforts is performed observing also the specifications
from 5.7.

5.5.6 The rods of the trussed beams, of which the center of gravity of the cross section does not
coincide with the geometrical lay-out of the beam, are calculated regarding the eccentricity, according
to 8.2.
At compressed rods, the calculus and the verification is performed according to 8.4 considering also the
eccentricity of the compressive force.

5.5.7 At flanges the eccentricity influence can be neglected if the arithmetic mean of the axis of the
centers of gravity of the rods sections coincides with the axis of the model considered in the calculus. The
flanges have to be composed such as to realize a minimum variation of the position of the center of
gravity all along the structure.

5.6 Bracings calculus

5.6.1 The stresses in from the rods of the bracings are calculated according to 5.1.2.

5.6.2 The actions and their grouping for the evaluation of the stresses in the rods of the corner bracings
are considered according to 3.1 up to 3.3.

5.6.3 In the dimensioning stage, the calculus of the efforts in the rods of the longitudinal bracings is
performed only for the actions transverse to the structure, neglecting the effects of the spatial
cooperation. In this case the permitted resistance of the steel used will be considered, with a value
reduced by 40% regarding the one specified in table 8.

5.6.4 In the simplified calculus according to 5.6.3, the efforts in the rods of the longitudinal bracings are
obtained based on the shearing force from the panel, which is considered undertaken equally by the
bracing diagonals from the respective panel.

5.6.5 The transverse frames of the planks, regardless of the position of the causeway, are designed
according to specifications 5.1.1 and 5.1.3.

5.6.6 In the dimensioning stage, the calculus model for the transverse frames is considered according
to 5.1.2.
The elements of the transverse frames are must provide:
- the transmission at of the structures transverse actions to the longitudinal bracings;
- the transmission of the reactions of the longitudinal bracings to the abutment;
- undertaking of the efforts due to assembling operations, maintenance and repairs (for example lifting
from the abutment of the planks).

5.6.7 At the calculus of the longitudinal bracings there can be neglected the eccentricity of the bracing
plane regarding to the plane of the centers of gravity of the main beams flanges.

5.6.8 In the dimensioning stage, for oblique planks, the span of the longitudinal bracing is considered
the distance L
cv
, according to figure 8. The abutment devices located at the joints corresponding to the
obtuse vertex of the bracing plane, have to be dimensioned by the entire horizontal reaction which comes
from the transverse horizontal actions.









Figure 8

SR 1911
15


5.6.9 At the bridges with high obliquity, having two or more bracing panels on the spaces from the
edges of the plank where in cross section one of the beams is missing (figure 9), the bracing can be
calculated in the dimensioning stage either as a beam with L span of the main beam, or three
independent beams with spans l
1
, l
2
and l
3
.



Figure 9


5.7 Calculus of the efforts at curved bridges

5.7.1 The centrifugal force is calculated according to the specifications of STAS 1489.

5.7.2 The elements of the steel bridges structures will be designed considering also the most
unfavorable effects of the convoys movement on the causeway in curve (the weight of the convoys, the
centrifugal force, the causeway superelevation, the position of the causeway, movement speed, dynamic
coefficient) in according to the specifications from 5.1.1 and 5.1.2. All the elements of the structure have
to correspond at least to the situation of the positioning of the bridge in alignment.

5.7.3 Maximum speed permitted and the causeway superelevation, regarding the imposed limitation by
the radius of curve, are to be found in annex A.

5.7.4 In the dimensioning stage, at steel bridges with regular composition, is permitted the application
of the following procedure for simplified calculus.

5.7.4.1 The influence of the direct centrifugal force action is calculated by the formulas:

v
2

M
hx
=
127 R
M
vx

v
2

T
hx
=
127 R
T
vx

where
R The radius curve
M
hx
;T
hx
The bending moments and respectively the shearing forces in the x section from
the horizontal centrifugal force applied on the level of the bracing underneith;
M
vx
;T
vx
The bending moments and respectively the shearing forces in the x section from
the vertical mobile loads convoy.

5.7.4.2 The influence of the indirect action of the centrifugal force, the influences of the outside rail
superelevation and of the position of the causeway axis in the plane, which is to be considered when
calculating the steel bridges elements, are determined approximately by the relations which follow:

M
xe
= q
e

.
M
x
(12)

T
xe
= q
e

.
T
x
(13)


- for the interior beam by the relations:

M
xi
= q
i

.
M
x
(14)

T
xi
= q
i

.
T
x
(15)



(10)

(11)
r.f. fixed abutment
r.m. abutment mobile in a single
direction
r.m.d. abutment mobile in all
directions
SR 1911
16

where
x The distance from the abutment A (figure 110) to the considered section, in meters;
M
xei
;T
xe
The maximum moment and respectively the maximum shearing force in the x
section of the exterior beam GE simply supported (figure 110, annex A);
M
xii
;T
xi
The maximum moment and respectively the maximum shearing force in the x
section of the interior beam GI simply supported (figure 110, annex A);
M
xi
;T
x
The maximum moment and respectively the maximum shearing force in the x
section of the same simply supported beam, considered in alignment and taking into
consideration the entire action of the standard convoy multiplied with the dynamic
coefficient;





b Distance in meters, between the axis of the main beams, loaded directly or
indirectly, considered in the calculus; for the stringers, the distance between the
stringers: b = b
1
(figure 10);
h
.
s
Eccentricity due to the exterior rail superelevation regarding to the inferior
e
s
=
t one, in meters;
h Distance from the convoy center of gravity the plane tangent to the rails crown of
which value is taken as follows:
2.00 m at normal gauge railways;
1.50 m at tight gauge railways:
s Superelevation of the exterior rail regarding the interior one, in meters, according to
Annex A;
t The distance between the axis of the rails (1.5 m for normal gauge rails and 0.8 m
for tight gauges (0.76 m) rails with gauge line of 0.76 m);




Figure 10


d
e
c
k

a
x
i
s

c
a
u
s
e
w
a
y

a
x
i
s

SR 1911
17


H
.
v
2
Eccentricity due to the centrifugal force which is introduced
e
c
=
127
.
R with different values in the relation 16 and 17, for the two beams (interior and
exterior), according to 5.7.2, in meters;
H The distance from the convoy center of gravity up to the bracing plane which
overtakes the direct loading from the centrifuge force, in meters; to the calculus of the
stringers H = H
1
(figure 10);
v The speed of circulation in km/h, observing the specifications from 5.7.3;
R - the radius of the circular curve where the bridge is located, in meters;
e
n
= z
.
f Eccentricity due to the position in plane of the causeway;

a
3
Z Coefficient with different values for the moment and for the shearing force namely:
Z
m
for the moment;
Z
t
for the shearing force.

The coefficients Z
m
and Z
t
are taken from table 5 depending on the rapport

x
n

=
L

a; f; L according to figure 110 and figure 111, in meters.

Table 5


NOTE - For intermediary values it is interpolated linearly.


5.7.4.3 At bridges in circular curve, the strain f is calculated by the relation:

(18)


5.7.4.4 The bridges located in a transition curve, executed by a cubic parabola, having the equation:

(19)

is calculated as well as the bridges in full curve according to 5.7.4.2., introducing in the relations 16 and
17 the eccentricities given by the relations:


(20)

(21)

(22)






Differences
Differences
SR 1911
18

where

L
r
, x
a
, x
b
- according 5.7.4.5 and figure 111, annex A.

(23)


The relations are established in the hypothesis of the placement of the bridges axis at the half of the
arrow of the bridge curve and parallel with the binding joist of the transition curve.

5.7.4.5 If x
a
or x
b
have negative values, namely if the abutments A and B are rightly near to the alignment
which precedes or follows the curve, are taken:

x
a
= 0 respectively x
b
= 0

5.7.4.6 If x
m
is rightly near the circular curve, x
m
> L
r
, there will be proceeded as for a bridge in full curve,
with the radius R.

5.7.4.7 The determination of the efforts in a plank section located in the transition curve, is performed
based on the value of the centrifugal force established approximately, considering the bridge in circular
curve with the radius p
x
, given by the relation:

(24)

where

x the distance from AR to the considered section, measured on the curve tangent in AR.


6 SECTIONS CALCULUS CHARACTERISTICS

6.1 Elements jointed with rivets or screws

6.1.1 The sections calculus characteristics of the elements jointed with rivets and screws, depending
on the nature of the effort, are the one from table 6.

6.1.2 The attenuation produced by the rivet holes (AA; AI) in the tensioned pieces are taken in
consideration (figure 12) after the normal line (for example line I-II) or after the sinuous line (for example
line II-III), as which is more unfavorable. For angles, I or U profiles, the line of braking sinuous is
established by folding of the wings (planks) according to figure 13.


















Figure 11


SR 1911
19



Figure 12 Figure 13

Table 6











































NOTE - If the symbols from the table are followed by the symbol z or y the value that they represent has to be
considered regarding the main inertia axis z-z, respectively y-y of the section.

No.
crt.
Effort Unit stress
Axial effort

Shearing
force
Bending
Free torsion
Constrained
torsion
The tension
1)

Compression
Slipping

Tangential unit
stress

Tension from
the bending
Compression from
bending
Tangential unit
stress from torsion

Compression or
tension
Sliding
Net area
Calculus section characteristics
Designation
Relation of calculus
Gross area
Gross area
The static moment of the section which
slips in rapport with the neuter axis
The inertia moment of the gross
section
The inertia moment of the section for the
calculus of the tensile

The modulus of resistance for tension
The inertia moment of the gross
section
The modulus of resistance for
compression
The free torsion constant

Sectorial area
Sectorial inertia
Static sectorial moment
Symbol
1) For joints with high resistance screws, the in the unit stress established sections are calculated according to STAS 9330.
2) AA the attenuation area of the section according to 6.1.2 and 6.1.3.
3) is considered the gross section of the part which slips.
4) Al the inertia of the sliding section about the neutral axis the sum of the inertia moments of the attenuations from the tensioned area about the
neutral axis (considered for the gross section) .
5) Yt the distance from the most tensioned fiber the neutral axis (considered for the gross section).
6) Yc the distance from the most compressed fiber to the neutral axis (considered for the gross section).
7) hi the width of a washer of the element section (for example: the width of the flange, the height of the solid web of a double T section etc.);
ti the thickness of a washer;
a digital coefficient which depends on the shape of the section and which is taken:
1.30 for double T, U and boxed profiles with sections:
1.15 for sections T and Z;
1.00 for angle section
For sections composed by riveting or welding hi and ti are taken for each shading rectangle distinctly according to figure 11.
8) ds element of length infinitely small of the median fiber of the washers from which the section is composed;
p the distance from the center of rolling-bending, to the direction determined by the indefinite prolongation of the element ds.
9) dA = &
.
ds infinite area small element of the section; & the thickness of the element ds.
w the sectorial area corresponding to the point from the median fiber of the section in which there was considered the element ds, of the
elementary dA area.
10) w and dA have the same meaning as in the relation from the point 9 (previously)
SR 1911
20


6.1.3 The net aria (A
n
) of the tensional elements, composed by several pieces, fastened by rivets or
screws, is equal to the sum of the areas of all the pieces that compose the section of the element.
For each piece is considered the net aria, either the normal section, or the sinuous section, as it is most
unfavorable, according to the figure 14.


Figure 14


6.2 Elements jointed by welding

6.2.1 The calculus characteristics of the sections assembled only by welding, non-weakened by rivet or
screw wholes are established based on the gross sections.

6.2.2 The welding belts calculus characteristics are:

- the calculus thickness (a);
- the calculus length (l)
- the calculus section (A
s
)
- the inertia moment (l
s
)

6.2.2.1 The calculus thickness (a)
The calculus thickness of a welding belt is determined according to table 7.

6.2.2.2 The calculus length (l)

6.2.2.2.1 The calculus length of a welding belt is considered, usually, equal to the effective length of the
belt, from which are extracted the terminal craters, each terminal crater being considered of equal length
as the calculus thickness a of the belt.
If at the butt-jointed welds are used technological pieces, according to figure 15, the calculus length of
the belt is taken equal to the entire length of the belt.
At welds in K, in Y, or corner, where are used technological pieces or where the belts are tuned back
(figure 16) the terminal craters are not extracted.
SR 1911
21

if Table 7

No.
crt.
Seams
Butt-jointed seams
In K, welded on both
sides
In Y
In K, without complete
penetration
In Y with corner
seam in the opposite
part
In Y on a single side
Corner seam on a single
side
Corner seam on both
sides
Corner seam on a
single side
Corner seam on both
sides, with deep
penetration
With deep penetration. Semi-automate
welding under layer of flux, in CO2 or with
electrodes with deep penetration. In the
seam, a represents the height of the
isosceles triangle contained, measured as
in no. crt. 8 and a represents the calculus
thickness.
In seam, a represents the height of the
isosceles triangle contained in the seam,
measured up to the theoretical point of
the root

Non-penetration in area c, in which
Welding on a single side, with the root
completely, penetrated
Complete penetration by chamfering and
re-welding the root on the opposite side
Complete penetration by welding on both
sides
The root of the seam completely
penetrated, or chamfered and re-welded
The scheme of the
seam
Welding conditions
The calculus thickness
of belt a
If these conditions are not fulfilled, the
calculus thickness (a) is taken according
to No. crt. 8 11 from this table

and
if
if
In which emin is
determined by
experimental testing. It
the welding under layer
of flux the depth of
penetration can be
considered 0.4a, and the
calculus thickness:
a = 1.2a

SR 1911
22






Figure 15






Figure 16


6.2.2.2.2 When jointing superposed pieces (figure 17) the calculus length of each lateral corner seam,
must to fulfill the condition:

15 a s / s 60 a





Figure 17

6.2.2.2.3 The calculus length of the seams which joint the solid webs of the composed rods to the flanges
(for example in double T sections or boxed) jointed at knobs by rivets, screws or welding, is taken
as much equal to the distance measured from the beginning of the rod to knob joint
SR 1911
23


up to the end of the seam which joints the webs to the flanges: for example in case of jointing with rivets
or screws, in figure 18 from the first rivet or screw up to the end of the seam between the web and
flanges. Along this length all the seams which joint the webs to the flanges have to transmit to these the
entire effort.



Figure 18

6.2.2.3 The calculus section (A
s
)

6.2.2.3.1 The calculus section of a welded joint is considered according to the relation:

(26)

In the sum above, by the nature of the effort which is being transmitted, are comprised the following
seams:
- for the transmission of the axial effort, all the seams from the jointed plane;
- for the transmission of the shearing force, are considered only the seams whose longitudinal axis is
parallel to the shearing force (for example, at the jointing of the section according to figure 19 for the
transmission of the shearing force T
y
are generally considered only the seams which joint the web of the
profile, and for the transmission of the shearing force T
z
, only the seams that joint the flanges).

6.2.2.3.2 The calculus section of a joint stressed by axial effort having butt-jointed seams as well as
corner (figure 20) are determined by the relation:

A
s
= A
sc
+ $A
sa
(27)



Figure 19
SR 1911
24






Figure 20


where:

A
sc
the cross area of the corner seams;
A
sa
The cross area of the butt-jointed seams;
$ A coefficient which considers the different permitted strengths, of the two
types of seams and which has the values:
$= 0.6 for A
sc
/ A
sa
s 1.50
$= 0.4 for A
sc
/ A
sa
s $2.00
(28)
(29)
For intermediary values of the A
sc
/ A
sa
ratio, the $ value is obtained by linear interpolation

6.2.2.3.3 The calculus section of the corner seams is considered:
- either in the bisector plan of the dihedral formed by the two sides of the seam, which passes through
its root, according to figure 21;
- or swinging on one of the planes formed by the sides of the pieces that are being welded, according
to figure 22.

6.2.2.4 The inertia moment (l
s
)

The inertia moment l
s
of the corner joint is considered equal to the sum of the inertia moments of the
surface of each seam, regarding to the center of gravity G
s
of all the seams.
SR 1911
25





Figure 21






Figure 22


For the calculus of the center of gravity and of the inertia moment of the seams, is permitted that the
center of gravity of each seam is located rightly near its root at half the length.

At the calculus of the inertia moment of a joint which transmits a bending or torsion moment, are
considered only the seams which, by their position fully contribute to the transmission of the bending or
torsion moment. For example, in figure 19, for the transmission of the bending moment can be considered
only the seams that joint the flanges.


SR 1911
26


7 PERMITTED RESISTANCE

7.1 The permitted resistances for the hot-rolled products which compose the elements of the bridges
structures are indicated in table 8.

Table 8


7.1.1 Permitted resistances for the hot-rolled products from other steels than the ones from table 8 will
be determined by dividing their yield strength o
c
to the safety coefficients from table 9. There shall be
observed the specifications from 2.1.2.

Table 9


7.1.2 Permitted resistances of the steels used in abutment means are given by the table 10.

Table 10


No.
crt.
The unit
stress from
various
stresses

Symbol
Tension
compression,
bending
Shearing
The equivalent
unit stress
(formula 37)

Trans-
formation
coefficient
regarding

Quality
class
Permitted resistances in N/mm
2
of the hot-rolled sheets and profiles
brand:
Actions grouping
1.0
et
et
et
Grouping on actions
1.50
1.35
1.20
1.33
1.25
1.18
c1 safety coefficient for normal tangential unit stresses or
c2 safety coefficient for equivalent unit stresses (of comparison)
No.
crt.
Grade of the steel
Unit stress
Permitted resistances of the steels used
in the abutment means
Actions grouping
Pressure on the contact line, in N/mm
2
Tension, compression, bending, in N/mm
2
Shearing, in N/mm
2

Equivalent unit stress, in N/mm
2

Pressure on the contact line, in N/mm
2
Pressure on the contact line, in N/mm
2
*) only for quality classes 3 and 4
SR 1911
27


7.2 Permitted resistances for rivets, fitted screws and gross screws are given in table 7

Table 7



7.3 Permitted resistances of the welded seams are indicated in table 12
No.
crt.

Fastening
mean
Rivets *)
Screws
Fitted
screws *)
Joint characteristic data
Rivets from OL 34 in OL 37
elements
Rivets from OL 44 in OL 52
elements
Mechanic
characteristics
group according
to STAS 2700/3
Unit stress from
various stresses

Symbol
Permitted resistances of the steels
used in the abutment means
N/mm
2

Actions grouping
Shearing
Pressure on rod
Tension in rod **)
Shearing
Pressure on rod
Tension in rod **)
Shearing
Pressure on rod
Tension in rod **)
Shearing
Pressure on rod
Tension in rod **)
Shearing
Pressure on rod
Tension in rod **)
t
a

o
la

o
ta

t
a

o
la

o
ta

t
a

t
a

t
a

o
la

o
la

o
la

o
ta

o
ta

o
ta

*) Fitting rivets and screws, stressed simultaneously by shearing and tension in the rod, are checked also for equivalent unit stress
according to 8.2.3.6.
**) Stressing the rivets by tension in the rod is permitted only in special cases
SR 1911
28

Table 12
T
y
p
e

o
f

t
h
e

w
e
l
d
e
d

s
e
a
m


D
e
s
i
g
n
a
t
i
o
n

N
o
.

c
r
t
.

F
r
o
m

t
a
b
l
e

7

-

B
u
t
t
-
j
o
i
n
t
e
d

w
i
t
h

c
o
m
p
l
e
t
e

p
e
n
e
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

b
y

w
e
l
d
i
n
g

o
n

b
o
t
h

s
i
d
e
s

o
r

w
i
t
h


r
e
-
w
e
l
d
i
n
g

o
f

t
h
e

r
o
o
t

-

I
n

K

w
i
t
h

c
o
m
p
l
e
t
e

p
e
n
e
t
r
a
t
i
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n
,

b
y

r
e
-
w
e
l
d
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n
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t
h
e

r
o
o
t
;


T
h
e

d
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c
t
i
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f

t
h
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u
n
i
t

s
t
r
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s
s
e
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r
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g
a
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d
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n
g

t
o

t
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l
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t
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n
a
l

a
x
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t
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s
e
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T
h
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q
u
a
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c
l
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f

t
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s
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a
m

T
h
e

s
y
m
b
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f

t
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p
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m
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t
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d

r
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s
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s
t
a
n
c
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T
h
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p
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r
m
i
t
t
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d

r
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s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
s

i
n

N
/
m
m
2
,

i
n

t
h
e

w
e
l
d
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s
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a
m
s

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t
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e
l
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m
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n
t
s

f
r
o
m

g
r
a
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s
t
e
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l
s

A
l
l

q
u
a
l
i
t
y

c
l
a
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s
e
s


C
o
m
p
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s
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a
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d

s
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t
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f
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b
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N
o
r
m
a
l

u
n
i
t

s
t
r
e
s
s
e
s

o


$ p
e
r
p
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n
d
i
c
u
l
a
r

t
o

t
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l
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g
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a
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d
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c
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I
n

K

w
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p
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I
n


V

w
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b
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p
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p
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t
r
a
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.

T
h
e

m
a
x
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m

d
e
p
t
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o
f

n
o
n
-

p
e
n
e
t
r
a
t
i
o
n









c

s
$
1
/
5
t
,









c

s
$
3

m
m

S
i
m
p
l
e

c
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
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a
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d

c
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b
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S
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-

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c

s
$
1
/
5
t
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c

s
$
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m
m

-

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f

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A
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s

C
o
m
p
r
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s
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i
o
n

a
n
d

s
i
m
p
l
e

t
e
n
s
i
o
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o
r

f
r
o
m

b
e
n
d
i
n
g

N
o
r
m
a
l

u
n
i
t

s
t
r
e
s
s

a
l
o
n
g

t
h
e

a
x
i
s

(
o
l
l
)


A
l
l

q
u
a
l
i
t
y

c
l
a
s
s
e
s

A
l
l

q
u
a
l
i
t
y

c
l
a
s
s
e
s


A
l
l

q
u
a
l
i
t
y

c
l
a
s
s
e
s


A
l
l

q
u
a
l
i
t
y

c
l
a
s
s
e
s

S
l
i
p
p
i
n
g

o
r

s
h
e
a
r
i
n
g


T
a
n
g
e
n
t
i
a
l

u
n
i
t

s
t
r
e
s
s

I
I

o
r


t
o

t
h
e

l
o
n
g
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t
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d
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n
a
l

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s

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f

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m

(
t
l
l
t

)

B
u
t
t
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j
o
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n
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e
d

i
n

K

a
n
d


V

w
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t
h

c
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m
p
l
e
t
e

p
e
n
e
t
r
a
t
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I
n

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a
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d


V

w
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t
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t

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m
p
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c
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a
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n

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t

s
t
r
e
s
s

o
1

2
)


E
q
u
i
v
a
l
e
n
t

u
n
i
t

s
t
r
e
s
s

o
e
c
h

1
)


M
a
i
n

u
n
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t

s
t
r
e
s
s

o
1


E
q
u
i
v
a
l
e
n
t

u
n
i
t

s
t
r
e
s
s

o
e
c
h


A
l
l

q
u
a
l
i
t
y

c
l
a
s
s
e
s


A
l
l

q
u
a
l
i
t
y

c
l
a
s
s
e
s


A
l
l

q
u
a
l
i
t
y

c
l
a
s
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e
s



U
n
i
t


s
t
r
e
s
s

i
n

t
h
e

s
e
a
m

SR 1911
29


7.3.1 The permitted resistances of the welded seams depend on:
- the steel grade (according to table 12);
- the nature of the unit stress (o$ or t);
- the sign of the normal unit stress (+ for tension and for compression);
- the direction of the unit stress regarding to the longitudinal axis (o

; o
ll
;$t

;t
ll
).

7.3.2 The quality classes of the welded seams used in the desks of the railway steel bridges are:
- IA; IIA; IIIA for butt-jointed seams and of corner in K and Y with complete penetration;
- IB; IIB; IIIB for other seams.
The execution conditions, of quality check, deviations and flaws allowed in execution, for each quality
class are specified in STAS 9407.

7.3.3 The quality class of the welded seams is established during the design depending on the
following parameters:
- the importance of the element in the structure
- the importance of the welded seam within the element;
- the nature of the unit stresses (alternative, pulsating tension, pulsating compression).

For example
1) for the resistance welded seams (for flanges webs, sheets of the beams or boxed rods) of the resistance main
elements (main beams, stringers, struts) and stressed by alternative or pulsating tension unit stresses is chosen
the with first class of quality.
2) for the seams and elements specified in chapter 1 but stressed by pulsating compressive unit stresses the
second quality class can be chosen.
3) - the fastening welded seams of the main resistance elements or of secondary elements jointing (stiffeners,
connecting link on sim, plates to joint the traverses, diaphragms, etc.) are specified with the second quality class.
4) the welded seams that joint the gusset plates of the bracings or the transverse frames of the main resistance
elements (flanges, walls or beam webs) are specified with the first quality class if the elements from which are
jointed are stressed by alternate unit stresses or pulsating tension and second quality class if the elements from
which are jointed stressed by pulsating compressive unit stresses.
5) third quality class of the welded seams is used only for the elements of sidewalks and fences for the OL 52
elements is not permitted the third quality class.

7.3.4 The quality classes of the welded seams have to be designated in the blueprints and observed in
execution in the factory or on site according to specifications from STAS 9407.


7.4 Permitted tolerances of the unit stresses and maximum unit stresses permitted for the elements
and joints subjected fatigue.

7.4.1 Permitted tolerance of the unit stresses (Ao
Ra
, At
Ra
) and the maximum permitted unit stresses
(o
Ra
, t
Ra
) for elements and joints subjected to fatigue, are specified in table 14 17 and depend on:
- the value and the sign of the asymmetry coefficient of the stress cycle (R
o
; R
t
);
- the nature of the unit stress (o $or t);
- the geometry of the element or the joint characterized by the type of notching (only for AoRa, tRa);
- the grade of the steel (only for the types of notches H, I, J);
- the maximum unit stress; (+) for tension and (-) for compression (only for the types of notches H, I, J and only for
AoRa, tRa)

The asymmetry coefficients of the stressing cycles are defined by the relation:


(30)




(31)






SR 1911
30

where
o
g ;
t
g
Normal unit stresses, respectively tangential from permanent actions;
| According to 8.3.6;
% Dynamic coefficient, observing the specifications from chapter 4;
o$
min, T8.5 ;
t$
min, T8.5
Normal unit stresses, respectively minimum stresses from the action of the T8.5
convoy (2.1.2 from STAS 3220);
o$
max, T8.5 ;
t$
max, T8.5
Normal unit stresses, respectively maximum stresses from the action of the T8.5
convoy (2.1.2 from STAS 3220);

7.4.2 For elements of the steel railway bridges structures and their joints, stressed by unit stresses o,
the constructive details are included in 10 groups of notching, noted from A to J, according to table 13.

Table 13

NOTE - By smooth surface is understood that the polished surface will have the same rugosity as the one specified
for the surface of the used laminated.





Group of
notching
Representation The description of the element or the jointure
Elements with butt welding, transverse to the acting direction of the
stress. The welding is: with back sealing run; polished in the direction
of action of the force, down to the level of the sheet surface; with
smooth surface without notches.
The quality class of the welding IA, checked by radiography;

Jump welded junctures, in K or V, continuous for the jointing of the
webs to the bases; jump welded junctures, continuous for the jointing of
the flange sheets between them; elements with butt welded,
longitudinal junctures, with back sealing run. The quality class of the
welding II.
The elements with butt welding, transverse to the direction of the
action of the effort, with back sealing run.
The quality class of the welding is IA.

Elements with different sheet thickness jointed transverse to the
direction of the stress action, butt welded, with back sealing run. The
quality class of the welding is IA. Polished in the direction of stress
action, with surface smooth without notches. See figure 76.
Jump welded junctures, continuous, in K or V, fully penetrated,
which crosses a butt welded juncture.
SR 1911
31

Table 13 (continuation)






Group of
notching
Representation The description of the element or the jointure
Elements on whose edge, parallel to the direction of stress action , are
welded gusset plates with filled corners at ends with radius
r > 150 mm. The welding of the gusset plates at ends is worked
according to figure 97.
Elements on which are continuous filler welded, with jump welding,
the ends of the sheets which are interrupted. The execution of the
continuous fillet welding according to figure 6.

Jump welded elements, in K or V, fully penetrated, transverse to the
direction of stress action when
t > 15 mm.

Elements jointed with off cuts to avoid the intersection of the jump
welding, in K or V with jump welded junctures, with back sealing
run.

Continuous elements with stiffening diaphragms transverse to the
direction of stress action jump welded with fillet welding, in K or V.
The diaphragms can have chamfered corners and continuous welding
overlapped at ends or with out chamfering; continuous filler welded.

Jump welded elements, in K or V, fully penetrated, with back sealing
run and stressed by bending, with or without shearing force.
Elements cross-jointed with welding in K or V, fully penetrated, with
back sealing run, transverse to the direction of stress action.
Elements with jump welded junctures, in K or V, fully penetrated,
transverse to the direction of stress action when t
s 15 mm.
SR 1911
32

Table 13 (continuation)





Butt welded junctures executed on metallic support plates, transverse
to the direction of the stress action. The quality class of the welding is
II.
Elements on which are welded pieces of small length (l s 100 mm) by
jump welding, in K or V, longitudinal to the direction of the stress
action, all along the piece contour.
Elements on which mandrels are welded.
Elements on whose edge, parallel to the direction of the stress action,
are welded gusset plates with filleted corners at ands with radius
50 mm s r s 150 mm. The welding of the gusset plate at ends is worked
according to figure 97.
Cross-jointed elements with jump welding, transverse to the direction of
stress action.
Elements jointed with jump welding on bath sides stressed by bending
with or without shearing force.

Elements on whose edge, parallel to the direction of stress action, are
welded gusset plates without filleted corners (the intersection with the
element on a right angle). The welding of the gusset plate can be jump
welding, in K or in V.
Non-driller elements, stressed by tension or bending. The cutting of the
sheet by the cutting torch, having the quality class of the cut according
to STAS 10564/1.
Group of
notching
Representation The description of the element or the jointure
SR 1911
33
Table 13 (continuation)





Group of
notching
Representation
The description of the element or the jointure
Drilled elements, stressed by tension or bending.

Riveted joints or with prestressed screws stressed by tension or
bending

SR 1911
34


Table 14



NOTE
1 The intermediate values are linear interpolated
2 For jump welding, the admissible tolerances for the tangential unit stresses (AtRa) are reduced by
0.6 times.

Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: -1,0 ...) in this table are to be read with a dot (e.g.: -1.0...)
Grade of steel
Notching
group
OL 37 and OL 52
SR 1911
35


Table 15


NOTE - For intermediate values of the asymmetry coefficients are linear interpolated.

Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: -1,0 ...) in this table are to be read with a dot (e.g.: -1.0...)
Grade of steel
Notching
group
Sign of the
maximum unit
stress

SR 1911
36


Table 16


NOTE - For intermediate values of the asymmetry coefficients are linear interpolated.

Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: -1,0 ...) in this table are to be read with a dot (e.g.: -1.0...)

Grade of steel
Notching
group
OL 37 and OL 52
SR 1911
37


Table 17


NOTE - For intermediate values of the asymmetry coefficients are linear interpolated.

Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: -1,0 ...) in this table are to be read with a dot (e.g.: -1.0...)
Grade of steel
Notching
group
Sign of the
maximum unit
stress
SR 1911
38


7.4.3 The permitted tolerances of the unit stress (Ao
Ra
, At
Ra
), for the fatigue check of the elements and
jointures which are part of the notching groups H, I, J are indicated in table 15.

7.4.4 The permitted deviation in shearing, At
Ra
and in contact pressure on rod Ao
Ra
, for the fatigue
check of the rivets and fitted screws, are indicated in table 18.

7.4.5 The maximum permitted unit stresses, for the fatigue check of the welded joints, are indicated in
table 16.

7.4.6 The maximum permitted unit stresses, for the fatigue check of the elements and joints comprised
in notching groups H, I, J are indicated in table 17.

7.4.7 The maximum permitted unit shearing stresses of t
Ra
and contact pressure on rod o
Rla
for the
fatigue check of the fitting screws and rivets, are indicated in table 19.


8 VERIFICATIONS

8.1 The elements of steel railway bridges and their structure are checked for: resistance, according
to 8.2, fatigue, according to 8.3, stability, according to 8.4, elastic strains, according to 8.5 and positional
stability, according to 8.6.

8.2 Resistance verifications

8.2.1 Resistance verifications are performed separately for the three actions group from chapter 3.
From the calculus must result that the maximum unit stresses do not exceed the accept strength from 7.1
up to 7.3.

8.2.2 Resistance verifications of the elements

8.2.2.1 The unit stresses in elements are calculated by the relations:



(32)



(33)



where:

N Axial stress in the element;
M
y
;M
z
The bending moment regarding the main axis of inertia y-y, respectively z-z;
B
w
Bi-moment of bending-torsion;
T
y
;T
z
The shearing force from the section parallel to axis y-y, respectively z-z;

SR 1911
39


Table 18


NOTE - For intermediate values of the asymmetry coefficients are linear interpolated.

Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: -1,0 ...) in this table are to be read with a dot (e.g.: -1.0...)

Rivets from OL 34 or fitted screws from the
group of mechanic characteristics 4.6, in
OL 37 elements
Rivets from OL 44 or fitted screws from the
group of mechanic characteristics 5.6, in
OL 52 elements
SR 1911
40


Table 19


NOTE - For intermediate values of the asymmetry coefficients are linear interpolated.

Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: -1,0 ...) in this table are to be read with a dot (e.g.: -1.0...)
Rivets from OL 34 or with fitted screws from
the group of mechanic characteristics 4.6, in
OL 37 elements
Rivets from OL 44 or with fitted screws from
the group of mechanic characteristics 5.6, in
OL 52 elements

SR 1911
41


y;z The coordinates of the point where o is calculated
t The thickness of the washer where the tangential unit stress T is calculated
M
t
The torsion moment
M
w
The bending-torsion moment
o The coefficient that depends on the nature of the stress, according to 8.2.2.1.1 up to
8.2.2.1.6.

The calculus characteristics of the sections from the relations 32 and 33 are indicated in table 6
depending on the nature of the stress.

8.2.2.1.1 Centered axial stress (M
z
= M
y
= B
w
= 0), o$= 1.

8.2.2.1.2 Simple bending (N = B
w
= 0), o$= 1.05.
Case I: M
y
= 0; M
z
=$0
Case II: M
z
= 0; M
y
=$0

For solid web beams in the center of gravity of the flange section, the unit stress must not exceed o
a

Otherwise, o$$= 1

8.2.2.1.3 Oblique bending (N = B
w
= 0), o$$= 1.1.

8.2.2.1.4 Axial stress and bending by one main axis (B
w
= 0), o$$= 1.05
Case I: N =$$0; M
y
= 0; M
z
=$$0
Case II: N =$$0; M
z
= 0; M
y
=$$0

8.2.2.1.5 Axial stress and oblique bending (B
w
= 0), o$= 1.10.

8.2.2.1.6 When all the stresses appearing in relation 32 are different from zero o$= 1.10.

8.2.2.1.7 The calculus characteristics from relation 33 are taken according to table 6 with the
modifications from 8.2.2.1.8.

8.2.2.1.8 For the boxed elements (figure 23) the third term in relation 33 is:

(34)


where A
m
= b
m
h
m
, is the area en closed by the median contour line (the area shaded in figure 23).

8.2.2.2 The unit stress for local compression o
'
produced by point loads which act directly on the flange
of a solid web beam is calculated by the relation:

(35)















Figure 23

SR 1911
42


where
P The point load transmitted by the wheel;
% = 1.7 The dynamic coefficient for the case of the direct action of the load;
t
i
The thickness of the solid web;
Z = b + 2h (figure 24). If the rails rest is direct by, without supporting elements :
Z = 2h (figure 25);
b The width of the rail supporting element on the flange;
h The repartition height up to:
- the axis of the row of neck rivets for riveted beams (figure 24 and figure 25);
- bases of the seams which fasten the flange to the solid web, for welded beams
(figure 24);
- the end of the connection between the flange and the solid web for laminated
profiles (figure 24)

a) riveted flanges





b) welded flanges or laminated profiles




Figure 24


8.2.2.3 In case of composed stresses which lead to plane states of unit stresses, these are calculated for
the same load group and positions (see 5.1).
SR 1911
43


8.2.2.4 The tangent unit stresses t
xy
and t
yz
, one perpendicular to the other and acting on the some
surface element, are added, being checked by the formula:

(36)

8.2.2.5 In case of plane states of unit stresses, in addition to the individual unit stresses is checked also
the equivalent unit stress, calculated by the formula:

(37)

If the load positions for which the maximum value of the equivalent unit stress, is obtained is unknown,
the checking is performed for each of the situations:
o
x max
and the corresponding

o
y
; t
o
y max
and the corresponding

o
x
; t
t
max
and the corresponding

o
x
; o
y

8.2.2.6 The spatial (three-dimensional) stresses are reduced to plane stresses in the most unfavorable
situations

8.2.3 Resistance verifications of the riveted or screwed joints

8.2.3.1 The verifications of the jointing elements (cover plates) and jointing means (rivets and screws) is
performed at the peak maximum stress of the elements or element parts they join.

If the jointing elements (cover plates) have at least the same cross section area (respectively the
same inertia) as the elements they join, their verification is no longer necessary, and shall be performed
only for the jointing means.

8.2.3.2 The jointings of the rompressed rods are checked to that maximum stress, the buckling
coefficient not being considered. The jointings in the middle rod quarters are checked considering the
buckling coefficient.

8.2.3.3 For the solid web girders, the verification of the covering plates and the rivets or screws that join
them, is performed:
- for the jointing of the flanges: to an axial stress N, according to the formula:

(38)

where:
A
c
The calculus section of the flange element which is being prolonged;
o
m
The maximum unit stress in the extreme fiber of the flange, in the section of the
joining;
- for the jointing of the solid web: to the entire shearing force T, from the section and to the part of the
axial stress N, and of bending moment M
i
, which corresponds to the solid web;

(39)

where:
N The total axial stress;
A
c
Gross area of the solid web;
A
b
Gross area of the entire cross section;

(40)

where:
M The bending moment from the cross section of the jointing;
l
i
The gross rotative moment of the solid web;
l The gross rotative moment of the entire joined section

8.2.3.4 The verification of the riveted joining of the solid webs, is performed by checking of the most
stressed rivet by the maximum corresponding effort (R
n
), considering all the stresses that can act upon
the joining (the bending moments, axial stresses and the shearing force).

SR 1911
44


8.2.3.5 The verification of the neck rivets which fasten the flanges to the webs of the beams with solid
webs (figure 25) are performed the slippage stress and if necessary also to the stress from the loads
applied directly to the flanges calculated with the relation:

(41)


where
e Distance between the neck rivets;
T The maximum shearing force in the section (affected by the dynamic coefficient);
S The static moment of the gross section of the strips and angles about the neutral
axis;
I
b
The gross rotative moment of the entire beam cross section;
% Dynamic coefficient (see 8.2.2.2.)
P Point load;
Z The distribution length (8.2.2.2.; figure 24 and figure 25).






Figure 25






Figure 26


8.2.3.6 The verification of the most stressed rivets is performed by shearing, pressure on the rod and
eventually tension in the rod. In case of the simultaneous shearing and tension stresses in the rod, the
verification is performed only if o
1
s o
ta,
by the relation:







SR 1911
45


where
o
t
The normal tension unit stress in the rod;
t The tangent unit stress;
o
ta
The admissible strength for rod tension of the rivet.

8.2.3.7 For the extensions or the jointing where the transmission of the stress is achieved indirectly, by
intermediary parts located in between the piece that transmits the stress and the covering piece (cover
plate) which undertakes it, the number of rivets is increased by 30% for each intermediary piece. For
example, at the extension in scale (figure 27) the number n of rivets which join the inferior strip to the
cover plate is calculated by the relation:

n = n(1 + 0.3 m) (43)

where
n The number of rivets necessary for the direct transmission of the stress;
m The number of intermediary pieces.


8.2.3.8 For jointing with ear angle plates, the number of rivets which corresponds to them must be
increased by 50%, either on the free leg (figure 28 a), or on the leg joined directly to the gusset plate
(figure 28 b).










Figure 27





Figure 28

In cases where ear angles are not used, the number of rivets corresponding to the area of the part from
the section which is not joined directly is increased by 30%.

8.2.3.9 Joinings with high resistance prestressed pre-stressing are verified according to STAS 9330.

8.2.4 Resistance verifications of the joinings and welded seams.

8.2.4.1 The welded seams which undergo simple stresses are verified comparing the maximum effective
unit stresses (o
II
; o

; t
II
; t

) from the seams with corresponding admissible strengths from table 12,
according to 8.2.4.1.1 up to 8.2.4.1.4.

8.2.4.1.1 For the seams welded stressed by a force P, the verification is performed by the relation:

SR 1911
46


P
(o
I
; o

; t
I
;
t

) =
A
s

s $o
la
; o
a
; t
la
; t
a

(44)

where
A
s
The calculus section of the seam according to 6.2.2.3
o
I
; o

; t
I
; t

Effective maximum unit stresses, parallel (II) respectively perpendicularly () to the


longitudinal axis of the seam;
o
la
; o
a
; t
la
; t
a
Admissible strength for the parallel unit stresses, respectively perpendicular, to the
axis of the seam, according to table 12;
P Axial stress N or the shearing force T which acts upon the seam.


8.2.4.1.2 For the seams which undergo a bending moment (M), the verification is performed by the
relation

M (45)
o
I
; o

; t
I
; t

=
l
s

y$ s $o
la
; o
a
; t
la
; t
a



where
l
s
The rotative moment of the welded seams, according to 6.2.2.4;
y The distance from the axis of the center of gravity of the seams to the point where
is performed the verification of the unit stress.

8.2.4.1.3 For the longitudinal dozzle seams of the solid web beams the verification is performed by the
relation:

T
.
S (46)
t
'
$=
l
.
Ea
st
la



where
T The shearing force from the cross section;
S The static moment of the surface which slips regarding the center of gravity of the
section:
l The rotative moment of the entire section;
Ea The sum of the calculus thickness of the seams which undertake the sliding.

8.2.4.1.4 For the joinings and welded seams which undergo free or hindered torsion, in the absence of an
exact calculus can be admitted that the stresses in the sections located near the seams are undertaken
entirely by them.

8.2.4.2 In welded seams which undergo composed stresses which produce biaxial or triaxial states of
unit stresses, are checked as well for individual unit stresses which should not exceed the corresponding
admissible strength, as for the equivalent unit stress calculated by the relation:



The value of the admissible strength o
echa
is indicated in table 12.
In relation 47 are introduced the simultaneous unit stresses which merge into the most unfavorable
combination, which came from the same loading situation. In case that the loading situation which gives
this combination cannot be established are considered successively the cases for which results the
maximum value for one of the unit stresses, the other unit stresses being introduced with the values
which appear simultaneously to it.
The verification for equivalent unit stress is not necessary for the joining of the solid web beams, if the
calculus is performed considering that the bending moment is undertaken by the seams from the flanges,
the shearing force by the seams of the web, and the axial stress by all the seams.

8.2.4.3 The joining where the effort is transmitted as well by butt weld seams as by jump welding seams
are verified with the relation 44 based on the section and the rotative moment of calculus, determined
according to 6.2.2.3.2. The unit stress resulted is not to exceed the admissible strength corresponding to
the butt weld seams from table 12.
SR 1911
47


8.2.4.4 The resistance checks are not required for the following seams (see table 7):
- the seams from rows 1 4, perpendicular to the direction of the effort, stressed by compression or
compression from bending;
- the seam from row 1, butt-weld, quality class 1, in the joining of the webs;
- the seams from rows 1 4, of first quality class, stressed by tension and tension from bending,
perpendicular to the direction of the seams,

8.2.5 Resistance checks in case of cooperation between different means of jointure.
In the same joining is considered that there can be realized the cooperation:
- of rivets and fitting screws;
- welding and high resistance screws prestressed;
- high resistance screws prestressed and high resistance prestressed fitted screws.

In these cases, the verification of each joining mean is performed for the part of the stress which
corresponds by cooperation.

8.2.6 Resistance check of the abutment means

8.2.6.1 Checking of the abutment means, according to STAS 4031/1, is performed with the relations from
this standard, considering the groups of actions specified in table 20.

Table 20




8.2.6.2 The vertical reactions from the indirect action of the wind, are established by reducing the
horizontal forces to the level of the elements of the abutment means which undertake and transmit the
transverse horizontal forces.


No.
crt.
Action
grouping
Considered reactions
Relation or symbol
Designation
Direction of
the action
Total reaction
Maximum reaction from permanent loads


Dynamic coefficient established according to
STAS 1489

Maximum reaction from mobile loads without
the indirect effect of the centrifugal force
vertical
Reaction due to the indirect action of
the centrifugal force
Reaction due to the direct action of the
centrifugal force
Reactions specified in group I
(no. crt. 1 3)
Reaction due to the indirect action of the
wind and meandering
Longitudinal reaction due to the braking
forces
Transverse reaction due to the action of
the wind and meandering
Longitudinal reaction due to the friction
force of the mobile abutment means
vertical
where
vertical
horizontal
horizontal
horizontal
horizontal
SR 1911
48


8.2.6.3 Establishing the pressure on the bearing, is performed with the relations (figure 29):

- for fixed abutment means:

(48)


- for mobile abutment means :

(49)


where:
R
v
vertical reaction which is established by the following reactions:
- in group I:
R
vI
= R
t
+ R
fci
(50)

- in group II:
R
vII
= R
t
+ R
wi
+

R
si
or (51)
R
vII
= R
vI
+ R
wi
(52)

R
o tr
Transverse horizontal reaction which is established by the following relations:
- in group I:
R
otrI
= R
fcd
(53)

- in group II:
R
otrII
= R
wd
+ R
sd
or (54)
R
otrII
= R
otrI
+ R
wd
(55)

R
oI
and T Have the signification from table 20
h; a; b According to figure 29
o
a
The permitted pressure on the contact surface between the inferior plate of the abutment
mean and bearing



Figure 29

8.2.6.4 Fixed abutment means with balancing arm, are verified by determining the bending in the
balancing arm, produced by the pressure on the contact surface between them and the adjoining
elements or between them and the bearings, considering that R
v
is distributed uniformly on the contact
surface.

8.2.6.5 For the mobile abutment means, with rollers, shall be checked the balancing arms according to
8.2.4.6 and the pressure on the contact line between the balancing arms and rollers.
Pressure check on the contact line (o
L
) is done with the following relations:

- in group I:
(56)


- in group II:

(57)

SR 1911
49


where:
E Steel modulus of elasticity, in newton per square millimeter;
L
c
The contact length between the balancing arms and rollers, in millimeters;
r The radius of the rollers, in millimeters;
o
aLI;
o
aLII
Acceptable strength, on the contact line, in group I, respectively group II of
actions, according to table 10, in newtons per square millimeters.

The other terms have the signification from table 20 and 8.2.6.3, with the length in millimeters and forces
in newtons.

8.3 Fatigue

8.3.1 Fatigue checks have to prove the safety of the elements, jointing and jointing means used
regarding to the fatigue breakdown under the action of repeated exploitation stresses, which vary
between extreme values of the same direction (oscillating stresses) or of contrary direction (alternating
stresses).

8.3.2 The fatigue checks is performed only for group I of actions STAS 10101/OB), for all the elements
and jointing means which undergo fatigue (observing the dynamic coefficient, but without considering the
buckling coefficient).

8.3.3 The specifications of the present standard regarding the fatigue checks can be applied only for
the steel superstructures of the railway bridges calculated for the T 8.5 convoy (2.1.2 from
STAS 3220). For the steel superstructures of the railway bridges calculated for other types of convoys
there shall be elaborated corresponding calculation norms.

8.3.4 The time of exploitation of the structures of the new steel bridges designed in accordance with
the specifications of the present standard is of 100 years. If the beneficiary does not require through the
theme other conditions of exploitation, it is always considered the reference traffic of 21 million tons per
rail and year.

8.3.5 When undergoing a overhaul repairs the beneficiary of the structure has to require from an
authorized specialized institute an evaluation of the lifetime consumed based on the real traffic from the
previous exploitation period.

8.3.6 The fatigue checking of the elements, of jointing and of means of jointing, is performed by the
relation:

(58)


(59)

where:


and observes the following influences:

|
1,i
considers the characteristic length / of the elements of the supporting structure
which are being verified, the static system (independent beams or continuous
beams) and the group of notching. The values |
1,i
are indicated in table 21;
|
2
considers the frequency of meeting of the convoys, on supporting structures with
multiple rails.
The values |
2
are indicated in table 22. For the structures with a single rail |
2
= 1.0;
|
3
considers the loading degree of the rail on which the structure being verified, is
placed expressed by total tonnage of the trains per rail and per year. The values |
3

are indicated in table 23;
%; o
max.T8.5
; o
min.T8.5
; t
max.T8.5
; t
min.T8.5
; according to 7.4.1.;
Ao
Ra
; $At
Ra
The permitted variations of the unit stresses, for the fatigue check, indicated in
tables 14; 15 and 18.

SR 1911
50

Table 21






Simply supported beams
Characteristic
length
l (m)
Notching group Notching group
Notching group
Field Support
Continuous beams
SR 1911
51

Table 22


Table 23

Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: -1,00 ...) in this table are to be read with a dot (e.g.: -1.00...)

8.3.7 For the characteristic length /, required for the coefficient |
1,i
from table 21, are considered:

- for independent beams, their span
- for continuous beams, for field cross sections is considered the span of the respective field and for
the cross sections from the area of the intermediary supports and on a distance equal to 0.15 / on
each side of the intermediary supports is considered the arithmetic mean of the spans from the
nearby fields of the considered intermediary support.
- For the struts, the sum of the spans of the outriggers or the longitudinal ribs on both sides of the
considered strut. In case of the plan kings without outriggers or longitudinal ribs, is considered the
real span of the strut.

8.3.8 The coefficient |
2
, from table 22 depends upon the ratio:

(60)

where
Ao
'
; At
'
The maximum variations of the unit stress o, respectively t, in the cross section
analyzed from the actions of the T 8.5 convoy, on one of the rails;
Ao
total;
At
total
The maximum variations of the unit stress o, respectively t, in the cross section
analyzed from the actions of the T 8.5 convoy, on two rails.

8.3.9 For the structures with plankings, when superposing the unit stress from the local bending (L)
and general bending (G) the coefficient |
1,i
is determined by the relation:

(61)

where

(62)

where:
Ao
L;
Ao
G
The variation of the unit stresses from the local respectively general bending, in
absolute value. If the most unfavorable combination between the two effects cannot
be established is considered firstly one of the two maximum variation sand the other
one corresponding for the same position of the T 8.5 convoy;

T(L)

T(G)
Coefficients which are being determined by the diagrams in figure 30. For
T(L)
is

considered the span of the outriggers or of longitudinal ribs and for$
T(G)
is
considered the span of the main beams.

8.3.10 The fatigue check of the elements, jointing and joining means subjected to plane states of unit
stresses is performed for each unit stress with the relations (58) and (59), and also for the most
unfavorable unit stresses combination, by the relation:








Million
tonns/year
SR 1911
52


where:
o
x
;o
y
The direct stresses, on the x, respectively y direction, calculated in the point
where the fatigue check is performed;
t The tangential unit stress calculated in the point where the fatigue check is
performed;
o
xRa;
o
yRa;
$t
Ra
The maximum permitted unit stresses for fatigue according to table 16, 17
and 19 and the type of notching from table 13.


If the most unfavorable combination of unit stresses cannot be established are considered succesively,
the cases when one of the unit stresses is maximum and the others are introduced with the
corresponding values for the same loading case.
SR 1911
53



1

-

s
i
m
p
l
y

s
u
p
p
o
r
t
e
d

b
e
a
m
s

K

=


3
.
7
5

2

-

s
i
m
p
l
y

s
u
p
p
o
r
t
e
d

b
e
a
m
s

K

=


5

3

-

c
o
n
t
i
n
o
u
s

s
u
p
p
o
r
t
e
d

b
e
a
m
s

K

=
3
.
7
5


4

-

c
o
n
t
i
n
o
u
s

s
u
p
p
o
r
t
e
d

b
e
a
m
s

K

=


5

5

-

c
o
n
t
i
n
o
u
s

s
u
p
p
o
r
t
e
d

b
e
a
m
s

K

=


3
.
7
5

6

-

c
o
n
t
i
n
o
u
s

s
u
p
p
o
r
t
e
d

b
e
a
m
s

K

=


5



I
n
s
c
r
i
p
t
i
o
n

S
p
a
n

L

(
m
)

F
i
g
u
r
e

3
0

SR 1911
54


For each of the cases is considered the asymmetry coefficient R corresponding to the effort in the point
where the fatigue check is performed. The type of notches can be different for each unit stress and
direction of the unit stress.

8.3.11 If for the fatigue checks the maximum unit stresses for fatigue from tables 16, 17 and 19 exceed
the admitted strengths from tables 8, 11 and 12, the check will be performed with the admitted strengths
from tables 8, 11 and 12.

8.4 The buckling verification of the straight rods

8.4.1 The buckling verification of the rods with unitary section
The rods with unitary section, stressed by centric and eccentric compression, are checked against
buckling with the relation:

(64)

where
N Centric axial stress
M
z
; M
y
Bending moments regarding the axis z-z and y-y;
A
b
; W
bz
; W
by
According to table 6;
The buckling coefficient, according to table 25 up to 28, depending on the
sections groups indicated by table 24. In tables 25 up to 28, is the
slenderness ratio which is calculated by the relation:


(65)

where
l
f
The buckling length regarding the axis from which the buckling is checked;
i The radius of gyration of the gross section regarding the same axis.


Table 24


No.
crt.
Classification by sections groups for the buckling calculus
Types of sections and buckling cases
Actions group
symbol
Laminated tubes
Welded tubes
Welded boxed sections
I and H laminated profiles
Profiles I and H welded
I and H laminated profiles, with
additional welded flanges
buckling parallel to the
web
buckling parallel to the flanges
flanges cut with the cutting torch
flanges from strip-steel
buckling parallel to the flanges
buckling parallel to the flanges
buckling parallel to the web
buckling parallel to the
web
U and T laminated profiles
T profiles obtained by cutting laminated I profiles
Profiles with riveted unitary section
Composed rods fastened by riveting or welding
SR 1911
55

Table 25


Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: -1,000 ...) in this table are to be read with a dot (e.g.: -1.000...)

The buckling coefficient for OL 37, group a of sections
*) for OL 37 the classes 1 and 2, is calculated with the values from this table multiplied by k.
**) this value is valid for = 100 104
for = 105; k = 1.0733
for = 106; k = 1.0811
for = 107 109; k = 1.0900
SR 1911
56


Table 26



Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: -1,000 ...) in this table are to be read with a dot (e.g.: -1.000...)

The buckling coefficient for OL 37, group a of sections
*) for OL 37 the classes 1 and 2, is calculated with the values from this table multiplied by k.
**) this value is valid for = 100 104
for = 105; k = 1.0766
for = 106; k = 1.0806
for = 107 109; k = 1.0900
SR 1911
57


Table 27



Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: -1,000 ...) in this table are to be read with a dot (e.g.: -1.000...)

The buckling coefficient for OL 52, group a of sections
SR 1911
58


Table 28



Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: -1,000 ...) in this table are to be read with a dot (e.g.: -1.000...)

8.4.2 The buckling checking of the rods with composed section

8.4.2.1 The rods with composed section, from two or more isolated elements fastened with plates (figure
31 a) or braces (figure 31 b) are calculated with relation 64, the buckling coefficient being determined
with the slenderness according ratio to 8.4.2.2 8.4.2.6.

8.4.2.2 The calculus characteristics of the rods with composed sections are:
A area of the gross cross-section of the entire rod;

The buckling coefficient for OL 37, group a of sections
SR 1911
59


Rotative moments of the gross section of the entire rod regarding the main axis
y-y, respectively z-z;




Figure 31


- radiuses of gyration of the gross section of the rod regarding the main axis y-y,
respectively z-z;
- the buckling length of the entire rod regarding the main axis y-y, respectively z-z
(buckling which is produced in a plane perpendicular to these axes);

- the slenderness ratio corresponding to the main axis y-y, respectively z-z
(buckling which is produced in a plane perpendicular to these axes);
- for the composed rods fastened with plates, represents the slenderness ratio of a
composing element according to the relation:


(66)

where
/
1
The distance between the axis of two adjoining plates (figure 31 a)
i
1
The radius of gyration of a composing element regarding the axis 1-1 (figure 32 35).
- for the composed rods fastened with braces (figure 31 b), represents the expression:


(67)


where
d The theoretical length of a diagonal
z The number of parallel planes where the braces are placed;
A
d
The gross area of the cross-section of a diagonal (figure 36 a). In case of a double
system, with crossed diagonals (figure 36 b), A
d
is the sum of both diagonal cross-
section areas;
e The distance between the centers of gravity of the composing elements;
/
1
The distance between the adjoining cluster joints, from the same composing element.


SR 1911
60






Figure 32







Figure 33
SR 1911
61




Figure 34




Figure 35

SR 1911
62





Figure 36


8.4.2.3 The sections classification of the composed rods for buckling checking is done depending on the
composition, in three groups, as follows:
- group I: sections where one of the main axis of inertia does not cross the material; one of the
axes is also the symmetry axis (figure 32 and figure 33);
- group II: sections composed from two cross like placed angles (figure 34);
- group III: sections where both of the main axis of inertia do not cross the material (figure 35).

8.2.2.4 For the verification of the composed rods from group 1, to buckling in the direction perpendicular
to the axis y-y, is used the transformed slenderness ratio (
yt
) according to the relation:


(68)

where m is the number of the composing elements of the composed section which cooperate through
plates or braces.


8.4.2.4.1 The ratio has to fulfill the following conditions


and (69)


and to observe the specifications from 8.4.2.9.6.

8.4.2.4.2 For the composed rods whose composing elements are close, having in between the adjoining
front sides a space equal with the thickness of a gusset plate or a little larger, can be taken:
yt
=
y
, if the
space between the elements is filled with a continuous steel strip.

As described above can be done in case if, in the space between the elements are short steel strips
(plates), which observe the condition from 8.4.2.9.5 and 8.4.2.9.6. In this last case in the spaces between
the mentioned plates, must exist rivets through disks (washers), spaced at mostly 15 i
1
.

8.4.2.4.3 The buckling in the perpendicular direction to the axis z-z is checked using the slenderness
ratio
2
according to 8.4.2.2.

8.4.2.5 If the condition specified at 8.4.2.5.3 is fulfilled, the verification of the composed rods from group II
is performed only for the buckling in perpendicular direction to the axis z-z, which intersects the material,
using the slenderness ratio:
SR 1911
63


(70)

where l
z
and i
z
are taken according to 8.4.2.2.

8.4.2.5.1 If the composed rod (from group II), is a part of a plane system with braces (for example in a
beam with braces) and if the leg of one of the angles plates of the section is parallel to the plane of the
system, the buckling length l
z
is taken equal to the arithmetic mean of the buckling lengths to in the plane
of the system and in perpendicular direction to this plane.

8.4.2.5.2 For the composed rods made of angles with equal legs, the radius of gyration i
z
can be taken
approximately:

(71)

where i
0
is the radius of gyration regarding the axis which passes through the center of gravity of the
entire section and is parallel to the long legs of the angles the axis o-o (figure 34 b).

8.4.2.5.3 The l
1
/ i
1
ratio shall not be higher than 50 (figure 34 c). Otherwise, a buckling check for each
composing element of the composed section shall be performed.

8.4.2.5.4 In order to be considered that they are subjected to centric compression, the rods with
composed section from group II have to be jointed with ear angles or equipped with fastening plates
perpendicular to the plane of the gusset plate and situated near it.

8.2.4.6 For the verification of the composed rods from group III the verification of the buckling
perpendicular to the axis y-y and perpendicular on the axis z-z is performed considering the transformed
slenderness ratio as follows:


(72)

where

'y

'z
Are taken according to 8.4.2.2. with elements corresponding to the buckling
direction perpendicular to y-y, respectively z-z;
m The number of pairs of elements of the composed section located in different
planes, parallel to the axis y-y, whose cooperation is secured with plates or braces
for the buckling on the direction z-z;
m The number of pairs of elements of the composed section located in different
planes, parallel to the axis z-z, whose cooperation is secured with plates or braces
for the buckling on the direction y-y.

In figure 35 are indicated the values of the m and m parameters .

8.4.2.6.1 The ratio l
1y
/i
1
and l
1z
/i
1
of each composing rod must not be higher than 50.

8.4.2.6.2 For the rods with the composition as in figure 35 b, can be taken:

yt
$ =
y
$ and
zt
=
z


if in addition to the fastenings with plates are placed in the spaces between the plates, rivets passed
through spacing washers, under the condition that the distances between the rivets or the rivets and
plates not to be bigger than 15 i
1
.
Also, for the sections from figures 35c and 35d can be taken
zt
$ =
z
if the constructive specification from
above is applied.

8.4.2.7 For composed rods with the composition as in figure 35a and 35e, diaphragms are required in
order to avoid the deformation in rhomb.

8.4.2.8 For the design of new bridges, is not permitted the use of composed rods classified in group III.

8.4.2.9 The constructive outfits and the calculus of the fastening elements of the composed rods, are
specified as follows:

SR 1911
64

8.4.2.9.1 The plates and braces as well as their jointing, have to be dimensioned thus to resist to a
conventional shearing force:

(73)

In case when the distance e between the composing elements fastened with plates is greater than
20 i
1
, the shearing force O
c
is increased by:




8.4.2.9.2 If the fastening with braces is used in two or more parallel planes, the braces corresponding to
the same panel have to be parallel.
The axial stress (D) of compression in a diagonal, is calculated by the relation:

(74)

where o is the angle between the diagonal and the longitudinal axis of the composed rod.

8.2.4.9.3 The fastening plates can be placed in a fastening plane (for example figures 32d, 35c and 35d)
or in several parallel planes (for example figures 32a, 32b, 32c, 32e, 32f, 35a and 35e).
According to the number m of composing elements, the shearing force T acting upon the plates from the
same section of the rod is:


- for m = 2 (figure 37a):


- for m = 3 (figure 37b): (75)




- for m = 4 (figure 37c):



In the example from figure 37 the shearing forces T, T and T act upon two plates.
The null moment points where the forces T, T and T are supposable applied are illustrated by the same
figure.

8.4.2.9.4 If the fastening with plates is used in two or more planes, the axes of the plates have to be
found in the same cross section of the composed rod, in all the fastening planes.
SR 1911
65





Figure 37


8.4.2.9.5 The plates are placed at equal or approximately equal distances and are jointed to each
elements with at least two rivets or with welding seams of equivalent resistance capacity.

8.4.2.9.6 The plates must divide the length of the rod in an odd number of fields. The plates located in
the middle of the rod length do not carry the slipping stresses and are not considered at the determination
of the buckling length.

8.4.2.9.7 The composed rods fastened with plates and the one with braces are filled at the ends with
plates which are jointed to each composing element, with at least three rivets or with a welding seam with
equivalent resistance capacity.

For the rods that belong to the beams with a double wall, the plates from the extremities of the rod are
fixed in between the two gusset plates (figure 38a).

Otherwise, if these plates are jointed to the exterior of the gusset plates and if the composing elements
are fixed only on the outside or only inside of the gusset plates (figure 38b), at their calculus has to be
considered the eccentricity a.
SR 1911
66





Figure 38


In the calculus, are considered the supplementary moments Na which add to the moments given by the
shearing force T, N being the total stress from the compound rod, and a, eccentricity with which is applied
the N/2 forces on the gusset plate (figure 38b).

8.4.2.9.8 The compound rods whose composing elements are spaced from each other at a distance
equal or slightly bigger than the gusset plate, do not need special fastening plates at ends, but along the
rod are required plates intermediary steel strips, placed along the rod according to 8.4.2.9.6. and jointed
to the compounding elements according to 8.4.2.9.5.

8.4.2.9.9 The jointing of the plates or braces with screws is permitted exceptionally, where their joining
can not be executed by riveting or welding. In this case are used fitting screws or high resistance
prestressed screws.

8.4.3 The buckling length

8.4.3.1 The buckling length of the braced girders flange rods and for the final diagonals of the beams
with braces without final pillars are taken as below:

8.4.3.1.1 For the buckling in the plane of the beam: l
f
= l, where l is the theoretical rod length.

8.4.3.1.2 For the buckling in the plane perpendicular to the beam: l
f
= l, if the cluster joints from which the
rod is jointed are not movable in the direction perpendicular to the beam plane.

In case of movable joints, are taken the buckling lengths specified at 8.4.5.

If the joints a and b (figure 39) are movable as well in the plane of the beam I (for example in the plane of
the bracing), as in the plane of the beam II (for example in the plane of the main beam) and if in the two
halves of the a-b rod length act different compression stresses N
2
< N
1
the buckling length is:


(76)





connection plate
SR 1911
67


















Figure 39


8.4.3.2 The buckling length of the diagonals and of the pillars of the braced beams, is considered as
below:

8.4.3.2.1 For the buckling in the beam plane, is taken the distance between the centers of gravity of the
rivets or of the welding seams, of jointing at cluster joints.
If the rod is crossed with another rod, the intersection point can be considered as unmovable, if at the
intersection joint the two rods are jointed by at least a quarter from the number of the jointing rivets of the
compressed rod or with a welded jointing of the same resistance capacity.

8.4.3.2.2 For the buckling in the perpendicular direction to the beam plane:
- in case the beam is jointed in joints unmovable perpendicularly to the beam, to gusset plates non-
stiffened on the direction of the rod, thus the rod can not be considered as being a part of a frame:
l
t
= l;
- in case the rod is jointed to gusset plates stiffened by struts or reinforcing, and the rod is a part of a
closed frame: l
t
= 0.8 l
0
if the rod can be considered fixed at an end and articulated at the other
(figure 40a), or l
t
= 0.7 l
0
if it can be considered fixed at both ends (figure 40b), l
0
being the distance
between the axis of the strut and the axis of the beam;





Figure 40

- for partial frames pillars: (l
t
2 h
v
, table 32 and figure 44).




SR 1911
68


8.4.3.3 The buckling length of the intersecting rods.

8.4.3.3.1 For the buckling in the beam plane is considered as the buckling length, the theoretical length of
the rods.

8.4.3.3.2 For the buckling in the perpendicular direction to the plane of the beam, the buckling length is
considered according to specifications from table 30.

In case of the combined system diagonals, which do not intersect in equal parts (figure 41), l, respectively
l
1
are considered equal to the double of the large sections a and a
1
, determined by the intersection point
l = 2a; l
1
= 2a
1
.





Figure 41
SR 1911
69


Table 29


Sections
group of
(table 24)
The buckling safety coefficient vf
Actions grouping
SR 1911
70


Table 30




Compressed continuous rod Compressed articulated rod
Or when is fulfilled the condition:

SR 1911
71


8.4.3.3.3 The buckling length, perpendicular to the beam plane, of the pillars of the K system beams,
jointed in unmovable cluster joints, and having in the two halves compression stresses of different values
N
1
and N
2
< N
1
(figure 42) is determined by the relation:


(79)


l
t
being lower limited to the value 0.5 l.

If N
2
is the tension stress, in relation 79 the sign plus is replaced by the sign minus.






Figure 42

8.4.4 The buckling verification of the rods stressed by eccentric compression

8.4.4.1 The rods with a unitary section are calculated with relation 64 according to 8.4.1.

8.4.4.2 The composed rods stressed by eccentric compression regarding the axis z-z which intersects
the material, or stressed by compression and bending about this axis, are checked against buckling
perpendicular to z-z with relation 64, according to 8.4.2.2, taking M
y
= 0 and the buckling perpendicular
y-y according to 8.4.2.4 taking M
y
= M
z
= 0.

8.4.4.3 If exceptionally a composed rod is stresses by eccentric compression regarding the axis y-y
which does not intersect the material or stressed by axial stress and bending moment regarding this axis,
the buckling verification in the direction perpendicular to y-y is performed with the relation 64 observing
the specifications from 8.4.2.4.

8.4.4.4 If for the rods stressed by eccentric compression or by compression with bending, the bending
moment is variable in the direction of the rod length, the moments introduced in the calculus relation are
taken by the modality of stressing and by the variation of the moment according to figure 43 and relations
80 85.
SR 1911
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Figure 43


8.4.5 The general buckling verification of the compressed flange of the railway bridges with a low
causeway without upper bracing.

8.4.5.1 The general buckling verification of a compressed flange which in perpendicular plane to the
beam is elastic supported by the partial frames made of pillars and struts, is performed with the relations:

H
1
$> $C
1
H
0
(86)
H
2
> $C
2
H
0


Where
H
1
; H
2
The stresses applied to the extremities of the intermediary partial frames,
respectively final, in kN, in order to produce the horizontal displacement by a
centimeter (figure 44) of the point from the compressed flange on the partial
frame, which is calculated according to 8.4.5.2.
c
1
c
2
The coefficients which are determined according to specifications from 8.4.5.3.


(87)


where
N
max
The maximum compression stress in the flange from the most stressed panel,
considering also the dynamic coefficient, in kN;



SR 1911
73



l
min
The length of the shortest flange from the row of panels of the considered upper
flange, in cm;
|
m
The arithmetic mean of the coefficients | (see also the note 1 from below)
determined for all the considered upper flange panels, with the relation:


(88)

where

y
The slenderness ratio of the rod section from the considered panel, regarding the
vertical axis y-y;

y
The slenderness ratio according to tables 25 28, which corresponds to the
buckling coefficient
y
determined for each panel by the relation:


(89)


where
N The compression stress in the rod in the considered panel, considering the
dynamic coefficient;
A
b
The area of the gross section in the considered panel having the composition
according to table 31;
o
a
The acceptable strength in the rod.


Table 31




Beam type
Braced beams
Solid web beams
Riveted
Welded
Laminated
The elements considered in the composition of the section Ab of the compressed flange
All the elements of the rod
The steel strips and the horizontal legs of the angles
The steel strips of the flange
The flange of the laminated beam and the steel strips added if
the beam is reinforced with steel strips
SR 1911
74

v
t
Safety coefficient of the buckling according to 8.4.3.3 and table 29 corresponding to the
highest value of
y
, resulted for the considered row of panels.

In table 29 from 8.4.3.3 is operated with the value
y


NOTE
1) The enforcement of this method supposes | > 1.2
2) For solid web beams, the compression force N is calculated with the relation:


(90)

where
M The medium bending moment in the considered panel, between two partial
frames, regarding the main horizontal axis of inertia z-z;
A
b
According to table 31;
h The distance between the center of gravity of the considered compressed flange
according to table 31 and the neutral axis of the entire beam section, in
centimeters;
I
2
The medium rotative moment of the entire beam section, in the considered
panel, regarding with the axis z-z.

8.4.5.2 The stress H
1
or H
2
of a partial frame is established according to the relations from table 32.

Table 32


8.4.5.3 The coefficients c
1
and c
2
from relations 86 are established with the relations:

(91)


(92)

where

(93)

No.
crt.
The partial frame characteristics

Symmetric partial frame at
bridges with beams, with braces
and solid web beams
Asymmetric partial frame at
bridges with beams with oblique
braces without false pillars.
Relation of calculus
(also see figure 44)
where
- The elasticity modulus in newton per square millimeters
- The distance from the center of gravity of the compressed flange up to the
neutral axis of the strut, respectively up to the center of gravity of the stiffening
of the strut, in millimeters
- The horizontal distance between the centers of gravity of the stiffeners, in
millimeters
- The medium rotative moment of the gross section of the strut, respectively of
the pillars. For the partial frames having variable section pillars Im is
determined according to 8.4.5.5. in square millimeters. For solid web beams
the pillar is considered formed from the transverse stiffenings, reinforcement
and the part of the solid web of the beams which cooperates with the
transverse stiffenings.
SR 1911
75


H
1min
The smallest of the H values calculated with the relations from table 32 for the
intermediary partial frames;
H
2
The resistance of the final partial frame calculated with the relations from the table 32;
|
m


According to 8.4.5.1
For the design is chosen a temporary value c
1
> 1.2$ and c
2
is deduced by the relation:

(94)

8.4.5.4 For the compressed flanges of the braced beams which have fixed ends (for example the
parabolic beams), is taken:



n this case, the general buckling verification is performed with the relation

(95)

for all the intermediary frames.

8.4.5.5 The rotative moments I
m
required for the general buckling verification for the pillars with variable
section are determined with the relation:

(96)





Figure 45

where
h The distance from the center of gravity of the compressed flange whose
elements are established according to table 31, up to the upper edge of the
strut;
h
ns;
h
ni
The distance from the center of gravity of the compressed flange (considered
as above), to the upper limit, respectively lower, of the considered pillar section
n;
I
n
The rotative moment of the pillar on the section n (figure 45a) or the medium
rotative moment of the pillar with reinforcement on the section n (figure 45 b).
SR 1911
76


8.4.5.6 The elements of the partial frames are verified considering as actioned by lateral horizontal forces
applied in the center of gravity of the compressed flange, having the sense from the exterior toward the
interior or the other way around, established by the relations:

- for the intermediary partial frames:

(97)

- for the final partial frames:

(98)

where
N
i
The highest of the compression forces which acts upon the two panels
adjoining the considered partial frame;
N
f
The maximum compression force in the first panel of the flange (or in the
second panel, if in the first panel the flange has no axial stress).


8.4.5.7 In case the final diagonals of the main beams without final pillars are not made up as an
uninterrupted continuation of the upper flange, the pillars adjoining these diagonals are considered final
pillars.

8.4.6 The side buckling verification of the bent beams with the section shaped as a double T.

8.4.6.1 The side buckling verification (loosing the stability of the beam by lateral displacement and
torsion), is performed, if an exact calculus is missing, establishing if the unit stress in the most
compressed fiber meets the relation:

(99)

where
M
x
The maximum bending moment (also considering the dynamic coefficient %)
in the section where performed the verification is being;
W
b
The gross resistance modulus of the considered section;
The buckling coefficient corresponding to the slenderness ratio


(100)

where
c The distance between the supporting points, in horizontal direction (the
transverse partial frames or the cluster joints of the horizontal bracing)) of the
compressed flange;
i
y
The radius of gyration regarding the vertical axis y-y of the section composed
according to table 31 to which is added 1/5 from the height of the web;
o
a,
The bending acceptable strength.

8.4.6.2 The side buckling verification is not required if the condition is met:

(101)

where i
v
and c have the significations from 8.4.6.1.

8.4.7 The local stability verifications (fogging)

8.4.7.1 The rectangular steel sheets which lie in different elements of the steel railway bridges structures
are protected against the danger of fogging by the method of the fogging safety coefficients, with the
relation:


SR 1911
77


(102)

where
v
v
The effective fogging safety coefficient;
v
va
The acceptable fogging safety coefficient;

8.4.7.2 The fogging verification is performed based on the following hypothesis:
- the rectangular steel sheets are plane and articulated on the frame. The verification specifications at
fogging are applied also for the plane rectangular steel sheets articulated on three sides and free on a
side parallel to the direction of action of the unit stresses;
- the calculus sections are the gross ones;
- the evaluation of the unit stresses o
x;
o
y;
t in the rectangular steel sheets which are being verified is
performed considering the dynamic coefficient %;
- the unit stresses T are considered uniformly distributed on the whole frame of the rectangular steel
sheet which is being verified;
- the unit stresses o
x
are considered linear distributed, the maximum value o
x1
being the one evaluated
in the compressed fibber the most stresses;
- the unit stressed o
y
are considered uniformly distributed, with the maximum value o
y1
.

8.4.7.3 The effective fogging safety coefficients v
v
are determined as follows:
- in case of the action of the o perpendicular unit stresses only , with the relation:

(103)

where
o
1cr
The normal critical unit stress for the action of the normal unit stress o
x
or o
y

only which is established with the relation 108 from 8.4.7.9;
o
1
The normal unit stress o, maximum calculated, of compression, in the
rectangular steel sheets which is being verified
In case of the action of the T tangential unit stresses only with the relation:

(104)

where
t
cr
The critical tangential unit stress which is being established with the relation
109 from 8.4.7.9;
t The maximum tangential unit stress in the rectangular steel sheet which is
being verified.
In case of the simultaneous action of the unit normal o
1
and tangential T
stresses, with the relation:


(105)


where
o
crcomp
The comparative critical unit stress which is being established with the
relation 113 from 8.4.7.9;
o
1
t The normal unit stress o, maximum, of compression, respectively tangential t
which act upon the rectangular steel sheets which is being verified
In case of the simultaneous action of the unit normal stresses o
x ;
o
y
and
tangential t with the relation:

(106)


where
o
cr comp
The comparative critical unit stress which is being established with the relation
115 or 117 from 8.4.7.14;
o
x1 ;
o
y1
t The normal unit stresses o
x
, o
y,
maximum, of compression, respectively
tangential t which act upon the rectangular steel sheets which is being verified

SR 1911
78


8.4.7.4 The acceptable fogging safety coefficient v
va
for the independent action of the unit stresses o
x
;
o
y ; t
is the one established in table 33.

Table 33


NOTE - for the significance of q see 8.4.7.9.

Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,32 ...) in this table are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.32...)

8.4.7.5 In case of the simultaneous actions of the unit stresses o
x ;
o
y
t or any other combination between
them, the acceptable fogging safety coefficient is established with the relation:



(107)




The signification of the terms from the relation 107 is according to 8.4.7.3 and 8.4.7.4.

8.4.7.6 The acceptable fogging safety coefficient v
va
or v$
(
va
of the rectangular steel sheets which are a
part of the section of the compressed rods have to be equal or higher than the buckling safety coefficient
v
t
of the respective rod. The values of v
t
are comprised in table 29, depending on the grades of steel and
the actions grouping.

8.4.7.7 The fogging verification is performed in the panels of rectangular steel sheets having:

- the length a equal to the distance between the axis of the transverse stiffening or between the rows
of rivets of the transverse riveted stiffening (figure 46).
- the width b according to figures 46a up to 46e.
Column
Row
For the action only of the
unit stress
Actions grouping
The acceptable safety
coefficients at value
SR 1911
79






Figure 46 a, b


8.4.7.8 The unit stresses o
x ;
o
y ;
t from the relations 103 up to 106, are evaluated for the most unfavorable
actions corresponding to the actions grouping where is performed the verification of the rectangular steel
sheet panel. If the maximum values of the unit stresses o
x1
and T results at the end of the panels, in the
calculus can be considered the values of the unit stress from the middle of the panel, but not lesser than
their values from the cross section situated at the distance b/2 or b
i
/2 from the end of the panel where
their values are maximum.
SR 1911
80





Figure 46 c, d, e


SR 1911
81


8.4.7.9 The critical fogging unit stresses from the relations 103 and 104 are determined as follows:

(108)

(109)


where
o
e
The critical unit stress corresponding to a portion of steel sheet with the
width of 1 cm and with the length b, in the elastic field, namely admitting the
validity of the Euler formula and is determined by the relation:

(110)

where t is the thickness of the steel sheet, in millimeters, and b is the width
of the steel sheet panel in millimeters, according to 8.4.7.7.

k
o
k
r
The fogging factors for the rectangular steel sheet panels subjected in their
plane only to normal unit stresses o
x
or o
y
, respectively only to tangential
stresses, t. The values of the fogging factors are determined by the
relations from table 34 considering the following :
- loading cases ;
- the o = a/b, ratio where a and b are the sides of the rectangular steel
sheet panel which is being verified;
- the q = o
2
/)o
'
, ratio where o
'
is the normal unit stress o which acts in the
fiber from the panel which undergoes the maximum compression, and
o
2
is the normal unit stress o in the fiber from the panel, opposed to the
one where appears the unit stress o
'
.


8.4.7.10 If the normal stresses o
y
act only on one side of the rectangular steel sheet panel (figure 47), the
critical fogging unit stresses of corresponding to this load is calculated with the relation:

(111)

where o
e
has the signification from 8.4.7.9 and k
oy
is the fogging factor corresponding to this load and is
given in table 35, depending on the o ratio of the sides of the panel.
SR 1911
82

Table 34

*) The value of b will be replaced in this case only for the determination of o and o1cr with the value bi = 2bc where bc
is the width of the compressed area: bc s 0.5b.
This specification does not refer to the determination of Kr or oe if the tangential unit stresses act simultaneously with
the normal ones.
Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 8,4 ...) in this table are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 8.4...)

No.
crt.

Loading case
The critical fogging
unit stress
The fogging factor
Normal unit
stresses
ox
Compression;
Compression and tension
when the compression is
higher than the tension,
Compression and tension
with equal marginal
where:
K
ox The value of K
ox, for q = 0, in
loading case from no. crt. 1
K
ox The value of K
ox, for q = -1, in
loading case from no. crt. 3a or 3b.

Compression and tension
when the tension is higher
than the compression *)
Panels with a free side stressed
by uniformly distributed
Tangential
stresses
uniformly
distributed
values

compression
free
side
SR 1911
83

8.4.7.11 If the unit stresses o
y
result from a point loading P which acts locally (figure 48), the critical
fogging unit stresses corresponding to this load are calculated by the relation:

(112)

where



is the fogging factor corresponding to this load
E = 2.1 x 10
5
N/mm
2
the elasticity modulus of the steel from which the steel sheet is
made;
t the thickness of the steel sheet, in millimeters;
b
i
the height of the steel sheet, in millimeters;
c the distribution length of the local load, in millimeters
o
i
= a/b
1
the sides ratio of the panel which is being verified.

The length c of distribution of the local load is established according to figure 49 and will be considered
at most equal to the length a of the panel.

8.4.7.12 For the panels of rectangular steel sheets stressed simultaneously by normal unit stresses o
x
or
o
y
and tangential t
,
shall be determined:
- the critical normal fogging unit stressed of o
1cr
according to relation 108;
- the critical tangential fogging unit stressed t
cr
according to relation 109;
- the critical comparative unit stresses, according to relation



(113)




NOTE In relation 113, for t = 0, results ocrcomp = o1cr and for o1 = 0 results



8.4.7.13 The fogging verification of the rectangular steel sheet panels stressed simultaneously by normal
unit stresses o
x
or o
y
of tension and tangential t
,
is performed neglecting the favorable effect of the normal
unit stresses of tension.
SR 1911
84


Table 35











Figure 47
















Figure 48






Figure 49
NOTE - For intermediate values of the o
ratio is permitted the linear interpolation
Translation NOTE all the values written with a
coma (e.g.: 0,3 ...) in this table are to be read
with a dot (e.g.: 0.3...)

SR 1911
85


8.4.7.14 For the rectangular steel sheet panels stressed simultaneously by normal unit stresses o
x
, o
y

and tangential T shall be determined:
- the fogging critical normal unit stresses o
x1cr
according to relation 108;
- the fogging critical normal unit stresses o
x1cr
according to relation 108, or 112 depending on the
loading case of the panel,
- the fogging critical tangential unit stresses T
cr
according to relation 109;
- the comparative critical unit stresses, according to relations:
a) for

(114)



(115)





b) for

(116)



(117)






In relations 115 and 117, o
x1cr
and t
cr
are calculated as follows:


(118)


(119)


with o
cr comp
according to relation 113.
The other terms from the relations 115 and 117 have the significance established by 8.4.7.3 and 8.4.7.9.

8.4.7.15 If the comparative critical unit stresses calculated with the relations 113, 115, 117 exceed the
value 0.6 o
c,
(o
c
being the yield strength of the steel from which is made up the steel sheet) the reduced
comparative unit stresses are calculated as follows:

a) for o
cr comp
> 2.04 o
c
o
cr comp reduced
= o
c
(120)

b) for 2.04 o
c
> o
cr comp
> 0.6 o
c

(121)

c) for o
cr comp
s 0.6 o
c
o
cr comp reduced
= o
cr comp
(122)

SR 1911
86


8.4.7.16 In case of the application of the specifications from 8.4.7.15, the relations 105 and 106 are
replaced by the relation:

(123)


8.4.7.17 For the rectangular steel sheets panels, which are not a part of the sections elements of the
compressed rods at which is observed the o ratio and the conditions of stressing and slenderness
specified in table 36 the fogging verification is no longer required.

8.4.7.18 For the rectangular steel sheets panels, which are a part of the sections elements of the rods
stressed by centric compression and at which the slenderness of the steel sheet (the b/t ratio) does not
exceed the values given in table 37 depending on the slenderness ratio of the rod fogging verification is
no longer required.

8.4.8 The verification of the intermediary stiffenings

8.4.8.1 The resistance capacity of the rectangular steel sheets, which are found in different elements of
the structures of the railway steel bridges, can by increased by the introduction of stiffenings in both
directions, which have as an effect the reduction of the panel dimensions.
SR 1911
87


Table 36


Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,0 ...) in this table are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.0...)


No.
crt. Stress
SR 1911
88


Table 37


Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 39,5 ...) in this table are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 39.5...)
SR 1911
89


8.4.8.2 For the elements of the railway steel bridges structures can be used only stiffenings of type l,
which provide, by their bending rigidity in perpendicular plane to the plane of the steel sheet, the
undeformation of the sides of the panels.

8.4.8.3 The stiffenings are usually made from steel of the same grade as the steel from the steel sheets
that they stiffen, the specification being compulsory if the unit stresses in the stiffenings exceed the limit
of proportionality of the steel they are made of.

8.4.8.4 The longitudinal stiffenings can be considered at the determination of the calculus section, of the
rotative moments and other geometric characteristics of the section if is provided the continuity of their
section rightly near the intersection with the transverse stiffenings.

8.4.8.5 The stiffenings can be used on a single side (asymmetric stiffenings) or on both sides (symmetric
stiffenings) of the stiffened steel sheet.

8.4.8.6 For the transverse stiffenings of the webs of the beams, the minimum required bending rigidity, in
the perpendicular plane to the plane of the web, is provided by observing the following relation:

(124)

where
l
rT
the rotative moment, regarding the main axis parallel with the plane of the solid web, of
the section formed by the transverse stiffenings it self and the active height of the web
with which it cooperates (picture 50).

a) asymmetric stiffenings b) symmetric stiffenings

Figure 50

l
*
rT
the conventional rotative moment of the transverse stiffenings of type l, defined by
the relation:

(125)

where
l
*
rT
the relative optimal bending rigidity of the transverse stiffenings given by the
linear theory of the fogging which is being determined by the relation:

(126)

where o = a/b, is the ratio of the sides of the web panel determined by two transverse consecutive
stiffenings, (picture 51);


SR 1911
90



Figure 51

m
T
The coefficient that consideres the influence of the geometrical and structural,
imperfections being a function of the web slenderness (the b/ t
i
ratio) and having the
values:
For b/ t
i
s 75 m
T
= 1.0
For b/ t
i1
> 150 m
T
= 3.0
For 75 < b/ t
i
< 150 is linear interpolated;
b The length of the web panel, in millimeters;
t
i
The thickness of the web, in millimeters;
= 0.3 The transverse deformation coefficient of the steel.


8.4.8.7 The active length b
a
of the solid web (figure 50) which cooperates with the transverse stiffenings,
is determined with the relation:

(127)

where
t
i
The thickness of the web, in millimeters;
o
c
The yield strength of the steel from which is made up the web, in newton per square
millimeter.

8.4.8.8 In case of the web of the beams stiffened by transverse and longitudinal stiffenings in the relation
125 is replaced the thickness of the yield strength (t
i
) with an equivalent thickness (t
ai
), which is being
determined from the condition that the critical fogging unit stresses for pure shearing, of the under-panel
most exposed to fogging, determined by the longitudinal stiffenings, to be equal to the critical fogging unit
stresses, of the entire panel determined by the transverse stiffenings (figure 52).





Figure 52





SR 1911
91

8.4.8.9 For the transverse stiffenings of the web of the beams there is necessary to be also verified the
condition given by the relation:

(128)

where

I
rT
Is the rotative moment, in millimeters at the forth exponent, of the section of the
stiffening itself (without the active width of the web) about an axis situated in the
middle plane of the web (figure 53);
b The height of the web panel in millimeter.

a) asymmetric stiffenings b) symmetric stiffenings
b)


Figure 53

8.4.8.10 The area of the cross section of the transverse stiffenings of the beams web (without the active
width of the web, figure 54) shall be at least equal to the value given by the relation:

(129)


where

b The width of the web panel, in millimeters, determined by two transverse
consecutive stiffenings;
t
i
The thickness of the web, in millimeters;
o = a/b The ratio between the sides of the web panel determined by two transverse
consecutive stiffenings;
t
c
= o
c
Where o
c
is the yield strength of the steel from which is made up the web

\3
Of the beam, in newton per square millimeters;

1

The ratio of the yield strength of the steel from which the web is made and the
yield strength of the steel from which the stiffening is made (o
ci/
o
cr
);

2

Coefficient which consideres the composition up of the transverse section of
the stiffening according to table 38;



SR 1911
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Table 38

Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,0 ...) in this table are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.0...)

3
the ratio of the effective tangential unit stresses T and the unit stresses r of web failure defined
as follows:

For

(130)

For

(131)

t
.
cr
the fogging critical unit stress, in newton per square millimeter of panel determined by two transverse
consecutive stiffenings (if, the web has only transverse stiffenings) or of the under-panel mostly
threatened by fogging, for the simultaneous action of the unit stresses o and t.

The value of t
.
cr
is determined from the second degree equation:

(132)

where




(134)

in the expressions of the coefficients A and B the terms have the following signification:

q = o
x2
/o
x1
with o
x2
and o
x1
according to table 34;
_ = o
x1
/t with o
x1
and t

according to table 34;
o
x1cr
and t
cr
according to table 34.


The values q, _, o
x1cr
and t
cr
are determined for the panel determined by two consecutive transverse
stiffenings (if, the web has only transverse stiffenings) or for the under-panel mostly threatened by fogging
(if, the web has transverse and longitudinal stiffenings)

8.4.8.11 For the transverse stiffenings of the flanges of the beams with the boxed section as well as for
the transverse stiffenings of the bridge structure rods the minimum required rigidity at bending in
perpendicular plane to the plane of the steel sheets is provided by observing the condition given by the
relation:

(135)



Type of transverse
stiffenings
Coefficient
2

Symmetric stiffenings Asymmetric stiffenings
SR 1911
93

where

l
rT
The rotative moment, in millimeters, to the forth exponent, of the transverse stiffening about the
main axis parallel to the plane of the stiffened steel sheet. If the transverse stiffening is jointed by
the stiffened steel sheet in the section of the transverse stiffening is considered an active width
of steel sheet determined according to 10.9;
b The distance between the webs of the beam or between the sections walls of the rods, in
millimeters;
A The aria of the section of the stiffened steel sheet between the webs or between the walls of the
rods sections, also including the longitudinal stiffenings if there are any, in millimeters to the
second power;
o
m
The medium normal unit stress form the stiffened steel sheet (in the section of the transverse
stiffening) considering a transverse distribution of the unit normal stresses in the steel sheet
according to 10.14, in newtons per square millimeters;
a The distance between two consecutive transverse stiffenings, in millimeters;
E The elasticity modulus of the steel, in newtons per square millimeters.

8.4.8.12 For the longitudinal stiffening of the beam web, the minimum necessary bending rigidity, in
perpendicular plane to the plane of the web, is provided by observing the relation:

l
rL
> l

rL
(136)

where
l
rL
The rotative moment, about the main axis parallel to the plane of the web, of the section made up
from the proper longitudinal stiffening and the active width of the web with which is being
cooperating (figure 50). The active width of the web is determined according to 8.4.8.7;
l

rL
The conventional rotative moment of the longitudinal stiffenings of type I, defined by the relation:

In millimeters to the forth power (137)


where
T

L
Is the optimal relative stiffening bending rigidity of the longitudinal stiffenings given by the linear
theory of the fogging;
In Annex B are given the values of the optimal relative rigidity of the longitudinal stiffenings
T

Lo
for panels of the webs with longitudinal stiffenings stressed only by unit stresses o and T

Lt

for web panels with longitudinal stiffenings stressed only by unitstresses t.
m
L
Coefficient that counts for the influences of the geometrical and structural flaws having the
values:
m
L
= 5 for longitudinal stiffenings with an open section (figure 54);
m
L
= 2.5 for longitudinal stiffenings with a closed section (figure 55);
b The width of the web panel, in millimeters;
t
i
The thickness of the web, in millimeters;
= 0.3 Coefficient of transverse deformation of the steel.


Figure 54


SR 1911
94


Figure 55

8.4.8.13 If the panels of the boxed hearts of the beams with longitudinal stiffenings are stressed
simultaneously by unit stresses o and t, T

L
from the relation 137 is noted T

L,o,t
and is determined with the
relation:

(138)

where
T

L,o,
;T

L,t
According to 8.4.8.12 and Annex B;
u
v1,o,t
The effective fogging safety coefficient for the under-panel of the web mostly
threatened by fogging, from unit stresses, o, when the sub-panel is stressed
simultaneously by the unit stresses o and t;
u
v2,o,t
The effective fogging safety coefficient for the under-panel of the web mostly
threatened by fogging, from unit stresses t, when the sub-panel is stressed
simultaneously by the unit stresses o and t;
u
vo
The effective fogging safety coefficient for the under-panel of the web mostly
threatened by fogging, from unit stresses, o, when the sub-panel is stressed
simultaneously by the unit stresses o;
u
vt
The effective fogging safety coefficient at for the under-panel of the web mostly
threatened by fogging, from unit stresses, o, when the sub-panel is stressed
simultaneously by the unit stresses t;

The method of determination of T

L,o,

t
with the relation 138 is illustrated by the figure 56 for a web panel
with a longitudinal stiffening.
SR 1911
95




Figure 56


8.4.8.14 The longitudinal stiffenings of the flanges of the boxed beams as well as of the sections of the
rod of the bridges structures are verified with the relations:


(139)


o
max
Maximum normal unit stress in the longitudinal stiffening which is being verified;
u
t
The safety buckling coefficient for sections of rods type b, which is given by table 29
depending on the slenderness ratio of the rod;
o-
cr
Critical buckling unit stress of for a rod with the length a, equal with the distance
between two consecutive transverse stiffenings and the section formed from the
section of the longitudinal stiffening and the active width of steel sheet b
a
with which is
cooperating (figure 57). The value of o-
cr
is determined by the relation:


(140)


where
o
c
yield stress of the steel
the sub-panel 1 the most
threatened by fogging
from the stresses o;
the sub-panel 2 the most
threatened by fogging
from the stresses t;
SR 1911
96




Figure 57


(141)


(142)


(143)


where a is the distance between two consecutive transverse stiffenings, i is the radius of gyration of the
section of the longitudinal stiffening, with the active width of steel sheet, about the main axis parallel to
the plane of steel sheet, v is half of the height of the stiffening section.

8.4.8.15 The active width of the steel sheet which is being considered as a part of the section of the
longitudinal stiffening of the flanges of the boxed beams as well as of the sections of the bridge structures
rods, is established according to (figure 58) thus:

for (144)


for (145)


for (146)
SR 1911
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Figure 58

where

(147)


o
c
The yield strength of the steel;
E Elasticity modulus of the steel;
b According to picture 58;
t According to picture 58;

8.4.8.16 For the edge longitudinal stiffenings of the steel sheets of the compressed flanges, realized as
console regarding the web of the beam, the active width of the steel sheets which is being considered as
a part of the section of the stiffening (figure 59) is determined by the relation:

(148)

where

b
am
= 0.138
.
t
.
t
c


with

b
a
According to 8.4.8.15;

c
According to 8.4.8.15, relation 147;
a The distance between two consecutive transverse stiffenings.

SR 1911
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Figure 59

8.4.8.17 For the longitudinal stiffenings of the sections of bridge structures rods, stressed by
compression, the buckling safety coefficient calculated with the relation 139 has not to be higher than the
buckling safety coefficient of the rod, for the type b of section (table 29).

8.4.8.18 For the compressed flanges of the beams as well as for the sections elements of the
compressed rods of the bridges structures there will be observed the following slenderness conditions:

a) steel sheets without stiffenings or equipped only with transverse stiffenings (figure 60):

b
t
s 70 for steel sheets from steel OL 37
(150)

b
t
s 60 for steel sheets from steel OL 52
(151)


(152)

with o
c
the yield strength of the steel from which is made up the steel sheet, in newton per square
millimeter;





Figure 60




the boxed heart beam
SR 1911
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b) steel sheets with stiffenings with longitudinal stiffenings (figure 61):

b
i

t
s 70 for steel sheets from steel OL 37 (153)

b
t
s 60 for steel sheets from steel OL 52 (154)


(155)


with o
c
the yield strength of the steel from which is made up the steel sheets, in newton per square
millimeter;



Figure 61

8.4.8.20 For the tensional flanges of the beams as well as for the sections elements of the tensioned rods
of the bridges structures shall be observed the following slenderness conditions:

a) steel sheets without stiffenings or equipped only with transverse stiffenings (figure 60):

b
t
s 120 (156)

b
t
s 20 (157)

b) steel sheets stiffenings with longitudinal stiffenings (figure 61):

b
i

t
s 120 (158)

b
t
s 20 (159)

8.4.8.21 For the sections of the longitudinal stiffenings of the flanges of the beams stressed by
compression as well as of the sections of the rods stresses by compression shall be observed the
following slenderness conditions:

a) if

(160)


b) if

(161)

SR 1911
100

where
o
max
Is the maximum normal unit compression stress from the steel sheet section;
o
c

The yield strength of the steel from the stiffened steel sheet, in newton per square
millimeter;


(162)


for stiffenings realized from thick sheets of steel (figure 62 a);

(163)


for stiffenings with a T shaped sections or boxed (figure 62 b, c)




Figure 62

b
r
The height of the stiffening (figure 62);
t
r
The thickness of the steel sheet from which the stiffenings is made of (figure 62);
t The thickness of the stiffening steel sheet;
i
ry
The radius of gyration of the section of the stiffening, without the active width of the steel sheet,
regarding the perpendicular axis to the stiffened steel sheet;
b The distance between two consecutive longitudinal stiffenings. If, the distances between the
stiffenings are not equal there is considered the arithmetic mean of the distances adjoining the
stiffening.

8.4.8.22 For the longitudinal stiffening of the flanges of the beams stressed by tension as well as the
sections of the rods stressed by tension shall be observed the following slenderness condition:

(164)


where

a Is the distance between two consecutive transverse stiffenings;
i
rz
Is the radius of gyration of the section of the stiffening with the active width of stiffened steel
sheets regarding the main axis parallel to the steel sheet. The active width of stiffened steel
sheet is considered the distance between two consecutive stiffenings.

8.4.8.23 For the longitudinal compressed stiffenings, if they have a free edge (figure 63) or if they have
elements with a free edge (figure 63b), there is also verified the condition:

(165)

with o
c
the yield strength of the steel from which the stiffening is made, in newton per square millimeter;

SR 1911
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Figure 63

8.4.8.24 The webs of the bridges structures (figure 64) provided with transverse stiffenings have to fulfill
the following slenderness condition:


a) (166);


b) (167);


(168);





Figure 64

where

o
c
The yield strength of the steel from which the stiffening is made, in newton per square
millimeter;
b
c;
b; t
i;
b
i
According to figure 64.

8.4.8.25 The web panels of the beams fitted with longitudinal stiffenings have to fulfill the following
slenderness condition:

(169)

where b
i
= b
1
or b
3
, according to figure 65;
t
i
= the thickness of the web (figure 65).


SR 1911
102





Figure 65

8.5 Elastic deformations checks

8.5.1 The verifications of the elastic deformations of the bridges and their elements, have to illustrate
the size of the deformations produced by different actions, do not obstruct the exploitation of the
construction in normal conditions.

8.5.2 The verifications of the elastic deformations of the resistance structures or of parts of these
structures, are performed for all the actions which can produce deformations and especially for:

- permanent loads;
- mobile loads (convoys of vehicles specified in STAS 1489);
- the effect of the variations of temperature.

Other temporary loads of short duration are not considered except for justified cases.

8.5.3 In case of the simply supported beam the maximum value of the elastic strain is considered to be
produced in the middle of the span and that the elastic deformations vary along the beam by a parabola.

For other structures (continuous beams, beams with abutments and hinges, frames, etc.) the section
where the maximum strain is produced is appreciated in the design stage.

8.5.4 In justified cases, be size the strains are determined other deformations too: rolling, movements,
etc.

8.5.5 The vertical elastical strains (o
v
) produced by the loads due to the standard calculus convoys
multiplied with the dynamic coefficient must not exceed the values specified in table 39, where L is
considered as follows:

- in case of the simply supported beams, the calculus span;
- for the continuous beams the length of the deformation which includes the maximum total strain as
illustrated in picture 66.
SR 1911
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Table 39






Figure 66

8.5.6 The minimum curvature radius in vertical plane due to the structure deformation from the action
of the convoys has to be higher or equal to the one permitted for the path.

8.5.7 For temporary bridges the allowed vertical deformation is established according to the maximum
traffic speed of the convoys.

8.5.8 For combined bridges the vertical elastic strains produced by all the standard mobile convoys
(motor vehicles and on rails) multiplied with the corresponding dynamic coefficient must not exceed the
values established in table 39.

8.5.9 The limitation of the strains from the present standard are applicable for the traffic of the railway
vehicles with speeds s 160 km/h.

8.5.10 At the planks having the span greater than 20 m is specified a inverse strain equal to the strain
produced by its own weight and a quarter from the weight of the mobile convoys, without dynamic
coefficient.

8.5.11 The horizontal elastic strains (o
h
) of the metallic planks due to the standard calculus convoys
multiplied with the dynamic coefficient must not to produce:
- an angular variation higher than the values given by table 40, or
- a radius of the horizontal curvature smaller than the values indicated by table 40.

V s 120 km/h o
r
s 4.5 mm /3 m
120 km/h < V s 160 km/h o
r
s 3.0 mm /3 m

8.5.13 The rotations of the ends of the planks due to the actions of the standard convoys multiplied with
the dynamic coefficient (figure 67) shall not exceed the following values:
a) for structures with a single causeway
u s 6.5 x 10
-3
radians for the ends of the planks in the joining with the earthworks

The allowed speed
range
km/h
The strain (ov) for:
The number of consecutive openings
NOTE - For spans 25 m < L < 30 m is linear interpolated
SR 1911
104

u
1
+ u
2
s 10 x 10
-3
radians between two consecutive planks

b) for structures with two causeways
u s 3.5 x 10
-3
radians for the ends of the planks in the joining with the earthworks
u
1
+ u
2
s 10 x 10
-3
radians between two consecutive planks

Table 40

Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 0,0035 ...) in this table are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 0.0035...)




Figure 67

8.6 Verifications for the position stability

8.6.1 The verifications of the position stability has to prove the entire safety of the metallic planks for
rolling, elevation from abutment and slipping from abutment.

8.6.2 The verification of the rolling safety is performed considering the action of the transverse forces of
the bridge (wind and for bridges in curve, the centrifugal force), in the hypothesis of the loaded or
unloaded bridge, as it is mostly unfavorable.

8.6.3 The pressure of the wind is considered acting generally horizontally and normal to the axis of the
bridge.
For the bridges located in certain unfavorable locations, or having a special composition can be
considered that the wind has an ascendent replacement of 10
0
regarding the horizontal.

8.6.4 The verification of the rolling safety is performed with the relation:

(171)

where
c The coefficient of rolling safety;
M
s
The moment of stability due to the permanent loads M
sg
and the load from convoy M
sp
;
M
r
The rolling moment produced by the actions of the transverse forces (wind, centrifugal force,
etc.)

For the calculus of the moment M
sg
, the permanent load the is considered reduced by 2kN/m.
For the calculus of the moment M
sp
is considered on bridge a disposable load, uniformly distributed of
10 kN/m, applied statically.
For bridges in curve is considered the offsetting of the vertical disposable load, due to the super elevation
of the causeway and allthesame, for the calculus of the moment M
r
is considered the most unfavorable
case of the wind pressure acting toward the interior of the curve.
For bridges in curve is performed the verification at rolling also towards the curve, considering the bridge
loaded with the standard convoy (multiplied by %) circulating with the maximum permitted speed in the
respective curve and considering the respective centrifugal force in this case, the pressure of the wind is
considered towards the exterior of the curve.

The allowed speed
range
km/h
The maximum
variation of the angle
radians
The minimum radius of curvature
Simple causeway Double or multiple causeway
SR 1911
105


The moments M
s
and M
r
are calculated regarding the inferior edge of the vertical stiffening of the web in
the section rightly near the abutment where is performed the verification at rolling, under the condition
that its section corresponds to the corresponding loads in this hypothesis.

8.6.5 The verification of the safety for the elevation from abutments is performed for all the structures in
which may appear negative reactions (continuous beams, beams and hinges, etc.) supposing that the
mobile load acts only on certain spans or lengths of the bridge which produce maximum negative
reactions, for the abutment for which the verification is performed.
The verification is performed with the relation:

(172)


where
c The safety coefficient for the elevation from abutments;
V
st
The descending vertical reaction produced by the vertical permanent loads, under the
same conditions from 8.64;
V
r
The vertical ascending reaction (negative) produced by the loading with standard
convoys, the heaviest, multiplied by %, placed in the most unfavorable positions;

8.6.6 The eventual anchors fitted in order to prevent the rolling or the elevation from abutments, have
to be introduced with a prestressing corresponding to their extension, produced by the differences
between the maximum ascending force and the minimum descending force.

8.6.7 The safety verification for slipping from abutments is performed with the relation:

(173)

where
f The friction coefficient on the slipping plane rightly near the abutment means, which
are taken:
- for steel on steel f = 0.10
- for steel on concrete f = 0.30
G
v
The sum of all the vertical loads transmitted to the abutment mean (for convoys is
taken the weight reduced by 5 kN/m and without dynamic coefficient);
H The sum of all the horizontal transverse loads of the bridge, which tend to produce
the displacement;
T The allowable stress which can be under by the eventual ribs, eyes, mandrels,
screws or other means which can prevent the slipping;
G
v
and H Have to be established for the same groups of actions, the most unfavorable, which
can produce the slipping.


9 CONSTRUCTIVE SPECIFICATIONS

9.1 General design specifications

9.1.1 At the establishment of the general specifications of the railway steel bridges and the drafting of
the execution projects, the following rules must be observed:
- The whole bridge, as well its metallic superstructure, have to correspond to the imposed conditions of
exploitation, revision and maintenance, for the current circulation as well as for all the installations
which are to be fitted on the bridge (contact lines, tubes, electric isolation installations, etc) without
reducing the construction gauge for new art works;
- bridges and composing construction elements, have to observe the construction gauge for new art
works, for normal railway (STAS 4392) as for narrow railways (STAS 4531), as well the as the gauge
of the road under the bridge, in case of bridges lower passages.
For the establishment of the clearance height under the bridge, shall be considered the maximum
possible elastic strain of the planks under the action of the loads;
- the realization of the bridge has to be economical from the material consumption point of view of
(steel), energy and the conversion cost;
SR 1911
106


- the entire bridge, has to be as much possible esthetic, becoming a part of the environment.

9.1.2 The bridges have to be executed in sections (building blocks) as large as possible, limited only by
the means of transportation, handling and assembling.

9.1.3 For the bridges lower passages are adopted structures which provide the protection of the
crossing causeway against falling objects from the railway vehicles or from the railway.

9.1.4 For the building of the bridge should to be adopted solutions or constructive rules in order to
prevent the appearance of negative reactions which could require anchoring.

9.1.5 For the building of the bridge should to be avoided those constructive rules which could allow the
formation of water boxes or surfaces which are not accessible for verification and maintenance.

9.1.6 The boxed elements which can not be painted after execution, have to be tightly closed.

9.1.7 For the bridges located on the points of gradient changing of the profile along the rail, the
connection of the causeway to the bridge is done according to technical rules of the Romanian Railway
Company in force. Changing the gradient on the bridges is permitted only for well justified purposes.

9.2 General rules for the construction elements

9.2.1 For the same construction element can be used different grades of steel and different quality
classes of the steel.
The grades and the quality classes used have to be marked clearly on the design planes and in the lists
of materials.

9.2.2 For the same plank or construction element, is permitted the use of rivets, fitting screws,
resistance screws and welding.
For the transmission of the stresses from the same jointing, is permitted the simoultaneous use only for:
- fitted rivets and screws;
- high resistance prestressed screws and welding;
- high resistance prestressed screws and fitted high resistance prestressed screws.

9.2.3 For the same plank are used a reduced number of sorts of standard laminated and diameters of
rivets and screws.

9.2.4 For the building of the constructive details and e specially for extensions, jointings and cluster
joints, the elements which are being jointed to be easily accessible in order to ease the work, jointing,
riveting or welding, as well as their maintenance.

9.2.5 All the elements must have the minimum stiffenings prescribed depending on the nature of the
stresses which act upon them according to 8.5 and 9.8.2.

9.2.6 The line of the centers of gravity of the transverse section of the rods have to coincide in plane
and in elevation with the theoretical axes of the structure. This condition flanges to be observed as much
as possible also for the rods to which are successively added elements, in order to increase their section,
as for example at the flanges of the beams with braces with parallel flanges. If there can not be avoided
the movement of the axles of the centers of gravity, the medium axis determined by the center of gravity
of all the sections have to coincide with the theoretical axis of the structure.

9.2.7 The sudden changes of the section, must be avoided as much as possible.

9.2.8 There is forbidden the exploitation of the elements that carry stresses. Instead of the elements
there have to be used connections with wedge steel strips.

9.2.9 The minimum and maximum dimensions of the laminated must meet the specifications from
above.

9.2.9.1 The minimum thickness of the laminated has to correspond to the specifications from table 41.




SR 1911
107

Table 41


9.2.9.2 Minimum dimensions for laminated profiles are:
L 70 x 70 x 8 for the resistance elements;
L 60 x 60 x 6 for fillings for sections;
U 12;
I 16.

9.2.9.3 Maximum thickness must not exceed the following values:
16 mm for thick sheets assembled by riveting;
30 mm for thick sheets from OL 37 steel assembled by welding;
50 mm for thick sheets from OL 52 steel assembled by welding;

Sheets with thickness higher than the ones above, can be used only by adopting special welding
technologies. In order to choose the maximum thicknesses there must be considered the specifications of
STAS R 8542.

9.2.9.4 Minimum diameter of the rivets and screws have to be of:
17 mm, for resistance elements;
15 mm for secondary elements (section, fillings, etc)

9.2.9.5 Minimum thickness (a) of the welding seam is taken according to 9.3.5.19, and the length
according to 6.2.2.2.

9.2.9.6 Minimum distance between the different elements pieces is taken according to table 42 (in order
to allow the execution and the maintenance).
No.
crt.
Piece designation
Pieces in boxed profiles, closed, tight welded
Pieces in boxed profiles, closed, tight welded
Elements of balustrade
Local stability stiffenings
Uncovered steel strips
Angle plates legs
Covered steel strips
The webs of riveted or welded beams
Gusset plates
Steel sheets of the planks in contact with the ballast
Up to 1.5 m height
Over 1.5 m height

Minimum thickness
mm
SR 1911
108

Table 42






Figure 68


No.
crt.
Elements between which is
measured the distance
In between the elements
In between the nearest edges of the
elements
Execution and maintenance conditions
*) NOTE For the riveting on site with special devices, the distance of 750 mm can be reduced correspondingly to these devices.
for the application of the rivets, in places hardly accessible, with
usual air pickers
for welding in tight spaces at a depth h
for execution and maintenance of the elements with a
composed sections
for the execution and maintenance of the elements with a
boxed section, opened on one side and with the height smaller
or as much as 600 mm.
for the execution and maintenance of solid web twin beams or
with double wall with the height greater than 1200 mm
for execution and maintenance of the elements with a boxed,
section opened on one side and higher than 600 mm.
for the operations of execution and maintenance of the planks In between the closest parts of the
elements of two adjoining
superstructures on a double line
No. of
the
figure
- for holding of the riveting set, at riveting
- for holding of the screws when fastening the bolt nuts
- for the assembly of the high resistance screws
Distance
mm
or
or
SR 1911
109


h
9.2.9.7 If the distances a (figure 69) of the composed rods fulfil the conditions: a > and a >
6
the spaces between the adjoining sides of the pieces are left free. Otherwise, this space is filled with steel
strips.





Figure 69

9.2.9.8 The boxed structures (beams, frames, arches) which can be visited inside must have entrance
wholes and holes visiting in the stiffening diagrams.





Figure 70

9.3 Jointings

9.3.1 General rules

9.3.1.1 For the realization of the jointings are used only verified jointing means: rivets, high resistance
prestressed screws, fitted high resistance prestressed screws and welding. The cooperation between
different jointing means permitted under the conditions specified at 9.2.2.

9.3.1.2 The jointings are thus designed in order not to produce over-stressing of some elements and
useless consumes of materials.

9.3.1.3 The lines of the centers of gravity of the covering elements and of the jointing means (rivets,
screws, welding) must to coincide as much as possible to the axes of the elements which they joint.

The gusset plates cover plates and other elements of jointings and extensions must provide the direct
and full transmission of the stresses and to have minimum dimensions.



SR 1911
110


9.3.1.4 For the riveted bridges is forbidden the use of the gusset plates as covering elements of the
eventual dummy joints of the pieces of the flanges.

9.3.1.5 Each part of the pieces which make up the transverse section of an element must be jointed
respectively covered separately and directly, for the part of the corresponding stress.
The covering elements of the jointing are placed as much as possible symmetrically regarding to the
pieces that they joint and directly on them.

9.3.2 Riveted jointings

9.3.2.1 The riveted jointings are realized with button head rivets according to STAS 797 and the
specifications from 2.2 and 8.2.
Exceptionally there also can be used countersunk head rivets s or round top countersunk rivets
STAS 802 and STAS 1257.

9.3.2.2 The composition of the jointing must allow the introduction and the normal hammering of the rivet.

9.3.2.3 The centers of gravity of the groups of rivets of jointings, have to coincide to the axes of the
centers of gravity of the elements which are being jointed, respectively extended. At composed sections
this constructive specification must be observed for each composing part of the section.

9.3.2.5 The diameter d of the rivets is established based on the thickness t
min
of the thinnest element from
the package of fastened elements, using the diagram in fig. 71.


Figure 71


9.3.2.6 Minimum and maximum distances allowed between rivets or between the edges of the elements,
are indicated in table 43, expressed in millimeters, with the signification of the notations as in the table
and picture 72.

9.3.2.6.1 When the most extreme edge of the piece presents a rigidity by the existence of a perpendicular
leg to the jointing plane or of attachment of the piece (fig. 73), the maximum distance from the axis of the
rivet up to the edge of the piece is considered e = 6x1.2 t instead of 6t.

9.3.2.6.2 The placing of the rivets on the laminated profiles is done based on the indications from the
usual tables containing the riveting rules of the laminated profiles.

9.3.2.7 On the same construction elements must be used rivets with the small lest possible number of
different diameters.

9.3.2.8 Each element is jointed with at least two rivets. Except for the elements of the parapet, as well as
the stiffening braces of the composed rods, for which is permitted jointings with a single rivet.

9.3.2.9 The rivets which provide the transmission of the stresses to jointings, attachments and
extensions are placed at closer distances than the minimum ones. The stiffening rivets are placed at
maximum distances.


Recommended



Allowed
SR 1911
111


Table 43







Figure 72






Figure 73




No.
crt.


Case for which is determined the distance e

The diameter of the rivet rod d (before hammering)
The diameter of the whole d (diameter of the hammered rivet)
minimum distance between
rivets
maximum distance between
the rivets for compression
stresses, alternating stresses
and for stiffenings against
fogging

maximum distance between
rivets for tension stresses
minimum distance up to the
edge of the piece
In the direction of the
stress:
normal on the direction
of the stress
maximum distance up the
edge of a piece
or
or
or
when
when
when
NOTE 1 distances between rivets, from table 43, can be rounded to the multiples 5 mm.
2 for the distances e which depend on the diameter of the rivets d and of the thickness t, there is taken the minimum value
(cases noted with *)
SR 1911
112


9.3.2.10 The extension of the webs of the beams is done on the entire height by riveting the cover plates
directly to the web interrupting and extending the angles of the flanges (figure 74) or by riveting the cover
plates only on the height between the edges of the vertical legs of the angle of the flanges, the angles
remaining allthesame continuous but covered by plates which extend the web also under the portion
beneath the angles (figure 74 b).

9.3.2.11 Maximum clamping length (l
s
) is determined by the relations:

l
s
= 0.2d
2

l
s
= 4.5d
l
s
being given in millimeters when d, is introduced in millimeters. From the two values obtained with the
relation 174, is taken the smallest one.




Figure 74

The maximum clamping lengths can be taken from table 44.
By special hammering procedures, verified by testing, the clamping length can be increased over the one
determined with the relation 174 (or from table 44). If this type of procedures can not be applied, the rivets
are replaced by cylindrical fitted screws, executed at the lathe.

Table 44



9.3.2.12 For jointing or fastenings for which a direct plate covering can not be realized (fig. 75), the
intermediate pieces, respectively the steel strips thicker that 4 mm are extended beyond the cover plate
edges with at least two rivet pairs (also see 8.2.3.7).




Figure 75

9.3.3 Usual screws jointings

9.3.3.1 For the jointures that transmit the stresses as well as in the phase of exploitation as in the one of
execution or assembling are used screws from the precise category of execution and the group of
mechanic characteristics 4.6 6.6 according to STAS 2700/3 corresponding to the grade of the steel
from the pieces that are being jointed.



Diameter of the driven
rivet, in mm
Maximum clamping
length, in mm
SR 1911
113


9.3.3.2 The fitted screws are used instead of the rivets when these can not be clamped or when there is
the maximum length of clamping; at fitted screws is permitted a difference of maximum 0.3 mm between
the diameter of the hole and the diameter of the rod.

9.3.3.3 The screws from the category of execution semi-precise or black screws, are admitted only for the
jointing of the secondary elements in the transportation and assembling phase.

9.3.3.4 The diameter of the usual screws and the distances between them or up to the edge of the
pieces, are established as for rivets according to 9.3.2.6 and table 43.

9.3.3.5 The screwed part of the screws must not enter into the hole; for this purpose are used washers
STAS 5200/5 and for the flanges of the U and I profiles are used washers STAS 2242.

9.3.3.6 The bolt nuts of the usual screws are secured against loosening with back nuts or with grower
washers.

9.3.4 Jointings with prestressed high resistance screws are realized according to STAS 9330.

9.3.5 Welded jointings

9.3.5.1 The design of the steel welded bridges is performed by engineers which have profound
knowledge in the domain of elaboration, calculus and execution of these works.
The execution documentation must contain all the data required for execution, handling and control of
the welded seams, also observing the specifications of STAS 9407.

9.3.5.2 The quality classes of the welded seams are established according to 7.3.
Use of the welded seams of quality class III A is not allowed for the resistance elements.

9.3.5.3 For welded jointings and constructive elaboration which are not usually used, the technology of
execution drafted by the executor has to be approved by the specialized organisms authorized.

9.3.5.4 Execution of the welding works on site at steel bridges, is permitted only if the conditions in view
of realizing the quality of the welded seams according to STAS 9407 are provided.

9.3.5.5 The number of welded seams over the head done on site, must be reduced as much as possible

9.3.5.6 The concentration of many welded seams on small spaces, as well the intersection of the seams
must be avoided.

9.3.5.7 The constructive composition of the welded elements and jointing must provide a continuous flow
of the unit stresses, in view of reducing the effect of stress concentrators. For this purpose must be
avoided sudden section changes, practice of grips, holes in pieces etc.

9.3.5.8 For the main elements of resistance of the structure are not allowed constructive compositions
which do not allow verification and maintenance of the welded seams during exploitation. The welded
seams must be easily accessible during the execution, as well as after the execution and assembling.

9.3.5.9 At the elaboration of the welded bridges elements, must be aimed the reduction to a minimum
possible of the number of jointings as well as the length and the volume of the welded seams. There must
be used compositions which to permit the use as much as possible of the automatic procedure or semi-
automatic welding.

9.3.5.10 The blueprints of the welded bridges must indicate:
- the grades and the quality classes of the steels used in each piece;
- the dimensions of the pieces and elements;
- the form of working of the edges at jointings;
- the dimensions of the seams;
- the quality class of the seams according to 7.3.2 and 7.3.3 and STAS 9407.
- the mechanical working;
- eventual thermic treatments
The quotas enlisted in the blueprints are the final quotas of the products, after the execution of the
welding.


SR 1911
114


9.3.5.11 The preparation of the jointing steel pieces is done according to SR EN 29692 for the electric
welding with folded electrode, welding with electric arch in protecting gas environment and according to
STAS 6726 for welding of the steel under a layer of flux.

9.3.5.12 In the elements of the railway steel bridges are used only continuous seams.

9.3.5.13 The welded jointings and fastenings are executed, usually, by butt welded seams normal to the
axes of the pieces which are being jointed.

9.3.5.14 The extension of the sheets, of the steel ships or webs of different thicknesses must be realized
by connections with slopes of maximum (figure 76).







Figure 76

If the thickness difference between the two pieces is of maximum 3 mm (At s 3 mm), the handling of the
connection at the prescribed slope can be executed after the welding; otherwise, it must be executed
before the welding, after which doing, if there is necessary, the processing only of the welding.

9.3.5.15 The butt-jointing of the steel strips of different width, is done as in 9.3.5.14, by connections with
slopes of maximum (figure 77).







Figure 77


9.3.5.16 Is forbidden the use of the applied compensators. The compensation of local section
weakenings, due to the holes, is realized by introduction of elements with larger thicknesses and widths,
having a section equivalent with the gross section of the non-weakened piece.

SR 1911
115


9.3.5.17 The superposed steel strips of the flanges of the solid web beams are usually extended in
staggered sections, the seams being processed separately for each of the steel strips, before their
superposing.



Figure 78

The interruption of the steel strips in the same section is allowed only in special cases. Under these
circumstances the steel strips before being extended are jointed between them, of the same side of the
joint, by front welding done by hand (figure 79). The execution technology has to homologated by a
specialized institution.

9.3.5.18 The fillet welding are done with equal legs; except of the seams at the interruption of the steel
strips superposed plat bands which are executed according to picture 6 and 5.4.1.2.

9.3.5.19 The fillet seams are executed with the calculus resulted thickness; the increase of the thickness
of the fillet seaming over the one resulted from the calculus or the minimum one from table 45, is allowed
only based on some technological and constructive justifications. The minimum thickness of fillet scams
will be established considering also the execution tolerances (negative).


Figure 79

d) welding on the front joints
b) butt weld of two superposed sheets
c) and d) butt welding of three superposed sheets
)
SR 1911
116

Table 45

Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 3,5 ...) in this table are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 3.5...)


From the technological point of view, the minimum thicknesses of the fillet seams, depend on the medium
thickness t
m
of the pieces and are specified in table 45.

9.3.5.20 The thickness of the fillet seams must not exceed 10 mm. If from the calculus results a greater
thickness seams in Y or K, with complete penetration will be used.

The maximum thickness (a) of the fillet seams must not exceed 0.7 from the thickness (t
1
) of the thinnest
laminated which is being jointed (figure 80).





Figure 80


The laminated profiles are jointed to sheets, by fillet seams having the thicknesses a
1
and a
2
specified in
fidure 81 and table 46.
Medium thickness
of the pieces (tm)
mm
Minimum thickness of
the fillet seams (a)
mm
NOTES
1 The thickness tm is the semi-sum of the
thicknesses of the two pieces jointed by fillet
seaming
2 There is recommended that the lower values
of the minimum thicknesses a from the table to be
used in pieces from OL 37 and the upper values
in pieces from OL 52.

SR 1911
117



Figure 81


Table 46

Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 0,7 ...) in this table are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 0.7...)


9.3.5.21 The resistance seams in Y (figure 82a) or in K (figure 82b) which undergo tension stresses or
alternate efforts are performed with back sealing run, respectively fully penetrated and eventually with the
polishing of the seams.



Figure 82

9.3.5.22 The execution in the same section of fillet seams on both sides of a plate, is permitted only if the
thickness of the plate is of at least 8 mm (figure 83a). In case of plates with a smaller thickness (t), the
fillet seams must to be staggered with a distance of at least 2 t (figure 83b).


No.
crt.

Picture
Minimum thickness of the leg of the
laminated profile or of the sheet
The thickness of the
welded seam
SR 1911
118




Figure 83

9.3.5.23 At the bearing elements of the main beams and of causeway sustaining, in case of the railway
bridges, there are not permitted butt jointings of steel the laminated profiles. For the other elements of the
structure stressed by tension or tension from bending, it must be avoided as much as possible butt
welding at the steel laminated profiles.

9.3.5.24 It must be avoided the welded jointing, in which the material is stressed by tension or tension
from bending on the direction of its thickness, from exterior actions or under the situations of internal
stresses. If the stresses on the direction of the thickness can not be avoided, then there must considered
STAS 11417, for the purpose of determining of the contraction area at breaking (Z), by which can be
appreciated the tendencies of cracking by lamellar breaking.

9.3.5.25 Welding on the resistance elements of the bridges, of some anchors, lifting devices, or of
handling etc, necessary for the handling during transportation or assembling, is permitted only under the
condition that the position of these pieces is specified in the blueprints.
These plans have to specify also the respective execution technology.
Usually the devices are attached the pieces by screws whose dimensions and positions also have to be
specified in the project.

9.4 The causeway

9.4.1 The causeway on traverses

9.4.1.1 For the causeway on traverses is recommended that the rails are continuously welded to the
bridge, the first joint has to be situated on the earthworks of at least 2 m, behind the guard walls of the
abutments.

9.4.1.2 For the open causeway, the jointing devices of the traverses, must provide the following:
- the centric transmission of the reactions of the traverses in the axis of the elements which sustain
them directly (outriggers, etc);
- the extraction and easy replacement of the traverses.

9.4.1.3 Establishing the dimensions of the traverses must consider their resistance and the conditions of
providing the electrical isolation, by free 5 cm space of rightly near the rails between their inferior base
and the highest point of the metallic elements beneath the rail (for example the rivet heads for riveted
struts).

9.4.1.4 For the dimensioning of the width and of the distance between the traverses, for the bridges with
open causeway, has to be provided also the sustaining of the derailed wheels.

9.4.1.5 It is recommended to avoid the notching of the transverses. If it is un-avoidable, for example at
the bridges in curve with little superelevation or near the rivet heads, the notching is done with special
angle cutters and the notched surface is unctioned with carbon-lineum or other fungicidal substances.



SR 1911
119


9.4.1.6 If the distance between the inferior base of the rail and the highest part of the stringer is
decreased because of the continuity plates or of the extending covering plates the bases, in these areas
are used traverses less high, observing the minimum height of the traverses (18 cm).

9.4.1.7 For the bridges in curve with the causeway on the traverses, are specified the following
compositions:
- placing the upper face of the two stringers at the same level and the notching of the traverses;
- placing the upper face of the two stringers at the same level and using the traverses cut in a wedge
shape with local notching;

9.4.1.8 Maximum opening between the traverses is of:
40 cm for the rails with normal gauge;
30 cm for the rails with narrow gauge;
This opening has to be provided also between the final traverse from the bridge superstructure and the
first traverse from the earthworks.

9.4.2 Cause way without traverses

9.4.2.1 For the elaboration of the causeway without traverses, placed directly on the resistance structure,
are used constructive devices verified in exploitation.

9.4.2.2 For inferior crossings, at bridges with large spans, over rivers and fairways, the causeway is fitted
directly on the continuous planks or plates from reinforced concrete.

9.4.3 Causeway on ballast

9.4.3.1 The causeway on ballast is recommended, generally, for bridges with small and medium spans
having an upper causeway, in view of the application of the mechanized works of causeway
maintenance, at bridges on which have to be placed causeway devices, at the lower crossing bridges and
crossing bridges.

9.4.3.2 The ballast is sustained by a metallic, reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete case.

9.4.3.3 The ballast case must be equipped laterally with stoppers which prevent the spreading of the
ballast. The distance from the axis of the path to the interior side of the stoppers, is taken of minimum
2.20 m in view of the mechanized maintenance of the causeway.

9.4.3.4 If the distance of 2.20 between the axis of the causeway and the interior side of the stopper can
not be observed, it is necessary to have the beneficiary agreement for its reduction.

9.4.3.5 For the ballast cases, are specified the following constructive specifications for the water drainage
and protection of the cases:
- corrosion protection devices for the metal;
- concrete and reinforced concrete hydro-isolation;
- collection and water drainage, device located thus as their maintenance to be possible under the best
conditions;
- slopes corresponding for the surfaces on which the waters are being drained: across the bridge
minimum 1:50 or along the bridge minimum 1:100.

9.4.3.6 The minimum thickness of the ballast layer under traverses is recommend to be of 30 cm, in view
of the mechanized maintenance of the causeway.

9.4.4 The outfits for guidance of the wheels out of the rails, of re-bringing of the vehicles out of the rails
in the path and outfits of compression of the path.

9.4.4.1 The devices for the guidance of the derailed wheels are fitted in the following cases:
- all straight bridges, with the length L >$10 m, and having the causeway without ballast;
- all bridges in curve, with the length L > 5 m, and having the causeway without ballast regardless of
the modality of composition of the path;
- at the request of the beneficiary in case of the bridges having the causeway on ballast.


SR 1911
120


9.4.4.2 The devices for the guidance of the derailed wheels are composed thus as to be observed the
instructions for the exploitation of railways.

9.4.4.3 The devices for guidance are extended beyond the edges of the bridge by 20 m for normal rails
(figure 84a) and by 7.60 m for narrow rails (figure 84b).






Figure 84


The extremities of the counter-rails are bent in vertical plane and are jointed between them penetrating
the ballast under the level of the traverse from the earthwork.
The extremities of the bridges located on normal rails are also equipped with short exterior guiding
devices.

9.4.4.4 The bridges with spans larger than of 100 m are fitted with causeway compensation devices,
regardless of the modality of composing the causeway (with welded or not welded rails).

9.5 The beams of the causeway

9.5.1 The stringers and the struts are composed as solid web beams. Heights of the stringers and of
the struts smaller than 1/12 respectively 1/10 of the span, have to be avoided.

9.5.2 The distance between the stringers must be of 1.50 m for normal rails and of 0.80 m for narrow
rails. The usage of other distances has to be technically justified.

9.5.3 The jointings of the stringer elements to the struts have to provide the transmission of the
corresponding stresses in the respective section.

9.5.4 The interruption of the stringer row if necessary will be realized only on one side of the struts.

9.5.5 For the bridges with welded elements the webs of the stringers can pass continuously or can be
welded to the webs of the struts and the flanges are continued through gusset plates, which are a part of
the flange of the struts and of the stringers. These gusset plates are jointed with the flange of the
stringers and with the flange of the struts by butt welding (figure 85).













SR 1911
121





Figure 85


For these structures can be adopted also the solution illustrated in figure 86.






Figure 86


9.5.6 If the level of the inferior flange of the stringers is above the level of the interior flange of the
struts there are fitted reinforcements or seats.




web of the strut


web of the strimgers
SR 1911
122


9.5.7 The own bracing of the stringers, if there is any, is recommended to be placed under the upper
flange or at a distance of (140 160) mm from the flange, depending on the modality of composition of
the causeway and of the section of the stringers.

9.5.8 The stringers and the struts can be jointed by a continuous sheet which forms the upper flange of
the stringers and the struts and eventually the flange of the beam rightly which is placed the causeway.

9.5.9 At the bridges with a low causeway, the jointing of the struts to the main beams is recommended
to be done with reinforcement built into the struts.

9.5.10 The end struts have to be verified if it is necessary also for the hypothesis of the lifting of the
planks from the abutment means depending on the lifting technology considered.

9.5.11 For the bridges with upper causeway the ending struts are superior beams of the ending
transverse bracing; in order to provide the lifting from the abutment means, these bracings are fitted in
their inferior part with corresponding transverse beams, tied to the final transverse bracings.
The inferior flanges of the lines are fitted with plates fastened with countersunk head rivets or welded
plates, and the webs of the beams are stiffened in the points where the location of the hydraulic jacks is
specified.

9.5.12 For bridges in curve, it is necessary that the plane placing of the stringers is done in scale or by a
polygonal pattern, following the curve of the causeway on the bridge.

9.6 Beams with solid web

9.6.1 The sections of the solid web beams are executed shaped as l, q or shaped as a box.
The sections shaped as a box have to be thus composed, as to provide the possibility of execution and
maintenance (inside painting or to be closed tightly according to STAS 9407).

9.6.2 The height of the webs of the beams with solid web is established by economic, resistance,
stability and rigidity reasons.

9.6.3 The distance between the axes of the main solid web beams at the bridges with a low causeway
is thus determined, as the opening between the inferior edges of the upper flanges to be of minimum
5000 mm.
The beams can be drawn closer up to the limit imposed by the gauge for constructions in this case fitting
exterior sidewalks.

9.6.4 At the upper causeway bridges the distance between the axes of the walls (webs) of the beams is
established depending on the composition of the causeway and providing the position stability of the
plank.

9.6.5 If the path is composed with out a ballast layer there must be fitted elements to provide the
transmission of the reactions erections from the jointing plates of the rails to the walls (webs) of the main
beams.

9.6.6 The longitudinal and transverse stiffenings are established as position and dimensions from the
conditions of providing the webs against fogging, depending on their slenderness, and also from
constructive conditions.

At solid web beams, low causeway, are fitted in these sections also diagrams.
At solid web beams, low causeway, are fitted transverse web stiffenings, rightly near the struts, for double
wall or boxed beams, in these sections are also fitted diaphragms.

9.6.7 The solid web riveted beams are composed as follows

9.6.7.1 The variation of the beams sections is done by successive interruption of the steel strips of the
flanges, according to 5.4.1 and figure 5.
At the upper flanges, the first steel strips is extended up to the extremities of the beam; at solid web
beams directly loaded, all the steel strips are extended up to the end.




SR 1911
123


9.6.7.2 The maximum thickness of the steel strips pack, is established considering the clamping length
of the rivets at the extensions. Generally there are not used more than four 16 mm steel strips.
The width of the steel strips must exceed on both sides, the width of the leg the angle by at least 5 mm
(figure 87).
The width of the first steel strip has to correspond to the condition u
1
s 10 t
1.





Figure 87

9.6.8 The solid web welded beams are composed as below:

9.6.8.1 The variation of the flange sections can be done by changing the thickness of the platbands, by
changing their width and by adding platbands.
The points of thickness changing, of the width or of the number of platbands are established according to
5.4.1.2 and figure 6.
The processing of the platbands at the thickness or width variation are done according to figure 76 and
figure 77.

9.6.8.2 At the composition of the solid web welded beams having superposed platbands between the
edges of the inferior and superior platband must be observed the conditions: (figure 88).




Figure 88



respectively
(175)
respectively


9.6.8.3 The neck seams which joint the platbands to the webs, are usually executed as fillet seams,
except for the specifications from 9.3.5.2. The fillet seams are executed continuously, without
interruptions by the butt-weld seams, of extension of the flanges and webs (figure 89).






SR 1911
124


















Figure 89


9.6.8.4 On the supports and in the regions where high point loads are applied, fillet seams, of joining of
the flanges to the webs are replaced by seaming in K or in Y with back sealing run. The area on which
where this specification is applied must exceed on each side the area on which the point loads are
applied, with minimum 100 mm, but with no less than 5 t (figure 90).






Figure 90


9.6.8.5 There is permitted the use of chamfers in webs only when intersecting the butt-welding done on
site of the steel sheets, the maximum radius of the chamfer(R) being of 50 mm (figure 91). In this case
the neck seams have to be turned around these cuts according to figure 91. The butt-weld seams
intersected with the chamfer according to figure 91 have to be located at a distance of maximum 500 mm
and minimum 300 mm from the transverse stiffening according to figure 92.

The fatigue verification is performed considering the group of notching corresponding to the constructive
specification with chamfer.
SR 1911
125






Figure 91







Figure 92


9.6.8.6 The local stability of the web of the solid web welded beams is provided by transverse stiffening,
longitudinal stiffening or by both placed on each side of the web or only on one side of it. Usually the
longitudinal and transverse current stiffenings are placed on the hidden side of the webs. Are
recommended stiffenings with sections from figure 93.




Figure 93

9.6.8.7 Intermediary transverse stiffenings, as well as the longitudinal ones, are welded to the web by
continuous fillet seams. The elements on which the stiffenings are welded will be verified against fatigue
considering the notching group given by the specified constructive detail.


Longitudinal stiffening
Transverse stiffening
Butt-welding
executed on site

SR 1911
126

9.6.8.8 The use of welded stiffenings shorter than the height of the wall is forbidden.

9.6.8.9 If the transvers stiffenings are welded directly to the flanges, at the fatigue verification is
considered the group of notching given by this constructive detail.

9.6.8.10 The intermediary transverse stiffenings can be fitted or jointed to the flanges by welding, screws
or rivets. The fatigue verification of the flanges and of the webs is performed depending on the used
constructive detail.

9.6.8.11 For the jointing of the struts to the main beams are recommended the constructive details from
figure 94 and figure 95.

SR 1911
127






Figure 94

reinforcing web
welded joint
fitted angles with the
edge grinded
The lower platband of the strut with a
grinded edge


A - A


SR 1911
128







Figure 95


reinforcement
welded jointure
SR 1911
129


9.6.8.12 The longitudinal stiffenings are executed continuously and are jointed to the transverse ones, by
welding, according to the detail from figure 96a and figure 96b.




Figure 96

9.6.8.13 The longitudinal bracing gusset plates are fixed to the flange by seams in K or Y with bank
sealing run. The gusset plates are connected by processing to the longitudinal edges of the flanges with
circular arc according to figure 97.





Figure 97


The double shaded part from figure 97 is removed by grinding after welding.
The notching group for fatigue verification of the flange is corresponding to this constructive detail.

9.7 Twin beams

9.7.1 The bridges with twin beams are used only, if it can not be realized, for an imposed construction
height, another type of bridge.

9.7.2 The rail is mounted either directly on diaphragms (with dampening plates of rubber or neoprene),
either on short traverses or wooden bearing beams.




longitudinal
stiffenings
transverse
stiffenings
Longitudinal stiffenings
Transverse stiffenings
SR 1911
130


9.7.3 The minimum distance between the inferior edges of the platbands of the upper flanges, is of
450 mm; for the curved bridges this distance is increased considering the plane strain of the bridge rail
and the over-widening of the causewayin curve with the permitted tolerances.

9.8 Beams with braces

9.8.1 The inferior limit of the spans, from which are used the beams with braces, the shape and height,
the type of braces, as well as the number of panels, are established by technical-economical and
exploitation reasons.

9.8.2 The maximum permitted values of the slenderness ratio (
max
=
l
f
for
i
min

)

the rods of the beams with braces, are according to table 47.

Table 47


9.8.3 The bridges with an upper causeway must have the main beams fastened by transverse braces
which can be placed as follows:
- in the plane of the pillars;
- in the plane of the diagonals if pillars do not exist;
The transverse bracing in the sections of the abutments are compulsory.

9.8.4 The bridges with a lower causeway must be stiffened for transverse sense by closed frames (for
bridges with upper bracing) or by opened frames (for bridges without upper bracing).
Within the opened or closed frames are the pillars or the diagonals of the main beams, the struts and
respectively the superior beams.

9.8.5 The height of the flanges is maintained constant along the whole length of the bridge. The
displacement of the centers of gravity of the flanges from a panel to another due to additional elements
necessary in order to increase the sections must be as little as possible (see 5.5.6 too).

9.8.6 The sections of all rods have to be symmetrical regarding the plane of the main beam.

9.8.7 Compound rods in which both of the section axes do not intersect the material are not permitted.

9.8.8 The jointings of the rods in cluster joints is done thus their axes to intersect in the theoretical cluster
joint.

No. crt.
Specification of the rods
Compressed flanges
Final diagonals of he beams without final pillars
Compressed diagonals
Compressed pillars which are a part of the system
Tensioned bases
Tensioned diagonals
Tensioned pillars which are a part of the system
Tensioned pillars which are not a part of the system
Compressed beams of the bracings
Tensioned pillars which are a part of the system
The diagonals of the bracings
Tensioned beams of the bracings
SR 1911
131


9.8.9 The upper flange of the beams with braces must have a horizontal platband, continuous, on the
whole length of the bridge and located in the upper part of the section.

9.8.10 The beams with riveted braces are composed as below.

9.8.10.1 The flanges of the beams are composed only with double wall.

9.8.10.2 The extension of the beams is done outside of the gusset plate.

9.8.10.3 The form of the gusset plate has to be without inward angles, having as much as possible two
parallel sides.

9.8.10.4 The pillars are extended usually on the whole height of the flange.

9.8.10.5 The composed rods which are a part of the beams with riveted braces are fastened with plates.

9.8.10.6 The dimensions of the fastening plates of the riveted composed rods must observe the following
conditions (see picture 31a and 8.4.2.1.).
- for intermediary plates:
0.7e<c<e
- for extreme plates:
c > e
where c the width of the plate
e according to 8.4.2.2.
- the thickness of the plate:
t >
e
50

If the thickness t of the plates exceed 12 mm profiles can be used U instead of the plates.

9.8.10.7 The fastening plates of the composed rods, must divide the rod in an odd number of sections.
For diagonals and pillars there are compulsory fitted next to the jointings. Next to the plates are also fitted
stiffening diaphragms, which are placed inside the gusset plates the rods are jointed to.

9.8.10.8 If the consumption of material is not increased too much, it is recommended that the fastening of
the elements by plates to be replaced by the fastening with a continuous wall (web). This specification
regards especially the compressed rods.

9.8.10.9 The additional elements which have as purpose the increase of the rod section are extended
over the theoretic al jointing with a number of rivets corresponding to their resistance capacity.

9.8.11 The beams with welded braces are composed as below:

9.8.11.1 It is recommended that the planting is composed by a continuous plate (orthotropic).

9.8.11.2 The compressed rods are composed usually with closed boxed sections. Their tightness has to
be provided by constructive measures (diaphragms) whose execution must be verified according to
STAS 9407. In the right of the extensions and of the cluster joints are left spaces in order to introduce the
rivets or prestressed high resistance screws. The attenuation produced by the holes are compensated by
corresponding thickening of the elements of the section keeping in mind to avoid the changing of the
position of the center of gravity of the rod section.

9.8.11.3 For the composition of the beams with braces, with welded elements, it is recommended the
realization in factory of some sections of dimensions as large as possible, complete by welded.
In these sections are built-in the gusset plates of the main beams, the gusset plates of the bracing and
eventually the reinforcements of the struts.

9.8.11.4 The tensioned flanges are usually composed with sections shaped as t, opened down according
to picture 98, observing the free b space, namely:
- for heights H s 600 mm; b > 120 mm;
- for heights H > 600 mm; b > 400 mm;


SR 1911
132


The upper platband is placed with at least 2 mm above the superior edges of the webs, and the
respective seams are grinded in order to provide the water drainage from the upper side of the platband.





Picture 98

9.8.11.5 The undeformability of the boxed rods section is provided by fitting some intermediary
diaphragms welded on three sides.
For the extremities of the boxed diagonals it is recommended the use of some details according to figure
99a and figure 99b.

9.8.11.6 For welded bridges, the gusset plates of the beams are intercalated in the sections of the
flanges, instead of their walls. In this case, the thickness of the gusset plates is equal to the highest value
of the thickness of the walls of the concurring flanges in the respective cluster joint.



Figure 99



gusset plate
gusset plate
gusset plate
SR 1911
133


9.8.11.7 The gusset plates which replace the webs of the flanges rightly in the cluster joints of the beams
with braces, are welded to the walls by butt-welding seams. The shape of the gusset plates must provide,
as well as in plane as in the elevation a continuous connection from the walls to the gusset plates. Is
recommended the use of the specifications from figure 99, where the radius of connection r are
according to figure 100.
If a is lesser as 72 (tg a< 3 figure 100a),

is considered r >
h
4

If a is equal or higher than 72 (tg a > 3 figure 100a),
is considered r >
h
4




Figure 100

9.8.11.8 Gusset plates on the flange of the beams, jointed by welding are not allowed.
The jointing to flanges of these gusset plates is done with high resistance screws or with rivets.

9.9 Providing the torsional rigidity

9.9.1 For providing the torsional rigidity of the steel bridges structures are fitted devices (transverse
bracing) which can be composed from rods or walls with or without holes.

9.9.2 For the bridges with struts, the transverse bracing which are specified rightly of the struts. It is
compulsory the fitting of transverse bracing in the abutment sections.

9.9.3 In case of the bridges with solid web beams (double T), shaped as t or boxed, the transverse
bracing are specified rightly of the transverse stiffenings of the webs (walls).

9.10 Longitudinal corner bracing

9.10.1 The transverse bending rigidity of the planks of the steel bridges is provided by longitudinal
bracing which can be made of rods of planks with continuous steel sheets.

9.10.2 The modality of realization of the longitudinal corner bracing is established under the condition of
fitting the transverse deformations of the structure at the causeway level, in the permitted limits.

9.11 Braking undertaking device

9.11.1 The bridges having the path placed on stringers and struts are fitted with devices for undertaking
the breking.

SR 1911
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9.11.2 The devices for undertaking the braking are rigid elements which undertake the longitudinal
stress from braking and transmit them to the main beams. These devices can be realized by: rods
systems, struts with high bending rigidity in horizontal plane, continuous ties between two or more
consecutive struts.

9.11.3 The placing of the braking undertaking devices is done thus to be observed the conditions of
stability and resistance of the elements of the structure, considering also a rational distribution of the
material in the structure.

9.12 Abutment means

9.12.1 For the bridges with low causeway, the abutment means are placed rightly in the point of
intersection between the axis of the main beams and the axis of the ending struts.
For the oblique bridges, the abutment means can be placed with an offsetting of (15 20) cm regarding
the point showed above.

9.12.2 At bridges with gradient, the fixed abutments are placed at the foot of the slope.
For one way traffic bridges, the mobile abutment is placed at the end toward the direction of traffic of the
vehicles.

9.12.3 For long bridges, having several spans, the fixed and mobile abutments are placed, as much as
possible, alternatively, thus to decrease the length of dilatation and to limit the dilatation compensation
devices of the causeway.
For bridges with the length higher than 100 m in which this specification is not observed will be fitted
cause way compensation devices.
9.12.4 For fixed abutments with rollers, is recommended that their number to be no higher than 2; are
preferred the mobile abutments done by a single roller.
The course of the rollers is determined considering the maximum possible displacement and is limited by
special constructive devices.
9.12.5 Rightly of the abutments in which is possible the appearance of some negative reactions, there
are used devices for providing a positive reaction.
9.12.6 Must by provided access to the abutment means in view of a corresponding maintenance.
9.12.7 Rightly of the abutments of the solid web beams are fitted corresponding stiffenings fitted in
flanges, capable to undertake the reaction. The stiffenings rightly of the abutments means are
dimensioned in order to undertake together with continuous steel strips and with a web section, the entire
value of the reaction. In case of the welded beams there is considered that beside the stiffenings,
participates at the undertaking of the reaction also a section of web wide of 15 t, where t is the thickness
of the web. (figure 101).


a) b)

Figure 101

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135



9.13 Hinges

9.13.1 The use of the beams systems of with hinges is not recommended.

9.13.2 In case which the beams systems with hinges can not be avoided, the adopted constructive
specifications have to provide by their rigidity the reduction to a minimum of the eccentricities of the
stresses as well as the undertaking of the specific local stresses.

9.14 Metallic piers

9.14.1 At the design of the structure of the metallic piers there must be observed the specifications
regarding the superstructures, of the present standard.

9.14.2 For definitive bridges is recommended that the lower level of the metallic structure of the piers to
be established depending on the drainage regimen of the waters.

9.14.3 At bridges over fairways, passages and crossing bridges there must be specified protection
measures against the collision of the piers structure by vehicles.
These consist either of rigid devices capable to undertake the effect of the vehicles collision or from
guiding devices for the vehicles.

9.15 Sidewalks and breastworks

9.15.1 Whenever is possible it is recommended that the position of the sidewalks in vertical plane to be
established thus to permit the changing of the bridge traverses without dismantling the rails.

9.15.2 Minimum width of the service sidewalks is of 75 cm, the minimum width of the public sidewalks is
taken according to STAS 2924.

9.15.3 The sidewalks and the breastworks of the bridges from stations or crowded centers, as well as the
passages, must be treated as to have an aesthetic appearance.

9.15.4 The bridges longer than 50 m are fitted with refuges placed on each side of the causeway, at
minimum distance of 25 m.
The breastworks are placed rightly of the refuges at minimum 3.40 m from the axis of the causeway.
Fitting refuges is not compulsory if the continuous breastworks is placed at a distance of minimum 3.00 m
regarding the axis of the causeway.

9.15.5 The breastworks of the service sidewalks are placed to the following minimum distances regarding
the axis of the lines:
2.50 m with normal gauge rails ;
2.20 m with narrow gauge rails of 750 mm or of 760 mm.

9.15.6 For the bridges where the distance between the main beams does not provide enough space for
the traffic of the service personnel are fitted also exterior sidewalks (see also 9.6.3).

9.15.7 The breastworks of the bridges with beams with braces are fastened to the exterior side of the
beams, extending correspondingly the planks of the sidewalks.

9.15.8 For the bridges in curve the distances up to the breastworks are increased considering the
characteristics of the bridge, of disposal of the bridge causeway and of the pitch of the size, which can not
be smaller than 2.50 m in any of the points of the bridge.

9.15.9 The height of the breastworks at the service sidewalks is of 1 m above the planks of the sidewalk.
At public sidewalks this height is taken according to STAS 1844.

9.15.10 At electrified rails and the crossing of the electrified rails, there must be taken protection
measures against electrocution.


SR 1911
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9.16 Visitation devices

9.16.1 All the elements of the bridges as for example the beams of the causeway, the cluster joints of
the beams with braces, the flanges of the beams with solid web, the abutments, the hinges, as well as all
the elements of construction, must be thus constructed as to easily permit the access for revision and
maintenance and to observe the norms in force for the labor protection.

9.16.2 There must be filled the devices necessary for the access of the revision and maintenance
personnel, thus for them to be fully safe. At the bridges established by the beneficiary are specified
runways for the devices of visitation which are designed at the same time as the bridge. There are also
fitted platforms, ladders and protection breastworks, in all the areas where the access would not be fully
safe.

9.17 Installations on railway bridges

9.17.1 The installation on the railway bridges of some installations which have no connection with the
exploitation of the railway is done only with the approval of the institutions of Romanian National Society
for Railway.

9.17.2 Is forbidden the installation of ducts that carry flammable, toxic or corrosive materials.

9.17.3 For the access of the personnel which is charged with the revision of the installations are fitted
corresponding devices to provide the revision in full safety. There will be taken measures for the
protection of the foot passengers who travel on the bridge. The access of the passengers to the
installations has to be forbidden.

9.18 Protection against corrosion

9.18.1 The elements of the bridge have to be protected by painting.
At the riveted elements there will be specified by design that the contact surfaces of the pieces which are
being riveted to be previously painted with red lead oxide. At the elements which are being jointed with
high resistance screws, is established the modality of processing the friction surfaces, the area on which
this processing is about to be done, as well as the modality of protection against corrosion, before, after
the jointing.

9.18.2 The constructive compositions that lead to backwater on the structural elements are avoided.

9.18.3 The air ends of the visitable spaces must be fitted with wire nets (in order to prevent the birds
from entering).

9.18.4 The ducts for liquids which are introduced in the visitable boxed sections must be protected
against liquid leaking by special constructions that collect these leaks and provide their drainage outside
the closed spaces. The water ducts must be protected against frost.

9.18.5 When there are used precast elements, of reinforced concrete for sidewalks, placed on metallic
elements, it is compulsory the covering of these elements with impermeable layers (asphalt).

9.18.6 At upper passages and crossing bridges are fitted with smoke protections, if there is steam
traction.

9.18.7 In the industrial areas with corrosive emanations are fitted supplementary protection measures,
consulting for this purpose the local organisms and eventually some institutions of specialized research.

9.18.8 The modality of maintenance by painting, the periods at which the revisions and the re-painting
are done, the nature and the technological process constitute the object of separate regulations.


10 ORTOTHROPE FLOOR SLABS

10.1 The orthotrope floor slabs are constructed from a network of longitudinal and transverse ribs
which cross usually orthogonaly, being welded to a steel sheet which covers the network.


SR 1911
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10.2 The design of the metallic floorings with orthotrope plankings is done applying the principle of
cumulating the functions of the steel sheets covering the planking.

There are calculated the unit stresses in the covering steel sheets which result from the following
functions:
a) o
GP
and T
GP
from the cooperation with the main beams;
b) o
NL
and T
NL
from the cooperation with the longitudinal ribs:
c) o
NT
and T
NT
from the cooperation with the transverse ribs;
d) the superposing of the a and b effects illustrated above, longitudinally for the planking.

The unit stresses from other functions of the covering steel sheets (membrane for the overtaking of the
local loads, horizontal slab, etc.) as well as the main unit stresses in the median plane of the covering
steel sheets , are not necessary to be verified.

10.3 Unit stresses calculated according to 10.2 must not exceed the permitted resistance from
table 48.

10.4 It is permitted to neglect in calculus the torsional rigidity of the non-boxed longitudinal ribs as well
as the eccentricity of the ribs regarding the median plane of the covering steel sheets.

10.5 In the calculus of the stresses in the longitudinal ribs, the struts are considered discrete elements
of elastic support.

Table 48



10.6 In calculus of the transverse ribs, the planking can be treated as well as a network of beams or as
a continuous environment distributing the rigidities of the ribs to the distance between them.

10.7 The stability of the orthotrop plankings in the compressed areas of the structure is verified
according to 8.4.7.

10.8 The fatigue verification of the orthotrop is done according to 8.3.

10.9 In the calculus of the unit stresses and elastic deformations, at the structures with flanges of
large width (figure 102) solicited at bending with cutting forces, in the absence of an exact calculus, the
active width of the flanges is determined with the relation:

b
a
= |
.
b

where
| is a coefficient which gives the degree of participation of the flange
b width (partial) of the flanges according to figure 102.
The coefficients | depend on the l
i
/b ratio and the type of the bending moments diagram
(figure 102 and figure 103). The diagrams of the bending moments are considered type I if they have a
shape of a continuous curve and of type II if they have a discontinuous shape (with peak)) on the length
l
i
; l
i
is the length between two consecutive points where the diagram of bending moments passes through
zero.

The function of the covering
steel sheets
Calculated unit stresses
Permitted resistance
Group
Flange of the main beam
Flange of the longitudinal rib
Flange of the transversal rib
Flange of the main beam and of the
longitudinal rib
SR 1911
138


a) Sections at steel structures




b) Cross sections at structures with a steel-concrete mixed composition



Figure 102
SR 1911
139










Figure 103 Bending moments diagrams type I and type II

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140


10.10 The values of the coefficients | (|
I
and |
II
corresponding for the type I respectively II for bending
moments diagrams) are obtained with the curves from figure 104. The maximum value of the |
coefficients is 1.0



Figure 104


The variation of the | coefficients along the length l
i
is taken depending on the type of the bending
moments diagram according to figure 105.

a) for bending moments diagrams type I b) for bending moments diagrams type II




Figure 105


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10.11 At the structures with independent or continuous beams for which the ratio of the adjoining spans
does not exceed the value of 1.5, the variation of the | coefficients is to be established from the real
bending moments diagram, depending on the loads.

Table 49




Static system
Row
Bending moments
Variation of the coefficients
Simply
supported beam
Edge
span
Intermediary
span
Intermediary
support
C
o
n
t
i
n
u
o
s

b
e
a
m
s

Console
SR 1911
142


10.12 In case of the structures with flanges of large width which also have stringers, the |
I
and |
II

coefficients are reduced with the correction coefficient o
Li
which is determined from figure 106.

10.13 The coefficients |
I
and |
II
for the evaluation of the active width of the sheet of the flanges of the
beams of the causeway (longitudinal ribs or stringers) will be determined as follows:
- if the causeway is made up with ballast prism is considered for the partial length of the base b, half of
the distance between the longitudinal ribs.



A
LI
the cross section area of the stringer
E a
LI
- the sum of the areas, of the longitudinal ribs from the width b

Figure 106 Correction coefficient o
LI
for the influence of the stringers

- if the rail is jointed directly, the partial width of the flange b is established according to figure 107




Figure 107 - Partial width b of the flanges of the stringers with direct jointing
of the rail


10.14 Maximum unit stresses (o
max
) are determined using the active width of the flange. The minimum
unit stresses o
min
(figure 108) are to be approximately established by the relation:

(186)

The distribution (variation) of the unit stresses between the two limit values can be determined with the
following equation (figure 108):


(187)




SR 1911
143





Figure 108 - the variation of the unit stresses on the partial width of the flange


10.15 In case of the structures of the railway steel bridges with opened box sections made up with two
walls (webs) (figure 109) and non-symmetrical loaded, is permitted the repartition of the loads in the plane
of the two walls (webs) according to the lever law. The wall (web) mostly loaded, with the corresponding
active width the steel sheet, is treated as an independent beam stressed by at bending.
For this beams the active width of the flange is determined using the coefficients:

|
e
= | for the exterior side of the flange
|
i
= o
c
. | for the interior side of the flange





Figure 109 - Opened section with two webs acted by a non-symmetrical load

where

| according to 10.10 up to 10.13 and

(188)



for




fourth degree parable
Unit stresses in flange
SR 1911
144



(189)


for

with b
e
, b
i
, P
II
, P
I
, according to figure 109.

The expression of the o
o
coefficient, are valid for b
e
/ b
i
s 1.
If b
e
/ b
i
> 1.0 are considered the values obtained for b
e
/ b
i
= 1.0

With the maximum unit stresses o
max
(figure 109), calculated for the section with the active width of the
steel sheet of the flange can be approximately determined the unit stresses at the edges of the partial
flanges with the following relations:




(190)


(191)






(192)



P
II
= - 1 is obtained o
min
= 0 and the intermediate values 0 > P
II
For case
P
I
o
max
P
I

> 1
will be linear interpolated.

The distribution of the unit stresses on the width of the flange will be considered with a linear variation
(figure 109).

10.16 For the opened box sections, the non symmetrical loads regarding the longitudinal axis of the
structure produce also o unit stresses from the torsion effect. These normal unit stresses can be
determined by the theory of prevented torsion without considering the washer effect of the flanges.

10.17 In case of the sections with high torsional rigidity (closed box sections) the influence of the
non-symmetrical loads regarding the active width of the flanges can be neglected.


11 THE VERIFICATION AND THE CONSOLIDATION OF THE METALLIC
SUPERSTRUCTURES OF EXISTING BRIDGES

11.1 Verification of the metallic superstructures of existent bridges

11.1.1 The specifications from 11.1 define the main principles for the appreciation of the technical status
of the metallic superstructures of existent railway bridges in view of their exploitation. These specifications
are applied for the verification of all metallic superstructures of existing bridges.

11.1.2 By existent bridges there are understood all the bridges that entered exploitation before the
adaptation of the present standard.

11.1.3 The verification of the technical status of the structure
SR 1911
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11.1.3.1 A fundamental criteria for the appreciation of the technical status of the bridge superstructure is
given by the result of the detailed examination (deep) of the real situation of the structure. This
examination has to be performed before any other calculus.

11.1.3.2 The theoretical status of the structure has to be noticed with technical documents (execution
plan and calculus). There are considered the indications of the technical documentation regarding
eventual repairs, replacement consolidation of some structural elements or the entire structure, the
exploitation period of the bridge. It is absolutely necessary to be verified the correspondence between the
existent technical documentation and the real situation in the location of the structure.

11.1.3.3 In case that the technical documentation for the superstructure of the bridge does not exist or it
is incomplete is realized a detail survey of the structure for the restoration the documentation or for its
completion .

11.1.3.4 It is necessary to identify the metallic material from which were made the elements of the
structure. If the existent technical documents do not permit the identification of the used metallic material
or if there are uncertainties regarding existent data in the technical documentation there will be performed
tests, in authorized laboratory on test samples taken from the main resistance elements of the structure.
The sampling must be done based on a project.

11.1.3.5 There must be granted an increased attention to the examination in location of the structure with
the purpose of discovering and accentuating eventual flaws or degradations, as:
- cracks:
- beginnings of crack or deteriorations (the phenomena of corrosion);
- deformations, (local or general);
- deficiencies at assembling jointings and of jointing means (rivets, screws, prestressed high resistance
screws, welding);
- deterioration that affect normal functioning of the abutment means;
- anomalies in behavior of the structural elements or of the entire structure at the passing of the trains
(lateral oscillation or vertical over the permitted limits, unusual noise, etc);
- deficiencies of the causeway on the bridge.
The results of the examination in the location of the structure will be compared with the existing data in
the technical documentation of the bridge.

11.1.4 Notes of calculus

11.1.4.1 It is verified if the notes of calculus, existent in the technical documentation are complete and
correct considering the present scientific and technological knowledge.

11.1.4.2 The notes of calculus drafted at the verification of the metallic superstructure will be writteh
clearly and concise. They will contain all the information needed in order to allow their verification by the
representatives of the beneficiary.

11.1.4.3 Always and compulsory the notes of calculus must comprise:
- conclusion regarding the previous notes of calculus resulted from the analysis of the existent
documentation;
- complete reports of the tests done on site or in laboratory, if there is the case;
- official norms based on which was designed the structure as well as the ones used for the verification
of the structure;
- permitted actions and groups of actions;
- characteristics of the metallic material from the structural elements;
- complete schemas of the verified metallic superstructure from which to result the composition and the
main dimensions;
- the calculus models used and their justification;
- hypothesis and simplifications in the analysis of the structure as well as their justification;
- the geometry of the verified elements, dimensions, characteristics of calculus of the sections of the
verified elements;
- texts and formulas (literally and digitally) which describe the verifications performed;
- digital values resulted from the analysis of the structure and from the verifications performed. If there
are used digital values which come from another chapter or from other materials there will be given
complete and correct references.

SR 1911
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11.1.4.4 If there are used for the calculus the electronic computer there have to be given, in all the cases,
the following information:
- the program or the calculus programs used as well as a brief description of it (them);
- the model and hypothesis of calculus used;
- the main results obtained as tables and graphical representations.

11.1.4.5 As a general rule there is avoided the inclusion in the notes of calculus of the tables of figures
printed on computer. If these contain necessary information for the verification performed they will be
added separately to the notes of calculus and will be clearly defined (nomination, units etc.).

11.1.4.6 Each loading case considered has to be treated in an individual manner and has to be always
accompanied by a graphic representation of the results obtained. In the end there are enlisted the
determined values which result from each loading case considered. It is compulsory to verify the order of
size of the results obtained by the computer, by a manual calculus which will be included in the notes of
calculus.

11.1.4.7 Experimental measurements of stresses and deformations, on the real structure, have to be
performed if:
- the behavior of the structure can not be represented correctly enough by a theoretic model;
- it is considered that there is necessary the confirmation of the results obtained by a calculus.

11.1.5 Actions

11.1.5.1 The permanent loads (the weight of the causeway, the weight of the resistance structure,
installations) are established base on the existing documentation of execution and the real situation
noticed in the location of the bridge. There are considered the eventual consolidations or changes of the
structure in the period of the exploitation.

11.1.5.2 Mobile loads and those additional to them are considered according to STAS 1489 if the
beneficiary does not require that the verification to be performed for other convoys. In case that the
criteria of verification are not fulfilled there is specified in the notes of calculus with what percentace by be
reduced the traffic loads in order to fulfill the criteria of verification.

11.1.5.3 At the verification of the superstructure of existing metallic bridges the dynamic coefficient is
considered according to STAS 1489.

11.1.6 Characteristics of the metallic materials

11.1.6.1 By the term metallic materials are indicated the constructions steels used for bridges
structures. In the terms of the present standard by construction steels is understood:
- Ball iron used for bridge structures during 1850-1900 and for some particular cases up to 1920.
- Old steels for constructions (Thomas steel) used for structures of bridges during 1891-1940.
- Recent constructions steels (Siemens-Martin steel) used for structures of bridges, aproximately after
1925.

11.1.6.2 For the metallic structures of bridges realized from ball iron and old constructions steel (Thomas
steel) are used the following characteristics:

- breaking strength o
t
= (320 380) N/mm
- yield strength o
c
= 220 N/mm
- longitudinal elasticity modulus E = 2x10
5
N/mm
- transverse elasticity modulus G = 0.77x10
5
N/mm
- specific weight = 78.0 kN/m

11.1.6.3 For the metallic structures of bridges realized from recent constructions steels (Siemens-Martin
steel) are used the characteristics from table 2 of the present standard.

11.1.6.4 In case of the structural elements from ball iron and old constructions steels (Thomas steel) and
of their jointing the acceptable resistance in order to verify the bearing capacity for static actions shall be
taken from table 50.

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11.1.6.5 In case of the structural elements realized from recent constructions steels (Siemens-Martin
steel) and their jointings (rivets, screws, fitted screws, welding) the accepted resistance for the verification
of the bearing capacity forstatic actions are given in tables 8, 11, 12 of the present standard. For jointings
with prestressed high resistance screws there are observed the specifications from STAS 9330.

11.1.6.6 If from the existent documentation can not be established for sure the sort and quality classes of
the metallic materials used, in the verified structure, there are performed studies over the material which
must evidentiate the following:
- chemical componence;
- mechanic and physical characteristics (breaking strength, yield strength, extension and dozzle at
breaking, cold bending, elasticity modulus, etc.);
- the degree of resilience or the breaking energy at the bending impact test, at the temperatures of
exploitation of the structure;
- metallographic structure.

11.1.7 Verifications of resistance and stability

11.1.7.1 The resistance verifications of the structural elements and jointings are performed in accordance
with the specifications from 8.2.

11.1.7.2 The stability verifications (buckling of the straight rods, general buckling of the compressed
flanges, the fogging of the sheets) are performed in accordance with the specifications from 8.4.

11.1.7.3 The verifications of the elastic deformations are performed in accordance with the specifications
from 8.5.

Table 50



11.1.7.4 Verification of the position stability is performed in accordance with the specifications from 8.6.

11.1.8 Estimation of the fatigue safety

11.1.8.1 The fatigue of a structural element or of a structure can be determined by considering the
stresses from the past and future ones which determinate damages by fatigue, accepting the hypothesis
of the linear cumulating of the damages, Palmgren-Miner.

No.
crt.
The material from
the elements of
the structure
Ball iron and
Thomas carbon
steel
The nature of the
unit stress
Actions group
Symbol Accepted
strength
Tension
Compression
Bending
Shearing

Pressure on the hole
jointing with rivets or
fitted screws
Shearing of the rod of
the rivets or fitted
screws
Tension in the rod of the
rivets
Tension in the rod of the
screws
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11.1.8.2 In order to estimate the fatigue safety of a structure (or structural element) exploited for a defined
number of years is calculated the product:

(182)

where
S
t
Represent the total damage cumulated in the exploitation period of the structure
and is calculated in accordance with 11.1.8.5.
k The pitch of the Wohler curve (k = 3.75 for elements with welded jointing; k = 5.0
for elements with riveted jointing.

t
=
m
.
s
safety coefficient depending on the exploitation time of the structure


(183)


t the exploitation time of the structure in the moment of verification (years).

11.1.8.3 The estimation of the safety of the structure is done depending on the value of the product

t
k
. S
t
thus :
a) If
t
k
. S
t
s 1 and if at structural elements and their jointing were not noticed cracks due to the
phenomena of fatigue, is considered that there exists enough fatigue safety.
b) If 1.0 <
t
k
. S
t
s 1.1 and if at structural elements and their jointing were not noticed cracks due to the
phenomena of fatigue, with in the following current verifications and periodic inspections there must
be granted a special attention to the respective elements or their jointing.
c) If 1.1 <
t
k
. S
t
s 1.2 there must be done immediately a detailed revision which is repeated within at
least three years. In case where were noticed cracks due to the phenomena of fatigue there is
established a program of following their evolution during time. Depending on the evolution of the
cracks during time there are established the traffic safety measures that impose.
d) If
t
k
. S
t
s 1.2 there must be done immediately a detailed revision which is repeated every year. In
case where were noticed cracks due to the phenomena of fatigue there is established a program of
following their evolution during time. Depending on the evolution of the cracks during time there are
established the traffic safety measures that impose.

11.1.8.4 If there is wanted an estimation of the fatigue safety for the traffic during the period of
exploitation of the structure cumulated with the traffic from a future period then is calculated the product:

(184)

where
1
t
k
and S
t
have the signification from 11.1.8.2.
S
v
represents the total cumulated damage during the future period of exploitation of the structure
and is calculated in accordance with 11.1.8.7.

11.1.8.5 Total damage cumulated during the period of exploitation of the structure (S
t
) is established with
the following relation:


(185)


where

(186)




SR 1911
149

(187)

Ao
Ra
the tolerance of the permitted stresses at fatigue, which are established in table 14, 15, 18 for
steels produced after 1900 and table 51 for ball iron and steel produced before 1900, determined
for the coefficient of asymmetry;

(188)

where
o
g
Unit stress from permanent loads
Dynamic coefficient according to STAS 1489;
o
min.T8.5
Minimum unit stress from the action of the T 8.5 convoy;
o
max.T8.5
Maximum unit stress from the action of the T 8.5 convoy.

(189)
N
R
(number of cycles corresponding to Ao
R
);
T
n
Number of years of the considered period;
N
j,n
The number of real trains or characteristic per day, of type j, in period considered n;

Y,j,n
Ratio Ao
j,n
/Ao
T8.5
for a real train of characteristic type j, from the period considered n;
Ao
j,n
The tolerances of unit stresses produced by a real train or characteristic type j, from the
period considered n, affected by the dynamic coefficient corresponding to the real trains.

Table 51

Group notching
SR 1911
150

k the slope of the Wohler curve (3.75 for elements with welded jointing; 5.0 for elements with
riveted jointing).

11.1.8.6 The calculus of the
T,j,n
ratio from 11.1.8.5 is based on the traffic surveys from the period of
exploitation of the verified bridge by a specialized research institute which will establish also the dynamic
coefficient corresponding to the real trains.

11.1.8.7 Total cumulated damage in the future period of exploitation of the structure (S
v
) is established by
the following relation:

(190)

where
N
R;

r;
k Have the signification specified at 11.1.8.5.
T
m+1
Future period of exploitation considered in years;
N
j
(v)
The number of characteristic trains of type j, per day (established depending on the traffic
prognosis for the future period of exploitation of the bridge);

T,j
Ratio Ao
j
/Ao
T8.5
for a characteristic train of type j;
Ao
j
The tolerance of unit stresses produced by a real characteristic train type j, from the future
exploitation period of the bridge, affected by the dynamic coefficient corresponding to the
real trains.
Ao
T8.5
According to 11.18.5

11.1.8.8 For the future period of exploitation of a metallic bridge must be established by a specialized
research institute, the following:
- the composition and the number of characteristic trains;
- the structure of the traffic with characteristic trains for the rail on which is located the verified bridge;
- the dynamic coefficient corresponding to the real trains.

11.1.8.9 The calculus of total cumulated damages from the relation 185 and 190 is not necessary
anymore if for all the trains in exploitation which have traveled or will be traveling in the future is met the
conditions:

(191)

m;

s;
Ao
Ra;
Ao
T8.5
have the signification specified at 11.1.8.2 and 11.1.85.

11.2 The consolidation of existent bridges

11.2.1 The metallic bridges verified according to 11.1 which do not correspond and neither frame in the
specifications from 11.1 can be consolidated.

11.2.2 It is not recommended the consolidation weight the superstructures for which:
- the weight of the material necessary for the consolidation exceeds 40% from the weight of the
existent superstructure or 30% from the weight of the a new superstructure;
- the cost of the consolidation works exceeds the cost of a new work.

11.2.3 At the consolidation of the bridges there must be observed all the specifications for new bridges,
without considering the specifications from 11.1.

11.2.4 At the consolidation of the bridges there must be pursued:
- the improvement of the composition conditions of the causeway;
- corresponding increase of the transverse rigidity of the bridge, by fitting bracing in right of the flanges
from the causeway level stringers, where they are missing and by consolidating the existent bracing;
- elimination as much as possible of the devices that lead to overstressing due to the cooperation
between the flanges of the beams, stringers, struts and bracing, in some rods or jointings non-
dimensioned accordingly.
- The introduction of steel strip in the composed rods, for witch the composing elements are placed at
small distances. These steel strips can be considered as additional elements for increasing the
sections of calculus under the condition of fitting of some jointing devices which shall carry load;

SR 1911
151

- The elimination of the non-symmetry at the non-symmetrically sections by the proper disposal of the
consolidation pieces;
- The elimination of the eccentricity existent in jointings by adding pieces in the jointing, by proper
jointings of the consolidations pieces, etc.;
- The improvement of the gauge dimensions according to STAS 4392, taking constructive measures
(as for example re-location or elimination of the upper bracing, reduction of the dimensions of the
reinforcements, etc) under the conditions of providing the load-carrying capacity of the bridge;
- Elimination of the places where water can gather;
- Realization of the access to inaccessible parts for cleaning and painting;
- Decrease the existent distance between the fastening rivets if they exceed the acceptable ones:

11.2.5 In choosing the consolidation solutions is recommended:
- Using as much as possible of the pieces executed in workshops;
- The decrease of the conversion cost on site, reducing the operations of un-rivetings and
dismantlings; un-rivetings or dismantlings which do not endanger the safety of the construction during
the works of consolidation are allowed. If there is the case are taken measures to provide the
resistance and stability, as for example additional supporting with bent or other temporary devices,
which have to be specified for each working phase partly;
- The use of scaffoldings and sustainings of wood as less as possible;
- Obtain a consumption as reduced as possible of metallic material;
- Observing the aesthetic appearance of the work and as much as possible improving it;
- Improving as much as possible of the non-corresponding constructive outfits and observing as much
as possible the constructive specifications which impose to new bridges;
- Avoiding of some super-solicitations in some pieces during the execution phases;
- Hindering as less possible the traffic;
- Preventing, every time possible, of the taking out from the path of the superstructure or building a
temporary bridge.

11.2.6 At the consolidation of the bridges the consideration of the group of actions the most unfavorable
is done observing the specifications from 3; allthesame there has to be kept in mind also the special
groups of actions which can appear during the execution phase for which there are allowed the
acceptable strengths corresponding to group II, in case which there act loads which are considered in
group I and corresponding acceptable strengths for the group III, in case which there act loads which are
considered in group II.

11.2.7 At the calculus of the consolidations there must be considering that, in case when there are not
taken special execution measures, the new pieces are loaded only with stresses which come from the
mobile load and eventually with those permanent actions which could be added after the execution of the
consolidation; the old pieces are acted by stresses which come from permanent loads, which act initially
the bridge and from mobile loads.

SR 1911
152


ANNEX A
(Normative)

SPEEDS AND SUPERELEVATIONS OF THE CAUSEWAY
FOR LINES IN CURVE

A.1 Maximum speed and normal superelevations of the causeway with normal gauge,
according to the instruction no. 314 from 1989 of the Department of Railway from Ministry of
Transports

Table 52






A.2 The maximum speed and the superelevations of the causeway of the narrow gauge lines
in curve
Table 53




the radius
of the
curve
R m
MAXIMUM
SPEED *)
Vmax
km/h
the superelevations of
the causeway**)
s
mm
the radius
of the curve
R m
MAXIMUM
SPEED *)
Vmax
km/h
the superelevations of
the causeway**)
s
mm
the radius of
the curve
R m
MAXIMUM
SPEED *)
Vmax
km/h
the superelevations
of the causeway**)
s
mm
*) the maximum speed is indicated for the curves fitted with transition connections.
**) the superelevations of the causeway is used for the calculus of the resistance structure.
The effective superelevations of the railway causeway is established by the beneficiary in the design theme
depending on the location of the bridge.
the radius of
the curve
R m
the radius of
the curve
R m
MAXIMUM
SPEED *)
Vmax
km/h
MAXIMUM
SPEED *)
Vmax
km/h
the superelevations of
the causeway**)
s
mm
the superelevations of
the causeway**)
s
mm
*) the superelevations of the causeway is the one corresponding to the speed V
max
according to the relation
V
2
max

s = 6.2
.

R
SR 1911
153



A3 The location of the axis of the bridge in curve





Figure 110






Figure 111






External beam
Internal
beam
The axie of
the causeway
a
b
u
t
m
e
n
t

A

a
b
u
t
m
e
n
t

B

SR 1911
154


The signification of the symbols from picture 110 and picture 111:

xx The rectilinear axis of the causeway superelevations
MN The axis of the causeway;
f The strain of the curve on the bridge, according to 5.7.4.3;
a The distance between the axis of the line and the axis of the bridge, in the middle of
the span L;
L The theoretical span of the bridge;
A; B The crossing points between the axis of the causeway and the line that unites the
centers of the abutments of the bridge;
x Abscissa of the considered section; at bridges in transition curve connection is
measured on the tangent to the curve;
x
a
; x
b
The distance from AR to the support A, respectively B, measured on the tangent to
curve in AR (according to figure 111);
R The radius of the circular curve;
p
x
The radius of curvature of the transition connection curve in the abscissa point x;
l
a
Total length of the connection curve designed on the tangent at curve in AR;
AR The entrance point in the connection curve;
RC The exiting point from the connection curve.

SR 1911
155

ANNEX B
(normative)

B.1 Panels with a longitudinal stiffening at the distance b/5

1a Unit stresses o

Signification of the notations:













Values T
Lo
depending on the o and o

Values T
Lo
depending on the o and o












Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)
a
o =

b
A
r

o =

b
.
t
where:
a the length of the steel sheet panel
b the thickness of the steel sheet panel
Ar the aria of the section of the stiffening
without the active width of steel sheet
t the thickness of the steel sheet
SR 1911
156

Annex B (continuation)














Values T
Lo
depending on the o and o



























Values T
Lo
depending on the o and o
















Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)

SR 1911
157


Annex B (continuation)














Values T
Lo
depending on the o and o

























Values T
Lo
depending on the o and o















Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)

SR 1911
158



Annex B (continuation)


1b Unit stresses t












Values T
-
Lt
depending on the o












Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)

SR 1911
159

Annex B (continuation)


B.2 Panels with a longitudinal stiffening at distance b/4

2a Unit stresses o




Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)



Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
SR 1911
160


Annex B (continuation)



Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)




Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
SR 1911
161


Annex B (continuation)


Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)






Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
SR 1911
162


Annex B (continuation)

2b Unit stresses t

Values T
-
Lt
depending on the o



Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)

Values T
-
Lt
depending on the o
SR 1911
163


Annex B (continuation)

B.3 Panels with a longitudinal stiffening at distance b/3

3a Unit stresses o


Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)


Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
SR 1911
164


Annex B (continuation)



Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)





Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
SR 1911
165


Annex B (continuation)



Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)




Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
3b Unit stresses t
Values T
-
Lt
depending on the o
SR 1911
166


Annex B (continuation)

B.4 Panels with a longitudinal stiffening at distance b/2

4a Unit stresseso



Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)

Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
SR 1911
167


Annex B (continuation)



Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)


Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
4b Unit stresses t
Values T
-
Lt
depending on the o
SR 1911
168


Annex B (continuation)

B.5 Panels with a longitudinal stiffening at distances b/4 and b/2

5a Unit stresses o



Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)



Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
SR 1911
169

Annex B (continuation)



Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)






Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
SR 1911
170


Annex B (continuation)



Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)




Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
SR 1911
171


Annex B (continuation)


5b Unit stresses t



Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)
Values T
-
Lt
depending on the o
SR 1911
172


Annex B (continuation)

B.6 Panels with an equally spaced longitudinal stiffening

6a Unit stresses o



Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)



Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
SR 1911
173


Annex B (continuation)




Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)




Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
SR 1911
174


Annex B (continuation)




Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)




Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and o
Values T
-
Lt
depending on the o
6b Unit stresses t
SR 1911
175


Annex B (continuation)

B.7 Panels with an equally spaced longitudinal stiffening

7a Unit stresses o


Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)

Values n
L

.
T
-
Lo
depending on the o and n
L
o
L

Values n
L

.
T
-
Lo
depending on the o and n
L
o
L

SR 1911
176


Annex B (continuation)



Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)





Values n
L

.
T
-
Lo
depending on the o and n
L
o
L

Values n
L

.
T
-
Lt
depending on the o
7b Unit stresses t
SR 1911
177


Annex B (continuation)


B.8 Panels with 4 equally spaced longitudinal stiffenings

8a Unit stresses o


Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)

Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and n
L
o
L

Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and n
L
o
L

SR 1911
178


Annex B (continuation)



Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)


Values T
-
Lo
depending on the o and n
L
o
L

8b Unit stresses t
Values n
L

.
T
-
Lt
depending on the o
SR 1911
179


Annex B (continuation)

B.9 Panels with 5 equally spaced longitudinal stiffenings

9a Unit stresses o


Translation NOTE all the values written with a coma (e.g.: 1,5 ...) in this tables or figures are to be read with a dot (e.g.: 1.5...)

Values n
L

.
T
-
Lo
depending on the o and n
L
o
L

Values n
L

.
T
-
Lo
depending on the o and n
L
o
L

SR 1911
180


Annex B (continuation)



______________________

Values n
L

.
T
-
Lo
depending on the o and n
L
o
L

9b Unit stresses t
Values n
L

.
T
-
Lt
depending on the o
SR 1911
181




The members of the Technical Committee CT 294 Art Works bridges and supporting walls for railways
and roads, who participated at the drafting of the present standard:

President: Mr. Constantin Cristescu
Secretary: Mr. Matei Lega Institute for Railway Studies and Design
Bucharest
Representative IRS: Mrs. Mihaela Udran
Members: Mr. Virgil Fierbinteanu Technical University of Constructions
Bucharest
Mr. Ion Lazar National Society of Romanian Railway
Mr. Dumitru Velican National Society of Romanian Railway
Mr. Stelian Paris Railway Registre
Mr. Iorgu Nicula Technical University of Constructions
Bucharest
Mr. Artur Oltean Industrial Complex of Railway Pitesti
Mr. Cornel Petrescu Institute of Design for Roads, Shipping and
Aerial Transportation
Mr. Mircea Petrescu Railway Construction Society Bucharest
Mr. Nicolae Popa Technical University of Constructions
Bucharest
Mr. Ion Stanculescu Technical University of Constructions
Bucharest
Mr. D. Teordorescu Institute Railway for Studies and Design
Bucharest

The pre-draft of the present standard was designed by Prof. Nicolae Popa from the Faculty of
Railway, Roads and Bridges, Specialization within the Technical University of Construction
Bucharest and Eng. Constantin Cristescu, Chief of Art Works Department from the Institute for
Railway Studies and Design Bucharest.











A Romanian standard does not necessarily include all the provisions required for contracting. Standard
users are responsible for its enforcement.
It is important that users of Romanian standards ensure they posess the latest edition and all changes.
Information on Romanian standards (enforcement date, changes etc.) are published in the Romanian
Standards Catalogue and in the Standards Bulletin.


Amendments after publication

Amendment no.
Standards Bulletin no./year
Points amended