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Proses Reklamasi Marina

Semua orang pasti sudah pernah mendengar istilah REKLAMASI sering disebut-
sebut. Apalagi jika dihubungkan dengan kerusakan lingkungan yang diakibatkannya.
Berita-berita dampak buruk yang diakibatkan oleh reklamasi di tanah air, sangat
banyak bisa anda dapatkan dari media massa secara online.
Kalau reklamasi di negara kita ternyata banyak menuai badai, mengapakah negera-
negara maju lainnya banyak yang malah bergiat dalam mereklamasi wilayahnya.
***
Apa REKLAMASI itu?
Menurut pengertiannya bahasanya, reklamasi berasal dari Bahasa Inggris, to reclaim
yang artinya memperbaiki sesuatu yang rusak. Secara spesifik dalam Kamus Bahasa
Inggris-Indonesia disebutkan arti reclaim sebagai menjadikan tanah (from the sea).
Sedangkan, arti kata reclamation diterjemahkan sebagai pekerjaan memperoleh tanah.
Pengertiannya secara ilmiahnya,reklamasi adalah suatu pekerjaan/usaha
memanfaatkan kawasan atau lahan yang relatif tidak berguna atau masih kosong dan
berair menjadi lahan berguna dengan cara dikeringkan. Misalnya di kawasan pantai,
daerah rawa-rawa, di lepas pantai/di laut, di tengah sungai yang lebar, ataupun di
danau.
Apa tujuan reklamasi?
Sesuai dengan definisinya, tujuan utama reklamasi adalah menjadikan kawasan berair
yang rusak atau tak berguna menjadi lebih baik dan bermanfaat. Kawasan baru
tersebut, biasanya dimanfaatkan untuk kawasan pemukiman, perindustrian, bisnis dan
pertokoan, pertanian, serta objek wisata.
Dalam teori perencanaan kota, reklamasi pantai merupakan salah satu langkah
pemekaran kota. Reklamasi diamalkan oleh negara atau kota-kota besar yang laju
pertumbuhan dan kebutuhan lahannya meningkat demikian pesat tetapi mengalami
kendala dengan semakin menyempitnya lahan daratan (keterbatasan lahan). Dengan
kondisi tersebut, pemekaran kota ke arah daratan sudah tidak memungkinkan lagi,
sehingga diperlukan daratan baru. Alternatif lainnya adalah pemekaran ke arah
vertikal dengan membangun gedung-gedung pencakar langit dan rumah-rumah susun.
Apakah reklamasi itu selalu identik dengan pengurugan?
Semua pekerjaan pengurugan tidak termasuk dalam kategori reklamasi, dan reklamasi
tidak selalu berupa pengurugan.
Tidak semua pekerjaan pengurugan di suatu kawasan dapat disebut reklamasi. Dalam
definisi di atas terjadi jika kawasan yang diperbaiki tersebut adalah berair. Jadi untuk
kawasan yang tak berair, tak tepat jika dikatakan kawasan tersebut akan direklamasi.
Maka untuk pekerjaan penimbunan tanah di kawasan tak berair, disebut saja dengan
pekerjaan pengurugan.
Penjelasan kedua, reklamasi tidak selalu berupa pengurugan. Prosesnya adalah
pengeringan kawasan berair. Proses tersebut dapat diperoleh dengan dua cara, pertama
dengan pengurugan dan kedua dengan penyedotan (pembuangan) air keluar dari
kawasan tersebut. Cara pengurugan adalah cara yang paling populer dan paling mudah
dilakukan, dan banyak diamalkan oleh pelaku reklamasi. Sedangkan cara penyedotan
air adalah cara yang paling rumit dan memerlukan pengelolaan serta pemeliharaan
(maintenance) yang teliti dan terus menerus. Contoh negara pengamal cara kedua ini
adalah Belanda.
Apa keuntungan dan kerugiannya?
Cara reklamasi memberikan keuntungan dan dapat membantu negara/kota dalam
rangka penyediaan lahan untuk berbagai keperluan (pemekaran kota), penataan daerah
pantai, pengembangan wisata bahari, dll.
Perlu diingat bahwa bagaimanapun juga reklamasi merupakan bentuk campur tangan
(intervensi) manusia terhadap keseimbangan lingkungan alamiah yang selalu dalam
keadaan seimbang dinamis. Perubahan ini akan melahirkan perubahan ekosistem
seperti perubahan pola arus, erosi dan sedimentasi pantai, berpotensi meningkatkan
bahaya banjir, dan berpotensi gangguan lingkungan di daerah lain (seperti
pengeprasan bukit atau pengeprasan pulau untuk material timbunan).
Bagaimana cara mengurangi dampak buruknya?
Untuk mereduksi dampak semacam itu, diperlukan kajian mendalam terhadap proyek
reklamasi dengan melibatkan banyak pihak dan interdisiplin ilmu serta didukung
dengan upaya teknologi. Kajian cermat dan komprehensif tentu bisa menghasilkan
area reklamasi yang aman terhadap lingkungan di sekitarnya.
Sementara itu karena lahan reklamasi berada di daerah perairan, maka prediksi dan
simulasi perubahan hidrodinamika saat pra, dalam masa pelaksanaan proyek dan
pasca reklamasi serta sistem drainasenya juga harus diperhitungkan. Karena
perubahan hidrodinamika dan buruknya sistem drainase ini yang biasanya berdampak
negatif langsung terhadap lingkungan dan masyarakat sekitar.
Yang perlu dipikirkan lagi adalah sumber material urugan. Material urugan biasanya
dipilih yang bergradasi baik, artinya secara teknis mampu mendukung beban
bangunan di atasnya. Karena itulah, biasanya dipilih sumber material yang sesuai dan
ini akan berhubungan dengan tempat galian (quarry). Sumber galian yang biasanya
dipilih adalah dengan melakukan pengeprasan bukit atau pengeprasan pulau tak
berpenghuni. Hal ini tentunya akan mengganggu lingkungan di sekitar quarry. Cara
lain yang relatif lebih aman dapat dilakukan dengan cara mengambil material dengan
melakukan pengerukan (dredging) dasar laut di tengah laut dalam. Pilihlah kawasan
laut dalam yang memiliki material dasar yang memenuhi syarat gradasi dan kekuatan
bahan sesuai dengan yang diperlukan oleh kawasan reklamasi.
CONTOH TIMELINE REKLAMASI PANTAI MARINA SEMARANG
Sedikit banyak akan diperlihatkan suatu Time Line, proses perjalanan waktu, tentang
Reklamasi di pantai utara kota Semarang tepatnya di daerah pantai marina.
Memanfaatkan fasilitas google earth, maka diawali penangggalan pada 26 September
2002.
22 April 2005
Tanggal 22 April 2005, mulai terlihat reklamasi di bagian sisi timur dengan membuat
seperti tanggul pelindung ombak pantai...
6 agustus 2007
Dua tahun berlalu , pada tanggal 6 agustus 2007, sisi timur kembali ditambahkan
daratan, menuju ke atas (utara) dan dibuat jalan tembus membentuk segitiga dengan
danau di tengah-tengah...
Selain itu di sisi barat, (sebelah barat kali banjir kanal) juga dilakukan reklamasi
pantai yg cukup besar.....
7 Agustus 2007
Pencitraan tanggal 7 Agustus 2007 ,pada bagian paling utara dibuat jalan tembus ke
daratan besar, sehingga membentuk suatu danau di tengah...
13 mei 2009
Salah satu teknik dalam reklamasi yaitu dengan membentuk danau baru kemudian
menutup seluruhnya, terlihat pada pencitraan tanggal 13 mei 2009, danai di tengah-
tengah segitiga tersebut kemudian ditutup....
Selain itu kolam renang marina, yg dulu terletak dipinggir laut, kini mulai menjauh
dari laut, penambahan daratan tepat diatas kolam renang marina mulai terlihat
Diposkan oleh Bachtiar's Blogdi 23.48
Label: Education
GARAM

4.5. Pond production
4.5.1. Description of the different Artemia habitats
4.5.2. Site selection
4.5.3. Pond adaptation
4.5.4. Pond preparation
4.5.5. Artemia inoculation
4.5.6. Monitoring and managing the culture sstem
4.5.!. "ar#esting and processing techni$ues
4.5.%. &iterature of interest
4.5.'. (or)sheets
Peter Baert, Thomas Bosteels and Patrick Sorgeloos
&aborator of A$uaculture * Artemia +eference ,enter
-ni#ersit of .ent/ 0elgium
4.5.1. Description of the different Artemia habitats
4.5.1.1. 1atural la)es
4.5.1.2. Permanent solar salt operations
4.5.1.3. Seasonal units
As 2as e3plained earlier Artemia populations are 2idel distributed o#er the fi#e
continents in a #ariet of biotopes. ,ulture methods largel depend on pond si4e
and a#ailable infrastructure. 5n this te3t 2e ma)e a distinction bet2een the
follo2ing Artemia production sstems.
4.5.1.1. Natural lakes
"igh saline la)es in 2hich natural Artemia populations are present. Such la)es can
be small 67gpt8 Solar &a)e9 of medium si4e 6,alifornia/ -SA8 Mono &a)e: ,prus8
&arnaca &a)e9 or large 6-tah/ -SA8 .reat Salt &a)e: 5ran8 &a)e -rmia: ,anada8
,haplin &a)e9.
5n these inland la)es population densities are usuall lo2 and mainl fluctuate in
function of food a#ailabilit/ temperature and salinit. ;he si4e and<or often complete
absence of suitable infrastructure ma)es management of such la)es #er difficult/
restricting the main acti#it to e3tensi#e har#esting of Artemiabiomass and<or csts.
4.5.1.2. Permanent solar salt operations
Mechani4ed operations consisting of se#eral interconnected e#aporation ponds and
crstalli4ers. 5n these salt operations/ ponds can ha#e si4es of a fe2 to se#eral
hundred hectares each 2ith depths of =.5 m up to 1.5 m. >or a schematic outline of
a tpical permanent salt 2or) see >ig. 4.5.1. 6Port Said: 7gpt8 7l 1asr Salina
compan9.
Sea 2ater is pumped into the first pond and flo2s b gra#it through the consecuti#e
e#aporation ponds. (hile passing through the pond sstem salinit le#els graduall
build up as a result of e#aporation. As the salinit increases/ salts 2ith lo2 solubilit
precipitate as carbonates and sulfates 6>ig. 4.5.2.9. ?nce the sea 2ater has
e#aporated to about one tenth of its original #olume 6about 26= g.l
@1
9/ mother brine is
pumped into the crstalli4ers 2here sodium chloride precipitates.
Figure 4.5.1. Schematic outline of a tpical salt !ork.
0efore all sodium chloride has crstalli4ed/ the mother li$uor/ no2 called bittern/ has
to be drained off. ?ther2ise the sodium chloride deposits 2ill be contaminated 2ith
Mg,l
2
/ MgS?
4
and A,l 2hich start precipitating at this ele#ated salinit 6>ig. 4.5.2.9.
;he techni$ue of salt production thus in#ol#es fractional crstalli4ation of the salts in
different ponds. ;o assure that the different salts precipitate in the correct pond/
salinit in each pond is strictl controlled and during most of the ear )ept at a
constant le#el.
0rine shrimp are mainl found in ponds at intermediate salinit le#els.
As Artemia ha#e no defense mechanisms against predators/ the lo2est salinit at
2hich animals are found is also the upper salinit tolerance le#el of possible
predators 6minimum %= g.l
@1
/ ma3imum 14= g.l
@1
9. >rom 25= g.l
@1
on2ards/ animal
densit decreases. Although li#e animals can be found at higher salinit/ the need of
increased osmoregulator acti#it/ re$uiring higher energ inputs/ negati#el
influences gro2th and reproduction/ e#entuall leading to star#ation and death.
,sts are produced in ponds ha#ing intermediate and high salinit 6%= g.l
@1
to 25= g.l
@
1
9.
Figure 4.5.2. Precipitation of salts !ith increased salinit
;he population densit depends on food a#ailabilit/ temperature and salinit. ;he
a#ailabilit of pumping facilities and inta)e canals allo2s manipulation of nutrient
inta)e and salinit. Sometimes fertili4ation can further increase ields. Still/ numbers
of animals and thus ields per hectare are lo2.
Moreo#er the stable conditions pre#ailing in the ponds of these salt 2or)s 6constant
salinit/ limited fluctuations in o3gen as algal concentrations are fairl lo2/ etc.9
often results in stable populations in 2hich the o#o#i#iparous reproduction mode
dominates. ;he selecti#e ad#antage of o#o#i#iparous females in these salt 2or)s/
could also e3plain the decrease of cst production 2hich is #er tpical for stable
biotopes 6e.g. salt 2or)s in 17 0ra4il9.
5n salt 2or)s Artemia should not onl be considered as a #aluable bproduct. ;he
presence of brine shrimp also influences salt $ualit as 2ell as $uantit.
5n salt 2or)s algal blooms are common/ not the least because of the increase of
nutrient concentration 2ith e#aporation. ;he presence of algae in lo2 salinit ponds
is beneficial/ as the color the 2ater and thus assure increased solar heat
absorption/ e#entuall resulting in faster e#aporation. At ele#ated salinit/ if present
in large numbers/ algae and more specificall their dissol#ed organic e3cretion and
decomposition products 2ill pre#ent earl precipitation of gpsum/ because of
increased #iscosit of the 2ater. 5n this case gpsum/ 2hich precipitates too late in
the crstalli4ers together 2ith the sodium chloride/ 2ill contaminate the salt/ thus
reducing its $ualit.
>urthermore/ accumulations of ding algae 2hich turn blac) 2hen o3idi4ed/ ma
also contaminate the salt and be the reason for the production of small salt crstals.
5n e3treme situations the 2ater #iscosit might e#en become so high that salt
precipitation is completel inhibited.
;he presence of Artemia is not onl essential for the control of the algal blooms.
;he Artemia metabolites and<or decaing animals are also a suitable substrate for
the de#elopment of the halophilic bacterium Halobacterium in the crstalli4ation
ponds. "igh concentrations of halophilic bacteria @ causing the 2ater to turn 2ine red
@ enhance heat absorption/ thereb accelerating e#aporation/ but at the same time
reduce concentrations of dissol#ed organic matter. ;his in turn leads to lo2er
#iscosit le#els/ promoting the formation of larger salt crstals/ thus impro#ing salt
$ualit.
;herefore/ introducing and managing brine shrimp populations in salt 2or)s/ 2here
natural populations are not present/ 2ill impro#e profitabilit/ e#en in situations
2here Artemia biomass and cst ields are comparati#el lo2. 5n most of the salt
2or)s natural Artemia populations are present. "o2e#er/ in some Artemia had to be
introduced to impro#e the salt production.
4.5.1.". Seasonal units
(e are referring here to small artisanal salt 2or)s in the tropical@subtropical belt that
are onl operational during the dr season.
5n artisanal salt 2or)s ponds are onl a fe2 hundred s$uare meters in si4e and ha#e
depths of =.1 to =.6 m. 5n >ig. 4.5.3. the la@out of a tpical artisanal salt farm is
gi#en 6Binh ;ien salt co@operati#e @ Biet 1am9. Most salt farms onl operate during a
fe2 months/ 2hen the balance e#aporation<precipitation is positi#e. Salt production
is abandoned during the rain season/ 2hen e#aporation ponds are often turned into
fish<shrimp ponds.
Although salt production in these salt streets is based on the same chemical and
biological principles as in the large salt farms/ production methods differ slightl 6Bu
Do Cunh and 1guen 1goc &am/ 1'%!9.
At the beginning of the production season all ponds are filled 2ith sea 2ater. (ater
is supplied b tidal inflo2/ but small portable pumps/ 2ind mills and<or manuall
operated 2ater@scoopers are also used/ allo2ing for better manipulation of 2ater
and salinit le#els.
Figure 4.5.". #a$out of a tpical artisanal salt farm.
(ater e#aporates and/ usuall Dust before the ne3t spring tide/ all the 2ater/ no2
ha#ing a higher salinit than sea 2ater/ is concentrated in one pond. All other ponds
are re@filled 2ith sea 2ater/ 2hich once again is e#aporated and concentrated in a
second pond. ;his process is repeated until a series of ponds is obtained in 2hich
salinit increases progressi#el/ but not necessaril graduallE
>or the remainder of the season 2ater is )ept in each pond until the salinit reaches
a predetermined le#el and is then allo2ed to flo2 into the ne3t pond holding 2ater of
a higher salinit. 1ote that the salinit in the different ponds is not )ept constant as
in permanentl operated salt 2or)s. Sometimes/ to further increase e#aporation/
ponds are not refilled immediatel but left dr for one or t2o das. During that time
the bottom heats up/ 2hich further enhances e#aporation. ?nce the salinit reaches
26= g.l
@1
/ 2ater is pumped to the crstalli4ers/ 2here the sodium chloride
precipitates. Artemia thri#e in ponds 2here salinit is high enough to e3clude
predators 6bet2een != g.l
@1
and 14= g.l
@1
9.
As seasonal sstems often are small the are fairl eas to manipulate. "ence
higher food le#els and thus higher animal densities can be maintained. Also/ factors
such as temperature 6shallo2 ponds9/ o3gen le#el 6high algal densit/ use of
organic manure9 and salinit 6discontinuous pumping9 fluctuate creating an unstable
en#ironment. ;his/ together 2ith the fact that population ccles are earl interrupted
seems to fa#or o#iparous reproduction.
5ntegrated sstems in 2hich Artemia culture 6high salinit9 is combined 2ith the
culture of shrimp or fish 6stoc)ed in the ponds 2ith lo2er salinit9 also e3ist. As for
the small salt 2or)s/ brine shrimp culture usuall depends on the a#ailabilit of high
saline 2ater and is often limited to certain periods of the ear. Management of these
ponds is similar to the management of the Artemia ponds in artisanal salt farms.
5ntensi#e Artemia culture in ponds can also be set up separatel from salt
production. Ponds are filled 2ith effluent of fish<shrimp hatcheries and<or gro2@out
ponds. As salinit in these sstems are often too lo2 to e3clude predators 645 to 6=
g.l
@1
9/ inta)e 2ater is screened/ using filter bags or cross@flo2 sie#es. Agricultural
2aste products 6e.g. rice bran9 and chic)en manure can be used as supplemental
feeds. Sstems can be continuous 6at regular inter#als small amounts of nauplii are
added to the culture ponds9 or discontinuous 6cultures are stopped e#er t2o
2ee)s9.
4.5.2. Site selection
4.5.2.1. ,limatolog
4.5.2.2. ;opograph
4.5.2.3. Soil conditions
?b#iousl integrating Artemia production in an operational solar salt 2or) or
shrimp<fish farm 2ill be more cost@effecti#e. Ponds can be constructed close to
e#aporation ponds 2ith the re$uired salinit/ or lo2 salinit ponds alread e3isting in
the salt operation can be modified.
5n 2hat follo2s 2e 2ill not gi#e a detailed account of all aspects related to pond
construction and site selection. (e 2ill onl summari4e those aspects 2hich should
be specificall applied for Artemia pond culture. >or more detailed information 2e
refer the reader to speciali4ed handboo)s for pond construction.
4.5.2.1. %limatolog
;he presence of sufficient amounts of high saline 2ater is of course imperati#e/
although filtration techni$ues to pre#ent predators from entering culture ponds can
be applied for short term cultures 6filtration less then != Fm9.
;herefore/ Artemia culture is mostl found in areas 2here e#aporation rates are
higher than precipitation rates during e3tended periods of the ear 6e.g. dr season
of more than four months in the tropical@subtropical belt9.
7#aporation rates depend on temperature/ 2ind #elocit and relati#e humidit.
7speciall 2hen integrating Artemia ponds in fish<shrimp farms/ e#aporation rates
should be studied. ?n the other hand/ the presence of solar salt farms in the
neighbourhood is a clear indication that Artemia pond culture is possible during at
least part of the ear.
As temperature also influences population dnamics directl/ this climatological
factor should recei#e special attention. ;oo lo2 temperatures 2ill result in slo2
gro2th and reproduction 2hereas high temperatures can be lethal. 1ote that optimal
culture temperatures are strain dependent 6see further9.
4.5.2.2. Topograph
;he land on 2hich ponds 2ill be constructed should be as flat as possible to allo2
eas construction of ponds 2ith regular shapes. A gradual slope can e#entuall
facilitate gra#it flo2 in the pond comple3.
;he choice bet2een dugout 6entirel e3ca#ated9 and le#el ponds 6bottom at
practicall the same depth as the surrounding land and 2ater retained b di)es or
le#ees9 2ill depend on the tpe of ponds alread in use. &ocating the Artemia ponds
lo2er than all other ponds is good practice/ as the 2ater flo2 into the ponds is much
higher than the outflo2 6usuall ponds are onl drained at the end of the culture
season9. Ma)ing use of gra#it or tidal currents to fill the ponds/ e#en if onl partiall/
2ill reduce pumping costs.
4.5.2.". Soil conditions
0ecause long e#aporation times are needed to produce high salinit 2ater/ lea)age
and<or infiltration rates should be minimal.
"ea# cla soils 2ith minimal contents of sand are the ideal substrate. As lea)age is
one of the most common problems in fish<shrimp farms and e#en in large salt 2or)s
construction of a small pilot unit at the selected site/ prior to embar)ing on the
construction of large pond comple3es/ might a#oid costl mista)es.
An additional problem might be the presence of acid sulfate soils/ often found in
mangro#e or s2amp areas. Sometimes ello2ish or rust@colored particles can be
obser#ed in the surface laers of acid sulfate soils. (hen e3posed to air such soils
form sulfuric acid/ resulting in a p" drop in the 2ater. At lo2 p" it is #er difficult to
stimulate an algae bloom. As algae constitute an important food source for
the Artemia/ ields are lo2 in such ponds. ;reatment of acid@sulfate soils is possible
6see further9/ but costl.
;he presence of lots of organic material in the pond bottom might also cause
problems. 7speciall 2hen used for di)e construction/ such earth tends to shrin)/
thus lo2ering the di)e height considerabl. Moreo#er/ problems 2ith o3gen
depletion at the pond bottom/ 2here organic material is decomposing/ can arise.
-sing such soils o#er se#eral ears 2ill lo2er the organic content. 1e#ertheless/
man problems 2ill ha#e to be sol#ed during the first ears.
4.5.3. Pond adaptation
4.5.3.1. &arge permanent salt operations
4.5.3.2. Small pond sstems
4.5.".1. #arge permanent salt operations
5n large salt operations/ adaptation of the e3isting ponds is normall not possible.
"o2e#er/ ponds are mostl large/ deep and ha#e 2ell constructed di)es. ;hrough
aging and the de#elopment of algal mats their bottoms are properl sealed.
;herefore the onl adaptation needed is the installation of screens to reduce the
number of predators entering the e#aporators. ;his is especiall important in regions
2here predators are found at high salinit 6e.g. the ,prinodont fish Aphanius9.
;2o tpes of filters can be used8 filter bags 6in plastic mos$uito@screen/
polurethane or nlon9/ or stainless steel screens. ;he characteristics of each tpe
of screening material are summari4ed in ;able 4.5.1.
Ta&le 4.5.1. %haracteristics of filter units used in large salt operations
Tpe %haracteristics
>ilterbags Material a#ailable on most local mar)ets/ reasonabl cheap.
&arge filtration area 6depends on si4e bag9.
>iltration of particles 2ith diameter of 2 to 5 mm possible depending on a#ailable material.
Difficult to maintain 6dail cleaning/ high ris) of damaging screens9. "a#e to be replaced
regularl.
?nl a#ailable in a fe2 mesh si4es. 1ot suited for hea#ier debris 62ood/ plastic9/ 2hich 2ill
damage the nets.
Stainless
Steel
Sometimes has to be imported. +ather e3pensi#e.
>iltration area usuall smaller than for filterbags/ but screens 2ith a mesh@si4e of 1 mm can
be used if cleaned regularl.
7asier to clean/ screens 2ith small mesh si4e should be cleaned dail. Stronger/ can last
se#eral ears and can retain hea#ier debris.
A#ailable in se#eral mesh si4es.
As inta)e 2ater is often hea#il loaded 2ith particles/ step@b@step screening is
recommended. Different screens/ each 2ith a smaller mesh si4e than the pre#ious
one/ are placed one after the other. Screens 2ith a large mesh si4e are best
installed before the pumps/ 2hile screens 2ith smaller mesh si4es are installed
behind the pumps. 5f predators/ resisting high salinit/ are present/ screening of the
gates bet2een the e#aporation ponds is also recommended.
0oth stainless steel screens and filter bags should be cleaned regularl. Stainless
steel screens are cleaned 2ith a soft brush. >ilter bags can be cleaned b re#ersing
the bags. (hen cleaning or replacing filters/ there is a ris) of predators entering the
culture ponds. ;herefore before cleaning/ predators 6fish/ shrimp9 in the #icinit of
the screens should be )illed b spraing a mi3ture of urea and bleaching po2der on
the 2ater surface 6=.=1= )g to =.=15 )g urea.m
@3
and =.==! to =.=1 )g bleaching
po2der !=G.m
@3
9.
4.5.".2. Small pond sstems
5n the artisanal salt2or)s ponds are #er often operated at #er small depths/
sometimes resulting in too high 2ater temperatures for Artemia 6H 4=I,9 and
promoting phtobenthos rather than the re$uired phtoplan)ton. >or integration
of Artemia production/ ponds should be deepened/ di)es heightened and screens
should be installed to pre#ent predators from entering the culture ponds.
-nder 2ind conditions 62hich often pre#ail in the afternoon hours in
tropical<subtropical salt 2or)s9 high 2a#e action 2ill enhance the e#aporation.
"o2e#er to reduce foam formation 6in 2hich csts get trapped9 at the do2n 2ind
side of the pond/ 2a#e brea)ers should be installed 6>ig. 4.5.4.9. ;hese 2a#e
brea)ers 2ill also act as cst barriers and facilitate their har#esting.
Figure 4.5.4. Floating &am&oo poles used as !a'e &reakers for the har'esting
of (rtemia csts.
D77P7151. ;"7 P?1DS
7speciall in regions 2ith high air temperatures/ deepening the ponds is crucial.
Depths of 4= cm to 5= cm are to be recommended. "igh 2ater le#els are not onl
needed to pre#ent lethal 2ater temperatures but at the same time reduce gro2th of
benthic algae 6i.e. sunlight cannot reach the pond bottom9. De#elopment of
phtobenthos is undesirable as it is too large for Artemia to ingest and pre#ents
normal de#elopment of micro algae 6i.e macro algae remo#e nutrients more
efficientl from pond 2ater than micro algae9. Moreo#er/ floating phtobenthos
reduces e#aporation rates and hampers cst collection.
Ponds are usuall deepened b digging a peripheral ditch and using the e3ca#ated
earth to heighten the di)es. Although this is good practice/ this method has t2o
maDor dra2@bac)s as e#aporation rates depend upon the ratio Jpond surface8 pond
#olumeK. 5n deeper ponds a decreased ratio leads to a slo2er increase in salinit. At
the start of the culture season/ this can limit the pumping of nutrient@rich 2ater into
the culture ponds/ thus reducing Artemia gro2th and reproducti#e output. Also/ more
2ater is needed to fill such ponds. ;his might dela the start of the culture period in
regions 2here no permanent stoc)s of high saline 2ater are a#ailable 6i.e. in
Bietnam more than one e3tra month is needed/ to completel fill ponds 2ith a deep
peripheral ditch9. Alternati#el the area in 2hich Artemia is cultured can be reduced
2hile the area allocated for e#aporation is increased.
;herefore/ if the complete pond is deepened/ lo2 initial 2ater le#els 615 cm to 2=
cm9 are to be preferred unless 2ater temperature is higher than 34I, or
phtobenthos starts de#eloping 6lo2 turbidit9. A faster increase in salinit 2ill allo2
more pumping and fa#or Artemia gro2th 6cf. higher nutrient inta)e9. Also/ earlier
inoculation of ponds 2ill be possible.
"o2e#er/ in ponds 2ith peripheral ditches/ onl filling ditches at the onset of the
culture season is bad practice. 1ot onl 2ill the ratio surface8 #olume be much
smaller 2hen compared to ponds 2ith submerged central platforms but also ris)s of
o3gen depletion in the ditch 2ill be high 6i.e. o3gen influ3 in the pond also depends
upon ratio surface8 #olume9.
At the onset of the season a ratio Jpond surface8 pond #olumeK larger then 381
seems acceptable 6pond surface e3pressed in m
2
/ pond #olume e3pressed in m
3
:
2ater le#el abo#e platform =.2 m9. 1onetheless/ as this ratio largel depends upon
the local e#aporation rates/ further e3perimentation at the site is ad#isable.
D5A7 ,?1S;+-,;5?1
;o pre#ent lea)age/ ne2l constructed di)es need to be 2ell compacted. (hen
heightening old di)es/ lea)s 2ill mostl occur at the interface of old and ne2 soil. ;o
pre#ent such lea)s from occurring/ the old di)e should first be 2etted and ripped
before ne2 soil is added. Di)es are often inhabited b crabs/ digging holes through
the di)e. >illing nests 2ith ,a? and cla 2ill reduce lea)s caused b burro2ing
crabs. ;o pre#ent e3cessi#e erosion of the di)es/ slopes should ha#e a 181 ratio
6height8 2idth9.
S,+77151.
5nta)e 2aters should also be screened to pre#ent predators from entering the culture
ponds. ;he same tpe of filters as described for large salt operations can be used.
Moreo#er/ the small si4e of the ponds allo2s the use of so@called filter bo3es. 5n
such a bo3 a stainless@steel 2elded@2edge filter is installed under an adDustable
angle 6>ig. 4.5.5.9. (ater is lifted b a pump into an o#erhead compartment from
2here the 2ater is drained o#er the filter screen. Mesh si4es of 12= mm ha#e been
tested 2ith good result. ;he angle under 2hich the screen is mounted influences the
#elocit of the 2ater flo2/ 2hich 2ill determine the #irtual mesh@opening of the filter.
Figure 4.5.5. %lose$up of !elded$!edge filter screen and filtered )ooplankton.
(hen using such filters e#en small competitors such as copepods can be remo#ed
6up to '=G9. +esults are especiall good/ 2hen Artemia culture periods are relati#el
short 66 to % 2ee)s9. ;he maDor dra2@bac) is the high initial cost of these units
6appro3. 5== -SL.m
@2
of screen9. ;his restricts their use to regions 2here high saline
2ater is not abundant and<or 2here the presence of 6small9 predators seriousl
hampers Artemia culture.
4.5.4. Pond preparation
4.5.4.1. &iming
4.5.4.2. Predator control
4.5.4.3. >ertili4ation
4.5.4.1. #iming
;he chemicals used for liming are the o3ides/ hdro3ides and silicates of calcium
and magnesium. ;he liming substances most often used in a$uaculture are
agricultural lime/ ,a? or $uic)lime and ,a6?"9
2
or hdrated lime.
1ormall ponds used to culture Artemia do not need liming. ;he high saline 2ater
often has a hardness of more than 5= mg ,a,?
3
.l
@1
6due to the presence of
carbonates9. &iming ponds 2ith such hardness 2ill not further impro#e ields. &iming
can be considered 2hen culture 2ater has a p" of less than !.5 and stimulating an
algae bloom is difficult.
-sing ,a? and ,a6?"9
2
2ill result in a $uic) p" rise to about 1=. ;his 2a possible
pathogens and predators 2ill be )illed. ,a? and ,a6?"9
2
are therefore often used to
disinfect the pond bottom. After t2o to three das/ p" drops to !.5/ after 2hich
normal minerali4ation ta)es place.
+ecommended doses #ar bet2een 5== to 1=== )g ,a,?
3
per hectare/ to be
applied to dr pond bottoms. ;he lime re$uirement is highest for cla bottoms/ acid
bottoms and 2hen the pond 2ater has a lo2 concentration of ,a
2M
and Mg
2M
6note
that in high saline 2aters ,a
2M
and Mg
2M
concentrations are usuall high9. 5f liming is
the standard/ e3act re$uirements should be determined b a $ualified lab/ using the
techni$ue as described b 0od 61''=9.
(hereas dring can be beneficial for most soils this is not true for acid@sulfate soils/
often found in mangro#e areas. (hen e3posed to the air/ the prite of these soils
o3idi4es to form sulfuric acid. ?f course liming of these soils is possible. "o2e#er/
the $uantities of lime needed are #er high. A simpler method to reduce acidit is
flushing ponds repeatedl after o3idation 6e3posing the soil to the air9. ;his
procedure can ta)e a long time. ;herefore/ such tpe of bottom usuall is )ept
submerged and e3tra laers of o3idi4ed acid free soil are added on top of the
original substrate. ,ulturing brine shrimp in regions 2ith acid sulphate soils should
be a#oided.
4.5.4.2. Predator control
&A+.7 SA&; ?P7+A;5?1S
+emo#al of predators in large salt operations is #er difficult. ,areful screening of
inta)e 2ater 6see 4.5.3.19 and restricting the culture of Artemia to high@salinit ponds
is of the utmost importance. 5f large numbers of predators are found in the culture
ponds manual remo#al 6i.e. tra2l nets9 and )illing fish<shrimp accumulating at the
gates using a mi3ture of urea and bleach 6=.=1 to =.=15 )g urea.m
@3
and =.==! to
=.=1 )g bleaching po2der !=G.m
@3
9/ decreasing their number to acceptable le#els/
2ill be necessar.
SMA&& P+?D-,;5?1 P?1DS
5nitiall ponds should onl be filled to a le#el of 1= to 15 cm/ in order to ensure
ma3imum e#aporation. ;hus salinit lethal for predators 2ill be obtained.
Screening of the inta)e 2ater 2ill further reduce the number of predators in the pond
6see further9.
As ponds often can not be drained completel/ fish/ crab and shrimp left in puddles/
ma be )illed using rotenone 6=.=5 to 2.= mg.l
@1
9/ tea@seed ca)e 615 mg.l
@1
9/ a
combination of urea and hpochlorite 65 mg.l
@1
urea and 24 h later 5 mg.l
@
1
hpochloride ,a?9 6see 4.5.4.19 or derris root 61 )g.15= m
@3
9. Diptere3 62 mg.l
@1
9 2ill
)ill smaller predators such as copepods and is also #er to3ic for shrimp. ;he
degradation of rotenone/ chlorine and ,a? to non@to3ic forms is fairl rapid 624 @ 4%
h9. 5f on the other hand tea@seed ca)e or diptere3 are used/ ponds should be flushed
prior to stoc)ing animals.
4.5.4.". Fertili)ation
>ertili4ers are added to the culture ponds to increase primar production 6algae
production9. 5ncreasing production is no simple process/ especiall in high saline
2ater. 1umerous factors influence the chemistr of the fertili4ers 6ion composition of
sea 2ater/ p"/ pond bottom/ etc.9/ algal gro2th 6temperature/ salinit/ sunlight9 and
species composition 618P ratio/ selecti#e gra4ing pressure9.
As can be seen in >ig. 4.5.6. fertili4ers can enter the culture sstem #ia different
path2as. ;he inorganic nutrients ,/ 1/ P enter the photo@autotrophic path2a/
used b photosnthesising algae/ 2hereas organic nutrients are processed through
the heterotrophic path2as/ used b heterotrophic bacteria/ or are consumed
directl b the target species.
Some algae are better suited as food for Artemia than others 6see further9.
Manipulation of algal composition is until no2 still more of an art than a science.
-suall a high 18P ratio is recommended 618P of 1=9 if the gro2th of green algae
6Tetraselmis/ Dunaliella9 and diatoms 6Chaetoceros/ Navicula/ Nitschia9 is desirable.
"o2e#er/ as phosphorus dissol#es badl in salt 2ater and is absorbed #er $uic)l
at the pond bottom/ 18P ratios of 3 to 5 might be more appropriate.
Figure 4.5.*. Nutrient $ food interactions in a salt pond.
5f too much phosphorus is added/ especiall at high temperatures 6H 2%I,9 and in
the case of lo2 turbidit 6bottom #isible9/ gro2th of benthic algae is promoted.
&i)e2ise/ high phosphorus concentrations combined 2ith lo2 salinit seem to induce
the gro2th of filamentous blue@green algae 6e.g. Lyngbya/Oscillatoria9. 0oth algae
are often too large in si4e for ingestion b Artemia.
0esides the 18P ratio/ temperature/ salinit/ light intensit and pumping rates 6input
of ne2 nutrients and ,?
2
9 also pla an important role. "igh 18P ratios mostl
stimulate green algae compared to diatoms at lo2er salinit and higher light
intensities. Some green algae are poorl digested
b Artemia6Nannochloropsis/ Chlamydomonas9. >inall/ manipulation of algae
populations also depends on the composition of the local algae communit. ;he
most dominant algae in the inta)e 2ater often 2ill also be the most dominant ones
after fertili4ation.
51?+.A15, >7+;5&5N7+S
O 1itrogen fertili4ation8
;he nitrogen components a#ailable for the cultured species in the pond come from
t2o sources. Part of the atmospheric 1
2
is ta)en up b nitrogen fi3ers
6Azobacter sp.: Aphanizomenon flos-aua/ !ycrocystis aeruginosa9 and enters #ia
this 2a the food ccle. ;he other source of nitrogen is organic material in the inta)e
2ater. Algae use nitrate 61?
3
@
9 and ammonium 61"
4
M
9. As the nitrogen influ3 in the
sstem depends completel on biochemical processes 6degradation of organic
matter b bacteria9 and the nutrient le#el in the inta)e 2ater/ nitrogen often limits
algae gro2th. ;he use of nitrogen fertili4ers is therefore 2idespread.
>our tpes of inorganic nitrogen fertili4ers are a#ailable.
Ta&le 4.5.2. #ist of inorganic nitrogen fertili)ers
Ammonium fertili4ers8
61"492S?4
2=.5G 1
Acidifing effect 6acidit @33.6 )g ,a,?3.1==)g
@1
fertili4er9.
1"4
M
can replace ,a and Mg in the bottom/ as a result decrease buffer capacit
and<or stimulate precipitation of phosphates and sulphates.
1itrate fertili4ers8
,a61?392
15@16G 1
5ncreases p"
>ast action 6nitrate directl a#ailable for the algae9.
Amide fertili4ers8 46G 1
-rea8 Acidifing affect 6acidit @25.2)g ,a,?3.1== )g
@1
fertili4er9.
&o2ers temperature. Slo2 action. +eadil soluble.
;he need of nitrogen fertili4ation #aries largel and should be determined
e3perimentall for e#er site. -suall/ adding bet2een 1 mg.l
@1
6eutrophic inta)e
2ater9 to 1= mg.l
@1
6oligotrophic 2ater9 nitrogen 2ill induce an algae bloom.
(e can gi#e the follo2ing general recommendations8
P Pre@dissol#ing the fertili4ers in fresh 2ater/ e#en 2hen using li$uid fertili4ers
enhances proper distribution o#er the complete pond. 5f fertili4ers dissol#e easil/
hanging a bag behind a boat and dragging it through the culture pond gi#es an e#en
better distribution. Platforms in front of the inlet can also be used.
P &i$uid fertili4ers/ containing nitrate are more effecti#e than other nitrogen fertili4ers.
P Do not fertili4e on a cloud da 6reduced sunlight9 as algae gro2th 2ill be limited
b the lo2 light le#els.
P 5t is best to fertili4e onl the lo2 salinit ponds in a flo2@through sstem. 5nitiating
an algae bloom in high salinit ponds is difficult and can ta)e more than one month.
;he algae and organic matter created in the lo2 salinit ponds are drained to the
high salinit ponds and are there a#ailable as food.
P ,onditions in the fertili4er ponds should be )ept as constant as possible to
enhance optimal gro2th conditions for the desired algae.
P ;he use of inorganic fertili4ers in Artemia culture ponds is not recommended
6e3cept before introducing the nauplii9 as algal densities are not limited b the
nutrient concentrations but rather b the gra4ing pressure e3ercised b the brine
shrimp.
5n large salt operations costs might limit the use of fertili4ers. +egular pumping is
often more effecti#e in controlling the Artemia standing crop. (hen pumping/ ne2
nutrients and ,?
2
enter the culture ponds. ;his 2ill stimulate algal gro2th/ especiall
in areas 2here inta)e 2ater is nutrient rich 6turbidities less than 4= cm9/ no
additional fertili4ation should be used. 5f the inta)e 2ater contains onl lo2 nitrogen
le#els/ fertili4ing lo2 salinit ponds could enhanceArtemia production.
As pumping influences the retention time of the nutrients in the ponds 6i.e. at high
pumping rates algae 2ill not ha#e time to ta)e up nutrients9 fertili4ation should be
combined 2ith lo2er pumping rates/ in sstems 2ith short retention times.
;o determine correct fertili4ation needs in the smaller sstems 2e recommend to
proceed as follo2s8
P ,alculate the amount of fertili4er needed to increase the nitrogen le#el 2ith 1 mg.l
@
1
61 ppm9.
73ample8 pond #olume Q 1=== m
3
.
As ppm Q g.m
@3
in total 1/=== g has to be added to the pond.
5f urea is used/ 61===8 =.469 Q 2/1!4 g urea must be added to the pond 6urea
contains onl 46G 19.
P 5f algae do not de#elop after 2 das/ add a ne2 dose of 1 mg.l
@1
until a turbidit of
3= to 4= cm is obtained.
P ?nce an algae population is established/ fertili4e at least once a 2ee). 5f during the
2ee) turbidit drops under 5= cm/ decrease time bet2een fertili4ations or add more
fertili4er. 5f turbidit becomes higher than 15cm/ increase time bet2een fertili4ations
or add less fertili4er.
P +egular pumping adding ne2 ,?
2
to the 2ater and diluting cultures is essential.
5deall/ algae turbidit should be )ept bet2een 2= and 4= cm in the Artemia culture
ponds/ through regular 2ater inta)e from the fertili4ation ponds. ;urbidities of less
than 2= cm might result in o3gen stress at night/ especiall 2hen temperatures are
high.
Also other factors influencing primar production should be ta)en into account 6i.e.
temperatures/ lo2 sunlight on cloud das9. 5f climatic conditions are limiting algae
gro2th/ e3tra fertili4ation 2ill not increase primar production.
O Phosphorus fertili4ation
As 2ith nitrogen/ phosphorus enters the culture ponds 2ith the inta)e 2ater in the
form of organic material 2hich onl becomes a#ailable through bacterial
decomposition. Phosphorus is also found in the soil 2here it is bound under the form
of AlP?
4.
2"
2
= or >eP?
4.
2"
2
? 6sometimes 3== times more than in the 2ater9. ;his
phosphorus can be released into the 2ater. ;he processes describing this release
are up to no2 poorl understood. 5t is ho2e#er clear that bacteria together 2ith the
>e@ion pla an important role. 5n anaerobic conditions and 2hen the p" is lo2/
phosphates are released into the 2ater. Most phosphorus fertili4ers precipitate/
especiall in salt 2ater ponds 6i.e. reaction 2ith ,a
2M
9.
Phosphorus is also $uic)l absorbed at the pond bottom. 5n cases 2here the use of
phosphorus fertili4ers is desirable/ fertili4ers 2ith a small grain si4e 2hich dissol#e
easil in 2ater/ should be selected. Pre@dissol#ing the fertili4er in fresh2ater 2ill
impro#e its a#ailabilit. 5n ;able 4.5.3. 2e list the characteristics of some phosphorus
fertili4ers.
;he rule for phosphorus fertili4ation is small $uantities as often as possible. Adding
phosphorus t2ice a 2ee) is normal practice. Again/ no e3act rules specifing the
amounts of phosphorus fertili4er can be gi#en. (e therefore recommend to follo2
the same procedure as described for nitrogen fertili4er. 0ut as a rule of thumb three
to fi#e times less phosphorus than nitrogen should be added to culture ponds.
Ta&le 4.5.". Phosphorous fertili)ers
Superphosphate8 ,a6"2P?492."2? 16@2=G P2?5
"igh solubilit
Dicalcium phosphate8 ,a"P?4.2"2? 35@4%G P2?5
&o2 solubilit
;riple superphosphate ,a6"2P?492."2? 42@4%G P2?5
.ood solubilit
Sodiumpolphosphate 46G P2?5
&i$uid
Phosphoric acid 54GP2?5
&i$uid
?+.A15, >7+;5&5N7+S
(ith the appearance of inorganic fertili4ers the use of organic fertili4ers has been
$uestioned. 5n ;able 4.5.4. 2e summari4e ad#antages and disad#antages of organic
fertili4ers.
;he organic fertili4ers most often used in a$uaculture are chic)en/ $uail and duc)
manure. ,o2/ pig and goat dung ha#e also been used but seem to stimulate
phtobenthos.
,ottonseed meal/ rice bran and other agricultural 2aste products ha#e also been
used. ;he use of rice bran is onl recommended if there is a serious food shortage
6i.e. #er slo2 gro2th of the animals9. As these products are e3pensi#e and contain
a lot of undigestable fiber/ 2hich e#entuall accumulates on the pond bottom/ the
should onl be used for a limited period of time.
+ecommended le#els of organic manure are =.5 to 1.25 ton.ha
@1
at the start of the
production season 2ith dressings of 1== to 2== )g.ha
@1
e#er 2 to 3 das. 5n
Bietnam/ about 5== )g.ha
@1
.2ee)
@1
of chic)en manure is used as soon as algae
concentrations decrease. (hen adding organic fertili4ers to culture ponds/ 2ater
should be turbid/ other2ise benthic algae most certainl 2ill de#elop.
Ta&le 4.5.4. (d'antages and disad'antages of organic fertili)ers.
(d'antages
?rganic fertili4ers contain apart from nitrogen and phosphorus other minerals 2hich can ha#e a beneficial
effect on the plan)ton gro2th.
?rganic fertili4ers ha#e a #er beneficial effect on the pond bottom. ;he adsorption capacit 2ill be greatl
increased 6higher potential buffer capacit9 and the microflora 2ill be enhanced. "o2e#er/ an increase in
bacteria is onl beneficial if the ,81 ratio is lo2er than 3=. 5f this is not the case bacteria might use
nitrogen components from the 2ater column to sustain their gro2th. 5n this case adding inorganic nitrogen
fertili4ers is recommended.
?rganic fertili4ers contain protein/ fat and fibre. >ertili4er particles coated 2ith bacteria can be used
directl as food b the cultured species. Artemia/ a non selecti#e filter feeder obtains part of its food in this
2a.
?rganic fertili4ers often float 6chic)en manure9. ;herefore the loss of phosphorus is reduced.
0 using organic fertili4ers one usuall reccles a 2aste product/ 2hich other2ise 2ould ha#e been lost.
+isad'antages
;he composition of organic fertili4ers is #ariable. ;his ma)es standardi4ation of the fertili4ation procedures
difficult. As the also contain considerable amounts of phosphorus/ problems 2ith benthic and blue green
algae can arise.
?rganic fertili4ers ha#e to be decomposed. ;heir action is therefore slo2er/ increasing the ris) of losses.
As organic fertili4ers stimulate bacterial gro2th/ their use greatl increases the o3gen demand. -sing too
much fertili4er can result in o3gen depletion and mortalit of the cultured species. 5ncreased bacterial
acti#it also increases the acidit of the bottom.
;he use of organic fertili4ers increases the ris) of infections. ;his ris) can be reduced b composting the
manure before use.
?ne of the main disad#antages of organic fertili4ers is their bul)/ 2hich causes high transportation and
labour costs. ?ften special facilities 2here the manure can be stored ha#e to be constructed.
5f Artemia ponds are con#erted to shrimp ponds/ all organic 2aste accumulated at the bottom has to be
remo#ed. ;his is also an e3pensi#e and labour intensi#e Dob.
,?M051A;5?1 ?> ?+.A15, A1D 51?+.A15, >7+;5&5N7+S
A common practice is to use a combination of inorganic and organic fertili4ers. (hile
inorganic fertili4ers stimulate algae gro2th and minerali4ation of the organic fertili4er
6lo2er ,81 ratio9/ the organic fertili4er is used as direct food for the Artemia and #ia
slo2 release of nutrients/ especiall phosphorus further stimulates algae gro2th.
1ormall inorganic fertili4ers are added to the fertili4ation ponds or canals/ 2hile
manure can be added directl to the Artemia culture ponds or to the fertili4ation
ponds. 5f possible/ salinit in the fertili4ation ponds should be )ept abo#e 5= g.l
@1
. At
this salinit blue green algae 6most of 2hich can not be ta)en up b Artemia9 2ill be
outcompeted b more suitable green algae and diatoms. As discussed earlier
fertili4ation ponds @ 2hich are per definition hea#il fertili4ed @ should be deep
6preferabl more than =.! m9 to pre#ent the de#elopment of benthic algae.
4.5.5. Artemia inoculation
4.5.5.1. Artemia strain selection
4.5.5.2. 5noculation procedures
4.5.5.1. (rtemia strain selection
;he introduction of a foreign Artemia strain should be considered #er carefull/
especiall in those habitats 2here it 2ill result in the establishment of a permanent
population as in the salt 2or)s in 17 0ra4il. 5n such cases the suitabilit of the strain
for use in a$uaculture especiall 2ith regard to its csts characteristics/ 2ill be a
determining factor.
(hen the idea is to replace a poor performing strain/ in terms of its limited effect on
algae remo#al in the salt production process/ or its unsuitable characteristics for use
in a$uaculture 6e.g. large csts/ particular diapause or hatching characteristics9 all
possible efforts should be made to collect/ process and store a sufficient $uantit of
good hatching csts. Samples should be sent to the Artemia +eference ,enter for
preser#ation of this genepool ofArtemia in the Artemia cst ban).
As mentioned earlier Artemia strains differ 2idel in ecological tolerance ranges and
characteristics for use in a$uaculture. ;herefore/ the selection of the strain best
adapted to the particular ecological conditions of the site and<or most suitable for its
later application in a$uaculture is #er important.
Strain selection can be based on the literature data for gro2th/ reproducti#e
characteristics and especiall temperature<salinit tolerance. Summari4ing/ a strain
e3hibiting ma3imal gro2th and ha#ing a high reproducti#e output at the pre#ailing
temperature<salinit regime in the ponds should be selected. -suall strains
producing small csts and nauplii are to be preferred unless production of biomass
is the main obDecti#e. 5n the latter case selecting a fast gro2ing strain ha#ing a
dominant o#o#i#iparous reproduction is recommended.
5f a local strain is present/ one should be sure that the ne2l@introduced strain can
outcompete this local one. ;he strain 2ith the highest number of offspring under the
local en#ironmental conditions 2ill e#entuall outcompete the other. "o2e#er/ initial
population densit also plas an important role 6most abundant strain often 2ins9.
;herefore the ne2 strain should be introduced at a moment 2hen densit of the
local strain is at its lo2est point.
4.5.5.2. ,noculation procedures
"A;,"51. P+?,7D-+7S
Standard procedures as described under 4.2.5. should be follo2ed as much as
possible. As hatching conditions under field situations are often suboptimal/ the
follo2ing directions should at least be obser#ed8
O "atching containers should be placed in shaded areas to pre#ent e3cessi#e
heating b direct sunlight.
O (ater should be filtered/ preferabl using a 1Fm filter bag 6.A>9.
O 5f 2ater remains turbid after filtration/ lo2er the salinit to 2= g.l
@1
and add no more
than 1 g csts.l
@1
to the hatching containers.
O Pro#ide sufficient aeration and illumination/ especiall 2hen csts are incubated in
late afternoon or e#ening.
;he $uantit of csts needed to obtain the number of nauplii re$uired for inoculation
6and ta)ing into account a 3=G mortalit at the time of stoc)ing9 is calculated from
the pond #olume and the hatching efficienc of the selected batch. ;a)e into
account that as hatching is suboptimal/ the hatching percent might be lo2er than
e3pected 6often onl !5G9.
S;?,A51. P+?,7D-+7S
5t is essential to har#est the nauplii in the first instar stage. ?lder instar stages/ 2ill
not sur#i#e the salinit shoc) as 2ell 2hen transferred from the hatching #essel 62=
g.l
@1
to 35 g.l
@1
9 to the culture ponds 6%= g.l
@1
up2ards9. ;herefore/ regular chec)s
through subsampling of the hatching containers is recommended.
Stoc)ing densit is determined b the nutrient le#el and temperature found in the
culture ponds. (e gi#e the follo2ing recommendations8
O large salt operations
Depending on the si4e of the ponds a stoc)ing densit of 5 @ 1= nauplii.l
@1
should be
considered. "o2e#er in large operations practical considerations such as facilities to
hatch out the re$uired amount of csts might further limit the stoc)ing densit.
Animals should be stoc)ed as earl as possible in the brine circuit 2here no
predators are found. Do2nstream ponds at higher salinit need not necessaril be
inoculated since the 2ill be stoc)ed graduall 2ith Artemia drained from the
inoculated ponds. (hen algae blooms are a problem/ stoc)ing of se#eral ponds
might be needed.
O Small pond sstems
;he initial stoc)ing densit can be as high as 1== nauplii.l
@1
in ponds 2ith a turbidit
bet2een 15 and 25 cm. "o2e#er/ at such high stoc)ing densities o3gen might
become limiting/ especiall 2hen 2ater temperatures are high. At lo2er turbidit
6less than 25 cm9 stoc)ing densit should be decreased to 5= to != nauplii.l
@1
.
Stoc)ing at high densit is thought to stimulate o#iparous reproduction. "o2e#er/ if
initial stoc)ing densit is high/ animals 2ill gro2 more slo2l due to food limitations.
5n e3treme cases the brine shrimp 2ill e#en star#e before reaching maturit. Also/ at
high temperatures o3gen depletions further interfere 2ith gro2th and reproduction.
Stoc)ing at lo2er densit might increase the proportion of females in o#o#i#iparous
mode of reproduction. 0ut as more food is a#ailable per indi#idual animals gro2
faster and females ha#e larger broods. As a result/ final cst ields do not
necessaril decrease 2hen lo2er stoc)ing densities are applied.
4.5.6. Monitoring and managing the culture sstem
4.5.6.1. Monitoring the Artemia population
4.5.6.2. Abiotic parameters influencing Artemia populations
4.5.6.3. 0iotic factors influencing Artemia populations
Ber regular monitoring of the ponds is necessar to allo2 correct management. ;he
tpe of sampling program largel depends on the goals. 5f production is the main
obDecti#e onl those #ariables necessar to pro#ide essential decision@ma)ing
information should be follo2ed 6temperature/ salinit/ turbidit/ number of females
and brood si4e9. ?n the other hand more e3tensi#e sampling programs 2ill be
needed 2hen research programs are carried out in the culture ponds/ allo2ing at
least for relati#e estimates of population numbers.
;he most important rule 2hen collecting data is standardi4ationE Select fi3ed
sampling stations at e#er site and mar) them. -se al2as the same 62ell@
maintained and operational9 e$uipment and 6correct9 techni$ue 2hen measuring a
certain parameter or 2hen anal4ing samples. Aeep careful records of our data.
5n >ig. 4.5.!. 2e gi#e a flo2 chart of a possible monitoring and managing program
for large salt operations. 5n >ig. 4.5.%. 2e gi#e a flo2@chart/ sho2ing management in
a smaller unit. As no t2o sites are identical/ these flo2@charts should onl be
considered as guidelines.
5n the follo2ing paragraphs 2e 2ill discuss the most important en#ironmental
parameters. >or each parameter 2e gi#e measurement procedures/ discuss their
effects on the Artemia population and/ 2here possible/ e3plain ho2 to manipulate
them.
Figure 4.5.-. Flo! chart of a possi&le monitoring and managing program for
large salt operations.
Figure 4.5... Flo! chart of a possi&le monitoring and managing program for a
smaller unit.
4.5.*.1. /onitoring the (rtemia population
>or production purposes the follo2ing procedure is recommended.
;2ice a 2ee) samples 6e.g. 1= samples.ha
@1
9 are collected in the different culture
ponds. Samples should be collected at fi3ed sampling stations located in as man
different strata as possible.
A habitat can be di#ided in different strata/ each stratum ha#ing slightl different
en#ironmental characteristics and conse$uentl different Artemia densities 6e.g. in a
pond 2ith a peripheral ditch @ the platform/ the ditch and the corners @ can be
considered as three different strata as temperature and algae abundance differ at
these three places9. ;his 2a the ris) of not finding Artemia/ although present in the
pond/ is reduced. ;he follo2ing t2o sampling methods can be recommended8
O Per sample site 5 @1= l 2ater is filtered o#er a sie#e 61== Fm9.
O A conical net is dragged o#er a certain distance through the 2ater. Drags can be
hori4ontal or #ertical. "o2e#er/ mesh si4e and diameter of the sampling net
depends on the #olume of 2ater sampled/ 2hich in turn depends on the population
densit in the pond. 5f population densit is high/ nets 2ith a diameter of 3= @ 5= cm
and mesh si4e of 1== Fm can be used. 5n large ponds 2here population densit is
lo2/ larger nets 6diameter up to 1 m9 are dragged o#er a longer distance. ;o pre#ent
clogging/ onl the distal part of the net has a small mesh si4e 61== Fm9.
;he remainder of the net can ha#e a mesh si4e of 3== @ 5== Fm.
Samples are fi3ed 2ith formalin and carefull e3amined/ di#iding animals in three
groups/ nauplii 6no thoracopods9/ Du#eniles 6de#eloping thoracopods clearl #isible9
and adults 6se3ual differentiation apparent9. ;he relati#e presence of each life stage
is gi#en a score as follo2s8
= Q not present.
1 Q fe2 indi#iduals present
2 Q present
3 Q dominant in the sample 6large clouds of Artemia are obser#ed in the ponds9
;he scores for each life stage of all samples ta)en in one pond are summed and
plotted in time. Although such estimates are not accurate 6do not gi#e the e3act
number of animals per liter9/ the are precise 6reflect correctl the #ariations in
abundance9. Such cur#es 6>ig. 4.5.'.9 sho2 ho2 a population e#ol#es and allo2 for
adaptation of the management procedures 6see >ig 4.5.!. and >ig. 4.5.%.9.
Figure 4.5.0. Population e'aluation cur'es.
Apart from population composition/ the reproducti#e status of the females can also
be used as an indicator for the health status of the Artemia population. &arge
broods/ and short retention times bet2een broods 6e.g. females ha#ing both
de#eloping o#ar and filled uterus9 sho2 that pond conditions are good.
>inall/ the follo2ing characteristics also gi#e additional information on the health
status of the population8
O Are the guts of the animals completel filled 2ith an amorph mass/ especiall in the
morning 6control under microscope9R 5f guts are onl partl filled/ animals are
underfed.
O Are the faecal pellets 2ell filledR Aeep some animals in a Dar filled 2ith pond 2ater
and collect pellets from the bottom. ,hec) pellets under a microscope. Are the
pellets short or do animals tail long pelletsR 5f tailing pellets are obser#ed together
2ith onl partl filled pellets/ animals are underfed. 5f tailing pellets are obser#ed/ but
pellets and guts are 2ell filled/ food is not digested properl/ 2hich can be due to
o#erfeeding or the presence of unsuitable algae.
O S2imming beha#iour of the animals. Do the form clustersR Do the s2im
$uic)l<continuouslR 5f not/ animals are stressed.
(hen conducting research/ populations should be estimated more accuratel. ;he
follo2ing guidelines might be helpful8
O Standardi4e our sampling method. ;a)e samples al2as at the same spot/ the
same 2a/ the same time of da using the same sampling e$uipment.
O ,hec) the distribution pattern of our population at different times of the da. ?ften
populations are more homogeneousl distributed earl in the morning and at night.
;a)ing samples at this moment 2ill reduce #ariation bet2een pond samples.
Bariation can of course also be reduced #ia sampling onl one or t2o strata 6i.e.
strata 2here highest number of animals are found9. ;his might gi#e a precise
estimate/ but note that the estimate is certainl inaccurate.
O ;a)ing bigger samples reduces the #ariance. ;herefore/ transects ta)en 2ith a
tra2l net gi#e more precise estimates than point samples. Also/ 2hen ta)ing
sufficientl long transects/ more strata are included in the sampling program.
O (hen subsampling our samples/ ma)e sure our subsamples contain bet2een 5=
and 15= animals 6cf. adapt our dilution factor9. 5n smaller subsamples the
coefficient of #ariance increases/ 2hile the ris) of counting errors increases 2ith
larger sample si4e. Also/ ta)e enough subsamples per sample 6at least three9. As for
the samples/ standardi4e methodolog.
O A $uic) 2a to estimate standing crop is to use sample #olume as an estimate.
After fi3ing the sample 2ith lugol or formalin/ biomass is transferred to a measuring
clinder/ 2here it is allo2ed to settle for 1= min after 2hich the #olume is read. As
sample #olume can be determined $uic)l/ increasing the number of samples per
pond is possible. Dirt present in the sample or salt stic)ing to the animals has onl a
minor impact on sample #olume. ;his is not true for dr 2eight. -sing dr 2eight as
an estimator is onl possible if samples can be cleaned properl/ 2hich is a time
consuming acti#it. (et 2eight should not be used as it is #er unprecise and
inaccurate. ?f course sample #olume depends both on animal abundance and
animal si4e. As both cst production and biomass production mainl depend on the
number of large animals/ #olume usuall reflects correctl the status of the
population.
O 5f the aim of the stud is to predict cst production/ both sample #olume and female
abundance are good predictors.
4.5.*.2. (&iotic parameters influencing (rtemia populations
;7MP7+A;-+7
;emperature can be measured 2ith a glass thermometer. ;he thermometer has to
be read 2hile still submerged in the 2ater/ other2ise recorded #alues 2ill be
lo2ered due to e#aporation on the measuring bulb.
5n deeper ponds/ the 2ater ma be stratified and the temperatures at the surface
and bottom ma differ considerabl. 5n e3treme situations this can lead to lethall
high temperatures and lo2 o3gen concentrations at the pond bottom/ especiall in
situations of salinit stratification 6i.e. green@house effect resulting from the lo2
saline top laer9. Such situation/ indicated b surfacing of large clouds
of Artemia and animals of a dar) red color/ has a negati#e influence on gro2th and
sur#i#al. +egular pumping or ra)ing of the pond bottom 2ill pre#ent stratification.
SA&515;S
Salinit is best measured 2ith a refractometer/ 2hich can be corrected for different
temperatures. As algal concentration and other suspended materials influence the
refracti#e inde3/ it is recommended to filter the sample before measurement.
Salinit is important in setting the lo2er and upper limit bet2een 2hich Artemia can
thri#e. As mentioned before/ the upper salinit tolerance le#el of predators 6fish/
,ori3idae9 determines from 2hich salinit on2ards reasonable numbers
of Artemia can be found. At too high salinit 6H 25= g.l
@1
9 2ater becomes to3ic
for Artemia -nder field conditions/ o#iparous reproduction is often found at high
salinit. ;he lo2er o3gen concentration at high salinit 6o3gen stress9 and often
lo2 algae densit 6food stress9 in salt 2or)s might e3plain this. 0oth o3gen stress
and food stress ha#e been mentioned as factors stimulating o#iparous reproduction.
"o2e#er/ an alternati#e e3planation 2ould be that females carring nauplii and csts
are carried b 2ater currents to the ponds located at the end of the sstem. (e
noted that the animal abundance in these ponds is usuall much higher than in
pre#ious ponds. >urthermore/ 2hen 2or)ing in static sstems/ cst production does
not increase 2ith salinit. 5n addition/ food stress can negati#el influence brood si4e
and if continued for long periods 6one 2ee)9 can lead to a significant decrease in
cst ields.
Salinit can be manipulated through pumping. ;he salinit of the pond 2ater after
pumping can be calculated using the follo2ing formula8
S
end
Q TB
1
P S
1
M B
2
P S
2
U.TB
1
M B
2
U
@1
S
end
Q salinit in the pond after pumping.
B
1
: S
1
Q #olume: salinit in the pond before pumping
B
2
: S
2
Q #olume: salinit of the 2ater pumped in the pond
?VS.71
?3gen is measured 2ith a portable o3gen@meter. As o3gen le#els change #er
$uic)l once the sample is ta)en/ this parameter should be measured immediatel
after collection of the sample or best in the pond. (hile measuring/ the probe should
be mo#ed constantl.
?ften o3gen le#els 2ill be higher at the surface than at the bottom especiall 2hen
ponds are stratified. ?3gen le#els also e3hibit dail ccles. ,oncentrations are the
lo2est at da2n 6algal respiration9 and the highest in the afternoon 6algal photo@
snthesis9. 5f problems 2ith o3gen are anticipated/ measurements should be made
at da2n.
As o3gen meters are #er e3pensi#e and difficult to maintain/ the should be used
onl if specific research studies on the effects of o3gen are conducted. ;he color
and beha#ior of the Artemia 2ill indicate 2hen the animals are e3periencing an
o3gen stress 6i.e. animals turn red/ s2im slo2l/ start surfacing and gro2th is
retarded9.
Additional pumping/ lo2ering the algae concentration or circulating the 2ater in the
pond 2ill increase o3gen le#els. >inall 2e note that o3gen stress has also been
mentioned as a factor inducing o#iparous reproduction/ although results are not
al2as une$ui#ocal. 5n the field prolonged o3gen stresses usuall result in poor
gro2th/ reduced reproducti#e output and mortalit.
p1
p" is measured 2ith a portable p"@meter. Meters should be properl calibrated
before use. A cheap alternati#e/ 2ith acceptable accurac for most purposes/ is the
use of p" paper.
5n their natural habitat Artemia are mostl found in a p" range bet2een !.% and %.2/
2hich is often gi#en as the optimal range. "o2e#er/ the effects of p" on gro2th and
reproduction ha#e not been studied so far. Moreo#er/ some Artemia populations can
be found in al)aline la)es/ ha#ing a p" bet2een ' and 1= 6i.e. Mono &a)e/
,alifornia/ -SA: (adi 1atrun/ 7gpt9.
Algae blooms can affect the p" 6consumption of ,?
2
9. 5n general/ the highest p" is
reached in the afternoon 2hile the lo2est p" occurs near da2n. As sea 2ater is
usuall 2ell buffered/ problems 2ith p" are rare/ e3cept in areas 2ith acid sulfate
soils 6see 4.5.4.19.
(A;7+ D7P;"
Depth is best measured using calibrated stic)s positioned in the pond. ;his is an
important parameter to be recorded since it also has an effect on other
measurements 6such as temperature and o3gen9. >urthermore/ fluctuations in pond
depth gi#e information on pumping rates/ e#aporation/ precipitation and lea)age.
4.5.*.". Biotic factors influencing (rtemia populations
A&.A7
;he easiest 2a to estimate algae abundance is through the measurement of
turbidit/ 2hich can be readil measured using a Secchi dis) 6>ig. 4.5.1=9. ;he dis)
is lo2ered in the 2ater up to the point 2here the contrast bet2een the 2hite and
blac) 6or red9 fields disappears/ and the depth recorded. After lo2ering the dis) a
little more/ it is then brought up slo2l until the contrast is again #isible and this
depth is then also recorded: the a#erage of both of the recorded depths being the
turbidit. ;he turbidit also fluctuates during the da and is generall highest in the
afternoon. 1ote that 2ind 6concentration of algae in the do2n 2ind corners9 as 2ell
as suspended solids 6e.g. cla9 can affect turbidit readings. ;urbidit readings
bet2een 25 and 35 cm are optimal. At lo2er turbidit le#els/ e3tra pumping of
nutrient rich 2ater is needed 6see 4.5.4.29. At higher turbidit/ there is an increased
ris) of o3gen depletion at da2n.
Figure 4.5.12. Secchi disk.
5f time and e$uipment are a#ailable/ algal densit can also be estimated b analsis
of the chlorophll concentration. "o2e#er/ this method is onl #alid if combined 2ith
a proper sampling program. (e refer the interested reader to speciali4ed literature
on this subDect. As algae populations are seldom homogeneousl distributed o#er
the pond/ recommendations as gi#en for Artemia should be follo2ed 6see 4.5.6.'9.
;he color of the 2ater can gi#e useful indications concerning the tpe of organisms
present in the culture ponds. >or practical recommendations in the field see ;able
4.5.5. ?f course if problems are encountered/ more thorough analsis of the algae
samples is recommended. Algae composition does not onl influence gro2th and
reproduction of the Artemia/ but also has an effect on the nutritional #alue of the
biomass and the csts 6e.g. fatt acid composition9. Algae numbers can be
increased through fertili4ation 6see 4.5.4.29.
A problem often encountered in Artemia ponds is the presence of benthic and<or
filamentous algae. 0oth tpes of algae are unsuitable as food for
theArtemia" De#elopment of these algae can be pre#ented b )eeping pond 2ater
turbid and deepening the ponds.
Ta&le 4.5.5. 3ecommendations concerning the tpe of organisms.
%olour Tpes of organism e4pected
,lear >e2 organisms present<lo2 nutrient le#el.
.re<2hite "igh amount of suspended matter/ probabl cla<gpsum.
.reen Algae/ probabl green algae. (hen familiar 2ith the site/ different shades of green can be
associated 2ith different green algae.
0ro2n Algae/ possibl diatoms.
+ed 5f combined 2ith high salinit/ Dunalliela sp or Halobacterium sp.
Figure 4.5.11. 3aking the (rtemia pond in order to remo'e the &enthic algae.
5n Biet 1am/ pond bottoms are ra)ed dail/ for remo#al of the benthic algae 6>ig.
4.5.11.9. Moreo#er/ ra)ing brings detritus 6e3tra food for Artemia9 as 2ell as
inorganic nutrients bac) into suspension. Similarl/ soft pond bottoms appear to
reduce the amount of benthic algae de#eloping in the pond.
5f filamentous algae de#elop in the pond/ the spread #er $uic)l/ finall interfering
2ith cst collection 6i.e. the csts being trapped in the filaments9. ;o date/ the onl
method used to reduce the amount of filamentous algae is b manual remo#al and
ra)ing/ 2hich is of course #er labour intensi#e.
P+7DA;?+S A1D ,?MP7;5;?+S
;he abundance of predators and competitors can be estimated b using similar
techni$ues to those discussed for Artemia. Possible predators include fish
6Aphanius# Tilapia9/ #arious species of insects 6Cori$idae9 and some copepods.
+otifers and ciliates 6%abrea9 are also possible food competitors. As mentioned in
the pre#ious chapters/ careful screening of the inta)e 2aters and increasing salinit
2ill )eep their numbers 2ithin acceptable limits. As 2ading 2aterbirds 6i.e. a#ocets
and herons9 also consume adult Artemia# bird scarers and 2ires stretched abo#e the
2ater near shallo2 places can help )eep these predators a2a.
4.5.!. "ar#esting and processing techni$ues
4.5.!.1. Artemia biomass har#esting and processing
4.5.!.2. Artemia cst har#esting and processing
4.5.-.1. (rtemia &iomass har'esting and processing
"A+B7S;51. S;7P
Adult Artemia biomass can be collected from large shallo2 ponds 2ith conical nets
mounted in front of a motor boat or pulled b manpo2er 6>igure 4.5.12 and 4.5.139:
see also chapter 5.1. 5n small ponds dip@nets can be used. Alternati#el nets can be
installed 6temporaril9 at the pond outlet and biomass is then collected automaticall
2hen 2ater flo2s 6b pumping or gra#it9 to the ne3t pond 6>igure 4.5.149. ;he
follo2ing are some general guidelines for Artemiabiomass har#esting8
O nets should be large to facilitate har#esting/ e"g" for 1== )g of adult biomass use a
filter mouth of 1 b 2 m and a filter length of 3 to 6 m
Figure 4.5.12. 3aft !ith conical net used for (rtemia &iomass har'esting.
O use mesh si4e of 1 to 2 mm for selecti#e har#esting of adults<Du#eniles
O fit mesh of 1== Fm to the end of the net 2here adults accumulate so as to pre#ent
e3trusion of the animals
Figure 4.5.1". Small net used for (rtemia &iomass har'esting.
Figure 4.5.14. ,nstallation of filter nets at the sluice gate for (rtemia &iomass
har'esting in solar salt!orks.
O empt nets e#er hour: Artemia biomass accumulating at the end of the filter sac is
e3posed to anaerobic conditions 2hich it can tolerate for up to 1 h: since Artemia is
rich in proteoltic en4mes it is essential to har#est them ali#e.
O after collection/ biomass should be prepared for transport and further use or
treatment.
P+?,7SS51. S;7P
-se one of the follo2ing methods according to the needs8
a9 immediate use 2ithin 1 to 3 h as li#e food or for free4ing<dring 6H'=Gsur#i#al9
O store har#ested biomass temporaril in nets installed in the pond 6>igure 4.5.169
O appl strong aeration in nets
O rinse biomass 2ith sea2ater
O transfer rinsed biomass to containers 2ith sea2ater at a densit of ma3imum 5== g
2et 2eight biomass per liter of sea 2ater
O use ice 6mi3ed 2ith biomass9 to cool biomass to 5@1=I,
O appl strong aeration
b9 use 2ithin 12 h as a li#e food or for free4ing<dring 6H'=G sur#i#al9
O same procedure as for a<but store at ma3imum 3== g 2et 2eight biomass per liter
of sea 2ater.
c9 li#e transport for mar)eting as a li#e product 6H'=G sur#i#al after 24 h9
O transfer har#ested biomass into nets installed in the pond
O appl strong aeration
O rinse biomass 2ith sea 2ater
O use similar techni$ue as for transport of li#e fish<shrimp lar#ae i"e.8
@ prepare ' l plastic bags/ sea2ater/ o3gen bottle
@ fill bags 2ith 2 to 3 l sea2ater
@ add Artemia at a densit of 1== g li#e 2et 2eight biomass per liter
@ inflate rest of the bag 2ith o3gen and close off 2ith rubber band
@ pac) bags in strofoam bo3es filled 2ith ice 6>igure 4.5.159
>ollo2ing har#esting and transport/ Artemia biomass can be fro4en for subse$uent
use as a food source in fish<shrimp hatcheries or for the pet mar)et. Alternati#el/
biomass can be dried and used as an ingredient for lar#al feeds 6fla)es or particulate
diets9. Aeep in mind the follo2ing8
O Since Artemia is rich in proteoltic en4mes it is essential to process the biomass
ali#e.
O >ree4e as fast as possible 6thin laers/ lo2 temperature9/ slo2 free4ing 2ill result in
proteoltic acti#it and leaching of essential nutrients 2hen used subse$uentl.
O 5f dried slo2l 6e"g" sun dring9 e3cessi#e o3idation occurs 6blac) coloring9 and
proteoltic acti#it 2ill result in product losses.
O 0est $ualit biomass meal is obtained 2ith free4e dring or spra dring.
O Acceptable $ualit can be obtained 2ith drum dring 6fla)ing9.
O >or economical feasibilit consider a 2eight loss of '=G 6Artemia biomass contains
about '=G 2ater9 2hen dring Artemia biomass.
>or detailed use of abo#e mentioned dring<free4ing techni$ues/ 2e refer the user to
speciali4ed te3t boo)s on food processing.
Figure 4.5.15. #i'e (rtemia transport &ag and a transport strofoam &o4
containing se'eral &ags and ice.
Figure 4.5.1*. Storage net for (rtemia &iomass har'ested from seasonal salt
ponds integrated for (rtemia production.
4.5.-.2. (rtemia cst har'esting and processing
?nce the csts are har#ested/ a number of processing steps should be carried out in
order to obtain a clean/ mar)etable product featuring acceptable hatching
parameters and shelf life.
As can be seen in >igure 4.5.1! the processing can be di#ided into se#en
consecuti#e processing steps/ namel har#esting/ brine processing/ fresh2ater
processing/ dring/ prepac)aging/ pac)aging and dr storage.
7ach processing step in#ol#es se#eral processing acti#ities and these are sho2n in
>igure 4.5.1!.
>reshl@released csts do not immediatel de#elop into nauplii/ e#en 2hen the
incubation conditions in the habitat are fa#orable. ;hese csts remain in a state of
diapause 2hich means that all metabolic acti#it is re#ersibl interrupted. ?nl after
deacti#ation of this diapause can the csts resume their de#elopment 2hen
incubated under acceptable hatching conditions 6see also chapter 4.2.1.4.9. An
o#er#ie2 of strain<batch@specific diapause deacti#ation techni$ues 2hich can be
applied during certain processing steps<acti#ities or 2hich ma interact 2ith certain
processing steps<acti#ities are gi#en in the column Jdiapause deacti#ationK of >igure
4.5.1! and 2ill be further discussed at the end of this chapter.
;hroughout the processing/ rigorous $ualit control 2ill ha#e to be implemented in
order to adDust or correct the processing techni$ues 2hen re$uired and obtain a final
product of good mar)etable $ualit. >or $ualit analsis of Artemia csts 2e refer the
reader to chapter 4.2.5.2. (e ad#ise the user to re#ie2 this chapter as reference to
se#eral hatching parameters 2ill be made throughout this chapter. >inall/ the user
2ill choose a combination of processing steps<acti#ities and diapause deacti#ation
techni$ues 2hich 2ill largel depend on8
O trade off bet2een re$uired final $ualit and economic feasibilit
O strain<batch specific characteristics
O local conditions 6i.e. site location/ storage facilities/ local e$uipment a#ailable/ scale
of operation9
"A+B7S;51. S;7P
After being released/ csts float on the 2ater surface and are graduall 2ashed
ashore b 2inds and 2a#es. 5n places 2ith changing 2ind direction/ csts ma be
carried around for a long period before the are thro2n ashore. 5f these csts are
produced in lo2 saline ponds 6W1== ppt9 or 2hen salinit stratification ta)es place
after rainfall/ $uiescent csts ma hatch. (hen 2ater is #er agitated and much
foam de#elops/ csts get trapped and lost in the airborne foam. ?n the other hand/
csts 2hich are 2ashed ashore ma be e3posed to high temperatures/ -B radiation
and repeated hdration<dehdration ccles 2hich in turn ma decrease the #iabilit
of the final product. >urthermore/ these csts ma also become airborne 2hen dr.
Ma3imum guarantee for good $ualit and at the same time reduced contamination
2ith impurities are ensured 2hen csts are har#ested from the 2ater surface on a
regular basis. (or)sheet 4.5.1. summari4es pond modifications and collection
procedures 2hich ma help to impro#e cst har#esting and $ualit.
0+517 P+?,7SS51. S;7P
;he different brine processing acti#ities and their respecti#e aims are listed in >igure
4.5.1!. 7ach acti#it and the possible interactions or combination 2ith other
processing acti#ities is shortl described belo2 6see also 2or)sheet 4.5.2.9.
O 0rine dehdration8
5n order to impro#e storage conditions and<or to deacti#ate diapause 6see also ra2
storage and diapause deacti#ation9/ csts are usuall dehdrated 6to a 2ater content
of 2= to 25G9 in saturated brine immediatel after har#esting. (hen si4e and densit
separation e$uipment is located near the collection sites/ brine dehdration is either
combined 2ith or performed immediatel after densit separation and si4e
separation 6see belo29. "o2e#er/ 2hen there is a long period 6up to se#eral 2ee)s9
bet2een collection and further processing it is ad#isable to perform brine
dehdration before si4e and densit separation in brine so as to a#oid $ualit
decrease.
O Si4e separation in brine8
;his in#ol#es the remo#al of debris larger and smaller than the csts 6i.e. feathers/
sand/ 2ood/ stones9 b screening the har#ested product o#er different mesh si4es
6i.e. 1 mm/ =.5 mm/ =.15 mm9. >or cst material containing a lot of hea# debris
62hen collected from the shore9/ it is more efficient to perform a densit separation
in brine 6see belo29 prior to si4e separation.
O Densit separation in brine8
+emo#al of hea# debris in the same si4e range as the csts 62hen performed
subse$uent to si4e separation9 is carried out through densit separation in brine.
,sts submerged in brine float/ 2hile hea# debris 6i.e. sand/ small stones/ hea#
organic matter9 sin). Densit separation is often performed near production sites
6due to a#ailabilit of saturated brine9 soon after har#esting. 5t can be combined 2ith
brine dehdration or the csts can be transferred to a special brine dehdration tan)
or pond subse$uentl to densit separation.
O +a2 storage8
;he reasons for ra2 storage are usuall a combination of the follo2ing8
@ temporar storage 6das or 2ee)s9 before the ne3t brine processing acti#it/ i.e.
@ 2hen the processing site is located far from the collection site
@ 2hen the amount collected is too small to process on a dail basis
@ in@bet2een different brine processing acti#ities
@ temporar storage before the fresh2ater processing step
@ combination of ra2 storage and specific diapause deacti#ation methods
@ ra2 storage for use as a 2et@dr product 62ithin 2 to 3 months9
Figure 4.5.1-. 5'er'ie! of cst processing 6/odified from #a'ens and
Sorgeloos, 10.-7.
+,(P(8S9 +9(%T,:(T,5N
(%T,:,T,9S
+9S%3,PT,5N 5F %;ST
P35%9SS,N< ST9PS
(,/ 5F P35%9SS,N< ST9PS (N+=53
P35%9SS,N<
1(3:9ST,N< > appl proper har#esting procedures to ensure
better $ualit of the csts
B3,N9 P35%9SS,N<
dehdration ? dehdration > to pre#ent $ualit decrease during storage
and<or to deacti#ate diapause
dehdration ? si4e separation > remo#al of light and hea# debris in different si4e
range of csts
dehdration ? densit separation > remo#al of hea# debris 6e.g. sand/ stones/ high
dens. organic matter9
aging in brine<hibernation ? ra2 storage > temporar storage before or in@bet2een brine
processing steps
storage for diapause deacti#ation
storage before use as 2et dr product 62ithin 2
to 3 months9
hdration<dehdration
ccles
? F39S1 @(T93
P35%9SS,N<
pero3ide treatment ? remo#al e3cess brine > to a#oid salinit increase of fresh2ater and sub@
optimal separation
densit separation > to separate high sin)ing fraction 6mainl csts9
from lo2 densit floating fraction 6mainl
empt<crac)ed shells/ light organic matter9
disinfection > reduce bacteria load
rinsing > remo#e salt
remo#al e3cess 2ater > Dust before dring to impro#e dring efficienc
B3,N9 P35%9SS,N< > storage before use as a clean 2et@dr product
62ithin 2 to 3 months9
dehdration ? brine dehdration
aging in brine<hibernation ? ra2 storage
dehdration ? +3;,N< > for long time storage
P39$P(%A(<,N<
si4e separation > remo#e cst aggregates
air classification > remo#e remaining empt shells and non@cst
material
temporar pac)aging > optimal storage prior to final pac)aging
mi3ing > obtain constant hatching $ualit
P(%A(<,N< > o3gen free conditions to permit long time
storage 6H1 ear9
+3; ST53(<9 > special storage conditions to increase shelf life
;he follo2ing are a number of methods for ra2 storage/ including comments on the
optimal storage period/ strain<batch specific aspects and interaction 2ith other
processing techni$ues8
a9 Storage in lo2@saline brine 6i.e. pond brine98
Man strains can be stored in pond brine 2ith a salinit as lo2 as 1== ppt for se#eral
das at ambient temperature 2ithout a decrease in #iabilit. (hen stored in lo2@
saline brine/ it is essential for the csts to remain under hpo3ic conditions to
pre#ent initiation of the hatching metabolism. "po3ic conditions can be obtained
2hen stored at a relati#el high ratio of csts to brine 62= to %=G #olume<#olume9
2ithout aeration. 5n certain cases csts ha#e been safel stored in salinities as lo2
as %= g.l
@1
for up to 2 months at ambient temperature under hpo3ic conditions during
2hich diapause is slo2l deacti#ated 6see also diapause deacti#ation methods9.
Storage in pond brine under hpo3ic conditions for se#eral das is often used as a
temporar storage method bet2een har#esting and further brine processing.
b9 Storage in saturated brine8
After brine dehdration csts can be stored safel for up to 1 month 6some times for
se#eral months9 at ambient temperature. ;he csts can be stored in containers
submerged in brine or alternati#el/ e3cess brine can be remo#ed 6i.e. b hand
s$uee4ing9 and the semi@moist product can be stored in bags made of cotton or Dute:
the remaining brine 2ill further lea) from the bags during storage. (hen stored as a
semi@moist product o#er longer periods 6H1 2ee)9/ in areas of high relati#e humidit/
crude salt should be mi3ed 2ith the csts as to pre#ent the rehdration of the highl
hgroscopic csts. Storage in hpo3ic conditions 6in brine/ 2= to %=G csts
#olume<#olume/ no aeration9 or 2ith ample o3gen a#ailabilit 6as a semi@moist
product9 seems to ha#e little influence on the optimal storage time pro#ided the
csts are properl dehdrated. 7#entuall/ the csts should be stored in bags if
transported o#er large distances 6eas to handle/ less 2eight9. Apart from diapause
deacti#ation as a result of the dehdration process itself/ the storage 6aging9 in brine
ma further deacti#ate the diapause in certain strains<batches.
c9 ,old storage8
Man cst strains<batches ma be stored for se#eral months up to a ear at
temperatures bet2een @2= and 4I,. >or certain cst species<strains/ cold storage for
se#eral months is an ade$uate diapause deacti#ation method 6see also specific
diapause deacti#ation techni$ues9. Due to the high costs in#ol#ed and the limited
a#ailabilit of cold stores near the har#esting sites/ cold storage should onl be
considered 2hen this specific diapause deacti#ation method is needed. Although
man strains<batches ha#e been stored safel 2ithout proper dehdration/ csts are
usuall dehdrated in saturated brine and pac)ed as a 2et@dr product prior to cold
storage.
d9 -se as a semi@moist product8
,sts stored in saturated brine/ ma be used as a partiall@cleaned semi@moist
product 2ithin 2 to 3 months after har#esting. After 2 to 3 months of brine storage/
the hatching percentage usuall decreases 6see ;able 4.5.69. 5f re$uired/ a clean
semi@moist cst product can be obtained b appling a fresh 2ater processing step.
>+7S"(A;7+ P+?,7SS51. S;7P
During the fresh2ater processing step/ the cst material is further cleaned through
densit separation and prepared for subse$uent dring. As fresh2ater is used/ the
csts 2ill partiall hdrate. 5f the csts remain hdrated for too long a period under
aerated conditions/ the embros 2ill e#entuall reach an irre#ersible state of the
hatching metabolism 6i"e" csts cannot be dehdrated 2ithout affecting the #iabilit
of the embros9. ;he e3act time at 2hich this irre#ersible state is achie#ed/ is largel
strain<batch specific but ma be as short as 6 h. 7#en 2hen csts are dehdrated
before reaching the irre#ersible phase of metabolism/ their energ reser#es ma
ha#e been depleted to le#els 2hich result in a decrease of hatchabilit. ;o pre#ent
prolonged metabolism and conse$uent depletion of energ reser#es/ fresh2ater
processing should be limited to a ma3imum of 3= minutes. ;he different acti#ities in
the fresh2ater processing step are briefl discussed belo2/ and the procedures
gi#en in 2or)sheet 4.5.3.
O +emo#al of e3cess brine8
0efore densit separation in fresh2ater/ e3cess brine must be remo#ed in order to
pre#ent salinit 6densit9 increase of the 2ater and conse$uentl suboptimal
separation.
O Densit separation in fresh2ater8
,st material submerged in fresh2ater 2ill separate into a high densit 6sin)ing9
fraction and a lo2 densit 6floating9 fraction. ;he sin)ing fraction contains mainl full
csts and some non@cst material of similar densit and similar si4e as the full csts.
Some empt csts and crac)ed shells remain in the sin)ing fraction and can be
remo#ed at a later stage b air classification 6see further9. ;he floating fraction
contains mainl empt and crac)ed csts shells and light densit non@cst material
of a similar si4e range. (ith some csts strains/ the floating fraction can still contain
a significant amount of full csts featuring a relati#el high hatching percentage 6i.e.
5= to %=G9. "o2e#er/ because of the presence of empt shells and light non@cst
material/ the hatching efficienc of this material is usuall #er lo2. (hen a#ailable/
this csts material can still be used as second grade product 6e#entuall impro#ed
b air classification subse$uent to dring: see pre@pac)aging9.
O Disinfection8
;o reduce the bacterial load of the final cst product 6reduce o3gen demand during
hatching/ reduce concentration of pathogens9/ the csts can be disinfected during
the fresh2ater treatment. ;his can be carried out b adding hpochlorite 6li$uid
bleach9 to the fresh2ater separation tan)s prior to adding the cst material. ;he
concentration of acti#e chlorine in the fresh2ater of the separation tan)s should be
less than 2== ppm.
O +insing8
5f csts are to be dried/ the must be rinsed thoroughl 2ith fresh2ater so as to
a#oid crstalli4ation of the remaining salts during dring and conse$uent damage to
the cst shells. ;his rinsing can be carried out either before or after separation.
O +emo#al of e3cess 2ater8
>ollo2ing separation<rinsing and collection in bags/ the bul) of the fresh2ater can be
remo#ed b firm s$uee4ing of the csts. ;he csts can be dehdrated in saturated
brine for ra2 storage and use 62ithin 1 to 3 months9 as a clean semi@moist product.
Alternati#el/ the csts can be dried 6see dring9 for long term storage. ;his should
be carried out immediatel in order to pre#ent further metabolism and decreased
hatchabilit. 5f the csts are to be dried/ further remo#al of e3cess 2ater 61= to 15 )g
2ater per 1== )g 2et csts9 can be achie#ed b centrifugation. ;his 2ill reduce the
stic)iness of the product and facilitate the dring process. 5t 2ill also significantl
reduce the dring time and conse$uentl the re$uired energ inputs.
O 5nteraction 2ith diapause deacti#ation8
>inall/ rehdration and subse$uent dehdration as a result of the fresh2ater
processing step can in some cases further deacti#ate diapause in dormant csts
6see specific diapause deacti#ation techni$ues9.
D+S51. S;7P
Depending on the dring procedure/ the $ualit of the csts 6i"e. their hatching
percentage and rate9 can be affected the follo2ing factors must be considered 2hen
selecting a dring method8
O >inal 2ater content8
After fresh2ater treatment/ the 2ater content of the csts should be reduced as soon
as possible belo2 the critical le#el of 1=G in order to stop the metabolic acti#it and
conse$uentl ensure a long shelf life. 0elo2 a 2ater content of 1=G/ little is )no2n
about the actual relation bet2een 2ater content and subse$uent $ualit and shelf
life. -suall a 2ater content bet2een 3 and %G is aimed for.
O ?ptimal dring time8
(ith regard to the optimal dring time/ best results are obtained 2hen a 2ater
content of 1=G is reached 2ithin % hours or less. >e2 data are a#ailable on possible
$ualit impro#ements 2hen the dring time is #er short 6W 3h9. Definitel/ prolonged
dring 6i.e. H24 h9 results in a decreased hatching percentage 6possibl caused b a
decrease of energ reser#es9.
O Dring temperature8
;he ma3imal dring temperature is both strain specific and dependent upon the
degree of dehdration of the csts. >or full@hdrated csts/ temperatures belo2
35I, are usuall safe. As the dring proceeds/ 2ater content decreases and csts
tend to be resistant to higher temperatures. 5f the fresh2ater processing ccle is
limited to 45 minutes or less and e3cess 2ater is properl remo#ed/ csts are onl
partiall hdrated 62ater content bet2een 4= and 45G9. ,onse$uentl the ma
resist higher temperatures 6for some strains<batches up to 6=I,9.
O "omogenous dring8
5t is important to ensure a homogenous dring process. -ne#en dring 2ill result in
some csts dring #er slo2l and e#entuall not reaching a 2ater content of 1=G.
;his ma cause both a decrease in hatching percentage and hatching rate/ and a
reduced shelf life.
5n summar/ optimal results are obtained 2hen ensuring a fast 6W % h9 and
homogenous dring to a 2ater content belo2 1=G 2ithout e3posing the csts to
critical temperatures. Depending upon the a#ailable e$uipment and financial
resources/ the follo2ing dring techni$ues can be applied8
O &aer dring in open air
Spread the csts in thin laers of uniform thic)ness 6fe2 mm onl9 on a dring rac)
6tras made 2ith 12= Fm screen9. 0est spreading is obtained 2hen using a 3 to 5
mm@mesh filter bas)et through 2hich the semi@moist csts are granulated. Place the
tras under a roof in the open air and assure good air e3change 6abo#e and belo2
the tra9 for effecti#e dring. Do not e3pose the csts to direct sunlight as this ma
result in critical temperature increases 2ithin the csts 6through heat absorption b
the dar) shell9 or in -B damaging of embros 6especiall 2hen dealing 2ith pale
csts9. +edistribute the csts at repeated inter#als 6initiall e#er hour9 so as to
ensure a more homogenous dring 6csts at the surface tend to dr faster as the
are better e3posed to air 2ith lo2er humidit9. Dring should be continued until
constant 2eight/ i"e. until a 2ater content belo2 1=G is reached. 5n
climates<seasons of high humidit/ this ma be difficult. 5ndeed/ the higher the
relati#e humidit/ the longer the dring time. Moreo#er/ a final e$uilibrium 2ill be
reached 6if dried for long enough9 bet2een the 2ater content in the csts and the
relati#e humidit of the air. >or e3ample/ at a relati#e humidit of != to !5G csts
ma reach a 2ater content of about 1= to 15G after a ma3imum of 4% h/ and dring
for a longer period 2ill not result in a lo2er 2ater content. "o2e#er/ to a#oid
rehdration of the highl hgroscopic csts during the night 6relati#e humidit
increases as temperature decreases9 the csts should be stored in 2atertight
containers o#ernight/ and dring continued the follo2ing da if necessar.
&aer dring in open air is certainl the cheapest method re$uiring limited
e$uipment. "o2e#er/ it ma be difficult to standardi4e the dring/ especiall in areas
2ith high and<or highl fluctuating relati#e humidit/ poor standardi4ation and slo2
dring/ often resulting in fluctuating cst $ualit. Moreo#er/ due to poor mi3ing/ small
aggregates 6lumps9 of csts ma be formed 2hich in turn ma affect the o#erall
$ualit of the final product.
O &aer dring in o#en
Place the dring rac)s in a temperature@controlled room or o#en and assure a good
air e3change. 5f possible fit a temperature control de#ice to the heating sstem
allo2ing a slo2 increase in temperature during the dring process 6remember that
as csts get drier/ the temperature resistance increases9. "eating air significantl
decreases the relati#e humidit thus impro#ing the dring. >or e3ample/ heating air
2ith a relati#e humidit of 1==G from 2= to 35I, 2ill decrease the relati#e humidit
to 45G. Al2as chec) the relation bet2een temperature resistance and 2ater
content of the csts ou are using in order to find the most efficient temperature
ccle and a#oid o#erheating. ;his sstem offers better scope for standardi4ation/
especiall if a temperature control de#ice is fitted. "o2e#er the dring ma still be
$uite slo2 and the problem of cst aggregates remains.
O +otar dring
A faster and more homogenous dring is achie#ed 2hen csts are )ept under
continuous mo#ement in a rotar drer 6i.e. at 5 rpm9. A schematic dra2ing of a
rotar drer is gi#en in >igure 4.5.1%. ,ontinuous air flo2 through the drum is
obtained 2ith a #entilator fitted b means of an air duct to the inlet of the drum and a
separate screened outlet allo2s discharge of the humid air. 0affles are often used to
impro#e mi3ing of the csts. "o2e#er/ it is better to fit a strong brush to the inside of
the drum 2hich rotates in the opposite direction of the drum. Apart from functioning
as a mi3ing de#ice/ it 2ill pre#ent the csts from stic)ing to the sides of the drum/
and thus reducing the formation of aggregates. 7#en more efficient dring can be
achie#ed if a heater 2ith a temperature control de#ice is fitted to the air inlet.
Although more e3pensi#e/ a 2ell@designed rotar drer 2ill allo2 a faster/ more
homogenous and better standardi4ed dring process as compared to laer dring
and conse$uentl a better $ualit cst product 2ill be obtained.
Figure 4.5.1.. Schematic dra!ning of rotar drer for (rtemia csts.
O >luidi4ed bed dring
;he most efficient and most #ersatile dring is obtained b means of a fluidi4ed bed
drier 6>igures 4.5.1' and 4.5.2=9. ;he basic design as outlined in >igure 4.5.1'
consists of a conical dring chamber/ a blo2er and a heating unit 2ith temperature
control de#ice. ;he blo2er forces air o#er the heating unit into the dring chamber. A
sie#e at the inlet and outlet of the dring chamber allo2s free air flo2 2ithout loss of
air@suspended 6fluidi4ed csts9. ;he conical shape of the dring chamber ensures
optimal mi3ing of the cst product throughout the dring process 2hich results in
homogenous dring 2ithout e3cessi#e formation of cst aggregations. 5mpro#ed
dring efficienc is further obtained b the heating unit. A first temperature sensor
controls the inlet temperature 6in certain cases as high as '=I,9. "ot air 2hich
enters the dring chamber is immediatel cooled do2n to temperatures belo2 35I,.
As the csts become drer and more temperature resistant/ e#aporation decreases
and the temperature in the dring chamber slo2l increases. A second temperature
sensor can be fitted inside the dring cone to a#oid an increase of the cone
temperature abo#e critical le#els 62hich are strain<batch@specific and should be
tested9 at the end of the dring process.
Figure 4.5.10. Schematic dra!ing of a fluidi)ed &ed drer for (rtemia csts.
5t is important to match blo2er capacit 2ith cone dimensions and po2er of the
heating unit. Although #ariations are possible/ the follo2ing e3ample can be used as
a guide@line8
O blo2er characteristics8
@ flo2 rate and 2or)ing pressure8 2%= m
3
. h
@1
at 6= mbar
@ ma3imal flo2 rate8 32= m
3
at = mbar
@ ma3imal pressure8 2== mbar
@ cone dimensions8
@ diameter top8 != cm
@ diameter inlet8 14 cm
@ height 6filling cone M top cone98 1!5 cm
@ height of filling cone8 '5 cm 6allo2s for 35 )g of 2et csts9
@ height of top screen8 4= cm
@ po2er of the heating unit8
@ 6 to ' )( depending on ambient temperature.
5f the inlet and cone temperature are limited to respecti#el %= and 4=I,/ a unit 2ith
the abo#e specifications 2ill dr appro3imatel 35 )g of 2et csts in less than 3 h to
a 2ater content belo2 1=G. 5ncreasing or decreasing one of the temperature
settings 2ill result in a decrease respecti#el increase of the dring time. 5n an case
the specific temperature tolerance of the strain<batch should be chec)ed before
appling the dring on a regular basis. Another ad#antage of the fluidi4ed bed drer
is that it #irtuall eliminates the influence of the relati#e humidit of the inlet air 6due
to the high inlet temperature9.
P+7@PA,AA.51. S;7P
5mmediatel after dring/ the csts should be transferred to air@tight containers or
sealed polethlene bags in order to pre#ent rehdration of the highl hgroscopic
csts. Although some cst strains can be temporaril stored at temperatures as high
as 3=I, for se#eral 2ee)s/ other strains ma re$uire storage in a cooler
en#ironment 6belo2 1= @ 2=I,9.
Figure 4.5.22. ( fluidi)ed &ed drer for (rtemia csts.
During dring/ especiall 2ith laer and rotar dring/ small aggregations of csts
are usuall formed. Although this might not influence the hatching $ualit of the
csts/ the aggregates can be remo#ed b dr sie#ing to impro#e the #isual
appearance of the final product. ,st aggregates can be rehdrated in saturated
brine and re@processed at a later date/ or used as a second $ualit product if the
hatching percentage decreases.
Air classification is often applied to separate remaining empt and crac)ed shells
2hich 2ere not remo#ed during fresh2ater separation. 5t can be carried out b
releasing the dr material in a hori4ontal air stream in 2hich hea# particles tend to
fall do2n faster than lighter particles/ e.g. cst material blo2n through a hori4ontal
air stream 2ith se#eral collecting #essels underneath 2ill thus separate hea#
particles 6remaining non@cst material or cst aggregates9/ full csts/ and finall
empt shells/ crac)ed shells and light non@cst material. (hen significant amounts
of full csts are still present in the floating fraction of the fresh2ater separation/ the
can also be dried and then air classified to separate these csts from the empt
shells.
>inall/ #ariations in the hatching $ualit of the dr csts 6i.e. as a result of seasonal
#ariations in cst $ualit9 ma re$uire the mi3ing of different cst batches in order to
ensure a mar)etable product of constant $ualit. An tpe of mi3ing e$uipment ma
be used pro#ided that the csts are not e3posed to high humidit 6so as to a#oid
rehdration9. 5f a#ailable/ a rotar tpe drer can be used efficientl. ;he actual
mi3ing process should ta)e no longer than 5 to 1= min.
PA,AA.51. S;7P A1D S;?+A.7
Dr csts should be pac)ed in o3gen@free conditions so as to pre#ent the formation
of free radicals 6resulting in the irre#ersible interruption of the hatching metabolism9.
;his can be carried out b #acuum or nitrogen pac)ing. 5n order to ensure that the
al#eoles of the shell do not hold an more o3gen/ nitrogen flushing should be
repeated 2 or 3 times after #acuum treatment. Some e3amples of the effect of
different storage conditions on the hatching percentage and hatching rate
of Artemia csts are gi#en in ;able 4.5.6 and >igure 4.5.21 respecti#el.
?nce the dr csts are properl pac)ed 6#acuum or nitrogen9/ the ma be stored for
months or e#en ears 2ithout too much decrease in hatching. "o2e#er/ apart from
being subDect to the pac)aging conditions 6air<#acuum<nitrogen9/ the shelf life of dr
csts is usuall strain<batch specific.
Although some strains ma be stored at room temperature/ storage temperatures
belo2 1=
I
, are usuall recommended. Again/ the optical storage temperature is
strain<batch specific.
Ta&le 4.5.*. The effect of different storage conditions on the hatcha&ilit 6in B7
of Artemia csts from t!o localities 6after :anhaecke and Sorgeloos, 10.27.
Storage conditions San Francisco Ba 6%a$8S(7 csts
1 ear of storage
/acau 6Brasil7 csts
2 ears of storage
o3gen != 56
air @ %3
nitrogen 1== '1
#acuum 1== '%
brine 2=I, 66 !4
brine @2=I, !6 @
SP7,5>5, D5APA-S7 D7A,;5BA;5?1 ;7,"15C-7S
As e3plained in the introduction/ csts are usuall released in a state of
6endogeneousl controlled9 arrested metabolism called diapause. 5n order to obtain
a product 2ith acceptable hatching characteristics/ this state of diapause must be
deacti#ated. ?ften a combination of different strain<batch@specific deacti#ation
techni$ues is re$uired to obtain optimal hatchabilit. 5n some cases the hatchabilit
can simpl not be impro#ed abo#e a certain le#el. 5n such cases it cannot be
determined if this is due to the effect of diapause or simpl to the #iabilit of the
embro. ;he most common diapause deacti#ating methods used are described in
chapter 4.2.1.4. "o2e#er/ before implementing an of these techni$ues/ the should
be tested for effecti#eness.
Figure 4.5.21. The effect of storage conditions on the hatching rate of (rtemia
csts 6after :anhaecke and Sorgeloos, 1..27.
4.5.%. &iterature of interest
0osteels/ ;./ ;ac)aert/ (./ Ban Stappen/ .. and Sorgeloos/ P. 1''6. 5mpro#ed use
of the fluidi4ed bed drer for Artemia csts. A$uaculture 7ng./ 15639816'@1!'.
0od/ ,.7. 1''=. (ater $ualit in ponds for a$uaculture. 0irmingham publishing
,o./ 0irmingham. Alabama/ -SA. 4%2 pp.
,legg/ X.S. and ,a#agnaro/ X. 1'!6. 5nterrelationships bet2een 2ater and cellular
metabolism in Artemia csts. 5B. A;P and cst hdration. X. 0iophs. 0iochem.
,tol/ %%8 15'@166.
Drin)2ater/ &.7. and ,legg/ X.S. 1''1. 73perimental biolog of cst diapause8 '3@
11!. 5n8 Artemia 0iolog. 0ro2ne +.A./ P. Sorgeloos/ and ,.1.A. ;rotman 67ds9.
,+, Press 5nc./ 0oca +aton/ >lorida/ -SA/ 3!4 pp.
7liot/ X.M. 1'!!. Statistical analsis of samples of benthic in#ertebrates. >resh2ater
0iol. Assoc./ Scientific Publication 1o.25.
.odeluc)/ 0. 1'%=. 7tude comparYe des rYcoltes et traitements des oeufs
dZArtemia salina des Salins du Midi en pro#enance de lZYtang de &a#alduc. ;hYsis/
Pierre et Marie ,urie/ Paris. 11= pp.
Arebs/ X.,. 1'%'. 7cological methodolog. "arper * +o2/ Publishers/ 1S@-SA/ 654
pp.
Aung#ang)iD/ P. and ,hua/ ;.7. 1'%6. Shrimp culture8 pond design/ operation and
management. 1A,A training manual series 1o. 2. S. Siri)arnpimp/ 0ang)o)/
;hailand. 6% pp.
&a#ens/ P. and Sorgeloos/ P. 1'%!. ;he crptobiotic state of Artemia csts/ its
diapause deacti#ation and hatching8 2!@63. 5n8 Artemia +esearch and its
Applications. Bol. 3. Sorgeloos/ P./ 0engtson/ D.A./ Decleir/ (. and Xaspers/ 7.
67ds9. -ni#ersa Press/ (etteren/ 0elgium.
Seber/ ..A.>. 1'%2. ;he estimation of animal abundance. ,harles .riffin * ,o. &td./
&ondon/ -A/ 654 pp.
Sorgeloos/ P. 1'%!. 0rine shrimp Artemia in coastal salt2or)s8 hdrobiological )e
to impro#ed salt production and ine3pensi#e source of food for #erticall integrated
a$uaculture. 133@141. Proc. 5nternational Meeting on JSalt2or)s ,on#ersion for
A$uacultureK/ ;rapani/ 5tal/ Ma '@11/ 1'%6.
;ac)aert/ (. and Sorgeloos/ P. 1''1a. Semi@intensi#e culturing in fertili4ed ponds8
2%!@315. 5n8 Artemia 0iolog. 0ro2ne/ +.A./ Sorgeloos/ P. and ,.1.A. ;rotman
67ds9/ ,+, Press/ 5nc./ 0oca +aton/ >lorida/ -SA/ 3!4 p.
;ac)aert/ (. and Sorgeloos/ P. 1''1b. 0iological management to
impro#e Artemia and salt production at ;ang .u salt2or)s in the PeopleZs +epublic
of ,hina. !%@%3. 5n8 Proceedings of the 5nternational Smposium J0iotechnolog of
solar saltfieldsK/ ;ang .u/ P+ ,hina/ September 1!@21/ 1''=/ ,heng/ &. 67d.9/ Salt
+esearch 5nstitute/ ;anggu/ ;ianDin/ P+ ,hina/ 2%3 pp
;ac)aert/ (./ and Sorgeloos/ P. 1''3. ;he use of brine shrimp Artemia in biological
management of solar salt2or)s8 6!1@622. 5n8 Proc. !th 5ntl Smposium on Salt/
Aa)ihana/ "./ "ard/ ".+.Dr./ "oshi/ ;./ ;o)o)ura/ A. 67ds9. Bol. 1/ 7lse#ier Science
Publishers 0.B./ Amsterdam/ ;he 1etherlands.
;riantaphllidis/ ..B./ Poulopoulou/ A./ Abat4opoulos/ ;.X./ Pinto Pere4/ ,.A. and
Sorgeloos/ P. 1''5. 5nternational stud on Artemia. V&5V. Salinit effects on sur#i#al/
maturit/ gro2th/ biometrics/ reproducti#e and lifespan characteristics of a bise3ual
and a parthenogenetic population of Artemia. "drobiologia/ 3=28215@22!
Banhaec)e/ P. and Sorgeloos/ P. 1'%2. 5nternational Stud on Artemia. VB555. ;he
hatching rate of Artemia csts @ a comparati#e stud. A$uacultural 7ng. 16498 263@
2!3.
Bu Do Cunh and 1guen 1goc &am. 1'%!. 5noculation of Artemia in e3perimental
ponds in ,entral Bietnam8 an ecological approach and a comparison of three
geographical strains. 253@26'. 5n8 Artemia +esearch and its Applications. Bol. 3.
Sorgeloos/ P./ 0engtson/ D.A./ Decleir/ (. and Xaspers/ 7. 67ds9. -ni#ersa Press/
(etteren/ 0elgium.
4.5.'. (or)sheets
(or)sheet 4.5.1.8 Pond impro#ements and har#esting procedures
(or)sheet 4.5.2.8 Procedures for the brine processing step
(or)sheet 4.5.3.8 Procedures for the fresh2ater processing step
@orksheet 4.5.1.C Pond impro'ements and har'esting procedures
A<P?1D 5MP+?B7M71;S8
O to pre#ent csts being 2ashed ashore8
@ steepen ban)s on the do2n 2ind side of pre#ailing 2inds
@ install cst barriers close to the shore line 6>igure 4.5.229
O dig a short canal 61 to 2m 2ide/ 3 to 6m long9 on the do2n 2ind side of the pond to act as a cst
collection trap.
O install 2a#e brea)ers to pre#ent e3cessi#e foam formation and loss of csts through airborne foam e"g"8
@ bamboo poles close to the shore 6>igure 4.5.239.
O ma)e a ro2 of palm lea#es 6stuc) into bottom of the pond9 close to the shoreline 6>igure 4.5.249
0<"A+B7S;51. P+?,7D-+7S8
O har#est floating csts 2ith double screen dip@nets 6>igure 4.5.25 and 4.5.269 in order to separate cst
from floating debris and adult Artemia
O if pond modifications are not possible 6e"g" large solar salt operations9/ har#est csts from the shore on a
dail basis and rinse the csts 2ith pond brine using double screen dip@nets
O if the pre#ious histor of the csts is not )no2n/ perform the follo2ing on the spot e#aluations to chec)
the cst $ualit8
a<determine percentage of hea# debris 6e"g" sand/ for csts har#ested on the shore98
Add appro3imatel 1== g of cst material in a 25= ml graduated conical shaped container filled 2ith brine.
Mi3 thoroughl and lea#e to settle for 1= min. ,sts 2ill float and hea# particles 2ill sin). ;he #olume
percentage gi#es a first indication of the amount of hea#e debris in the cst material. Moreo#er/ if the
hea# debris sin) fast and are densel pac)ed on the bottom/ this indicates a high 2eight percentage of
debris.
b<determine the percentage of crac)ed csts or empt shells8
@ chec) $uantit of crac)ed shells 2ith field microscope
@ chec) the s2elling capacit of the csts b hdration of 2 ml csts in tap 2ater in a 6graduated9 tube/
2ithin 1 to 2 h the #olume of the 6no2 hdrated9 csts should ha#e doubled
@ chec) the amount of full csts b remo#al 6dissolution9 of the csts shells: i"e" a small sample of csts is
suspended in hpochlorine solution 6domestic bleach 2ater9: 2ithin 5 min the shells ha#e dissol#ed and
the 62hite to orange colored9 embros can be distinguished 2ith the na)ed ee.
c<chec) for earl hatching8
@ hdrate a small amount of csts 61== to 2== csts9 for 2 to 3 h in fresh 2ater and chec) for earl
hatchers. 5f man csts are hatching 6chec) for free s2imming nauplii or umbrella stage 2ith field
microscope9/ the hatching metabolism has reached a late stage and subse$uent processing 2ill reduce
the hatchabilit of the cst product.
@ store csts from different har#esting sites and<or har#esting periods separatel since diapause
deacti#ation techni$ues and final hatching $ualit ma #ar according to8
@ pond conditions during production e"g. salinit/ food a#ailabilit
@ the har#esting period e"g" beginning/ middle/ end of production season 6probabl due to different climatic
conditions9
@ the har#esting period e"g" short time or long time after inoculation 6probabl due to differences bet2een
different brood ccles9.
Figure 4.5.22. ,nstallation of cst &arriers to keep csts in the !ater.
Figure 4.5.2". Floating &am&oo poles used as !a'e$&rakers for the har'esting
of (rtemia csts.
Figure 4.5.24. 3o! of palm lea'es close to the shoreline.
Figure 4.5.25. +ou&le$screen dip net.
@orksheet 4.5.2.C Procedures for the &rine processing step
A<0+517 D7"SD+A;5?1
O 0rine dehdration in controlled en#ironment 6e"g" brine tan)s or speciall prepared brine ponds98
@ submerge csts in saturated brine for 4% h
@ for a high ratio of csts to brine 6e"g. 2= to 5=G csts to brine ratio on a #olume<#olume basis 2hen using
small brine tan)s9/ e3change brine 2 to 3 times o#er 4% h to compensate for dilution due to release of
2ater from the csts.
@ for a lo2 ratio of csts to brine 6e"g" use of brine ponds or large tan)s9/ e3change of brine is not
necessar
@ al2as mi3 csts and brine regularl to ensure homogeneous dehdration
@ collect material and proceed 2ith ne3t processing step or store temporaril using procedures described
in section 4.5.!.2.
O 0rine dehdration in less@controlled en#ironment 6e"g. use of crstalli4e ponds98
@ collect or transfer csts in non@2aterproof bags 6e"g" strong cotton or Dute9
@ submerge bags in brine
@ allo2 for longer dehdration time 63 to 4 das9 as diluted brine 6due to e3tracted cst 2ater9 is slo2l
replaced b surrounding saturated brine.
@ collect material and proceed 2ith ne3t processing step or store temporaril using procedures described
in section 4.5.!.2.
0<S5N7 S7PA+A;5?1 51 0+517
O >or small batches 6up to 5 )g98
@ use double screen dip@nets 6>igure 4.5.259 and pond brine as described in har#esting procedures.
@ collect the csts and proceed 2ith the ne3t processing step or appl temporar storage as described in
section 4.5.!.2.
O >or large batches and or cst material containing a lot of organic matter8
@ use 6#ibrating9 sie#es 6e"g" 1 mm/ =.5 mm/ =.15 mm9 at a centrali4ed processing site
@ transfer csts on sie#es and rinse thoroughl 2ith brine
@ if separation ta)es place prior to dehdration/ use pond brine or saturated brine 6the latter initiates the
dehdration process9
@ if dehdration 2as performed prior to si4e separation/ use saturated brine to a#oid rehdration
@ collect material in =.15 to =.5 mm si4e range and proceed 2ith ne3t processing step or store temporaril
using procedures described in section 4.5.!.2.
,<D71S5;S S7PA+A;5?1 51 0+517
O use of special brine separation tan)s8
@ use a 6transparent9 conical shaped tan) fitted 2ith a bottom #al#e 6>igure 4.5.2!9: for large tan)s 6H 5==
l9 a pump should be fitted to the discharge
@ fill tan) 2ith saturated brine 6better floatation of csts M initiates dehdration process9
@ add cst material8 1= to 2= )g csts for 1== l brine
@ mi3 thoroughl 6e"g" strong aeration9 for 5 to 1= min. and allo2 hea# debris to settle and csts to float for
5 to 1= minutes
@ discharge hea# debris through bottom #al#e 6add brine at #al#e inlet to initiate flo2 of pac)ed debris9
@ repeat abo#e procedure if re$uired 6e"g" in presence of organic matter 2hich sin)s slo2l9
@ finall mi3 thoroughl 6e"g" strong aeration9 and collect the floating fraction through the bottom #al#e
O use of large brine tan)s or speciall constructed brine pond8
@ use tan)<pond 2hich is more than 1 m deep 6to permit accumulation of hea# debris9
@ fill tan)<pond 2ith saturated brine
@ bring csts into tan)<pond
@ mi3 6not too strong mi3ing as to a#oid suspension of bottom debris9
@ allo2 hea# debris to settle and csts to float
@ repeat se#eral times
@ if con#enient lea#e csts in tan)<pond for 4% hours to allo2 dehdration
@ remo#e csts from tan)<pond using scoop nets or pumps
@ collect csts 6e.g. in bags if remo#ed b hand/ o#er sie#es if pumped9 and proceed 2ith follo2ing
processing step
@ after some time hea# debris must be remo#ed from tan)<pond
Figure 4.5.2*. 1ar'esting csts from seasonal salt ponds integrated for
(rtemia production.
Figure 4.5.2-. ( 'ertical spin drer 6for remo'al of e4cess !ater7 and a
transparant conical shaped tank !ith a &ottom 'al'e 6for densit separation7.
@orksheet 4.5.".C Procedures for the fresh!ater processing step
A<+7M?BA& ?> 7V,7SS 0+517
O transfer brine@submerged csts to bags 6e"g" cotton/ Dute9 and allo2 brine to lea) out for 24 h.
O for a 2et@dr product 6alread in bags9 ma)e sure no salt crstals are mi3ed 2ith the csts
O alternati#el rinse csts as described in section D prior to separation
0<D71S5;S S7PA+A;5?1 51 >+7S" (A;7+ 62= minutes9
O use a 6transparent9 conical shaped tan) fitted 2ith a bottom #al#e 6>igure 4.5.2!9: for large tan)s 6H 5== l9
a pump should be fitted on the discharge 6same tan)s as for densit separation in brine9
O fill tan) 2ith fresh2ater
O for disinfection appl procedure described in section ,
O add csts at a rate of appro3imatel 1= to 15 )g 2et@dr csts in 1== l 2ater
O mi3 thoroughl 6e"g" appl strong aeration9 for 5 to 1= min
O allo2 sedimentation for 1= min
O collect high densit sin)ing fraction through bottom #al#e 6b gra#it or through pumping9
O add fresh2ater to #al#e inlet to impro#e material flo2
O 2hen sin)ing fraction is collected/ appl aeration and collect floating fraction separatel
O for small $uantities 6up to 15 )g9 collect in 15= Fm bags
O for large $uantities collect o#er 6#ibrating9 sie#es 65 to 1= minutes9
O proceed 2ith 7<for sin)ing fraction
O if floating fraction contains a significant $uantit of full csts/ dehdrate floating fraction in saturated brine
and re@process at a later date 6second grade product9
,<D5S51>7,;51.
O add hpochlorite 6li$uid bleach9 to fresh2ater prior to adding the csts and mi3 thoroughl.
O concentration of acti#e chlorine in fresh2ater must be around 2== pm
D<+51S51. 65 to 1= min9
O for small $uantities 6up to 2= )g9 use a concentrator@rinser tpe sstem 6see >igure 4.3.2.9 or a 15=
micron bag fitted in a slotted container 6>igure 4.5.2%9
O for large batches/ rinse o#er 6#ibrating9 sie#es 2ith ample spraing of fresh2ater
7<+7M?BA& ?> 7V,7SS (A;7+ 65 to 1= minutes9
O subse$uent to separation<rinsing/ collect csts in cloth bags and s$uee4e firml
O place bags in centrifuge for further remo#al of e3cess 2ater8
@ use a #ertical spin drer for small batches 6up to 5 )g9 see >igure 4.5.2!
@ use industrial centrifuge for larger batches
@ do not use centrifuge 2ith #er high gra#it forces as this 2ill destro the csts
@ do not centrifuge for too long as csts 2ill clog together in big clumps 2hich are difficult to dr
O proceed 2ith brine dehdration or dring
Figure 4.5.2.. ( 152 Dm &ag filter fitted in a slotted container for rinsing of
csts.
There are three methods used to produce salt: solar, evaporation and rock mining.
Solar Evaporation Method
This is the oldest method of salt production. It has been used since salt crystals were first noticed in
trapped pools of sea water. Its use is practical only in warm climates where the evaporation rate
eceeds the precipitation rate, either annually or for etended periods, and ideally, where there are
steady prevailing winds. Solar salt production is, typically, the capturing of salt water in shallow ponds
where the sun evaporates most of the water. The concentrated brine precipitates the salt which is
then gathered by mechanical harvesting machines. !ny impurities that may be present in the brine
are drained off and discarded prior to harvesting.
"sually two types of ponds are used. #irst is the concentrating pond, where the salty water from the
ocean or salt lake is concentrated. The second is called the crystalli$ing pond, where the salt is
actually produced.
%rystalli$ing ponds range from to &' to ('' acres with a foot)thick floor of salt resulting from years of
depositions. *uring the salt)making season of four to five months, brine flows continuously through
these ponds. This is a saturated brine solution, containing as much salt as it can hold, so pure salt
crystalli$es out of the solution as the water evaporates. +atural chemical impurities are returned to
the salt water source.
,ock Salt Mining Method
Morton also uses the second oldest method of producing salt - underground mining. This is probably
the most dramatic method of gathering salt. .arge machines travel through vast cave)like
passageways performing various operations.
Salt mines are among the safest of mines. They are also the most comfortable to work in. /hile mine
temperature varies with depth, the average temperature remains about 0'1 # year round.
Salt may appear in veins, as does coal. 2eins are the original bedded salt deposits. Salt also may be
found in domes, which were formed when Earth pressures forced salt up through cracks in the
bedrock from depths as great as 3',''' or &',''' feet4 they resemble plugs of almost)circular shape
a few hundred yards to a mile across. Some domes occur close to the surface. 5oth domes and veins
are mined in a similar way. Most domes in +orth !merica are located in the south from !labama to
Teas with many out under water in the 6ulf of Meico.
To enter a salt mine, miners go down a shaft from the Earth7s surface to the salt bed. There are two
shafts in each Morton mine - one for personnel and one to lower materials and e8uipment into the
mine, as well as to hoist the mined rock salt to the surface. The shafts also are used to deliver a
constant supply of fresh air to the miners while they work hundreds to thousands of feet below the
surface. Most mine shafts are lined with a concrete wall called a shaft liner.
Salt is mined by the room and pillar method. It is removed in a checkerboard pattern to leave
permanent, solid salt pillars for mine roof support. "sually &9 to :9 percent of the salt is removed.
The room height may average ;< feet in a bedded deposit to ;'' feet in a dome mine.
+ormally, the first operation is undercutting. .arge machines cut a slot ;' or more feet in depth
across the bottom of a solid salt wall. This leaves a smooth floor for picking up the salt after blasting.
+et, small holes are drilled into the salt wall to a depth of ;' or more feet and eplosives are loaded
into the drilled holes. !fter the work shift, the eplosives are set off electrically. Several hundred to
several thousand tons of rock salt are blasted and fall onto the mine floor.
E8uipment is used to load and haul the salt to machines that crush and feed the salt onto a conveyor
belt. The lumps are conveyed to a series of stations for crushing and additional si$ing of the lumps.
The salt is then placed in a storage bin to await hoisting to the surface.
The above ground processing of the rock salt consists of screening the mined salt into various
marketable si$es by sorting through mechanically operated screens. /hen separated, each si$e is
conveyed to its individual storage bin to await packaging for shipment or to be loaded as bulk salt into
railroad cars, trucks, river barges or lake boats for shipment to customers.
2acuum Evaporation Method
!nother method of salt production used by Morton Salt is the evaporation of salt brine by steam heat
in large commercial evaporators, called vacuum pans. This method yields a very high purity salt, fine
in teture, and principally used in those applications re8uiring the highest 8uality salt.
The first part of the operation is known as solution mining. /ells are drilled from several hundred to
;,''' feet apart into the salt deposit. These wells are connected via lateral drilling, a recently
developed technology. =nce the wells are connected, the solution mining operation begins: water is
pumped down one well, the salt below is dissolved, and the resulting brine is forced to the surface
through the other well. It is then piped into large tanks for storage.
+et, the brine is pumped into vacuum pans. These are huge closed vessels under vacuum about
three stories high. They are normally arranged in a series of three, four or five, with each one in the
line under greater vacuum than the preceding one. This series of vacuum pans operates on a very
simple principle: /henever pressure is lowered, the temperature at which water will boil is also
lowered. #or instance, under normal air pressure at sea level, water boils at (;(1#. 5ut at ten
thousand feet above sea level, where air pressure is much less, water boils at ;>&1#. 2acuum pans
may operate at as low as ;''1#.
In the vacuum pan process, steam is fed to the first pan. This causes the brine in the pan to boil. The
steam from the boiling brine is then used to heat the brine in the second pan. The pressure in the
second pan is lower, allowing the steam made by the boiling in the first pan to boil the brine in the
second pan. The pressure is reduced still further in each succeeding pan. This allows the steam made
by the boiling brine in the previous pan to boil the brine in the net pan. /hile the boiling operation
could be done with ?ust one pan, several pans in a row produce more salt per pound of steam, thus
allowing greater energy efficiency.