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1.

Scretcher
Scratchers
Scratchers, or wall cleaners, are devices that attach to the casing to remove loose filter
cake from the wellbore. They are most effective when used while the cement is being
pumped. Like centralizers, scratchers help to distribute the cement around the casing.
Types of scratchers
There are two general types of scratchers:
Those that are used when the casing is rotated
Those that are used when the casing is reciprocated
Rotating scratcer
The rotating scratcher is either welded to the casing or attached with limit clamps. The
scratcher claws are high-strength-steel wires with angled ends that cut and remove the
mudcake during rotation. The claws may have a coil spring at the base to reduce
breaking or bending when the casing is run into the hole. When the pipe must be set at a
precise depth, rotating scratchers should be used, but there must be assurance that the
pipe can be freely rotated. Because rotating scratchers are damaged by excessive torque
on the casing, they are generally not used where the risk of excessive torque is high,
such as in deep or deviated wells.
Reciprocating scratcher
Reciprocating scratchers (Fig. 10), also constructed of steel wires or cables, are installed
on the casing with either an integral or a separate clamping device. When the desired
depth is reached, reciprocating the casing (working it up and down) cleans the wellbore
on the upstroke by removing mud and filter cake. Reciprocating scratchers are more
effective where there is no depth limitation in setting casing and where the pipe can be
either rotated or reciprocated after it is landed.

Fig. 10Reciprocating scratchers (courtesy of Halliburton).


2. Jar
Down hole tools yang dapat menggoyangkan tubing atau menggetarkannya.
Posisi jam harus tepat diatas Drill String
History of Jars[edit]


8 inch drilling jar (red and white) on casings
The mechanical success of cable tool drilling has greatly depended on a device
called jars, invented by a spring pole driller, William Morris, in the salt well days of the
1830s. Little is known about Morris except for his invention and that he listed
Kanawha County (now in West Virginia) as his address. Morris received US 2243 for
this unique tool in 1841 for artesian well drilling. Later, using jars, the cable tool
system was able to efficiently meet the demands of drilling wells for oil.
The jars were improved over time, especially at the hands of the oil drillers, and
reached the most useful and workable design by the 1870s, due to another US
78958 received in 1868 by Edward Guillod of Titusville, Pennsylvania, which
addressed the use of steel on the jars' surfaces that were subject to the greatest
wear. Many years later, in the 1930s, very strong steel alloy jars were made.
A set of jars consisted of two interlocking links which could telescope. In 1880 they
had a play of about 13 inches such that the upper link could be lifted 13 inches
before the lower link was engaged. This engagement occurred when the cross-heads
came together.Today, there are two primary types, hydraulic and mechanical jars.
While their respective designs are quite different, their operation is similar. Energy is
stored in the drillstring and suddenly released by the jar when it fires. Jars can be
designed to strike up, down, or both. In the case of jarring up above a stuck
bottomhole assembly, the driller slowly pulls up on the drillstring but the BHA does
not move. Since the top of the drillstring is moving up, this means that the drillstring
itself is stretching and storing energy. When the jars reach their firing point, they
suddenly allow one section of the jar to move axially relative to a second, being
pulled up rapidly in much the same way that one end of a stretched spring moves
when released. After a few inches of movement, this moving section slams into a
steel shoulder, imparting an impact load.
In addition to the mechanical and hydraulic versions, jars are classified as drilling jars
or fishing jars. The operation of the two types is similar, and both deliver
approximately the same impact blow, but the drilling jar is built such that it can better
withstand the rotary and vibrational loading associated with drilling. Jars are
designed to be reset by simple string manipulation and are capable of repeated
operation or firing before being recovered from the well. Jarring effectiveness is
determined by how rapidly you can impact weight into the jars. When jarring without
a compounder or accelerator you rely only on pipe stretch to lift the drill collars
upwards after the jar releases to create the upwards impact in the jar. This
accelerated upward movement will often be reduced by the friction of the working
string along the sides of the well bore, reducing the speed of upwards movement of
the drill collars which impact into the jar. At shallow depths jar impact is not achieved
because of lack of pipe stretch in the working string.
When pipe stretch alone cannot provide enough energy to free a fish, compounders
or accelerators are used. Compounders or accelerators are energized when you over
pull on the working string and compress a compressible fluid through a few feet of
stroke distance and at the same time activate the fishing jar. When the fishing jar
releases the stored energy in the compounder/acclerator lifts the drill collars upwards
at a high rate of speed creating a high impact in the jar.


System Dynamics of Jars[edit]
Jars rely on the principle of stretching a pipe to build elastic potential energy such
that when the jar trips it relies on the masses of the drill pipe and collars to gain
velocity and subsequently strike the anvil section of jar. This impact results in a force,
or blow, which is converted into energy.


3. Reamming


4. Fishing Tools




5. Apa itu mudlogging services?Mudlogging services adalah salah satu
service di lokasi rig yang unitnya biasanyadilengkapi dengan suatu
portable laboratory, yang bertugas untuk:a. mengambil sampel serbuk bor
dan menganalisanya (jenis formasi batuan atau lithology,ada hydrocarbon
apa enggak, dsb)b. mengamati dan mengukur kadar gas (dengan alat
chromatograph) yang terkandung /terbawa di dalam lumpur pengeboranc.
mencatat semua parameter pengeboran (weight on bit, RPM, pump flow
rate, hook load,hole volume, annulus volume, pit volume, mud weight,
pore pressure, dsb). Data parameter pengeboran ini sangat penting bagi
Company Man, drilling engineer, geologist dsb karenadata2 tsb
"berbicara" tentang apa yang ada atau apa yang sedang terjadi di sumur
tsb.d. dalam situasi sumur yang sedang bertingkah aneh2, biasanya
mudlogger akanmengetahuinya terlebih dahulu melalui warning dari
instrumen2 yang ada di mudloggingunit tsb. Setelah itu biasanya
mudlogger akan contact driller di rig floor atau mud engineer atau pihak2
yang relevan lainnya, dsb untuk memverifikasi tentang apa yang
mungkinsedang terjadi (loss, kick atau hole problem lainnya).e. membuat
mudlog report.. --> ini output (mainly) dari mudlogging services.
6. MWD adalah proses mengambil data beberapa
parameter fisik sumur sembari membor sumur &
secara real-time.
Data2 yg dapat diperoleh adalah:
1. Properti formasi: resistivity, porosity &
density (ini disebut juga LWD: Logging-While-
Drilling).
2. Survey trayektori lubang sumur: inklinasi,
azimut & "tool-face".
3. Data "drilling mechanics": "weight-on-bit" &
"torque-on-bit".
Tanya - Ardhi Armeizal

Bapak,

Saya anggota baru di MILIS ini, Saya mau
bertanya tentang Halliburton MWD (Measurement
While Drilling). Apakah MWD itu? Bagaimana
kerjanya? Dan apa hubungannya dengan Drilling?
Dan apa benar operator MWD harus mengetahui
komputer? Dan apa hubungannya dengan komputer?
Terima Kasih pak, Maaf kalo pertanyaannya
terlalu banyak.


Tanggapan 1 - Doddy Samperuru


Pak Ardhi,

MWD sudah beberapa kali dibahas di milis ini &
ada dalam Buku Pintar Migas Indonesia. MWD
adalah proses mengambil data beberapa parameter
fisik sumur sembari membor sumur & secara
real-time.
Data2 yg dapat diperoleh adalah:
1. Properti formasi: resistivity, porosity &
density (ini disebut juga LWD: Logging-While-
Drilling).
2. Survey trayektori lubang sumur: inklinasi,
azimut & "tool-face".
3. Data "drilling mechanics": "weight-on-bit" &
"torque-on-bit".

Seperangkat sensor/transmitter/receiver yg
dipasang pada MWD tools (di atas drill bit)
akan mengukur temperatur, pressure, inklinasi,
dsb. Data tsb lalu dikirim ke permukaan yg
umumnya memakai prinsip mud-pulse telemetry
(mengirim sinyal analog lewat kolom lumpur di
dalam lubang sumur, nah lho !). Data tsb juga
disimpan dalam memory di dalam tool utk
diretrieve nanti di permukaan. Di permukaan,
ada seperangkat sensor/transduser yg akan
menangkap mud-pulse tsb lalu oleh komputer
dikonversi menjadi data digital, dikirim ke
komputer lain utk diolah, direcord &
ditampilkan utk interpretasi. Cara telemetry
lainnya adalah memakai kabel wireline.

Kelebihan utama MWD adalah operator dapat
mengetahui berbagai properti sumur & formasi
secara real-time pada saat drilling.



Tanggapan 2 - Teddy - graviton03


Mudah-mudahan belom pernah diposting.
Dari www.netl.doe.gov:

New Carbon Drill Pipe Signals Technical
Achievement
Technology May Benefit American Energy
Production
WASHINGTON, DC -- The Department of Energy
(DOE) announced today the development of a new
"composite" drill pipe that is lighter,
stronger and more flexible than steel, which
could significantly alter the ability to drain
substantially more oil and gas from rock than
traditional vertical wells.
"This is another example of the technology
breakthroughs in the arena of domestic energy
production being carried out by our Office of
Fossil Energy," said Secretary of Energy
Spencer Abraham. "To reach and recover untapped
domestic oil and gas reserves, we must have the
ability to inexpensively drill highly deviated
or horizontal holes."

Developed under a four-year, $3.6 million
cooperative agreement managed by DOE's National
Energy Technology Laboratory, the new drill
pipe - made from carbon fiber resins - could be
the next major technical achievement emerging
from the government-industry natural gas
research program. Lighter, stronger, and more
flexible than steel, the pipe could
significantly benefit energy production in the
United States.

The composite drill will be used by Integrated
Directional Resources, Lafayette, La., and is
the first commercial order for the device
composed of carbon fiber resins. Since the
composite pipe is more flexible than steel
pipe, it can better withstand the stress and
fatigue associated with drilling short-radius
horizontal holes. It is more expensive than
traditional steel pipe, but can cycle or rotate
through a short radius bend for extended
periods of time without suffering fatigue
damage. Plus, it can be reused in multiple
wells leading to a significant decrease in
drilling costs.

The drill pipe has been successfully field-
tested at two Oklahoma sites. Through the use
of the new drill at one previously producing
site, the well was drilled another 1,000 feet
where it struck an oil-bearing zone. Another
test allowed the composite drill to punch a 60-
foot radius, 1,000-foot lateral through hard
sandstone from a shallow well in a successful
search for gas.

Using older wells as entry points reduces the
environmental footprint of drilling and
production operations. The 2- inch diameter
drill pipe may lead to the design of larger
pipes for deep-water applications. Researchers
may also be able to embed an electrical wire in
the resin to provide a high
MEASUREMENT WHILE DRILLING (MWD)
* Measurement While Drilling ialah pengukuran karakteristik formasi pada
saat pemboran sedang berlangsung.
* Biasanya digunakan untuk pemboran sumur-sumur berarah atau miring,
sehingga dapat mengurangi kegiatan operasi tripping serta dapat menghemat
waktu pemboran.
7. LWD
Merupakan suatu metode pengambilan data log dimana logging dilakukan
bersamaan dengan pemboran (Harsono 97). Hal ini dikarenakan alat logging
tersebut ditempatkan di dalam drill collar. Pada LWD, pengukuran dilakukan
secara real time oleh measurement while drilling, Tiga bagian alat LWD :
Sensor logging bawah lubang bor, sebuah system transimisi data, dan sebuah
penghubung permukaan.
8. Gambar Well Profile
Well shape types
There are three different overall shapes of the well, depending on the penetration
requirements. These are:
Build-and-hold
S-shaped
Continuous build
In practice, these generic shapes will be modified by local conditions. Getting the right
well path through the overburden is a multidisciplinary task in which geologists advise the
designer about:
The presence of faults
The precise shape of salt formations
Mud diapirs
Other subsurface hazards
Understanding the interaction between the 3D well trajectory and the formation stresses,
particularly in overthrust areas, is vital to ensuring that the well can be drilled safely and
efficiently. See Fig. 1 for an illustration of these wellbores.

Fig. 1Schematic of wellbores through overburdens.
Build-and-hold well
In general, a build-and-hold profile is planned so that the initial deflection angle is
obtained at a shallow depth, and from that point on the angle is maintained as a straight
line to the target zone. Once the angle and deflection are obtained, casing may be set
through the deviated section and cemented. In general, the build-and-hold profile is the
basic building block of extended-reach wells. These profiles can usually be employed in
two distinct depth programs. These profiles can be used for moderate-depth drilling in
areas where intermediate casing is not required and where oil-bearing strata are a single
horizon. They can also be used for deeper wells requiring a large lateral displacement. In
this case, an intermediate-casing string can be set to the required depth, and then the
angle and direction can be maintained after drilling out below the string.
S-shaped well
The main reasons for drilling an S-shaped well are completion requirements for the
reservoir; for example, when a massive stimulation operation is required during the
completion. An S-shaped well also sets the initial deflection angle near the surface. After
the angle is set, drilling continues on this line until the appropriate lateral displacement is
attained. The hole is then returned to vertical or near vertical and drilled until the objective
depth is reached. Surface casing is set through the upper deviated section and
cemented. The wellbore is then continued at the desired angle until the lateral
displacement has been reached and then returns to vertical. Intermediate casing is set
through the lower vertical-return section. Drilling then continues below the intermediate
casing in a vertical hole.
The S-shaped well is often employed with deep wells in areas where gas troubles,
saltwater flows, etc. dictate the setting of intermediate casing. It permits more-accurate
bottomhole spacing in a multiple-pay area. The deflection angle may be set in surface
zones in which drilling is fast and round-trip costs can be held to a minimum.
Continuous-build well
A continuous-build well starts its deviation well below the surface. The angle is usually
achieved with a constant build to the target point. The deflection angles may be relatively
high, and the lateral distances from vertical to the desired penetration point are relatively
shorter than other well types. Typical applications would be in exploring a stratigraphic
trap or obtaining additional geological data on a noncommercial well. Because deflection
operations take place deep in the hole, trip time for such operations is high, and the
deflected part of the hole is not normally protected by casing. The continuous-build profile
may also commonly be found in old fields in which development of bypassed oil is carried
out by means of sidetracks from existing wells that have ceased to produce economically
from the original completion